The path to perovskite-based photovoltaics research | School of Physics | Universiti Sains Malaysia
Assalamu alaikum and very good morning to everyone. Thank you for willing to join our webinar, our research talk today on uh based for the Vex Research organized by uh the School of Physics Science Malaysia. Uh for your information, we are not only having an audience audience that uh join us to uh Backs.com but we also have uh um audience of participants that are joining us to uh the solar cells. You can see here, this is all the first kit. So, it says, I get it uh
from uh some of them, okay? Uh it is actually started in 2006 uh where the researchers are trying to find the Um let your uh Sr. So, after that uh this research on the um on the solar cell getting uh enormous attention from all the researchers all over the world. So, uh uh twenty. 29.5. 29.5%. So, you can see in a short duration of time, uh it it it's uh the power efficiency uh heifer Uh it's increased a lot. Okay?
That's why it's uh gain enormous attention from all the researchers in this field. Okay. Uh about the right. So, this is the precise right here. Okay. It is derived from the calcium. Tighten it right?
Founded by it's was found in back in 1839 uh by a Russian um Lebron. So this is this is like Dev with the structural of ABX three. We have a group of a that is such as uh a group of The over to you. Thank you. Okay. Thank you Doctor Raza for the uh uh introduction and uh can you listen to me? Yes, doctor. Go ahead. and share this This like there's like may I share my slot? Okay. Yeah,
sure. Can you see my tonight. Yes, right there. Okay. It's visible. It's Okay Uh I'll talk about this uh give brief of a few about the pros which is also already discussed by the A. now but uh we'll add
some maybe some uh discussion and and development and proposed strategy uh uh in the perspective of our uh experience uh in our uh uh question uh study and the publication of us. and in terms of uh the provocation of actually discussed this stuff. So, I mean that's a little bit and uh uh introduced uh actually uh uh es uh in 2009 and we got uh Cia around 3.8 and improved to three to 6.5 to 1011 and because of uh uh and a TV in this case uh actually most of you might stay there with uh a liquid electro light so uh to replace the use of uh liquid electrolyte by using a whole transport materials such as uh spiral or PTA and also uh reported using uh inorganic uh hot transport layers such as uh oxide uh and and so on and also to Dimitri as uh a halter increase exponentially and uh just reported by the uh today I checked the NRL. uh website just yesterday and I found that it's very interesting and junction and the can now already achieve a 25.5 which is
developed by Korea I'm not sure which part uh with this group or uh uh I didn't both of this structure have their own uh and also some of uh Okay. Now, I would like to discuss a little bit and uh so that was already mentioned uh uh before uh that uh actually referred to Titan at uh where uh the crystal structure is uh consists of of the I-0 two 0 Now, it is occupying the caffeine inside the Kubota ABA and for the case of oxide. uh by by using the documentary and uh just be mechanism where uh just of A and B equal to three. I mean oxide. So, we've that stick. Yeah. So we can make a possible combination of from the uh thirty I should be like this one. Five. So, for oxide, we can now
almost 500. but for a highlight uh but also following the uh just blazing. We can only have this kind of combination. Yeah,
only one two compound uh uh such as Tsp uh unlock my uh my slut Uh next uh wines. Actually, this is very interesting because they have excellent and such as uh electrol and uh you know and binding energy which is a very highly required in the solar cell where uh as a binding energy and uh APB around 10 million which is uh just similar with uh the room temperature It can end up the city of energy. uh to come to the Exeter and also a letter to a photogenic electron and for ALS TV's electricity generation and most important thing is uh this material properties can be simply adjusted. Uh by changing the uh left side substitution by changing the material Uh we can produce a different, totally different uh uh optimal electrical properties. For
example, this is uh from for example, CSP. PBR. betrayal for uh and LED and so on and most important thing is that this material can be preferred uh solution processing for uh uh the is very cheap and uh very simple that everybody can use a clean cooking uh to make a thin or this material. which is very promising and uh want to discuss uh the work uh one step and two step process. Once the process uh can you how to fight this cord? or only in my screen because it's blocked my and of our faces which is uh indicated by a black color. Uh uh meanwhile, for two steps, we have a separate first. we
prepare uh ABI solution and also we have MAI Solution Personally, we prepare a PPI to kill them using the step. Uh we drop on active uh micro uh with two steps in coating then uh hit up around 80° around 5 minutes first transformation where uh this material have uh uh that progression is very large. So, uh from the original position uh this cause this is material transformed to the different phases uh that is triggered by very simple uh materials such as the temperatures a UV, light exposure, or humidity and so on and also please I feel that it's You need to be. Uh in the publication. of is the nature
of electrical, dynamic and the device as well as the interface which is this is of intensive uh recently uh to improve the uh just transfer and interface and improve the coupling between the interpreter. So, this is uh one of uh uh uh uh uh focus This time between the various uh uh if uh the closest this stands we call this is the shallow step uh such as here the shallow step uh which is uh a lot left which is pretty close to conduction bend over here is a portrait shallow which is close to uh meanwhile for deep the deep level. it is uh electron a deep uh to the get and also holds. So, uh go deep to the uh mid and uh because of a very uh excellent properties of uh up properties uh for sellers uh mostly uh electron can escape from this uh but for this uh step uh it's just uh combined radiation radiation. Lastly, uh this Uh uh uh our efficiency as well as POC on the device. Uh another uh critical issue is uh as I mentioned that there is a feasibility uh as uh just mentioned that uh is uh what is the example of material It's can easily change the first due to some uh conditions such as temperatures change magnetic uh humidity, and also I need aggression oxygen and so if the consistency of the vicinity of the uh former proactive uh cubic face this one, it should be uh is demanded. It is the
this is required but goes off. Uh this uh faces uh uh and the is very high Uh this is a QB first. So, it's easily share with the chest of the uh chest to the or and or here and become the toughest. So, this is an example of uh color uh due to the temperature change.
