ПЛОВДИВ - Най-ДРЕВНИЯТ град в света?
Which is the oldest permanently inhabited city? This title is something like the Holy Grail of the tourism industry. Some time ago, a consulting company calculated that even as a short-term effect , it could double visitors to already established destinations. The problem, however, is that it is very difficult to judge with precision. In our video we told you about the most ancient city in the world - JERICHON - the Biblical city. It and Damascus are officially listed as the oldest permanently inhabited cities in the world to this day.
But soon Damascus dethroned JERICHON. Many of you expressed your position in a comment below the video that this is not the case and mentioned Plovdiv. CONSCIOUSNESS It is strange how Jericho tops this list after there is a time in its history when its inhabitants emigrated to Babylon, as we mentioned in the video. As we said in the introduction, this ranking is still very important from a purely economic point of view and the interest in the first positions is great. and the interest in the first positions is great. Places in the rankings are constantly changing as new and new archaeological discoveries are constantly being made.
Unfortunately, our modest personalities cannot change this, but we can tell you the official history of the city of Plovdiv, which ranks 3rd in this prestigious ranking, and you can judge for yourself what is black and what is white. The history of Plovdiv dates back to the Neolithic in the VI millennium BC, and according to official data, the modern city has existed without interruption since the IV millennium . It was then that it became the capital of northern Thrace. In different periods Plovdiv has important political functions in the region as the center of the ancient Plovdiv diocese and administrative center of the Roman province of Thrace, the Latin Duchy of Philippopolis, the Ottoman Plovdiv Sandzak and the autonomous region of Eastern Rumelia. Today Plovdiv is the second largest city in Bulgaria with a population of 343,070 people according to census data in 2021. It is an important economic and cultural center. The oldest traces of living on the territory of today's city are several Neolithic settlements from the VI millennium BC, such as the one at Yasa Tepe in the Lauta district. The earliest known settlement in the Three Hills was discovered on Nebet Tepe.
It originated during the Stone-Copper Age (IV millennium BC) and has been inhabited without interruption since then, which is why it is considered a hive of the development of Plovdiv. During the Iron Age the settlement was a fortified point of the Thracian Bessi people, and in the V century BC. is included in the Odrysian kingdom. In 342 BC. the settlement was conquered by the Macedonian king Philip II, who gave it the name - Philippopolis - used in various variations to this day. During the Macedonian rule and in the subsequent Hellenistic era , Philippopolis became a city and became one of the important centers of Thrace. In the III-I century BC. there is a period of political instability in Thrace.
The Edirne kings became dependent on the Roman Republic, and misunderstandings often broke out between them and mass uprisings. In 183 BC. Philippopolis was conquered by the Macedonian king Philip V, but a little later the Edirne Empire regained it. In the year 36, the Christian community was established in the city by the Apostle Hermes, who according to tradition is a bishop until the age of 57. Philippopolis finally fell within the Roman Empire when the province of Thrace was established in 46. During the Roman era, the city became an important point on the Via Militaris road, connecting Singidunum with Byzantium . According to popular belief, the city received the title of metropolis during the reign of Emperor Septimius Severus, but there are those who say that this happened at the beginning of the reign of Trajan.
During the Roman period, public buildings, a treasury, temples, baths, odeons, theaters, a large stadium and others were built in Philippopolis. As it grows, the city leaves the outlines of the Three Hills and spreads into the lowlands. The old fortifications were rebuilt, and in 172 Emperor Marcus Aurelius erected a second fortress wall to encompass the sprawling city. Trimontium, as the Romans called today's Plovdiv, has a large-scale water supply system, including catchments, reservoirs, pipelines and two aqueducts.
