The Green Revolution | Wikipedia audio article
The. Green Revolution or, third agricultural. Revolution is, a set of research technology. Transfer, initiatives, occurring, between 1950. And the late 1960s. That increased, agricultural production. Worldwide particularly. In the developing, world beginning, most markedly, in the late 1960s. The initiatives. Resulted, in the adoption of new technologies. Including, high yielding, varieties hy. Vees of cereals, especially. Dwarf wheats and Rice's in association. With chemical, fertilizers and agro chemicals and, with controlled, water supply, usually involving. Irrigation, and new methods of cultivation including. Mechanization. All. Of these together were seen as a package, of practices, to supersede, traditional. Technology. And to be adopted, as a whole both the Ford Foundation and, the Rockefeller, Foundation. Were heavily involved. One. Key leader was Norman Borlaug, the father of the Green Revolution, who. Received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970. He, is credited with saving over, a billion, people from starvation the. Basic approach was the development, of high yielding, varieties of, cereal, grains expansion. Of irrigation infrastructure. Modernization. Of, management, techniques, distribution. Of hybridized, seeds synthetic. Fertilizers, and pesticides to. Farmers. The. Term Green Revolution was, first, used in a speech on the 8th of March 1968. By the administrator. Of the US Agency for International Development, USAID. William. S God who noted the spread of the new technologies, these and other developments in, the field of agriculture, contain the makings of a new revolution it, is not a violent, red revolution, like that of the Soviets, nor is it a white revolution, like that of the Shah of Iran I call. It the green revolution. Topic. History. Topic. In Mexico. It, has been argued that during. The 20th, century two revolutions. Transformed. Rural Mexico the, Mexican, Revolution, 1910. To 1920. And the Green Revolution. 1950. To 1970. With. The support of the Mexican, government the US government, the United Nations the food and agriculture organization fao. And, the Rockefeller, Foundation. Mexico, made a concerted, effort to transform agricultural. Productivity, particularly. With irrigated, rather than dryland cultivation. In its Northwest, to solve its problem, of lack of food self-sufficiency. In the center and south of Mexico, where large scale production faced, challenges, agricultural. Production, languished. Increased. Production, meant food self-sufficiency. In Mexico, to feed its growing and urbanizing population. With the number of calories consumed. Per Mexican, increasing. Technology. Was seen as a valuable way, to feed the poor and would relieve some pressure of, the land redistribution process. Mexico, was the recipient of Green Revolution knowledge. And technology, and it was an active participant, with financial support from the government for agriculture, as well as Mexican, agronomists. Although. The Mexican, Revolution had, broken the back of the Hacienda, system and land reform in Mexico had, by 1940. Distributed. A large expanse, of land in central, and southern Mexico, agricultural. Productivity, had fallen, during. The administration. Of Manuel ávila, Camacho. 1942. 46 the government, put resources into, developing new, breeds of plants, and partnered with the Rockefeller, Foundation. In. 1943. The Mexican, government founded the International maize.
