Pre-Flood Megalith Built With Advanced Technology - Sacsayhuamán
In the heart of the Andes, shrouded in the mists of time, lies a mystery that has puzzled historians and archaeologists for centuries. Welcome to Sacsayhuamán, an ancient fortress perched above the former Inca capital of Cusco, a marvel of engineering that defies conventional understanding. This enigmatic structure, with its colossal stones perfectly interlocked without the use of mortar, is so advanced that even conventional archaeologists can't help but question if it was even possible for humans of the era to build with such perfection. These stones are so massive that they dwarf modern machinery, intricately carved and fitted with such precision that not even a blade of grass can pass through their joints. How were these stones transported, shaped, and placed by a civilization that, according to mainstream history, lacked the wheel, iron tools, or even a written language? As we delve into the heart of Sacsayhuamán, we embark on a journey back in time, exploring the ingenuity of a culture that flourished in the rugged landscapes of South America.
Join us as we unravel the secrets of this ancient wonder, piecing together the clues left behind by the Inca and their predecessors. Explore the evidence that will enable us to gain insight into whether or not this ancient site was the product of the indigenous Inca or a much earlier, advanced culture that some conventional archaeologists still try to dismiss. This colossal structure, known for its massive, intricately carved stones, stands as a colossal reminder of a bygone era's architectural prowess and has given rise to numerous debates and theories regarding its origins and purpose. Sacsayhuamán is a Quechua name that translates to 'satisfied falcon'.
This name is believed to symbolize the falcon's role in guarding the capital of the Inca Empire. The site's strategic location, overlooking Cusco, suggests its importance as a military complex. However, its exact purpose remains a subject of scholarly debate, with theories ranging from a ceremonial center to an astronomical observatory. The most intriguing aspect of Sacsayhuamán is its construction, a feat that seems to defy the technological capabilities of the Inca civilization.
The fortress is characterized by its large, irregularly shaped boulders, some weighing as much as 200 tons, fitted together with incredible precision. The absence of mortar in these joints, which are so tight that not even a blade of paper can slide through, has baffled experts for years. This precision, coupled with the sheer size of the stones, raises questions about the methods and tools used in its construction. While it is widely accepted that Sacsayhuamán was built by the Incas, a growing body of evidence suggests that its origins may be even more ancient. Some researchers propose that the site was constructed by a lost civilization that predated the Inca Empire.
This theory is fueled by the architectural complexity and sophistication of the site, which seem to surpass the known technological capabilities of the Incas. The Incas, undoubtedly skilled builders, are known for their advanced understanding of stone masonry and architecture. However, the technology required to quarry, transport, and precisely carve and fit such enormous stones seems to be far beyond their known capabilities. This discrepancy has led to various alternative theories, including the involvement of extraterrestrial influences or the existence of a yet-to-be-discovered advanced ancient civilization. Supporting the theory of a pre-Inca civilization are the legends and oral histories passed down through generations.
Many local legends speak of a time before the Incas, where a more advanced civilization existed, possessing knowledge and technologies that were lost over time. These stories, while often dismissed as myths, provide an intriguing context that aligns with the mysteries surrounding Sacsayhuamán's construction. The architectural features of Sacsayhuamán are not only impressive in terms of their scale and precision but also in their design. The complex includes a series of zigzagging walls, believed to represent the teeth of a puma, a sacred animal in Inca mythology. This alignment with symbolic and cosmological elements points to a deep understanding of both engineering and astronomy.
The mystery of Sacsayhuamán extends beyond its walls to the numerous tunnels and chambers said to lie beneath. These subterranean passages, some of which are yet to be fully explored, add another layer of intrigue to the site. They are rumored to connect Sacsayhuamán to other Inca sites and even to Cusco itself, although much of this remains speculative. The Inca Empire, known as Tawantinsuyu, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America.
Its historical prominence from the 15th to the early 16th century is marked by remarkable achievements in architecture, agriculture, and governance. The Incas were master stonemasons, evident in their iconic structures like Machu Picchu and, of course, Sacsayhuamán. However, the history of Sacsayhuamán possibly predates the Inca civilization, pointing to a deeper, more enigmatic past.
Historical accounts of Sacsayhuamán primarily come from Spanish conquistadors and chroniclers. According to these sources, the construction of Sacsayhuamán was ordered by the Inca ruler Pachacuti and continued by subsequent rulers. The Spanish were astounded by its grandeur, with Pedro Sancho, a secretary to the conquistador Francisco Pizarro, noting its massive stones and the precision of their fitting.