uh in color black but uh at 100° have a very high ionic density that can easily interact with the environment such as the humidity or oxygen. uh so they can easily uh induce uh ionic aggression such as high or and migrations which later uh uh destroyed the stability and change to the uh first uh manly and for uh first at the strategic Uh as I mentioned earlier that uh because of boundary which is depicted in this uh this picture as uh uh this cartoon uh when we apply uh electric car and for example and bias. so the iron will polarize uh uh positive to negative negative. Uh I am going to positive this will pass stability of the uh uh uh uh um this of course uh a proper uh uh I mean improve the condition of the participation. We may opt for the improvement. So,
this is very promising strategy actually uh as a reporter recently by president group not all of us uh in this region have such facilities uh particularly in my PSA. Uh I don't know in uh the place actually we have a book but uh very difficult to operate and also very costly. So, we have idea why not we prepare uh uh uh uh then of course this letter if we can make a process that can stable for 1 week for example, 2 week or 1 month. So, we have uh for a two-step process. Uh we mix uh MAI with XX Chemical with ratio uh throughout the process. Uh just a process Then
we got uh Uh this could be the system of uh uh a different phase in the the uh actually in a recent report uh uh uh uh researcher said that the existence of a PB two is required and uh for a hyper performance but uh actually for my uh I I'm understanding it. This is a quite uh way because uh PBA two is uh she had just a defect in the pros so why they said uh to be able to access to his or hyper. I don't know. Maybe uh I didn't get any better explanation about this region but uh what I want to highlight here is the content of PBA to in MA. I only is very high
maybe due to this material is very quickly change color change uh uh after the preparation so they may contain uh a fire and so that bedtime and that's the face of uh this is uh spectrum. Uh we can see that uh particular here particularly here is uh this one is PB is stretching and bending more and this one is ammonium which is you can see here that uh there is quite similar. This means that they have a very better in the future AI where uh PBS PBS stretching is high. It's been that there's but uh I've been uh it's a quiet where uh not to like uh a preparing the global in the glove box will be uh pretty high here and this is characteristic uh uh MAI to MIT Assumption Ben here. Uh this
actually can be. this is because of the existence of different faces because of uh we're preparing high and dry environment uh at ambient. So, it is understandable, understandable. So now we look at the picture of the system uh from left to right. Actually, this is pristine MAI without the addition of new material.
Uh this is It's the increasing of our content. uh day one and we can see here uh this already changed to color which is uh uh Delta already observed but uh uh the systems uh uh I mean this is the black color and after 1 day this uh become deter to the toughest and they still survived and we can see that at least uh uh some of the Even though some already bleaching here but uh this mean that uh uh the sample, this formula is very promising. So, we need just to improve the condition. So, we also have a
fun way what happen if the material uh preparing one step uh uh process by taking uh uh the condition one of the sample with a chemical we prepare one. that process here but uh at the end, we add another sorry, we are still here. Uh here. Huawei uh for the last
step. So, we've got uh a spectrum now just resembling uh the pros that repair uh in the and also suppressing the one step for pristine. I mean, A with XX here So, as I said, assembling the glove box system uh uh now, this is the uh picture. uh this is the first example uh it's only this is one with YY and X uh uh chemical uh the zero but uh unfortunately for 1 day uh after the preparation the is composed of two or two and some compact layer can be from uh yeah, up here but uh we can see here for me actually, they are composed of uh large network of uh system uh which is uh corrects with large scale uh interface for generated electron during the front of process. So, what is the solution? So, we need to make a single crystallize and we improve the coupling between and this layered by preparing uh a year with high surface energy, high energy for POTS.
We need to prepare 001 percent to provide a strong with uh uh if we can prepare. a single crystalline ATL, then, we have high energy. We can get a high coupling efficiency than a highly dynamic So, we propose a new IT system We call uh Nanos. Actually, this is the result of of uh uh my former student, PHD student and also my first dog and so we grow on top of this. This is uh Uh this is uh uh ITO and very luckily on the bottom of the nanos, we have very uh the compact layer of the uh TV which is a villain. So, this is the structure for it. Uh the
Nanos thickness is around three nanometer and the length can be up to uh sixty to eighty nanometer length and we can grow study. We get up to 1.18. Uh uh for this is uh uh the highest uh during this finding is actually and also can be up to Eighty-two 82% uh from the other devices which is also considered as uh the highest proctor at the time and we compare the first week. I said, oh why is because I actually the most famous uh EPL at the time also Oscar.
