History of Technology Documentary
Many. Social TVs, are created, by a number of sociologists. And anthropologists. These. Theories deal with social, and cultural, revolution. Many. Of them consider technological. Progress is a primary, factor to drive human civilization. Developments. Morgan. Divided social. Evolution, in three stages including. Savagery. Barbarism and. Civilization. These. Stages can be divided using technological milestones. Fire. Is a great example of such technological, milestone, white. Suggested. That energy, is a great measure to judge the human cultural, revolution. White. Strongly, believed that harnessing. The control over energy is the primary function of culture, according. To him there, are five main stages, in the process of human development. Own. Muscles, of humans, are used as energy, source. Domesticated. Animals, served, the energy in. Third stage energies. Derived, from plants, agricultural. Revolution. Natural. Resources, such as coal oil gas. Are. Optimized. For energy, in, final. Stage nuclear. Energy is harnessed, this. Theory was accelerated. By Nikolai. Kardashev, former. Russian astronomer, through. This Kardashev. Scale was, created, that is used to distribute advanced, civilization. Of energy, use in various, categories. Approach. Of Lenski was mainly focused on information. He. Stated that information. And knowledge, of natural, environment, is the, perfect measure for, measuring, development, and advancement, of, human society. According. To him there, are four stages in development of, humans. Genes. Serve, as a medium, to pass information. Sentience. Is acquired as human, learn to pass information, through their experience. In first. Stage humans. Discover, or develop, various signs and also, learn to develop logic, in. Fourth stage language. Is developed ultimately, triggering, the development, of writing system. Moreover. He. Also distributed. Various societies into, categories, these. Categories, were derived using technology. Communication. And economical. Status as a base. Hunter. Or Gaza. Simple. Or agriculture. Advanced. Or agricultural. Industrial. Special. Including. Fishing societies. Upcoming. Is the main content, divided, into various chapters, that, will cover history, of Technology based on the time period and, geographical. Locations. Prehistory. This. Portion, of technology, history involves. Following sections, or stages. Stone. Age. The. Number of tools and permanent. Settlements. In most of the Paleolithic Stone, Age were, very limited in human lifestyle, most. Of the major technologies, of back period, were meant to serve objectives. Such as survival. Hunting, and the most important, food, preparation. Most. Important, technological developments. Of Stone Age period, are s following, via. Stone. Tools and weapons and clothing. Stone. And other tools have been used by human ancestors, since, the long period, even, when Homo sapiens were not emerged, approximately. 200, thousand years from now o dowan. Industry, existed, almost 2.3. Million years ago it, was the main interest for humankind ever, known, for, developing and crafting, stone tools for several purposes however. The, earliest evidence of the use of stone tools was, found at Great Rift Valley in, Ethiopia. It. Dates back into. 2.5. Million, years this. Portion, of Stone Age is known, as Paleolithic. Or Old, Stone. Age when, stones the primary, tools of humans and agriculture. Was, not developed, it, came to an end 12,000. Years ago as agriculture. Was discovered. In. Order to use a stone, there's a tool it required, to strike the core of the hard stone with hammerstone. This. Core had special, flaking properties, different, for every stone type sharp. Edges were, produced due to this flaking making, the stone a useful, tool primary. Use of them was chopping and scraping. Most. Of these stone tools were, used by humans, during, their hunter-gatherer. Lifestyle. They. Were involved in tasks, such as butchering, carcasses, breaking. Bones of animals or each other if required chopping. Wood cracking. Knots skinning. Animal, bodies, forming. Other tools from, stone wood, bones. Etc. Crude. Are considered, the earliest stone. Tools ever used, by mankind it was. More than a simple featured, Rock these. Stones were simpler the impure, form of hand ax and other, such hand tools of certain shape. Agriculture. Technology and rudiments, were developed, in the last portion, of Stone Age known, as later, Stone, Age this. Arrays also known as Neolithic. Period. Unfortunately. Human, from, Stone Age left no written proof indicating. Their culture, all that. We know about them is derived, from archaeological.
