Module 2, Unit 2 — Understanding Charging Infrastructure

Module 2, Unit 2 — Understanding Charging Infrastructure

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This is Module 2, Unit 2 of the Virtual Electric  Vehicle Deployment for Southeast Asia course.   My name is Kaylynn Bopp, and I’m a transportation  project leader at the National Renewable Energy   Laboratory working specifically in the Center for  Integrated Mobility Science. I have a background   in designing and managing financial incentives  for alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure.   I currently specialize in alternative fuel  vehicle and fueling infrastructure deployment.  

And at NREL I provide technical assistance to  the United States Department of Energy’s Clean   Cities Program, conduct analyses of United States  vehicle registration data, and provide technical   support to the electric vehicle charging business  model and technical standards work in the Lao PDR. I will be talking about the different  aspects of electric vehicle charging,   including equipment, charging locations,  and deployment. For equipment, I will cover   the purpose of electric vehicle charging  stations, different levels of charging,   types of charging technologies and types of  grid connection and other considerations.   From there, I’ll review important factors  effecting charging locations, including those   for home charging, public charging, and fleet  charging. Lastly, I’ll cover factors affecting   the deployment of electric vehicle chargers,  including cost variables, a timeline of expenses,   ownership models, business models, and  coordination with the electric utility.

Let’s start with the first section of the  agenda: electric vehicle charging equipment.   What is the purpose of charging stations?  Charging stations serve several important   roles for electric vehicles, some of these more  obvious than others. Of course, a charging station   serves as a connection to the electrical  grid and, in doing so, is able to refuel an   electric vehicle similar to the purpose that a gas  station is used for for gas or petrol vehicles. However, beyond that basic function, when they  are properly installed and comply with electrical   codes, these stations prevent circuits from  overloading or provide overcurrent protection.   In the case of direct current or DC fast  chargers, the charging station actually   converts the alternating current or AC power of  the grid into DC power that can be accepted by   the electric vehicle. In Level 2 charging,  this function happens inside the vehicle.   But in the DC fast charging, this happens before  it reaches the vehicle inside the charger itself.

Chargers also ensure a safe connection with  the vehicle before electricity starts to flow.   This is an important safety feature, both  for the person using the charging station   but also for the vehicle and the grid. A properly  functioning and installed charging station   prevents damage to the vehicle’s battery. Charging  stations also serve as a point-of-sale by allowing   customers to pay for their fuel via a credit card,  mobile app or radio frequency identification card.   Lastly, many—though not all—charging stations  have the ability to collect data. This might be  

as simple as the amount of electricity dispensed  or the number of times it was used in a given   time period, typically a month. But depending  on the type of charging station, they can also   collect important data like the type of vehicles  charging—for example, how many Teslas or how many   Nissans—along with how many unique or repeat  users and the length of time spent charging. Think of this data as any business owner might  in that it can be used to help understand how   the product is used, when it is used and by  who. By knowing these things, you can interpret   trends in the demand for charging in order  to deploy, hopefully, more charging stations   and, therefore, encourage a more  robust electric vehicle market. There are two main types of electric vehicle  chargers: Level 2 chargers and DC fast chargers.   I want to point out some key differences between  these two. Let’s first start with the Level 2  

chargers. Level 2 chargers can vary in their power  outputs. Many of these operate around 7 kilowatts   per hour. That being said, the Level 2 standard  can accommodate a power output as high as 19   kilowatts per hour. Currently, not all electric  vehicle batteries are capable of accepting that  

higher power rating on a Level 2 connection, but  the standard does go higher than 7 kilowatts. Depending on the size of the car’s  battery and that kilowatt rating,   a Level 2 charger can take about 48 hours to  fully charge a vehicle from a depleted state.   While this is a bit longer to charge, this type of  station is more affordable to install and operate.   Because of this, it’s also generally cheaper for  the customer to use as well. For these reasons,   Level 2 chargers are the most common charging  stations available. The range of prices provided   on this slide are based on a survey of equipment  and installation costs conducted in the United   States. So these prices may or may not accurately  portray costs in other countries or regions.

Next are DC fast chargers. These also have  a variable power rating from 25 to 350   kilowatts. The most common is 50 kilowatts  and this is – 50 kilowatts is the maximum   level that most electric vehicles on  the road today can currently accept.  

This technology is quickly changing, though,  and we are seeing more electric vehicle models   coming out that are able to charge at higher  levels, such as 150 or even 350 kilowatts.   Despite the vast range in power levels, DC  chargers are always faster than Level 2 chargers   and generally take less than one hour to  fully charge a battery from a depleted state. Of the two options, this is the most  expensive options to install and operate.   Because of this, it is also generally  more expensive for the customer to use.   Again, a quick note: The range of prices provided  on this slide are based on survey of equipment and   installation costs in the US, so they may not  accurately portray costs in other countries or   regions. Though they are certainly  more expensive than Level 2 chargers,   they are also less common, but they're  very popular with electric vehicle drivers.