Excavations in the modern city today reveal only a small part of the ancient past of ancient Plovdiv. In 250, during the first major invasion of the Goths on the Balkan Peninsula, they besieged Trimontium, defended by the Roman general Priscus. Attempts by Emperor Decius Trajan to help the besieged were thwarted after the defeat of his army at Beroe and the city was captured. It was completely burnt down, many of its inhabitants, according to Amian Marcellin , 100,000 people were killed and others were taken prisoner. After the burning of Philippopolis by the Goths, the city shrank within the city walls and the peripheral neighborhoods were abandoned.
It was not until the middle of the 4th century that it regained its former size. Many of the destroyed public buildings have been restored, even on a larger scale than the original ones. During the reforms of Emperor Diocletian at the end of the 3rd century, the province of Thrace was divided into several parts and Philippopolis became the center of one of them, covering the part of Thrace west of the Chirpan hills. After the division of the Roman Empire at the end of the 4th century, Philippopolis fell into the Eastern Roman Empire, within whose borders it remained for most of the next millennium. In the middle of the 6th century, under Emperor Justinian I, the fortress walls around the Three Hills were restored and upgraded, and dozens of auxiliary fortifications were built in the vicinity of the town. In the following decades, Thrace was repeatedly attacked, and in 584 Philippopolis itself was subjected to an unsuccessful siege by the Avars.
At the beginning of the 7th century, a second fortress wall was built around the town, covering the quarters to the east and south of the Three Hills. At that time, various Slavic peoples entered a large part of the Balkan Peninsula en masse. South of Philippopolis, all the way to the region of Thessaloniki, the Dragovites were established, for which the Dragoviti Episcopate was later established within the Diocese of Philippopolis. There are no reports of Slavs attacking the city, but it is assumed that they settled in it peacefully. According to sources from the 7th century, the Diocese of Philippopolis included dioceses based in Diocletian , now called Hisarya, as well as in Sevastopol and Diospol.
The metropolitan was called "Exarch of Thrace Dragovitsa". After the establishment of the First Bulgarian State at the end of the 7th century, Philippopolis became an important outpost of the Byzantine influence in the Balkans. During the long wars of the Empire with Bulgaria in the VIII century in the area of Plovdiv settled many colonists from Armenia and Syria, among whom a significant number of supporters of Manichaeism and Paulicism. During the campaigns of the Bulgarian ruler Krum in 811 - 813, when he destroyed many Thracian cities and took their inhabitants to the north, part of the population of Philippopolis abandoned the city and fled to safer areas to the south.
In 836 the city was conquered by the Bulgarian ruler Malamir, and apparently the city surrendered and the change of power took place without much bloodshed. Philippopolis remained within the borders of Bulgaria until 970, when it was conquered by the Kiev prince Svetoslav I, who plundered the city and impaled 20,000 of its inhabitants. After the expulsion of Kiev troops from the Balkans the following year, Philippopolis rejoined the Eastern Roman Empire. The city recovered quickly after the Russian massacres, and Paulicians and Manichaeans from Armenia and Syria re-inhabited it and its environs. It became one of the main strongholds of Emperor Basil II the Bulgarian Assassin in his long wars, which led to the destruction of the First Bulgarian State. Since the middle of the 11th century, the city has been threatened by attacks in Thrace by Pechenegs and Cumans, as well as by the long Paulician Uprising of Travel, due to which additional fortifications were built around it.
Emperor Alexius I Comnenus resided for some time in Philippopolis, working to establish Orthodoxy among the Paulicians. The First Crusade in 1096 passed through Philippopolis relatively peacefully. and the Second in 1149, as the town became a Latin Quarter with Western European merchants and craftsmen. During the Third Crusade, the garrison and many inhabitants abandoned the city, and it was captured and looted by the troops of Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, who remained in it for six months. In the following years, Philippopolis was affected by growing political instability in the region. In 1193, the governor of the Philippopolis theme, Constantine Angel Duca, proclaimed himself emperor, but was captured and blinded. In 1196 the Bulgarian boyar Ivanko was appointed governor of the district,
but between 1198 and 1200 he ruled independently in alliance with Bulgaria. In 1204, the Fourth Crusade conquered Constantinople and marked the beginning of the Latin Empire. The Duchy of Philippopolis became a crusader state, a vassal of the Latin Empire.