Okay, This is also for the supported by Electoral Petco. So, the transport of career in the devices must faster uh in the uh nano brass uh as an auto system and uh we also uh upon where the electoral mobility uh that we got that uh is much higher compared than other systems elsewhere we're using uh in the nano. best system. because they can uh compensated. compensate. the density is the device to produce a much higher uh power and efficiency than to defects Uh this is just a stability properties in the under maximum pointing that uh uh the uh we only check 300 a second uh but for uh uh under aging uh we get uh uh for more than 2 months we still we say we can see here that it's so neglected. Uh uh the greatest of the performance and this is the statistic of the performance of the Nanos. Uh we
also have found with the effect of of we can see that here Uh I will look on the highlight the PRC actually we can achieve up to 1.1 more than 1.1 A or if they put This is a topical example of what uh of the ITO uh which is a good Christianity and uh so by AED uh fractured and also from higher resolution and uh from Spectrum also it's pretty fine extended This is uh the uh the performance uh we compare the system using uh no, no, no, no, no, no. The only idea. Why? Why we use this? Because uh This is so it is important to compare uh uh this uh the with uh the system without constant uh to to the uh the the the the thin layer is uh yeah so we got here for uh I only only around around uh 10%. Meanwhile uh for uh a certain thickness Uh the here we more than eighteen. 18%. 18.2% using and uh also the POC is High 1.1% 1.1 goal and uh uh
close to uh Seventy-four 74% and MPP of the device for aging stability. We found that the system stable uh uh quite uh highly stable uh which is so very little uh uh decrease Uh if we are edging uh more than 1 month Okay. next. Uh okay. Uh I would like to complete uh my uh today, this morning. Uh so, I think to obtain a high performance uh uh besides we improved the electrical of by changing the documentary. Uh do
uh and so on. Maybe we may uh I prepare the pros in the form of crystalline here because a single crystal and pros uh we can uh uh about the interface boundary which is very deteriorated. uh very negative effect. give negative effect in the performance of the solar and uh also for is very important because uh now uh even though uh the performance can be up to 25.5% uh in the
global Yeah. But uh we need a very stable system that can be used in the uh real application as uh uh electrical generator, electrical or electric generator. So, we need a very stable uh system. So, we have to find a proper method, a proper system uh that can their uh uh uh processes then uh also as I mentioned that uh better to I think to be better. transport system. uh or
transport system in the form of crystalline structure Uh maybe may have the frequency and and and also uh anesthesia. So, we need to find uh the system that can actively extract the generated career to the electoral actually. Uh my discussion is not uh quite uh comprehensive.
I mean quiet. Uh I'm not involved with all the issues such as uh electoral. I mean but actually the nature is just similar with the way of transporting here at the So uh coupling between STL and should be also improved. Then the uh the crystal of the should be improved uh such as by making a crystalline STL or using uh inorganic STL and uh uh STL to to improve the offer all stability of the pros I would to. Thanks. my uh collaborator. from Sudan University, Shanghai. that uh invite me for
a visiting scholar for more than uh almost 2 years. then also provide uh my student uh stay for more than 4 months and 6 months. Uh yeah, 4 months 4 months in the food and university and also for uh Yeah. Actually uh a presenter. I frankly, I did an affluent how the uh uh influential face when the properties actually uh the from the influenza uh first uh first of the as uh I discussed earlier that uh cubic uh it's a permission and therapy is very high so it's only on the control the environment. I mean, the temperature during the oppression, we cannot control because the solar uh uh uh temperature up to uh more than a 50° Celsius. Yeah And so this also induce some uh uh let this uh distortion uh also later will trigger a so I think uh for uh the management and maybe with the uh inside. The latest
Okay. Uh next question is from uh Doctor Mai. Yes, I would you consider as an alternative ETL to TI two, since it has a higher electron mobility. Yeah. Actually uh in terms of the property was in it's very good. uh very uh very promising actually and uh also a lot of uh we observe uh seen a is to feel uh using zinc oxide as ATL and also uh can be returning to single crystalline and promising and also uh Nano Nano standing on it as we also preparing our uh recently but actually have a polar surface where can be ended by oxygen and also other side can be zoom uh uh Paola. And where this is a very uh oxidative. Yeah, I
mean it's oxidized. The pros when we put uh uh into contact the uh to the website, they can easily induce chains of the first guy. so within a minute, the black can change to uh uh to the toughest autonomic yellow color. So, I in the uh system or SMU system.