And Wheat Improvement Center. CIMMYT which became a base for international. Agricultural. Research. Agriculture. In Mexico, had been a socio-political, issue, a key factor in some regions participation. In the Mexican, Revolution it. Was, also a technical, issue enabled, by a cohort, of trained agronomists. Who were to advise peasants, how to increase, productivity in the. Post-world, War 2 era the government, sought development, in agriculture, that bettered technological. Aspects, of Agriculture in regions, that were not dominated, by small-scale. Peasant, cultivators, this. Drive for agricultural. Transformation. Would have the benefit of keeping Mexico, self-sufficient. In food and, in the political sphere with the cold war potentially, stem unrest, and the appeal of communism. Technical. Aid can be seen as also serving political, ends in the international, sphere in, Mexico. It also served political, ends separating, peasant agriculture, based, on the ejido and considered, one of the victories, of the Mexican, Revolution from, agribusiness. That requires, large-scale. Land ownership, irrigation. Specialized, seeds, fertilizers. And pesticides, machinery. And a low wage paid labor force. The. Government created the Mexican, agricultural. Program, map to be the lead organization, in raising productivity. One. Of their successes, was wheat production with varieties, the agency's scientists. Helped create dominating. Wheat production as early as 1951. 70%. 1965. 80%, and 1968. 90%. Mexico. Became the showcase for extending. The Green Revolution to, other areas of Latin America, and Beyond into Africa, and Asia new. Breeds of maize beans, and wheat produced, bumper, crops with proper, inputs such as fertilizer, and pesticides, and careful, cultivation. Many. Mexican, farmers who had been dubious about the scientists. Are hostile, to them often a mutual, relationship of, discord, came to see the scientific, approach to agriculture, as worth adopting. Topic. In rice, ir8, and, the Philippines. In, 1960. The government of, the Republic of the Philippines with. The Ford Foundation and, the Rockefeller, Foundation. Established the, International Rice, Research Institute. Erie a rice. Crossing, between dgo, Eugene, and Peeta was done at Erie in 1962. In. 1966. One of the breeding lines became, a new cultivar, ir8, IRA, required, the use of fertilizers and, pesticides but. Produced substantially. Higher yields, than the traditional, cultivars. Annual. Rice production in the Philippines increased. From three point seven to seven point seven million tons in two decades the. Switch to ir8 rice made the Philippines, a rice exporter, for the first time in the 20th century. Topic. Start, in India. In, 1961. India, was on the brink of mass famine, Norman. Borlaug was invited, to India by the adviser to the Indian Minister, of Agriculture, dr., MS Swaminathan. Despite. Bureaucratic. Hurdles imposed, by India's grain monopolies, the Ford Foundation and, Indian government, collaborated, to import wheat seed from the International, maize and wheat Improvement Center.
CIMMYT Punjab. Was selected, by the Indian, government to be the first site to try the new crops because of its reliable, water supply, in a history of agricultural. Success. India. Began its own Green Revolution program. Of plant breeding irrigation. Development and financing, of agro chemicals India, soon adopted ir8 a semi-dwarf, rice, variety, developed, by the International. Rice Research Institute. Theory that could produce more grains, of rice per plant when grown with certain fertilizers, and irrigation, in. 1968. Indian agronomist, SK did, data published, his findings that, ir8 rice, yielded, about 5 tons per hectare with no fertilizer, and almost, 10 tons per hectare under optimal, conditions, this. Was ten times the yield of traditional, rice ir8. Was, a success, throughout Asia and of the miracle. Rice, ir8. Was, also developed, into semi-dwarf. I our 36, in the. 1960s. Rice yields, in India were about 2 tons per hectare by the mid 1990s, they, had risen to 6 tons per hectare in the. 1970s. Rice cost about. $550. A ton in 2001. It cost under $200. A ton, India. Became one of the world's most successful rice, producers, and is now a major rice exporter, shipping, nearly 4.5. Million tonnes in 2006. Topic. Consultative. Group on International Agricultural. Research. CGIAR. In, 1970. Foundation, officials, proposed, a worldwide network of Agricultural Research Center's under a permanent, Secretariat, this. Was further supported and, developed by the World Bank on the 19th of May 1971. The consultative, group on International Agricultural. Research. CGIAR. Was, established, co-sponsored. By the FAO, IFA. D and UNDP. CGIAR. Has. Added many research, centers throughout the world. CGIAR. Has. Responded, at least in part to criticisms, of Green Revolution methodologies. This. Began in the 1980s, and mainly, was a result of pressure from donor organizations. Methods. Like agro-ecosystem, analysis. And farming system research have been adopted to gain a more holistic view of agriculture. Topic. Brazil's, agricultural. Revolution. Brazil's. Vast inland, cerrado region, was regarded, as unfit for farming before the 1960s.