Sites Findings. And written, records produce, post Stone, Age. Copper. And bronze, age. Neolithic. Revolution developed. The Stone Age into Bronze Age technology. Phased, a lot of changes, in this revolution, as the, agriculture. Was developed, concept. Of animal domestication, was introduced, and adoption. Of permanent, settlement has begun, metal. Smelting, was soon developed, - it, was introduced with copper followed, by bronze, bronze. Was made by smelting, tin into copper. However, stone. Tools were still being used until. A noticeable, period of time in bronze age since. Crafters. Were lacking material and, stone, tools were abundance, when, compared, to hard to find materials, and metals such. As tin, Fertile. Crescent triggered. This, technological, trend, which was constantly, spread with time and further developments, however. Many. Of these developments, were not universal, and neither, are they now clearly. Indicating, the three-age, system cannot. Act as a measure for technology, history, this. Statement especially applies, for human populations, residing. Outside Eurasia. There. Are also some other isolated, populations. Including. Spinifex. Er people and Sentinelese. People, that, cannot relate with such age system, these. Populations. Including. Amazonian. Tribes still. Use Stone, Age tools and technology and live, without, agricultural. And metal, aids technology. Iren. Age. The. Adoption of iron smelting, technology is, one, of the major and most important, components, of iron age in. Iron, Age tools, of bronze were, simply replaced by another metal, which allowed making, stronger, tools compared, to bronze tools. Of iron were also home a lot cheaper, comparing. Two equivalent, bronze tools in, most, of the Eurasian, culture, Iren aid is considered, the most important, step in the technology, until, the writing systems languages. Were developed however. It, wasn't a universal, case i, furnace. Temperatures, were, required when manufacturing. Deal-making it comparatively. Harder to produce it on mass, scale, however. It was also possible to produce steel, by, forging, bloomer iron ultimately. Reducing, carbon content, under, control, compared. To copper anton iron all were, much famous since. They were strung, and noticeably. Cheaper, there. Were many hill forts, in european countries built. In order, to use as shelter, in war periods, or sometimes. They, are used as permanent, shelter as well. Sometimes. These, forts, built, in Bronze Age are expanded. Or enlarged. More. Farmland, for growing populations. Was achieved by making land, clearance, more, effective, using, stronger iron axes. Ancient. Developments. Some. Of the greatest technological and, engineering developments. And advances. Were, produced. Thanks, to significant, growth of mankind, in ancient period, civilizations. Many. Societies, around the globe were heavily influenced, with these developments, ultimately, simulating, them to adopt advanced, lifestyle, and governance. Egyptians. Egyptians. Gave birth to and were used to a number of simple, machines, ramp. Is a great example of such innovations. Ramps. Were heavily used by Egyptian, people for aid in constructions. Indus. Valley Civilization. Was famous, for City Planning and sanitation. Technologies, it is, noticeable, that this civilization, was located in a content-rich, area, exactly, knowing, how the resources, can be optimized, at, fullest, ancient. India to witnessed a golden age in forefront, and seafaring. Technology. There, were panels found at mohenjo-daro that. Debates with, a sailing craft India. Is also famous for their early construction, and architecture, technology. It. Is described, in famous literature, vast, to Shastra various. Aspects, related to construction, and architecture is. Described, broadly, in it such as materials. Hydrology. Sanitation. At. Trap. Mesopotamians. Mesopotamia. Was home, to Sumerians, Assyrians. And Babylonians. Asked. Some time people, from these societies, were said to have invented, wheel the. Wheel actually. However. It is, often challenged. By new findings. They. Lived in well-organized, cities, since 4000. BC, throughout. These years a well-developed. And sophisticated. Architecture. Was developed, by them mud. Bricks, and stones were their main construction, engineering. Components. Through. Arch was also a main element in their constructions, techniques, walls. Developed, by Babylonians. Were massive, enough to be recorded, as wonder of the world, advanced. Water systems, were developed by Mesopotamian. People in term of transport. Irrigation. And catchment. Systems, these. Water bodies were up to ten kilometres long, sometimes. Kela, North region, is great example, of such engineering.