Okay. Alright. That's the next question is uh is it more difficult to fabricate single Twister Pros? compared to poly poly Cristal line with solution processing technique? Yeah, actually, uh uh a poly Cristal is pretty easy uh as uh I presented just now actually uh like one step and two step Uh this is very easy uh in uh uh to produce polys and uh uh We use it just like a solid at room temperature or a control temperature. So, let the so then we can get a solid Uh so it's it is uh the most common uh technique uh to prepare uh uh single crystal and uh uh uh system Okay. Oh well, I'm very excited about the XX and YY material and because because uh yeah, in Malaysia, we have a problem. We
have a high humidity that makes our Skype uh degree easily. That's why we go for uh to see this is the pros inside the glove but but that one will make uh the cost uh increase. So doctor uh you uh how you encounter a problem this uh in the room where we can supply but of course uh outside uh uh environment, maybe some uh uh uh some some uh stress of uh yeah actually uh he said was so uh uh the guest from uh inside the group also dismissed outside actually just in case actually not uh but uh we can safely protected by the uh the It's a good way to to start to join, to participate in this Research field, okay? If we don't have any question, uh any other questions? Thank you very much, Doctor Ara Okay, welcome.
Welcome. The the information for a lot of information that we get uh for the uh Research Thank you very much. Now, we shift to Yeah. now we shift to our next speaker. uh Doctor Benson. Yeah. Hi, I'm Dr. Benson is uh
currently a Research professor, and research assistant professor in the Department of Flexi and Printable Electronics at National University, South Korea. Uh his research interests are on fundamental design and development of high performance of electronics uh device including organic herbs uh the floss. you. Thank you Doctor Ara for the introduction. Uh good afternoon everyone. So, uh now I will be uh Thank you to Doctor Ara for giving a very comprehensive review on the Skype uh Photovoltaics. Now, I'll be uh
introducing to you regarding the materials and also some of the uh latest research trend in the in this particular field. Uh I'm the first time user of Apex so I'm just I'm still trying to figure out the Okay. So, can everybody hear me? If there is no I have no problem. Okay, good. Okay. Thank you Doctor Ara for inviting me today. So, today,
I'll be explaining mainly on a two different topics. Before I start, I would like to uh make a very simple introduction regarding who I am So, um I'm a Malaysian and uh I graduated in UK M University of Malaysia in year 2017 and uh not long after I graduate, I received an offer to further my research in Korea I am not sure if you have heard about Tumble National University. It is one of the uh local university in Korea funded, fully funded by the government and here I joined a lab. The my lab is called uh organic device Lab and basically before uh before 2018 our life focuses on the generation of uh flexible of the electronic devices and mainly uses organic materials but uh after two 018, we try to So today, my topics, the the topics of my presentation today, I will first explain to you the latest the uh one of the latest research direction in our field in the Palestine for the Vortex and also how the latest research trend is uh is going to help us in a further breaking the efficiency value of the type of ourselves. First, I will introduce to you all about the dimension and the of scams and then I will explain to you all the concept of preservation on Skype Films.
The basic uh properties and also the basics of the apes have already been explained. Well explained by Doctor Ara. So, I will go. I will uh just
uh over that part and I will focus on these topics in my presentation. Okay. Very simple. Basically, of course, you require a Skype for it to work. So, this is the
typical Crystal La structure of a pair of Skype. It is a cubic face and of course, uh it has a uh molecular formula of ABX three. So, here many people uh may be wondering, we have always listened a pair of Skype. So, we have always listened about Skype materials.
So, It feels complicated at first sight. You think that? Oh, it has so many organ inorganic compound in a in a single material and how this thing works like a miracle in many applications. So, the reason is because of its molecular structure, the ABI molecular structure, the first material was uh initially used in a different kind of application. not on the not related to optics. It was or initially used for the and after People have began to try to create a different kind of kind of materials using the same chemical formula and okay, this is the what kind of uh chemical what kind of chemicals you use, what kind of you use eventually, the period of time.