Because The soil was too acidic and poor in nutrients, according, to Norman Borlaug, however. From the 1960s. Vast quantities, of lime pulverized, chalk or limestone were, poured on the soil to reduce acidity, the. Effort went on for decades by the late 1990s, between, 14, million, and 16, million tons of lime were being spread on Brazilian, fields, each year the. Quantity, rose to 25, million tonnes in 2003. And 2004, equalling, around 5 tons of lime per hectare, as a. Result, Brazil, has become the world's second-biggest soybean. Exporter. Soybeans. Are also widely used in animal feed and the large volume, of soy produced, in Brazil has contributed to Brazil's, rise to become the biggest exporter, of beef and poultry in the world, several. Parallels, can also be found in Argentina's. Boom in soybean, production as well. You. Topic. Problems, in Africa. There, have been numerous attempts. To introduce the successful, concepts, from the Mexican, and Indian projects. Into Africa, these. Programs, have generally, been less successful reasons. Cited include widespread. Corruption insecurity. A lack of infrastructure, and a general, lack of will on the part of the governments, yet. Environmental. Factors, such as the availability of, water for irrigation the, high diversity in slope and soil types in one given area are also reasons, why the Green Revolution is, not so successful, in Africa, a recent, program in western Africa, is attempting, to introduce a new high yielding, family, of rice varieties, known as new, rice for Africa, ne, RI ca, ne. RI CA varieties. Yield about 30%. More rice under normal conditions and, can double yields with small amounts, of fertilizer, and very basic irrigation. However. The program has been beset by problems getting. The rice into the hands of farmers and to date the only success. Has been in Guinea where it currently accounts, for 16%, of, rice cultivation after, a famine, in 2001. And years of chronic hunger and poverty in 2005. The small African country of Malawi launched, the agricultural. Input subsidy, program, by, which vouchers. Are given to small holder farmers to, buy subsidized, nitrogen, fertilizer, and maize seeds, within. Its first year the program was reported, to have had extreme, success producing. The largest, maize harvest of the country's, history enough, to feed the country with tons of maize leftover, the. Program has advanced, yearly ever since various. Sources claim, that the program has. Been an unusual success. Hailing, it as a miracle. Topic. Agricultural. Production, and food security. Topic. Technologies. The, Green Revolution spread. Technologies. That already existed, but had not been widely implemented, outside, industrialized. Nations, two. Kinds of technologies, were used in the Green Revolution and, a mat cultivation. And breeding area, respectively. The. Technologies, in cultivation, are targeted, at providing, excellent, growing conditions, which included, modern irrigation projects. Pesticides, and synthetic nitrogen fertilizer. The. Breeding technologies. Aimed at improving crop, varieties, developed through, the conventional, science-based, methods, available at, the time these. Technologies. Included, hybrids, combining, modern genetics, with selections. Topic. High-yielding. Varieties. The, novel technological. Development, of the Green Revolution was, the production of novel wheat cultivars. Agronomists. Bred cultivars, of maize wheat, and rice that are generally, referred to as hy, Vees or high, yielding, varieties. Hy. Vees have higher nitrogen absorbing. Potential, than other varieties. Since, cereals, that absorb, extra nitrogen would, typically lodge or fall over before harvest, semi, dwarfing, genes were bred into their genomes a, Japanese. Dwarf wheat cultivar, intend. Avella pi a Japanese, agronomist, ganguro inuzuka, which was sent to Orville Vogel at Washington, State University by. Cecil salmon was instrumental in developing Green Revolution wheat, cultivars. IRA. The, first widely implemented, hy-vee. Rice to be developed, by Erie was created, through a cross between an Indonesian, variety, named cheetah and a, Chinese variety, named dgo, wujin, in the. 1960s. When a food crisis, happened in Asia the spread of hy-vee. Rice was aggravated, intensely, dr., Norman Borlaug who is usually recognized, as the father, of the Green Revolution, bred. Rust resistant, cultivars which, have strong and firm stems preventing, them from falling, over under, extreme, weather at high levels of fertilization. CIMMYT. Centro, Internacional. De Mahara me and toad emmaus white rego International, Centre for maize and wheat improvements. Conducted, these breeding programs, and helped spread high yielding, varieties in, Mexico, and countries, in Asia like India and Pakistan.