Sophisticated. Drainage systems, reuse, in their houses. Writing. System, was also developed, in Mesopotamia. Earliest. Form, of that system, was cuneiform. Script, there. Found many clay tables, and stone inscriptions, in very Djem bronze. Technology, was adopted, by these civilizations, for tools weapons. And statuary, art as well where, 1200, they, advanced, enough to be able of casting, an object 5 meter long in a single piece. Derwin. Aqueduct, that dates back in, 688. BC. Is the, biggest proof of their technological advancements. It is. Crafted with stone, arches, and waterproofed, with concrete. Astronomic. Diaries, of Babylonians. Are around 800, years long there. Astronomers could, plot the motions, of planets they. Were capable of predicting, eclipses as, well. Chinese. A. Significant. Number of firsts, known discoveries, and developments are in the accounts of Chinese. Following. Is a quick glance of their contribution. Technological. Development. Seismological. Detectors. Matches. A per. Sliding. Calipers, piston. Pump with double action capabilities, cast. Ivan, Ivan. Plough see. Drill with multiple, tubes, real. Barrow suspension. Bridge the, parachute. Natural. Gas and fuel, compass'. Raise, relief, map, propeller. Crossbow. South-pointing. Chariot. Gunpowder. Block, printing. Phosphorescent. Paint, movable. Type printing chain. Drive clock. Escapement. Mechanism, there. Is no doubt why they are one of the most advanced, nations, of present time and a superpower as well. Gunpowder. Was a significant. Invention and it provided base for discovery, of solid fuel for, rocket, china. Mensch to achieve this goal in the year of AD, 1150. Almost. 200, years from invention, of gunpowder that. Was later used as. Solid fuel in rocket here. Is a simple demonstration of, how advanced Chinese, were, Emperor's. From, Ming Dynasty, sent, large pleads to discover father lands, some, of them reached Africa, this, happened decades before Westman explosion, aged. Roman. Intensive. And well managed agriculture. Was developed, by a Roman a great. Contribution was, made by existing, Iron Age technologies, in these developments they. Implemented. Laws for ownership of individuals, some. Of their major technological, advancements, are as following. Advanced. Stonemasonry. Technology, road. Gloating, technology, in, 19th, century though. Military. Engineering, civil. Engineering. Spinning. Machine weaving. Machine. Galla creeper. All. These technologies, heavily, supported Roman economy following. Architectures. Were built across Roman, Empire by, various, engineers, first, time ever in the world. Monumental. Arches. Aqueducts. Public. Baths. Amphitheaters. Through. Arch bridges, harbors. Reservoirs. And dams. Vaults.
And Downs. Concrete. Glassblowing. And book, context. Are some, the most important, contribution, of Roman in the field of technologies, and innovations, the. Concrete developed, by Romans, was durable, since, it was located on volcanic, Peninsula, these. Areas are full of sand and suitable, for crystalline. Grains, there. Are several Roman buildings that lasted, from 2,000, years to present, date providing, proof to their concrete quality. Inca. And Mayan. Incan. Mayans are famous for their ancient, engineering, which, matched standards. Of today's, advanced, engineering, they. Were so good with weighing, and stone, works that, not even a blade could fit in the cracks of their stone walls till. The day, agricultural. Activities were made efficient, by implementing, proper irrigation canals. And drainage, systems, in their villages, Inca. People are said to be the inventors, of hydroponics. However. It, is quite uncertain since, their agricultural. Technology, was so based, there. Was no metallurgy. Or wheeled technology, known to Mayan civilizations. However. Complex. Writing, and astrological. Systems. Were developed by them they. Have given the world heritage, of sculptural. Stone and Flint, works. Agricultural. And construction, technologies. Were, greatly advanced, in both the civilizations. In. Ancient, period most, of the buildings and structures, developed, by Mayan people, were, built by women since, they believe that God has, appointed women, for creation, of new things. Asta, crews contributed. A lot in communication. Took, place with, conquered cities. Similar. To Inca and Mayan civilizations. Roads, were designed for traveling, on fruit in Mesoamerica. Since, there were neither, transports. Nor wheeled vehicles. Greek. Myriad. Inventions, and improvements in, existing, technology, was kind of favorite activity, of Greek and Hellenistic engineers. Technological. Enhancements. Were at their peak during. The Hellenistic period. Following. With some great men, from. This region and Eva. Archimedes. Philotas. Anthem. Heaven. Thus. Abuse, rket. Us. Medieval, to early modern technology. Islamic. World, in. Technological, terms, medieval. Islamic, empires, were much similar, to earlier empires, Muslim. Caliphates, managed, to unite trades, large, areas, that, were never involved, in large-scale trades, before the. Conquered, areas were required to pay a little bit lower taxes, compared, to their earlier, independence. People. Were so in favor of technological, developments, that ideas, were spread more easily around the Empire compared, to goods they. Made peace more frequent, and long-lasting. Than, it used to be due. To increasing, facilities, and conditions, many, technological developments. Including. Agriculture. Witnessed. Quite a boost during. This period many, scientific, concepts, were adapted, and developed, from Greek Roman, and Persian, empires, in their improved, forms. Medieval. Europe. European. Technology was, in the golden phase of development in medieval, ages this. Phase is also known as tradition, of innovation and inventions. It. Is certain that medieval, technology is quite a bit slower and backtracked. Compared, to development, of Western technologies. There. Have been multiple authors, criticizing. And announcing, the church as antagonistic. For, scientific, progress who, can forget major Flat Earth. However. It is certain that Europe, contributed, significantly. In development, of global technology, some. Of their major contributions. Are mechanical. Clocks, spectacles. And vertical. Windmills, there. Were also some, seemingly, inconspicuous. In, medieval Europe such as watermark, and functional. Button they. Also contributed. A significant. Amount of effort in triggering, the Age of Exploration with. Some useful navigation. Innovations. By, introducing, followings. Gentle. And guardian rudders, lateen. Sails, dry. Compass, or. Shoe.