you have this general formula, ABX three. So, according to the Gold's Tolerance Factor, It's basica lly is just like a guideline to see uh okay, what materials can be used to form a stable of Skype? Uh what materials can lead to the formation of the sky. So, it is a guide to show you what kind of materials can be used to form a pair of Skype for lemon. A lemon aim is in the position of a there are only a number of uh candidate available to be used as a in the structure which include for me or more commonly known as a ammonium kind of application you need, you will have to change the composition of the AB. Crystal accordingly. So, for all
applications today, I'll be limiting, I'll be narrowing down my focus on the applications. The most common use of IVI. I think the VIP and also CSP Iodine, iodine and also uh yeah of the electronic for these are actually quite similar. The
difference is that uh the have different kind of stability and also the bank which can cause the difference. Some differences in the efficiency of the cells and then I mentioned about the dimensional of the periscope flow and how it affects the properties and also the eventual efficiency of the self. So, here is it. You can see from this chart, this is a very simple chart that shows to you uh that shows you the difference when you tune the dims on the low dimensional. Let's say one
dimensional or two dimensional to three dimensional. Of course, the size change you can see from here, this is about the and the structure and then you have the 3D structure or the mixed structure. So, I would like to draw your attention to the crystal A case of the 2D structure. usually 2D structure in a Skype. Uh the
one of the most easily distinct viable difference between the 2D and 3D structure is the uh like this. You can see from here in the case of a two part of you will see there are they are made of uh infinity in organic slabs. This is what we call as inorganic slabs are in inorganic. It's separated by organic compound and then of course, this is the region that transport is hindered or not favorable for threed Skype which is the most commonly used material for. So, you can see
that the crystal at least are connected infinite that. And then the judge has put that pathway multi-directional. You can come from the judge can transport via any direction without hindrance but in the case of the judges is um very much limited. So, they are mostly you need direction know, the difference is that the two different Skype calls with the crystal structure. they will have uh usually they will have this structure will give rise to a thing. a phenomenon that
we call as a uh quantum confinement This is because they are Crystal can give rise to an energy based not structure. So, in this case, the Skype, usually they will have a larger bank compared to the treaty and also they are more stable but in return, they are not the ideal for so application because they have a large bank which can affect the assumption efficiency. So, what the what we can do to fully utilize good stability and uh up to properties. This is a kind of the biggest trade of that. The entire scientific community is trying to overcome how to create a periscope. We both
good and also good performance. So, let's have a look at this chart. Uh this uh recently I discussed with my uh other colleagues and also students and we propose we propose uh discharge and we publish in uh one of the review paper this year and uh this chart is a very simple chart to explain that illustrate to you the difference between the every kind of uh Skype layers, Skype, or periscope or multi dimension of Hellscape in the case of a twod, he usually as you can see from here, they are uh like a layer there for me. multi layer
of they are not connected. They are separated by a wall in a case of a uh Skype. So we can see from here probably can define the dimensional of a kind of Skype when you have a telescope where the acres infinitely connected together without without organic uh spacer, So, you will get this is the uh the most basic structure of the sky. They were coming back from the the crystal like this are highly connected together and also they offer very good job and of course very low and get for uh so so this is the and uh nowadays how people determine the the dimension of the they see the number of the organic lashes in the crystal at this uh is uh how you are able to tell the which kind of harass you are making. 2D 3D,
or even in some cases So, this is it when you have uh one sheet, one in organic across each other separated by a uh by a vendor or organic spaces. So, this is what as a having and value equal to one and increasing number of organics labs with increasing number of organic slabs. That means you have increasing number of and values your values increase to a certain amount. Let's say
fifty, it is still considered a to the but the properties of the two will now start to move towards the sky even more with the increasing in value will increase the properties we shift from the two different to the head of Skype. So in the case of the dimensional which is the thing that I'm going to, the topic that I'm going to discuss today. You can see that uh this is the mixed part of it had different kind of the uh faces different kind of uh dimensional in a single club whereas for the uh three layer of structure, you can see if they are more uniform and then usually they are from uh using the threed and then you perceive uh the threed platform with a certain kinds of organic molecular and then you'll be able to the face segregation at the face of the leading to this kind of a unique structure. This is what it requires. A threed, two kind of uh flame each of these kind of sky. It
is very hard for you to define like which kind of sky is better for uh generally because everything depends on what you are going to use them for the Evangel application for a better illustration, I'm giving you this image. threed of Skype which means this is the most common flame that you can uh prepare using uh numerous methods as highlighted by now, you can prepare. We are uh two steps are in the collection method or you can prepare with one step in this method and the advantage of the three different Skype is highlighted here. They have a logo and they are reaching defects but not necessarily bad defects and they can offer multi directional transport first for the They are also known as uh this is uh but for the normal they can be they can become a flood and then the good, the good thing about this is of course it has a lighter. It has
a strong condom in effect and it is highly stable and they don't have, they don't consist of as much defects as the power of sky. That's why most of the two or a part of people use them surface purpose using conservation strategy, you are able to introduce a team uh formation of two different on top of the threed itself without disrupting the property of the three different houses. So, this is highlighting the the the crystals that we want to get in an idea to the 3D structure and if you're asking me what kind of function can a treat to kind of use the answer is Just like I mentioned about and uh LED hybrid because uh people are wondering different kinds of uh solar cells and they are basically operating on different kind of principles. So, how is that possible when you mention that you can use parasite, multi-functional devices used using uh the same pair of Skype. Okay. So, I want to draw your attention to this Yes, you are right. They are
Sos and LED are operating on a different kind of uh mechanism my luck. Here we are fabricating both. We are using materials for both kinds of fabrications. We are making a
salsa of the same and then we're also using the same structure to fabricate uh like I'm eating of different kinds of emission blue, green, red by tuning the composition of the Pero itself only. So, I'm going to shorten the presentation. Uh I think you already know the requirement for the salsa is that the periscope which serves the I think material should have a very good uh photo harvesting efficiency is very well and covers the range. UVB and also NAR region and then for the LED, it should be uh having a less effects as possible and then it should have a very good uh confinement if I saw that you can generate a high energy uh excite that can release uh more brightness.