These. Programs, successfully. Led the harvest double in these countries plant, scientists. Figured out several parameters, related, to the high yield and identified, the related, genes which control, the plant height and tiller number with. Advances, in molecular genetics the, mutant genes responsible for, Arabidopsis, thaliana genes. Got 20 oxidase, gaaah 1 da 1 2, 3 wheat reduced height genes rht. And a rice semi dwarf gene, sd1, were cloned these. Were identified, as gibberellin, biosynthesis. Genes or cellular, signaling, component, genes, stem. Growth in the mutant background, is significantly, reduced, leading to the dwarf. Photosynthetic. Investment. In the stem is reduced dramatically, as the shorter plants are inherently, more stable mechanically. Assimilates. Become redirected. To grain production amplifying. In particular, the effect of chemical fertilisers, on commercial, yield. Hy. Vees significantly. Outperformed traditional, varieties, in the presence, of adequate, irrigation pesticides. And fertilizers, in the. Absence, of these inputs, traditional, varieties, may outperform hy. Vees. Therefore. Several authors have challenged, the apparent, superiority. Of hy, Vees not only compared, to the traditional, varieties, alone but by contrasting, the monocultural system, associated, with hy Vees with the poly cultural, system, associated with traditional ones. Topic. Production. Increases. You. Cereal. Production more than doubled, in developing, nations between, the years, 1961. To 1985. Yields. Of rice maize, and wheat increased. Steadily during, that period the, production. Increases, can be attributed roughly, equally to irrigation, fertilizer. And seed development, at least in the case of asian rice while agricultural. Output increased, as a result of the Green Revolution the energy input to produce a crop has increased, faster, so that the ratio of crops, produced to energy input has decreased, over time Green. Revolution techniques. Also heavily, rely on chemical, fertilizers pesticides. Herbicides. And. Defoliants and. Rely on machines, which as of 2014, rely, on or are derived from crude oil making, agriculture. Increasingly, reliant, on crude oil extraction. Proponents. Of the Peak Oil Theory fear that a future decline, in oil and gas production would, lead to a decline in food production, or even a Malthusian catastrophe. Topic. Effects. On food security. The, effects of the Green Revolution on, global, food security are difficult, to assess because of the complexities, involved in food systems. The. World population, has grown by about five billion since, the beginning of the Green Revolution and, many believe that without the revolution, there would have been greater famine, and malnutrition. India. Saw annual, wheat production rise, from 10 million tonnes in the 1960s. To 73. Million in 2006. The. Average person, in the developing, world consumes. Roughly 25. Percent more, calories per day now than before the Green Revolution. Between. 1950. And 1984. As the Green Revolution, transformed. Agriculture, around the globe world grain production increased, by about 160. Percent the production, increases, fostered, by the Green Revolution are, often credited with having helped, to avoid widespread famine. And for feeding billions, of people there are also claims, that the Green Revolution has, decreased, food security, for a large number of people, one.
Claim Involves, the shift of subsistence oriented. Cropland, to cropland, oriented. Towards production of grain for export, or animal feed for. Example, the Green Revolution replaced. Much of the land used for pulses, that fed Indian peasants for wheat which did not make up a large portion of the peasant diet. Topic. Food security. Topic. Malthusian. Criticism. Some. Criticisms, generally, involve some variation, of the Malthusian principle. Of population, such. Concerns, often revolve around the idea that the Green Revolution is, unsustainable and argue that humanity, is now in a state of overpopulation, or, overshoot, with regards, to the sustainable, carrying, capacity, and ecological. Demands on the earth, although. 36, million people die each year, as a direct or indirect, result of hunger and poor nutrition malthus's. More extreme, predictions, have frequently, failed to materialize, in. 1798. Thomas, Malthus made, his prediction, of impending famine, the. World's population, had doubled by 1923. And doubled again by 1973. Without, fulfilling malthus's, prediction. Malthusian. Paul R Ehrlich in his 1968. Book the Population Bomb, said, that India, couldn't, possibly, feed 200, million more people by 1980. And. Hundreds. Of millions of people will starve to death in spite of any crash programs. Erlik's. Warnings, failed to materialize. When India became self-sustaining. In cereal production in, 1974. Six, years later as a result of the introduction of Norman Borlaug's, dwarf, wheat varieties, however, Borlaug, was well aware of the implications of population. Growth in his. Nobel lecture he repeatedly, presented improvements. In food production within, a sober understanding. Of the context, of population, the Green Revolution has, won, a temporary, success, in man's war against, hunger and deprivation it, has given man of breathing, space if. Fully. Implemented, the revolution. Can provide sufficient, food, for sustenance during. The next three decades, but. The frightening, power of human reproduction, must, also be curbed otherwise, the success, of the Green Revolution will. Be ephemeral only. Most. People, still fail to comprehend. The magnitude and, Menace of the. Population. Monster. Since. Man is potentially, irrational being however I am confident, that within the next two decades he, will recognize the self-destructive.