Astrolabe. Talking. About military, technology, development, there, were some magnificent, results to, medieval. Europeans, developed, played armor steel, crossbows. Counterweight. Trebuchet, and cannons. Most. Of the agricultural advances. Were achieved, in early, Middle Ages, inventions. Such as rib, fold, and pointed. Arch triggered. Gothic style agriculture. Age of, castles, was triggered, as ubiquitous, medieval. Fortifications. Were established. Paper. Making technology was developed in 2nd century, it was, carried into Middle East as a group of Chinese paper, makers, were captured, in eighth century, is, Umayyad, conquered, Hispania, technology. Of papermaking spread. Was all over in European, empires, first. European, paper mill was located in Sicily, which, was built in 12th, century in. Europe, linen. And cotton rags. Were used as a source to acquire the fiber pulp required, to make paper, Lynn, White believes that spinning, wheel is an important, technology for rise of printing technology, will. Made it easy to supply rags where required. Ultimately. Reducing. Producing. Costs it, was a major contributing. Factor, in rise of printing press. Renaissance. Technology. Following. Are some significant. Technological advancements. Of this fever. Linear. Perceptive, ax t double. Sheldon's, bastion, fortresses. DOMA. Florence Cathedral is a great example of such technology, Nikola, and Leonardo. Da Vinci have left behind a number of books related, to Renaissance technological. Advancements. They. Are considered, a great resource, for acquiring, broad, details, about mechanical, technology available. And used in that period. Architects. And engineers were, heavily inspired with structures, such, as of ancient, dome dome. Of Florence Cathedral was developed by such an inspired, architect, engineer. Brunelleschi. He. Was some of the very first persons. Who, issued, with patents, of their assets the, patented, his ingenious, crane, that, he developed, and used, to raise large masonry. Stones to, the top of the structures. Military. Technology, to developed. During this Eva their. Military, was so advanced, compared. To others its, use of powerful a pillar and crossbones. Was coming, to them this. Advancement, was certain, since, most of the Italian states have been constantly, involved, in conflicts, with each other, there. Were families like Medici, with strong knowledge of art and Sciences, as well mutual. Advancements. Were followed in sands and technology, known, as scientific, revolution, still, a great contribution of Renaissance, science in global technological development.