In 1205 the Crusaders were forced to leave the city, burning part of it, and a little later it was conquered with new destruction by the Bulgarian king Kaloyan. The city remained under Bulgarian control until the Battle of Philippopolis in 1208, when the dukes succeeded in regaining power. From 1208 to 1229, the Duke of Philippopolis was Gerard de Ström, a relative of Rainier de Trie. In the 1920s, the duchy became a vassal of the Second Bulgarian State during the reign of Ivan Assen II.
According to some sources, a detachment of knights also took part in the battle of Klokotnitsa on the side of the Bulgarian army. Under the treaty concluded on April 9, 1229 in Perugia between the Latin Empire and the former King Jean de Brienne of Jerusalem, he received possession of the Duchy of Philippopolis and became Duke of Philippopolis from 1229 to 1237. Philippopolis was probably finally lost by the Dukes after at Klokotnica in 1230, although the duchy continued to exist formally at least until the late 1940s.
Over the next 140 years, the city passed peacefully or militarily from Bulgarian to Byzantine control eight times and vice versa. Thus, during the reign of George II Terter, the city was again included in the Bulgarian state, but after his early death, Byzantium regained control over the region. In 1344, the regent's council of the young Emperor John V Palaeologus handed over the city, along with 7 other fortresses, to Bulgaria and in return received support from Ivan Alexander in the struggle for the throne in Constantinople during another civil war in Byzantium. In 1364, Ottoman troops, led by Lala Shakhin Pasha, conquered the city. The tomb of the Ottoman military leader can still be seen in the courtyard of Shahbedinova Imaret Mosque. Plovdiv became the capital of the Ottoman region of Rumelia until 1382, when the government was moved to Sofia.
Once inside the Ottoman Empire, Filibe lost his strategic importance as a fortress. Gradually, all traces of antiquity disappeared and new construction of public buildings such as mosques, inns, inns and baths began. Thus, the city changes radically and its architectural appearance acquires typical oriental features.
An important historical monument from the period of Ottoman rule is the Clock Tower, built in the 16th century on Sahat Tepe, which translates as Clock Hill. It is considered the first city clock in the Ottoman Empire and one of the oldest clock towers in Eastern Europe. During the Bulgarian National Revival Plovdiv was an important economic center and part of the Edirne province. The numerically growing Bulgarian bourgeoisie strengthens economically and gains key influence in society.
Trading with Europe and Russia, this stratum is open to modern political and cultural influences. Then, the wealthy citizens of Plovdiv competed in the construction of a new model of houses, most of which are preserved in the architectural and historical reserve Old Plovdiv. The city enters the new Bulgarian history with its contribution to the development of national culture and the struggle for church independence, which is equivalent to a peaceful bourgeois revolution. He played a leading role in this struggle in the face of leaders such as Naiden Gerov, Dr. Valkovich, Joakim Gruev and entire families such as the Chalaks and Chomakovs. In 1839 the first Bulgarian school was opened in the town, and in 1850 the beginning of modern secular education was set with the opening of the class school "St. St. Cyril and Methodius After the Crimean War in 1857, the first Russian consulate was opened with consuls Naiden Gerov and Alexei Tseretelev.
On May 11, 1858, the feast of the Holy Brothers was celebrated here for the first time, which later became a national holiday of Slavic writing and culture. In the Plovdiv church "St. Mother of God ”, on Christmas in 1859 for the first time in Bulgaria a liturgy was celebrated in Bulgarian. In 1868 the school grew into the first Bulgarian high school. His alumni are the nation's greatest intellectuals, political and spiritual leaders. The centuries-old Bulgarian city is inhabited by a vigilant Bulgarian population, which also participates in the struggles for national liberation and attempts at uprisings by the committees of V. Levski.