However, these accounts also mention the existence of structures and foundations that predated the Incas, suggesting that the site had been significant long before Inca rule. The theory of a pre-Inca civilization contributing to Sacsayhuamán's construction is supported by various strands of evidence. The first is the architectural style. The megalithic stones of Sacsayhuamán differ significantly from typical Inca architecture, which usually features smaller, more regularly shaped blocks. This discrepancy suggests that the site may have been built in phases, with a more ancient, sophisticated phase laying the foundation. Archaeological findings in the region also support the existence of earlier cultures.
The discovery of the Killke culture, which inhabited the Cusco region from 900 to 1200 AD, before the rise of the Inca, indicates that advanced societies were present in the area. Artifacts and structures attributed to the Killke have been found near Sacsayhuamán, hinting at their possible involvement in its early construction stages. The construction techniques used in Sacsayhuamán are another point of intrigue.
The precision of the stonework, with some stones having up to 12 angles perfectly fitting together, is not seen in other Inca constructions. This level of sophistication suggests that the builders had a profound understanding of stone masonry, engineering, and perhaps even geology. The question arises: did the Incas inherit these techniques from a more advanced predecessor? Radiocarbon dating and other scientific methods have been employed to determine the age of Sacsayhuamán. While these methods have confirmed the presence of the Inca, they have also indicated that parts of the structure could be much older. However, the exact dates and the implications of these findings are still subjects of ongoing research and debate.
The astronomical aspect of Sacsayhuamán is another fascinating feature. The Incas were skilled astronomers, and many of their structures align with celestial events. Sacsayhuamán is no exception, with certain aspects of its design aligning with solstices and equinoxes. The most notable of these is the Inti Raymi, or the Festival of the Sun, which is celebrated during the winter solstice.
During this time, the sun's rays align perfectly with specific angles and corners of the fortress's walls. This alignment is not just symbolic but also served as a practical means to mark the changing of seasons, which was crucial for agricultural planning and religious ceremonies. The site's layout, with its expansive open spaces and strategically placed structures, appears to have been designed to offer optimal vantage points for observing celestial events. The large, flat areas may have functioned as observatories, where priests and astronomers could monitor the heavens and interpret the movements of celestial bodies.
These observations likely played a vital role in the Inca's calendar, dictating planting and harvesting times, and were integral to their cosmology and religious practices. Moreover, the astronomical alignments at Sacsayhuamán demonstrate a deep connection between the Inca's spiritual beliefs and their empirical observations of the cosmos. The heavens were not just a source of wonder but a critical aspect of their understanding of the world. The sun, moon, and stars were central figures in Inca mythology and religion, and their movements across the sky were seen as divine manifestations. One of the primary challenges in understanding Sacsayhuamán's construction lies in the sheer size and weight of the stones used.
The largest of these boulders weigh over 200 tons, raising significant questions about the methods used for quarrying, transporting, and lifting them into place. The Incas, known for their sophisticated engineering techniques, did not have access to the wheel, nor did they use draft animals capable of moving such massive stones. This logistical conundrum has led some researchers to speculate about the use of advanced, yet unknown, technologies or methods that have been lost to history.
The true extent of their skill is revealed not just in the sheer size of the stones but in the intricate details and peculiarities that mark each block. These features, ranging from curving walls to unusual scoop marks, bulging faces, and mysterious nubs, provide a fascinating glimpse into the ancient stoneworking techniques and raise intriguing questions about the tools and methods used in their construction. One of the most striking aspects of Sacsayhuamán's architecture is the way some stones curve around corners. This feature is not just a testament to the aesthetic sensibilities of the builders but also an indication of their advanced understanding of structural integrity.
The curving stones add strength to the walls, allowing them to withstand the seismic activity that is common in the Andean region. The ability to shape these massive stones so that they conform perfectly to such complex angles and curves suggests a level of precision and expertise that is nothing short of remarkable. The unusual scoop marks found on many of the stones at Sacsayhuamán are another feature that has puzzled researchers and visitors alike. These marks indicate a specific tool or technique used in the quarrying process, but what exactly this tool was or how it was used remains a mystery. The scoop marks are consistent and precise, suggesting that the builders had not only advanced tools but also a standardized method of using them. This level of uniformity and precision in tool use is a clear indicator of the sophisticated craftsmanship and technological capabilities of the society that built Sacsayhuamán.
Another intriguing aspect of the stonework at Sacsayhuamán is the bulging faces of some of the blocks. Unlike the flat, smooth surfaces one might expect, these stones have protruding sections that add a three-dimensional quality to the walls. This feature could have been purely decorative, or it might have served a practical purpose, such as enhancing the stability of the structure or facilitating the interlocking of the stones.