Olives. Screw press was developed, in AD, 1441. Pressing. Mechanism, of this Fez was, also adopted for investing, cast metal, type printing, press which, was a movable machine number. Of books a number, of publications, would greatly increased thanks, to this invention ultimately. Giving a boost to spread, of the technological, and other, news worldwide. Age, of Exploration and, Industrial, Revolution. Age. Of Exploration was. Figured as Europeans, began to colonize American. Regions exploring. More and more landing. To the west thanks. To improved sailing, ship technologies. New. Atlantis by. Francis, Bacon served. As a co2 miser of process, or, Eva before. The age of exploration land. Routes from more famous, compared. With much faster. Water, routes in. This period world. Was constantly, being explored, more and more by multiple, people like Cabral, vasco, da gama magdalene, Christopher. Columbus and many, more like. These. People were involved in this activity since. They required, establishing. New trade routes, for their goods on the. Other hands they, were also discovering, water routes to decrease travel, time establishing. Connections, with Africa, India, and China as, results. Water, routes soon, became more, popular over land routes, since, the conceded, less time and resources. New. Maps charts etc. Accessories. Were produced, in order to encourage future Mariners, to explore the world till, the end is found since, there were many problems including, longitude. And there, were no accurate chronometers. These. Limitations. Made. Navigation. Comparatively. Difficult, than it became after the age of exploration. Ancient. Greeks developed the concept of civil codes which, was lost into the pages of history, European. Powers, re-established. Or rediscovered. These systems, as it was essential, since their colonies, were, expanding, constantly. With new findings. Industrial. Revolution. Following. Are the major developments. That took place in the Evolve Industrial, Revolution. Textile. Manufacturing. Mining. Metallurgy. Transport. All. These, areas witnessed. Massive, scale technological. Advancements, and developments, thanks, to single, invention of steam, engine. This. Revolution. Was triggered thanks to the optimization, of coal which, was capable of producing significant. Amount of energy at a comparatively. Cheap cost in. Britain, it was produced, in the largest amount ever during, the era of Industry, revolution it, needs like blast furnace, and cast-iron produce, resources, in massive amounts using coke a form, of coal as a fuel. Major structures, could be created, thanks to this technique the. Ivan bridge is a great example of results, achieved from Vista Peak. Cheap. Coal allowed. The industry to escape from the restriction, of water resources, used, as primary fuel for mills before, this ever.
Despite. Of coal being the major resource, industry. Did not neglect the power and usefulness, of water energy even. During Industrial, Revolution it, remained, as a major, secondary, power source used. In smaller units, where, using coal was not possible or comparatively. Expensive, here. Is a demonstration. Water. Was essential, for running steam engines steam. Engines were essential, for draining, minds allowing, access to more and more coal, reserves, as soon. As this technique was developed most. Of the major mines implemented. It for increasing, coal output since, it was being used as primary fuel, in most of the industry, since. Water energy was essential, for increasing coal, produce, it managed. To remain a valuable, resource during, industrial revolution, with. Time steam, engine, technology, were, streaked and evolved. Producing. High-pressure, steam engines, as an output, these. High-pressure, engines, were used in, developing, locomotives. Ultimately. Triggering, revolution, in France port revolution. Technology. In 19th, century. Some. Historians, refer to 19th. Century, as Second, Industrial Revolution, since, this period witnessed some, fascinating, developments. In the field of construction. Manufacturing. And communication. Technologies, as well most. Of these technologies, were originated, in Europe steam. Engine was developed in early 18th century, however. It was never involved in transportation. In. 19th, century it was practically. Applied in steam boat and railway, transportation. First. Purpose, railway, line was built in 1830, by, Liverpool, and Manchester railway. First. Working locomotives, were, rocket locomotive, and Robert, locomotive. Telegraphy. Was also developed, in 19th century, making, his practical, application, possible, for running railways, more, safely. These. Were the technologies, that existed, before 19th. Century, however, in, 19th, century they. Were developed, to make their practical, use efficient, and widespread. There. Were also some technologies, that were developed or, discovered. For the first time, the period of 19th, century. Incandescent. Lightbulb. Could be most famous, example, of inventions, in 19th, century, this. Invention was important, for manufacturing. Industries, since, these bulbs allowed, various, factories, to run second, or even third, shift. Regardless. To their geographical. Location, the. Production, rate of factories, using, this technology was, tripled, as a result. Pulley. Blocks were developed at portsmouth block mills by various, ship manufacturers.