City. Plovdiv is involved in the preparations for the April Uprising. The city's revolutionary committee believes that the Turkish population is large, well-armed with a regular garrison. That is why a mass Bulgarian uprising is not planned. The plan of the revolutionaries is to signal the revolt to set fire to about twenty houses.
Oton Ivanov from Plovdiv is taking on this task. At the meeting in Oborishte, an alleged revolutionary betrayed and the Turkish police monitored the Plovdiv revolutionaries . Many of them, hesitant, decided to give up arson. But Oton Ivanov, Georgi Tarnev and the Turchevi brothers, together with the Sveshtari brothers, made a firm decision to set fire to their shops. The committee decided to split a detachment of 30 Plovdiv insurgents into two and take the roads to the villages of Tsaratsovo and Perushtitsa, so that Plovdiv could take part in this all-Bulgarian uprising. The leader of the Plovdiv detachment, Spas Turchev, is hesitant not to rise up from his brother, who fears that both will die.
Oton Ivanov cannot set fire to his home - because his relatives are holding him back. Only the Sveshtari brothers and Kocho Chestemenski set fire to their shops on April 22, 1876. At that time, the Turkish police intervened and put them out. One of the Sveshtari brothers was arrested on suspicion. Georgi Tarnev from the Karshiyaka-Plovdiv district went to the village of Tsaratsovo to Ivan Arabadzhiyata, with whom he took villagers from Hissar to Koprivshtitsa.
After the failure of the revolt in this town, Georgi Tarnev hid in a shepherd's hut in the Troyan region, but was killed while sleeping. The other member of the Plovdiv committee, Kocho Chestemenski, left for Perushtitsa in a cart and took part in the battles with the Turks, but in order not to be captured by them and subjected to violence, Kocho killed his wife, child and himself in the Perushtitsa church. Oton Ivanov, armed and on horseback at dawn, set off for Jendem Tepe to go to Perushtitsa, but there was a Turkish patrol around the hill. Otto fled from the patrol and left for Stanimaka, revolting the villages of Boykovo and Dedevo, but here too the revolt failed.
After a short battle, the villagers retreated to the woods. Oton Ivanov returned to Plovdiv, but was arrested by the Turks - tried and sent into exile until the liberation of Bulgaria from Ottoman rule. In 1877 the Liberation War broke out. Plovdiv was liberated on January 16, 1878 from the wars of the Front Detachment under the direct order of Major General Victor Dandeville from the Western Detachment of Lieutenant General Joseph Gurko.
Captain Alexander Burago's squadron was the first to enter the city. The San Stefano Peace Treaty of March 3, 1878 regulated the establishment of the Principality of Bulgaria, which included most of the lands with a predominant Bulgarian population. The Russian government chose the seat of the new government to be in Plovdiv, as it was supposed to be the capital of the Principality of Bulgaria.
The Treaty of San Stefano was challenged by Austria-Hungary and Great Britain, and the final end of the Russo-Turkish War was settled by the Treaty of Berlin. By virtue of which the newly liberated Bulgarian state was divided into several parts, Plovdiv became the capital of the autonomous region of Eastern Rumelia, and the Ottoman Empire drafted a Organic Statute within three months - the Constitution of the region and appointed a governor. In the spring of 1885, under the leadership of Zahari Stoyanov, the Bulgarian Secret Central Revolutionary Committee was formed, which actively promoted the unification of Eastern Rumelia with the Principality of Bulgaria.
On September 5, several hundred armed rebels from the village of Golyamo Konare, now the town of Saedinenie, moved to Plovdiv. През нощта срещу 6 септември частите, командвани от Данаил Николаев, установяват контрол над града и отстраняват правителството заедно с генерал-губернатора Гаврил Кръстевич. Съставено е временно правителство, начело с Георги Странски и е обявена обща мобилизация. След като княз Александър I Батенберг подкрепя Съединението и след края на последвалата Сръбско-българска война, България и Османската империя постигат споразумение, според което Княжество България и Източна Румелия имат общо правителство, парламент, администрация, армия. Днес 6 септември се чества като Ден на съединението и празник на град Пловдив. След Съединението Пловдив остава вторият по големина град след столицата София.