Course. Along the road of irresponsible. Population. Growth. Topic. Famine. To, some modern Western, sociologists. And writers increasing. Food production is, not synonymous with increasing. Food security, and is only part of a larger equation. For. Example Harvard professor, Amartya, Sen wrote that large historic, famines, were not caused by decreases. In food supply but by socio economic dynamics, and a failure of public action. Economist. Peter bobrick, disputes, Sens theory, arguing, that sin relies on inconsistent. Arguments and contradicts, available, information, including. Sources, that send himself cited. Fabric. Further argues, that sends views coincide, with that of the Bengal government at the time of the Bengal famine of 1943, and. The policies, sent advocates, failed to relieve the famine. Topic. Quality. Of diet. Some, have challenged, the value of the increased, food production of, Green Revolution agriculture. Miguel. Al tre a pioneer, of agroecology and, peasant, advocate, writes that the comparison, between traditional. Systems, of agriculture, and Green Revolution agriculture. Has, been unfair, because Green Revolution agriculture. Produces. Monocultures. Of cereal, grains while traditional, agriculture. Usually, incorporates, polycultures. These monoculture. Crops are, often used for export, feed for animals or conversion, into biofuel. According. To a meal frisson, of Bioversity, international the. Green Revolution has, also led to a change in dietary, habits, as fewer, people are affected by hunger and die from starvation but, many are affected by malnutrition such. As iron ore vitamin, A deficiency, z' frisson. Further asserts, that almost 60 percent of, yearly deaths of children under, age 5 in developing, countries, are related, to malnutrition the, strategies, developed by the Green Revolution focused. On fending off starvation, and was very successful in, raising overall, yields, of cereal, grains but did not give sufficient relevance. To nutritional, quality. High-yield. Cereal, crops have low quality proteins. With essential, amino acid, deficiencies. Are high in carbohydrates and, lack balanced, essential, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and other quality, factors, high-yield, rice hyr, introduced. Since, 1964. To poverty-ridden, asian countries, such as the Philippines was. Found to have inferior, flavor and be more glutinous, and less savoury than their native varieties, this. Caused its price to be lower than the average market value in the Philippines, the introduction, of heavy pesticides, to rice production in the early part of the Green Revolution poisoned. And killed off fish and weedy green vegetables, that traditionally, coexisted. In rice paddies these. Were nutritious, food sources, for many poor Filipino. Farmers, prior to the introduction of pesticides, further impacting, the diets of locals. Topic. Political. Impact. A major. Critic, of the Green Revolution US, investigative. Journalist, mark Dowie writes. The. Primary, objective, of the program was geopolitical. To provide food for the populace in undeveloped, countries, and so bring social stability and weaken, the fomenting, of communist, insurgency. Citing. Internal, foundation, documents, Dowie states, that the Ford Foundation had, a greater concern than Rockefeller, in this area there is significant, evidence that the Green Revolution weakened. Socialist, movements, in many nations, in. Countries, such as India, Mexico, and the Philippines, technological. Solutions, were sought as an alternative, to expanding. Agrarian reform, initiatives, the latter of which were often linked to socialist, politics. Topic. Socio-economic. Impacts. The, transition, from traditional agriculture. In which inputs, were generated, on farm to Green Revolution agriculture. Which, required, the purchase of inputs led to the widespread establishment. Of rural credit institutions. Smaller. Farmers, often went into debt which in many cases results. In a loss of their farmland, the. Increased, level of mechanization, on larger, farms made possible, by the Green Revolution removed. A large source of employment, from the rural economy the, new economic, difficulties, of smallholder farmers.