The bulging faces of the stones add to the complexity of the construction process, as they would have required additional shaping and fitting, further showcasing the builders' skill. Perhaps one of the most mysterious features of Sacsayhuamán's stonework is the presence of small, regular protrusions or nubs on some of the stones. These nubs are not unique to Sacsayhuamán and can be found at other megalithic sites around the world, suggesting a shared technique or purpose among ancient stone builders. The function of these nubs is still debated, with theories ranging from them being used for lifting or positioning the stones during construction to serving some sort of astronomical or ceremonial purpose.
The fact that these nubs appear in different cultures and locations adds an intriguing dimension to the mystery, hinting at a possible exchange of knowledge or a common architectural heritage among ancient civilizations. The craftsmanship of Sacsayhuamán is not just evident in the large-scale layout and construction of the fortress but also in these small, intricate details. Each feature, whether it is a curve, a scoop mark, a bulging face, or a mysterious nub, tells a story of a highly skilled society with a deep understanding of stone masonry and architecture. These features challenge our understanding of ancient technologies and push us to reconsider the capabilities of pre-Columbian civilizations. Adding to the mystery are the legends and myths that surround Sacsayhuamán. Local oral traditions and legends speak of the fortress being constructed by a race of giants or by the intervention of gods.
These stories, while often viewed as mythical, resonate with the sense of awe that the site inspires and reflect the deep cultural and spiritual significance it holds for the local population. From an archaeological and scientific perspective, there have been numerous attempts to explain the construction techniques used at Sacsayhuamán. Some theories suggest that the builders used a combination of manpower, ropes, levers, and wooden rollers to move and lift the stones, however these theories are often inconsistent with the size and precision of the site.
Others propose that the stones were softened, perhaps by some sort of advanced technology that softened or even melted the stone, allowing them to be molded and fitted with precision. Nevertheless, none of these theories have been conclusively proven, and the exact methods used remain a subject of debate and research. Everything at Sacsayhuamán screams architectural perfection. But just how could this have been completed without the use of iron and steel? How were the enormous blocks moved? Is it possible that what we're looking at is evidence that an advanced civilization once thrived in this area of Peru? The exploration of Sacsayhuamán's origins inevitably leads to the investigation of the evidence pointing towards a pre-Inca civilization. This line of inquiry not only challenges our understanding of the timeline of Andean cultures but also opens up a fascinating window into the ancient history of South America.
The historical records and oral traditions surrounding Sacsayhuamán offer a rich information that, when woven together with physical evidence, presents a fascinating narrative about its origins. Inca legends and myths, many of which were meticulously recorded by Spanish chroniclers during the colonial period, frequently allude to a time preceding their civilization, marked by extraordinary architectural achievements. These stories, once relegated to the realm of mere folklore, are now increasingly acknowledged as potential reservoirs of historical truth, offering glimpses into a past that might have been influenced by a more advanced, yet now forgotten, civilization. Central to these legends is the figure of Viracocha, a deity in Andean mythology revered as the creator of all things.
According to Inca lore, Viracocha was responsible for the creation of the sun, the moon, the stars, and all living beings. Intriguingly, Viracocha was not only a god of creation but also a teacher of skills and crafts. The Inca believed that Viracocha and his companions, often referred to as the Viracochas, were the ones who imparted crucial knowledge to the people, including advanced architectural techniques. This narrative finds a compelling connection with Sacsayhuamán. The tale suggests that Sacsayhuamán was constructed not by the Inca themselves but by these supernatural Viracochas.
This legend aligns with the theory that the site predates the Inca civilization and was built by a more ancient culture possessing profound knowledge and skills. The Inca, upon arriving in the region, are said to have encountered remnants of this once-great civilization, including some of its last inhabitants. These people, believed to be the descendants of the Viracochas, reportedly shared their knowledge with the Inca, teaching them advanced construction techniques. One of the most intriguing aspects of this legend is the mention of a specific acid, derived from a plant, which was used to mold rocks into desired shapes. This detail is particularly fascinating as it suggests a level of technological sophistication that goes beyond the conventional understanding of pre-Columbian stone masonry.
The idea that the ancient builders had the means to soften or shape stone using a plant-based solution opens up a plethora of questions about their understanding of chemistry and geology. While no concrete evidence of this acid has been found to date, the legend persists, fueling speculation and research into ancient Andean technologies. The notion that the Inca learned their building techniques from a more ancient civilization is not without precedent in historical narratives. Many cultures have legends of receiving knowledge from god-like beings or advanced ancestors. These stories often explain the sudden leaps in technological or cultural development. In the case of Sacsayhuamán, the legend of the Viracochas could be interpreted as a representation of the transmission of skills and knowledge from an older, advanced culture to the Inca.