I mean they can I know for more for Tots what you need is something called iron iron. Basically, they are the same just like other irons except that they are molecular size container Benz ring or they have an extremely long chain or automatic change, aromatic ring that uh is uh bulky in size which when the iron, they are bulky in size, they cannot penetrate through the perks of they will remain on the pedals of face for and then they just sort of becoming uh like a preservation agent or the face uh treating agent So, there are two ways you can form of Ppe flames. The first one is you introduce the market rally into the precursor of the periscope when you prepare periscope film and in this way, you'll be able to uh produce either pure layer to the sky or to the sky and even threed to the mixed of Skype depending on the concentration of the organic that you use in the second you can actually perceive the directly on the surface of your threed periscope after you finish your preparation of course and this in this case, you'll get a very prominent threed, to the bilateral structure or three DBOC means organic staying on the surface or at the green is without forming to the faces In both cases, they are good for the irrigation but especially the surface preservation. The second approach, it will be It has already have to unlock the efficiency of parasites up to as high as 25% In my knowledge, efficiency exceeding 20% and above without the help of suffocation using organic it is almost non achievable. So, as uh at at the point of speaking in this year, the highest efficiency, Twenty-five 25.5%
achieved by Es which is highlighted by doctors Now, they successfully produced the high efficiency using organic iron or ammonium iodine. So, Again, this is a manifestation of how effective this structure is in promoting the efficiency and also the stability of the pros Humidity is under control. Even high humidity of the environment sometimes can uh promote the growth of a more high quality type of Skype and after you get the periscope flow, what you do is that you can again, the Ps Skype with uh some kind of harmonic use. It can be a small amount use. It can be a Pokemon, It doesn't matter Most of the time, I believe you achieve uh lower defects with lower defects and also improve the efficiency of your solar cells and then of course the here's the other position Do you have the the last step is you make contact and then this is how you complete the typical fabrication process of a La. So, I'm highlighting to you the two kinds of uh Uh and is different in the in the HDR. is the or the uh Pss
depending on uh the world. state and uh that's what they eat here. People usually use uh PCB and organic materials or even uh of course I have also seen posts on that and then I'll take uh for uh those who are not working in ourselves. So, I'll be highlighting to you how we actually define the performance of a pers ourselves but after you're finished uh fabricating the parts, you put it to a test basically to draw out the uh response, the photo coloring response by exposing your devices to uh light to sunlight and then uh apply by then you will get a JVC like this. the maximum here For example, when a device, when and when uh is ideal without loss. 100%, 100%
Square this is what we call it 100% Factor but this is not the case theoretically possible and by accidentally, it is not possible to achieve. There will be some losses somehow. So, what we do is we want to, this is the your device response assuming that then this will be the square So, I have already spent uh previously how what is the importance of the surface conservation. So, again, I will
illustrate to you how you conduct a face preservation assuming that this is a parasite that you get Usually, it comes with some PB two which is uh inside the sky itself but uh you can only be able to only be able to detect these faces via analysis after flourish. can either have a multidimensional or just threed dimensional with lesser defects. So, I'm highlighting, I'll be presenting to you two different kinds of preservation that uh I have done in the past The first one we recall is a preservation whereas more organic molecules will be used to persuade the surface of the sky. The small molecules can penetrate through the surface of the periscope and reach the entire butt. So, you can see
from here, if you do boxer face reservation on yours, Skype, most of the time, you will You are not Observe the remnants. PB. I told me the remaining and reactor PBA. Two, they will all be committed to periscope face accordingly and then you will get a slight modification uh in your morphology. The of morphology. you'll get most of the time and uh green size but when you do box of faces, there's uh some uh important factors that you have to consider. For example, the of
the electronic properties, the of properties in this case depending on what of molecules. Molecules that you use either create a red or you bank and depending on the conversation and also your structure. Maybe sometimes a blue chip is beneficial for you. Maybe sometimes a is preferred. So,
depending on what kind of a kind of set that you are using, you can choose uh the molecules accordingly and then you're able you'll be able to they can be. Okay, let's continue back to where we stop II. I'm not sure where the disruption comes from and um okay, let's proceed. Just thought I mentioned about the preservation where uh we are using small organic molecules to persevere the surface of the Skype but in the another kind of preservation where we call surface preservation, we will be using bulky organic molecules state to the surface of the periscope flood. In this case, the difference is that organic molecules, they cannot penetrate through the pets instead. They're only they only be staying on the surface of the Ppe as face preservation agent or they will, they will lead to the formation of a threed threed periscope film So, these are the uh morphology changes after you perceive the surface of the pros using organic molecules As you can see from here in the case of our preservation, we are not observe a huge shift in the of the or the absorption uh but still we are able to reduce the defects in a pair of Sky Flames and efficiency here is not high because uh initially, when we started doing this work uh like 3 years ago, the efficiency that time, the wall efficiency highest was only I think 20%, 22%. So, the time was