And Landless farm workers led to increased, rural, urban migration. The. Increase, in food production led, to a cheaper, food for urban dwellers and the increase in urban population. Increased, the potential for industrialization. According. To a 2018. Paper a 10%, increase in the use of high yielding, crop varieties, in developing, countries, in the period 1960. To 2000, led to increases, in GDP. Per capita of approximately. 15%. Topic. Environmental. Impact. Topic. Biodiversity. The, spread of Green Revolution agriculture. Affected. Both agricultural. Biodiversity, or, Agri diversity, and wild biodiversity. There. Is little disagreement that, the Green Revolution acted. To reduce agricultural, biodiversity. As, it relied on just, a few high-yield. Varieties of, each crop, this. Has led to concerns, about the susceptibility. Of a food supply to pathogens, that cannot be controlled, by agro chemicals as well as the permanent loss of many valuable genetic. Traits bred into traditional varieties. Over thousands, of years to. Address these concerns massive. Seed banks, such as consultative. Group on International Agricultural. Researches. CGIAR. International. Plant genetic, resources institute. Now Bioversity, international have. Been established, see Svalbard, global Seed, Vault, there. Are varying, opinions about, the effect of the Green Revolution on, wild biodiversity. One. Hypothesis. Speculates, that by increasing production per, unit of land area agriculture. Will not need to expand, into new uncultivated, areas, to, feed a growing human, population. However. Land, degradation and, soil nutrients, depletion, have forced farmers to clear up formerly, forested areas. In order to keep up with production a, counter. Hypothesis. Speculates, that biodiversity, was, sacrificed, because traditional. Systems, of Agriculture, that were displaced sometimes, incorporated. Practices, to preserve wild, biodiversity, and because the Green Revolution expanded. Agricultural. Development, into new areas where, it was once unprofitable. Or too errant for. Example, the development, of wheat varieties, tolerant, to acid soil conditions, with high aluminium, content, permitted, the introduction, of Agriculture, in sensitive, Brazilian ecosystems. Such as cerrado semi-humid. Tropical, savanna and Amazon, rainforest, in the geo-economic. Macro regions of central Siouxland Amazonia. Before. The Green Revolution other, brazilian, ecosystems. Were also significantly. Damaged, by human activity, such as the once 1st or 2nd main contributor, to brazilian, mega diversity, Atlantic rainforest above, 85%. Of deforestation, in the 1980s. About 95. Percent after, the 22, and the important, xeric shrublands called, Codding de mainly in northeastern. Brazil about 40 percent in the 1980s. About 50 percent after, the 2010s, deforestation. Of the cotton uh biome is generally, associated with greater risks, of desert if ocation this. Also caused many animal, species to suffer due to their damaged habitats. Nevertheless. The, world community, has clearly acknowledged, the negative aspects, of agricultural. Expansion as the 1992. Rio treaty signed, by 189. Nations has generated, numerous, national biodiversity. Action plans, which assigned significant. Biodiversity. Loss to Agriculture's, expansion, into new domains. The. Green Revolution has, been criticized, for an agricultural, model which, relied on a few staple, and market profitable, crops and pursuing, a model which limited the biodiversity, of Mexico, one. Of the critics against, these techniques, and the Green Revolution as, a whole was Carlos, our a geography. Professor at the University, of California. Berkeley. According. To Sauer these techniques, of plant breeding would result in negative effects, on the country's, resources and the culture a good. Aggressive bunch, of American, agronomists. And plant breeders could ruin the native resources for, good and all by pushing their American, commercial stocks, and. Mexican. Agriculture, cannot. Be pointed, towards standardization. On a few commercial, types without upsetting native. Economy, and culture, hopelessly. Unless. The Americans, understand. That they'd better keep out of this country entirely.