Furthermore, the reverence with which the Inca regarded Sacsayhuamán and other ancient sites supports the idea that they viewed these structures as part of a sacred and venerable heritage. The meticulousness with which they maintained and integrated these sites into their own culture and cosmology suggests a deep respect for the achievements of their predecessors. Due to the many anomalies of Sacsayhuamán and its unique walls, researchers and archaeologists have tried to explain the construction techniques logically. This has led researchers to suggest that the stones are a type of geopolymer, or in simplistic terms, a form of early cement that was poured into molds. A Russian group of geophysicists carried out some work at the site in 2012.
The group from Geo & Asociados SRL worked closely with Peru's Ministry of Culture to identify a few problems occurring at the site. The Russian team eventually took various samples from the rocks at Sacsayhuamán. While their investigation was centered on better understanding the level of erosion on the blocks, they stumbled upon a few anomalies that further alluded to the idea of some kind of geopolymer being used at the site. When they published their results, they revealed that the limestone used at Sacsayhuamán had an unusual composition, slightly different from that found in the nearby quarry.
While the rock at the quarry was precisely what they'd expect to see, the stone from the megalithic walls at Sacsayhuamán had anomalies, which led them to speculate further about the possibility of a geopolymer being used. The scientists working on the project hypothesized that limestone blocks were sourced from the quarry. Yet, they may have been crushed into powder through the use of extensive bonfires, which would have weakened the stone before being made into a limestone paste from which blocks were molded. But if we are to believe this theory, then it should also be noted that the manufacturing of such blocks would have been on an industrial scale due to the sheer volume of the walls and structures at the site. The amount of mixture needed is almost incomprehensible to those who have worked on the theory. Even with the hydraulic paste or geopolymer theory, a lot of it still has yet to make sense.
If working with cement, why make such large blocks? Were the blocks molded and then moved or built upon one another? And finally, if such blocks were the geopolymer or made from a cement-like paste, how did they become so strong that it has withstood enormous earthquakes over the last 1,000 years, yet Spanish churches built long after have crumbled into dust on several occasions? It appears there is more than meets the eye when it comes to Sacsayhuamán, and in fact, there's still evidence to suggest that the rocks themselves were quarried and not shaped. The unique properties of the limestone blocks that constitute the massive walls of Sacsayhuamán are a subject of great interest and scientific study. These properties are not commonly found in limestone and suggest a fascinating geological history linked to the site's proximity to volcanic activity.
The nearby Rodadero Formation, an ancient geological site, provides critical clues to this mystery. The Rodadero Formation is known for its historical volcanic activity, characterized by a significant flow of lava from its center. This geological phenomenon is crucial in understanding the unique characteristics of the limestone used in Sacsayhuamán. Limestone, a sedimentary rock, typically forms in marine environments and is primarily composed of calcium carbonate. However, under certain conditions, such as exposure to intense heat, limestone can undergo a process known as recrystallization. The limestone blocks in the walls of Sacsayhuamán exhibit these distinctive properties, suggesting that they might have undergone such a natural recrystallization process.
This geological transformation would not only explain the durability and longevity of these stones but also their ability to withstand the seismic activity that is common in the Andean region. The precise fitting of the stones, a hallmark of Sacsayhuamán's construction, might have been facilitated by the altered texture and consistency of the recrystallized limestone. But what kind of technology did the ancients possess to be able to produce such intense heat equivalent to volcanic activity? How did they recrystallize the limestone, endowing it with the strength and durability that have allowed this magnificent structure to stand the test of time? While the theories of how such a unique site could have been built in such a distant past continue to pile up, it appears many have begun to accept the idea that Sacsayhuamán may have been built by an ancient forgotten civilization. The idea of an advanced civilization once thriving in the area is backed up by similar sites in the region that also display equally impressive megalithic masonry. What happened to this advanced culture may never be solved, yet their achievements may stand for thousands of years to come. What do you think about Sacsayhuamán? Could the Inca have built it? Or did they inherit it from a much older civilization that vanished at some distant point in the past? And could the Andean legends of the Viracocha really lead us to the origins of the site? Let us know what you think in the comments section.
As always, thank you for watching. If you want to learn more about another incredible culture of America, you can watch our video on the Olmec civilization, considered the Mother Culture of Mesoamerica, which also possessed advanced knowledge far surpassing what is accepted by mainstream historians. See you in the next video.