considerably good but this efficiency now uh easily achievable with the current modifieds recipe So, for self preservation, I uh I think this is uh the world just published last year by means of self reservation without any other further modifications, we are able to improve the efficiency of the pair of Skype. So, and uh these are the corresponding improvement that you can observe in the EQ E and also the operational stability I want to uh highlight that the main advantage of using both preservation and self preservation is that when you're enlarge the area of the area of your device. you can actually reduce the PCE loss that comes with the upscale of the device. For example, I fabricated this one. This is a fabricated, a Skype fabric on large area ideas of five times five Cm of shape which is very huge and then, this is the model this by means of preservation. I'm able to
improve the efficiency of the module from 11.6% to .7 percent which is uh quite a considerable improvement considering the effort to improve it. actually depressed on the concentration that you use and if you ask me why the preservation can always lead to an improvement in the salsa performance. This is because they can help you to reduce the defects and bring boundaries on your periscope flow. There are many reports that they have already explained how the the close relationship between theifs and also the stability and uh basically the the explanation is that the defects such as uh vacancies and green boundaries. they can become
like the pathway for the moisture in grass into your flow all the oxygen in moist and oxygen ingress are extremely detrimental to pets as you may have already know. So, to provide some kind of experimental evidence, I'm showing you this This is the uh H and also fresh pair of lungs with uh different kinds of uh preservation content at the in the first day of making. Of course, they are all very tough and looks good but you can see from here, the difference, the difference. let's say we
exposed the parasite from uh to ambient air for 75 days and then you're able to observe the difference here that preservation. They turn yellowish. orange, and then this indicate the formation of the face of Skype which is not proactive and then, when you passively just by conservation and then you are still able to get a very dark flu which means that the formation, the conversion of the crystal face in the uh is not that fast or the preservation itself can decelerate the degradation in the sky. similarly for reservation, let's say this is about preservation or preservation. We can also obs that there are significant improvement in the stability in the longevity of the device and why you may you may feel why preservation can improve the so uh remarkably the the the reason is because when you have uh external preservation agent, especially when you use a cut ions, they will form uh to the face or a hydrophobic layer.
basically to the parasite face is very stable and also they are very tolerant means they resist moisture Well, when you have a hydrophobic, it can actually prevent the penetration of the surrounding moisture into a periscope. If they are like they are forming a barrier layer like a moisture barrier layer on top of a scarf which protect the surface exposure directly towards the moisture. So, these are the device, the difference in the device that you can observe after. Uh I think this is about 3, months of aging in air That's just in the periscope with a preservation but you can already observe degradation in the devices. uh in the device
without hesitation. So, these are the difference when you expose the periscope to a moisture and with and without reservation and then after 30 days, let's say you leave it in for 30 days and then you check the uh Rd, you'll notice that most of the pair of Scarface in the untreated uh already converted back to PB Two and also the Delta out of Scarface which is not But in the case of infestation, they still retain the properties very well. So, this eventually contributes to the difference in the two kinds of the that I did. One for MS
and another for stability means you continuously expose your device and strong sunlight Okay. Uh uh. we have a question from Eu. Um is it difficult to synthesize Bc? Do we have uh to synthesize it under atmosphere doing it to move back Rotary evaporated into to synthesize. Thank you. Okay, this is a very
good question and uh good news to you. actually, the BOC is you don't have to synthesize it yourself. You can just purchase it online. You can just buy from some chemical company. They're extremely cheap. They are expensive. They are just
like the common organic. So, like the MAR or MAC that you can purchase online. usually, uh you don't have to synthesize ABC yourself unless you want to introduce additional functional groups like chlorine like uh group on the only you have to synthesize it yourself. Otherwise, you can just purchase it online at a very affordable price. Okay. Any other questions? from the.
um that's the surface and preservation no longer a necessity uh encapsulation. Yes, this is also a good question. Um many people are wondering, does this mean that uh when you do both the conservation and preservation on your periscope, you don't you are you're longer require encapsulation. This is not true. Unfortunately, no matter
how you can improve your efficiency, you always have to encapsulate your device especially when it is involved. be done if you wish to preserve 100% of the efficiency of your device. an example. If let's say I'm doing the uh FAV Skype which has extremely small and a high current I would like to enlarge the banker a little bit. So, I would, I would like a blue shift in my bank account so that I can uh get a higher uh VOC in my device. So, for that purpose, of course I have to uh use some kind of uh preservation materials that can achieve this purpose. For
example, uh you have to use a bulky organic iron that consists uh of They are using titanium dioxide. titanium. The the the thickness is more than 706 to 700 nanometer which is extremely extremely high for us, right? But the has already proven that they don't matter. The trash can still flow through them very well because of the structure. In my case, I'm using the site which is extremely low in less than fourteen millimeter. I try Time to modify the morphology which uh uh cause an increase in thickness up to almost eighty nanometer two times but uh there is no degradation. There is no uh reduction in the efficiency of the salsa at all.