През 1892 г. Пловдив е домакин на Първото българско изложение с чуждестранно участие. Наследник на това начинание днес е Пловдивският международен панаир. След Освобождението в Пловдив е открита и първата пивоварна фабрика. В началото на 20 век Пловдив израства като голям промишлен и търговски център със силно развита лека и хранително-вкусова промишленост. В града са инвестирани германски, френски и белгийски капитали и се развива търговия, банково дело и индустрия. През 1939 г. в Пловдив има над 16 000 занаятчии и над 17 000 работници във фабрики,
предимно в хранителната и тютюневата промишленост. В годините на Втората световна война се разширява тютюневата промишленост и търговията, както и износа на плодове и зеленчуци. Паметна за този период е 1943 г., когато са спасени от депортиране 1500 задържани евреи след застъпничеството на тогавашния Пловдивски митрополит Кирил, по-късно станал български патриарх. В годините на Народната република в Пловдив са построени мащабни индустриални предприятия като Комбинати за цветни метали, Текстил, Тютюн, Консервен, мотокарен, Електроапаратурен завод и др. На 6 януари 1956 г. e открита първата тролейбусна линия в Пловдив.
Също през 50-те е построен емблематичният за града хотел „Тримонциум“. През 60-те и 70-те години на века се извършва масирано строителство, оформят се съвременните жилищни комплекси. В този период са разкрити много от археологическите паметници в Пловдив. Реставриран е и Старият град.
През 1990 г. се появява и спортният комплекс „Пловдив“, включващ един от най-големите стадиони и най-голямата гребна база в България. През 1999 г. в „Града на хълмовете“ се провежда Европейският месец на културата. През 2014 година Пловдив е класиран като градът с най-дълга пешеходна улица в Европа.
Централната улица, по която не преминават коли, започва от Партийния дом и завършва с пешеходния мост на „Новотел“-а. Дължината й е 1750 м, с което подминава пешеходната зона в Копенхаген с около 200-та метра. Тя ще ви потопи в местната култура и ще ви накара да усетите духа на града. С множеството си магазини, заведения, фонтани, открити археологически зони и зеленина, централната пловдивска улица е чудесен избор за разходка и опознаване на историята на града.
През 2019 г. - Европейска столица на културата Инициативата има за цел не само да стимулира мисленето за културните политики, но и да бъде поставен по-широк контекст, който да включва опазване и развитие на културно – историческото наследство. Пловдив е известен като градът на Седемте тепета. Малко хора знаят, че всъщност тепетата са били 9. За съжаление 2 от тях вече не са част от града. Марково Тепе и Хълм Каменница са били разрушени, а част от тях е използвана за направата на павираните настилки в града.
Днешното име на град Пловдив произлиза от предишно негово название в миналото Пулпудева. Названието Пулпудева пък му е било дадено от траките, които превеждат името Филипополис като Пулпудева Това на кратко е историята на един от най-древните градове в света. За Пловдив може да се каже още много и пак ще е малко.
Може би още десетки, дори стотици години археологическите находките, които град Пловдив ще разкрива ще продължават да изненадват учените. Като един истински пазител на древната история, той разкрива късче по късче пред нас разказите за отдавна изминали дни. Ако това видео ви е харесало и смятате, че повече хора трябва да научат за историята на град Пловдив, тогава моля споделете го. Само ние – българският народ можем да съхраним историята си. Ако смятате това, което правим за важно и искате да ни подкрепите може да се абонирате за канала ни и харесате видеото. Целта ни е да съберем 3000 харесвания.
Така ще разберем, че харесвате това, което правим и веднага ще започнем работа по второ подобно видео.