All, These inventions triggered, age of mass productions. Since each and every, field received, quite a boost in their production, rate in the. First half of the century various. Manufacturing. Tools were developed by, engineers these. Tools made, it efficient, to craft or manufacture. Various machinery. Parts, Richard. Roberts and Joseph. Whitworth were, affirms engineers, who first developed, and used these kinds, of tools. 19th. Century, was also the period in, which manufacturing. And development of, interchangeable. Parts began. Nowadays. It is known as a standard American. System, of manufacturing. It. Was triggered with its implementation, by US federal, Arsenal's, in their firearms. Manufacturing. System it. Took place early, in the first half of 19th, century by, the end of the century it, had become widely, used manufacturing. System in entire, United, States in the. Middle of the nineteenth century, there, were two major enhancements. Or improvements. That, took place in manufacturing, activities, in textiles. Field first. One is that production, of shoe was mechanized, in that period, second. One and the bigger one is that sewing, machines were introduced, in middle period of 19th century in. The period of mid to late 19th, century these. Sewing machines, who produce at a massive scale along. With the sewing machines a number, of agricultural machinery. Was - developed, at high production, rate in that very same period of time in. Early 1880s. This. Attraction, turned towards, bicycles, in this. Entire decade of 1880s. Production. Of bicycles, was at its peak with sufficient, demand as well that was even encouraging, manufacturers. By. This time most, of the factories around United, States had already adopted, steam-powered. Mechanism. And functionalities. However. It is noticeable, that England, has implemented, such water-powered, factory, system much, before United, States did however. They, still failed to beat us in terms of developments, despite, of this advantage. Our. Entire, techniques, were implemented. In steam, power base ships, suit, these. Ships, played important, role in opening trade routes in Japan and China, this. Was the first time Western, and Eastern world's connected, directly, without any intermediate. Ending. Period of this 19th, century, is considered, the Second Industrial Revolution, thanks. To major rapid, developed in various, fields of production. During. That period following. Fields were developed, rapidly also. Connecting, them with technological. Research with, well-developed, structure. Chemical. Electrical. Petroleum. Steel. It. Is, quite uncertain, how longer this period, lasted, however. Most, of the historians, refer to Second, Industrial Revolution for, last third, portion of the 19th, century to, the beginning of World War one, certain.
Are The the development, boost in field of various technologies, was, even greater and impactful. Compared, to first Industrial, Revolution. Technology. In 20th, century. Rapid. Developments, were made in technology in 20th century there, were a number of achievements, acquired both in science and technology. Scientific. Methods were taught and implemented. On a board scale during this century, moreover. Scientific. Researchers, were, increased, thanks. To the encouragement and contribution. Which eventually led to significant. Achievements, in, fact of those achievements, can be still in modern science and technology, technical. Understanding, was spread worldwide on a massive scale thanks, to significant, improvements and, advancements. Achieved in communication. And transportation technologies. Many. High tech technologies. Including, automobile, became, efficiently, accessible, for a mass level of global, consumers thanks. To the large scale, production rate, going up day to day, significant. Development, and research was, conducted for, military resulting. As electronic. Computing, and jet, engines. Radios. And telephony technology. Was improved, at the point it became available globally, for most of the populations, of worldwide users however. It, was still not possible to provide near, universal, access that. Too eventually became, possible, as mobile, phones were developed and became, affordable, in. Beginning year of mobile phones they were quite expensive and, not accessible, for everyone residing. In developing, world however. By, the end of two thousand, and two. Thousand, ten mobile. Phones were developed enough to be cheap for everyone to use talking. About Asian countries like India, you can get a basic functional, mobile phone as cheap as twenty, five US, dollars or, even less however. You. Will have to spend much more for using modern technologies, such, as camera, GPS. Etc. Developments. Were followed in energy, and engine, technology, as well while. Discovering, improvements. In these fields, nuclear. Power was eventually developed, in Manhattan, Project ultimately. Triggering, atomic age with. A great energy source found rocket. Technology began, to develop and establish, new, discoveries, vanity, as a, result. Nik was launched, in 1950s. Triggering, the first space age this. Era lasted till, 1980s. And her more advanced, results were achieved in this technological field, in. 20th, century like. Any other technology electrification. Was, at its peak when. Electricity, was firstly, developed for household, applications. It was available in limited cities, only such as major cities like New, York London, Paris time. Etc. Moreover. They, were accessible, and affordable, for, wealthy people only. Birth. Control, was a widespread and, major, global, issue in 20th, century in, late, 1970s. Electron. Microscopes, were the most powerful, ones in their category, they. Contributed, a lot in order to increase understanding. And knowledge in the field of genetic, engineering in. 1978. A major, success, in genetic, engineering was achieved as we brown the, first test-tube. Baby, was born with, any dependencies. Soon. In 1985. First, gestational. Surrogacy, pregnancy. Was successfully, conducted. Eventually. After six years in. 1991. First, pregnancy, by ICS. I was achieved successfully, in. ICS. I a single. Sperm is implemented, in an egg where artificial, process not, natural, in. 1989. Experiments. Began with pre-implementation, genetic. Diagnosis. Resulting. Successful, births within. A single year in july, 1990. Clearly. Indicating, how rapid, the development, was in that period of time, these. Procedures, are constantly, being developed and, reached to common populations, these. Concepts. Have changed, meaning of being a parent in. Order to keep transatlantic. Research, programs, running major. Data analysis. Resources, were essential, Human. Genome Project and, large, electron, positron Collider, are, great, examples of, such large-scale, projects. These. Projects, required advanced distributed. Communications. Resulting. Researchers, to adopt Internet protocols, at a massive, scale Tim. Berners-lee, developed. The practical, concept of world wide web in order to satisfy the requirements. Of major data analysis. Resources. Neither. Did these requirements. Exist nor. Did we have internet, today, in. Developing, world, vaccinations, was spread, on a wide scale on global, level 1980s. Onwards there. Were many reasons behind, this most, important, being a number of successful, humanitarian.