So, basically, the thing is it doesn't matter what matters most is your surface. The surface morphology of your it here and also the function, the bone structure of your ET and diverse. Uh it should be around fifteen Nanometer. Is it right? Sorry. Uh for the first cut, the Optima Optima Perovskite of is uh also directly depending on which kind of a composition that you use. Basically, if you
use on the A pediatric structure, you can easily achieve more than 700 Nanometers. I mean uh I'm referring to the sky but let's say if you're introduced in some cases, if you introduce the bom or the chlorine. It can actually cause a reduction in your thickness. The question is about the thickness, The Optima thickness for the persil, right? Yes. Yes. For the
threeds, the ultimate thing. I should be around 600 to 700 Nanometer but uh you have to tailor it according to the composition of a periscope. As for the two capping layer, it should not be more than fourteen millimeter to achieve the optimum efficiency. So, if you have questions, I think I'm not sure which kind of that you're referring to because we can use organic content or the Periscope.for example in my
lab, we are using Ps. We are synthesize for the LED application There is how we can use in the film. Also, it can also boost the efficiency of the castle. Based on my
experience but I'm I'm assuming that you're referring to Uh it's uh what it means It's Tts. ET. Uh it doesn't matter. I did uh try not to condemn dots. I
did use a Condom.as my ER previously and the performance is wonderful. Wonderful. So, can you give tips Okay. So, I think you mentioned about the and so and so dipping technique sometimes there are other side, okay? It actually depends on uh how you treat the solvent and also the things that you use. I uh and also sometimes it depends on the and that you use also if let's say, yeah, using a the acetate uh from my experience acetate create many cracks and sometimes pin holes. So, I
actually published a paper previously on these matters regarding the anti speed and also the uh kinetics that that that was involved. So, what I can suggest to you is that you introduce vaccine, you introduce vaccine into your acetate vaccine can slow down the the nucleus of your and dissolve and perhaps with that, you can actually uh achieve a more uniform. They are host at the drop site uh It also depends on what kind of uh pipe that they use for purging and if you push it too fast, there'll be a whole due to the anti uh washing effect but I think the optimum is that you put it in a consistent stream of so and then if you're not create that much of a problem on your flame, It's the end when necessary for the pros synthesized steps. and the solvent is uh more reliable technique for creating a high quality kind of films. I'm
speaking from my experience, this one, you can use a lot of ways to make the sky. You can use a vacuum deposit. You can use a two step but to me to the inter technique of the position they always create some kind of uh face instability inside the Ps Skype Yes. I think uh if if you are, if you'd want to know more about the people, you can search uh for my publication in the I think 2 years ago, I published a paper on that uh mixture mix and dissolve how how they have to facilitate the formation of pair of Skype Mm hmm. Okay. Okay. And then the last question from you again, I think because you have to remember that the anti and uh uh the Mf DMS. So, when they
are completely invisible, one Oh En décisant prochaine Uniforme the position which means after he's been caught the parasite before hitting you dry it without using heating, you try using a vacuum system dry out without using any. So, just try the sky from using Ibe to draw out the DM F and DMS or so that the press and I on the spot. I have tried this method and uh if you ask me for the module we've had more than ten times ten squares. I think that is the best result a high vacuum.
The deposition So, I was reading for the for the vacuum drying. It's a it's a it's a so it's purely for the vacuuming process without any deposition, right? Uh it's been called the periscope. It's been on your uh ETL and then you just uh without heating, you just uh transfer your phone to a vacuum chamber. It can be any vacuum chamber that has small vacuum chamber is also possible and then just that and then the vacuum itself, you'll uh evaporate MF and DMS inside the flu and that area of the sky itself. Oh, okay. Uh even
though you don't introduce any higher temperatures by the health during the vacuuming, you don't have to introduce high temperature but uh still for better performance. You have to do post and after you vacuum dry Uh okay. okay, okay. yeah. thank you. Alright. Um uh one question for me. Yes. Uh what is your opinion on what guys? Of course, this is the the the the direction that everyone wants to uh So, um it is good. It is uh it
is more stable I heard but uh personally, I have not much experience on the left foot yet. I haven't uh synthesize it on my own so I cannot comment much on that. Le prince à Flash So, before we end this session, I would like to give you information that uh school physics science also participating in this uh Research field to guide uh three of lectures or or researchers from school or physics and managed to secure ground related to national rights. Uh one of them is me. I'm working on like free I'm in the beginning of my uh research and the second one we have uh Doctor Lazar, he is working on uh uh dot. and uh the last one
is that he is uh working on the incorporating with a silicon. So, cell. So, we are open for any collaboration and we also want to uh into the collaboration as well. So, uh by that, I think uh thank you very much for everyone to join our uh Research to our webinar today. Thank you. Hopefully, um we got something to those who are in So, I think I got uh me and Doctor Ara are very welcome. If
you want to uh ask any questions to them directly to them. Okay? Bye. Assalamu alaikum. See you again. Thank you very much everyone.