That. Must be approached, from an appreciation, of native economies, as being basically sound. Topic. Greenhouse. Gas emissions. According. To a study published in, 2013 in, PNAS. In the absence, of the crop germ plasm improvement. Associated. With the Green Revolution greenhouse. Gas emissions, would have been five point two to seven point four GT, higher than observed in, 1965. To 2004. High-yield. Agriculture. Has dramatic, effects, on the amount of carbon cycling, in the atmosphere, the. Way in which farms are grown in tandem, with the seasonal, carbon cycling of various crops could alter the impact, carbon, in the atmosphere has. On global, warming, wheat. Rice and soybean. Crops account, for a significant, amount of the increase in carbon in the atmosphere over. The last 50, years. Topic. Dependence. On non-renewable, resources. Most, high-intensity agricultural. Production, is highly reliant on non-renewable. Resources. Agricultural. Machinery, and transport, as well as the production of pesticides, and nitrates all, depend, on fossil fuels. Moreover. The essential, mineral nutrient, phosphorus, is often a limiting factor in crop cultivation while, phosphorus, mines are rapidly being depleted worldwide. The. Failure, to depart, from these non sustainable. Agricultural. Production, methods could potentially, lead to a large-scale, collapse, of the current system of intensive, food production, within this century. Topic. Health impact. The, consumption, of the pesticides, used to kill pests, by humans, in some cases maybe increasing, the likelihood of cancer, in some of the rural villages, using them poor. Farming, practices, including, non-compliance. To usage of masks, and over usage of the chemicals, compound, this situation, in. 1989. W-h-o. And unep estimated, that there were around 1 million human, pesticide, poisonings, annually, some. Twenty thousand mostly, in developing countries, ended in death as a result of poor labeling, lose safety, standards, etc. Topic. Pesticides. And cancer. Contradictory. Epidemiologic. Studies in humans have linked phenoxy, acid herbicides are contaminants, in them with soft tissue sarcoma sts, and malignant, lymphoma, organochlorine. Insecticides. With STS, non-hodgkins. Lymphoma NHL, leukemia, and less consistently. With cancers, of the lung and breast, organophosphorus. Compounds. With NHL, and leukemia, and triazine, herbicides, with ovarian cancer. Topic. Punjab, case. The, Indian state of Punjab pioneered. Green Revolution among, the other states transforming. India into a food surplus, country, the. State is witnessing, serious, consequences. Of intensive, farming using, chemicals, and pesticides a. Comprehensive. Study conducted by postgraduate. Institute, of medical education and, research PG, imer has underlined, the direct relationship, between indiscriminate. Use of these chemicals and increased incidence, of cancer, in this region an increase. In the number of cancer cases has been reported, in several villages including, Jarah Walla Kohala. Pakka Bhima wali Ankara, environmental. Activist, Vandana Shiva has written extensively about, the social political and, economic impacts. Of the Green Revolution in, Punjab she. Claims that the green revolutions. Reliance, on heavy use of chemical, inputs and, monocultures has resulted in water scarcity, vulnerability. To pests and incidents, of violent conflict, and social marginalization a, Greenpeace Research, laboratory's.
Investigation. Of 50 villages in MOOCs err Bhatinda, and Ludhiana districts, revealed, that 20% of the sampled wells had nitrate, levels above w-h-o. Limits, for drinking water the. 2009. Study linked, the nitrate pollution, with high use of synthetic nitrogen, fertilizers. Topic. Norman, Borlaug's, response, to criticism. Borlaug, dismissed, certain, claims of critics but also cautioned, there are no miracles in, agricultural. Production, nor. Is there such a thing as a miracle variety. Of wheat rice or maize which can serve as an elixir to cure all, ills of a stagnant traditional. Agriculture. Of. Environmental. Lobbyists, he said, some. Of the environmental, lobbyists. Of the Western, nations are the salt of the earth but, many of them are elitists. They've. Never experienced. The physical, sensation. Of hunger they, do their lobbying, from comfortable, office, suites in Washington, or Brussels. If they, live just one month amid the misery of the developing, world as I have for fifty years they'd be crying out for tractors and fertilizer, and irrigation canals. And be outraged, that fashionable. Elitists. Back home were trying to deny them these things. Topic. The new Green Revolution. Although. The Green Revolution has, been able to improve agricultural. Output in some regions in the world there was in a still room for improvement as a. Result, many organizations. Continue to invent new ways to improve the techniques already used, in the Green Revolution. Frequently. Quoted inventions. Are the system of rice intensification, marker-assisted. Selection. Agroecology. And applying, existing technologies. To agricultural. Problems, of the developing world, current. Challenges, for nations trying to modernize their agriculture. Include, closing, the urban rural income, gap integration. Of small holders into value chains and maintaining, competitiveness. In the market, however. In low-income, countries, chronic, problems, such as poverty, and hunger cause agricultural. Modernization. Efforts to be constrained, it is. Projected that global populations. By 2050. Will increase by one-third, and as such will require a 70%. Increase in the production of food therefore. The second Green Revolution will, likely focus on improving, tolerances. To pests, and disease in addition to technological, input, use efficiency. Equals, equals see also.