Initiatives, Reduced. Childhood, mortality in, four countries with, limited medical resources, etc. Allowing. Evilest, indicating. Top 20 technological, developments, of 20th, century this. List has been prepared, by National, Academy, of Engineering, United. States, ranking. In this list have been defined, according to debate, between various, experts, from, related technological, fields, first. Electrification. Second. Automobile. Third. Airplane. Fourth. Water. Supply, and distribution, fifth. Electronics. Six. Radio. And television. Seventh. Mechanized. Agriculture. Eight. Computers. Ninth. Telephone. 10th. Air. Conditioning. And refrigeration. Eleventh. Highways. Twelve. Spacecraft. Thirteenth. Internet. 14th. Imaging. Technology. Fifteenth. Household. Appliances. 16th. Health. Technology. Seventeenth. Petroleum. And petrochemical. Technologies. 18th. Laser. And fiber optics. 19th. Nuclear. Technology. 20th. Materials. Sciences. Remember. That these banks, are according, to their importance, are not according, to the timeline in which they were invented. Technology. In 21st, century. We. Are currently living in quite early phase of 21st century, however. Development, and, technological, advancements, achieved in this short timespan, can, easily beat research, is done in entire, 19th, century, following. Is list giving quick glance at technological. Developments, and fields, achieved in 21st, century until. Now. Quantum. Computers, have been introduced. Research. Are going on in gene therapy that was introduced back into nineteen, ninety eighty, 3d. Printing, has touched new heights like never before original. Concept was introduced, in 1981. Ad. Nanotechnology. Bio. Engineering and. Biotechnology. Nuclear. Technology, many. Advanced, materials, are introduced, or discovered, like grass in, the. Scramjets, and drones are being used by military, since they can be equipped with high-energy, laser, and railguns. Conduct. Of superconductivity, has. Been introduced. The. Memristor. Development. Of green, technology, and alternative. Fuels such, as fuel, cells self-driving. Electric, cars plug-in. Hybrid cars etc. Augmented. Reality devices. And wearable electronics. Have been developed, you. Can forget the artificial, intelligence in, the list. Powerful. LEDs. Solar. Cells. IC. Technology for computers. Integrated. Circuits, wireless. Power devices. Electronic. Or fuel engines. Portable. And powerful batteries. All. This, achieved, in timespan, of barely one, and a half decade. Large. Hadron Collider is. Considered, the greatest both, in technique and size as well research. Tool built in 21st, century, it, is the largest machine, ever in entire, human, history, it, is expected that instruments. Such large, particle.
Accelerators. Such as LHC. And neutrino. Detectors, will help to increase our understanding, and knowledge about particle. Physics, underground. Detectors, are constantly, involved in the activity, of sorting. Dark matter on the. Other hand observatories. Such as LIGO are working, in order to detect and understand, about gravitational, waves, like. 20th, century, genetic. Engineering achieved, some useful, results in 21st, century to, importance. Of epigenetic. Has, greatly. Increased in the field, inheritance. Is a well-developed, known. Concept, nowadays. Astronomy. Is going through a large-scale. Revolution, with invention, of spacecrafts. Such, as Orion, and Dragon, these. Inventions have given a spaceflight, technology, a new point of view space. Telescopes are, greatly developed compared, to old traditional, telescopes. These. Telescopes, are, constantly. Being developed and, improved, into. Thousands, International. Space Station, was successfully. Completed it is. Estimated that NASA. And ISA, are going to launch a manned, mission to Mars in. 2030s, in collaboration. In. 2015. Vast syndrome, variable, specific impulse magnetic. Plasma rocket, was, tested, it is, an electromagnetic. Thruster. In order, to be used with spacecraft, propulsion. First. Manned, commercial. Spaceflight took, place in 2004. When, world saw Mike, mental crossing the boundary of space on, the 21st, June of. 2004.