On this slide, I wanted to briefly acknowledge  that there are also other technologies that can   provide power to electric vehicles besides just  the Level 2 and DC fast chargers discussed in   the previous slide. These all have benefits and  drawbacks, which are listed here. And some of them   are better suited for very specific electric  vehicle applications such as transit buses. Starting with the top row, battery swapping  is a technology and idea that has been around   for quite awhile now. And the appeal with this  is the ability for a driver to have a freshly   charged battery in their vehicle in less than  three minutes, which is comparable to what it   takes to refuel a gas vehicle. The downsides are  very much logistical, and not all electric vehicle  

models have the same type of battery, and the  majority of electric vehicles being manufactured   aren’t designed necessarily to accommodate  battery swapping. That being said, China has seen   some success with this technology,  especially with the EV manufacturer   NIO. And as of May 2020, it looks like there are  about 131 battery swapping stations in China,   so we may see more of this in the future. Next are solar chargers. This technology can  be paired with a Level 2 or DC fast charger   and is way to provide off-grid or semi-portable  power. It’s possible to move the solar panels  

to a different location. It is a way to  provide cleaner energy than what might be   currently available on the grid. And another  benefit is that it can provide charging in   rural areas that may not be easily connected  to the grid. The downside is that these solar  

chargers need to be paired with a battery system,  which causes the price to increase substantially.   The size of the battery could limit the number  of vehicles that could charge there in a day   paired with the fact that the sun might  not always be shining just makes this a   really expensive option for a charger  that may not be 100 percent reliable   depending on how many vehicles need to  use it or when they would like to charge. Moving to the bottom row, overhead chargers  are a way to charge generally electric buses   via an overhead arm that automatically lowers  and connects to the vehicle’s roof when it is   parked underneath it. They have very high power  levels ranging from 150 kilowatts or higher,   which can provide a very fast and powerful  charge to the buses. Overhead chargers can occur   en route, such as at a bus stop, or also at an  indoor bus depot. The downside is that it’s very  

expensive, and not all models of electric buses  are designed to accept this kind of charging. Lastly, overhead wires are a well-established way  to power electric buses or trolleys generally in   urban areas. They can include one or two overhead  wires depending on the design of the system and   include a pantograph or trolley pull to connect  to the wires. This technology has fairly limited   applications for public transit and seem to be  used less common [sic] than they have in the past. Traditionally and most commonly, electric vehicle  chargers are connected to the electrical grid   and existing power production sources.  The grid provides for a more consistent  

power that can charge multiple vehicles in  a day. And where the grid already exists,   connecting a charger is much more affordable than  establishing an off-grid power and storage option.   Another benefit of grid-connected chargers is  that they can serve an important role for electric   utilities when it comes to balancing power  demands. If electric vehicles are charged during  

periods of normally low electrical demand, it  can help smooth demand peaks on the power system. There’s also the option to connect  chargers to off-grid power.   Though there are limited examples of this  being deployed, it is becoming more common.   Traditionally we see it with solar power as  pictured and as discussed on the previous slide.   As mentioned, this can be very expensive,  especially when considering the cost of battery   storage. But it could be a good option in rural  areas with no electrical grid infrastructure. 

Widespread electric vehicle adoption  is very dependent on well-planned and   well-supported deployment. Here are  three technology considerations that   will make stations more accessible  and easier to use for the public.   The first consideration is network charging  stations, which are also sometimes called   “smart chargers.” These are connected to the  internet and can send data to the site host.  

Data might include information on frequency  of use or if the station is in need of repair. Network charging infrastructure also allows  for payment options like radio frequency   identification, smartphone or credit card  payments, the monitoring and analysis of   usage data, and the ability to provide customer  support. To install a network station, the site   must have access to a wired or wireless internet  connection or cellular service. These stations   are in contrast to non-network charging stations,  which are not connected to the internet and only   provide basic charging capabilities without  advanced utilization monitoring or payments. Another consideration is the creation of an  all-inclusive charging location database or map.   Electric vehicle owners need to  know where stations are located,   especially when planning a trip to a new city.  Oftentimes, network service providers that own  

multiple stations may create their own map online  or using a mobile app. But if there are multiple   network service providers in an area or stations  that are not associated with the provider,   there may be confusion due to multiple maps  or stations not being included on the maps. For this reason, it is really important for  there to exist a single map that can include   all public charging stations. This map might  be created and maintained by the government,   the utility or a private organization.  

As an example, here at the National Renewable  Energy Laboratory, we maintain a map of publicly   available alternative fueling infrastructure in  the US on the alternative fueling station locator.   Lastly, mobile apps geared together at electric  vehicle drivers can serve many purposes. These   apps let UV drivers access information on the  go such as locating stations or making payments   or even knowing if a particular station is  currently in use or not by another driver.   Mobile apps are often creating by charging  network providers or third-party developers. In Section 2 of this  presentation, I’d like to discuss   different charging locations. This will include  different considerations when locating chargers,   home charging, public charging  and, lastly, fleet charging.

As electric vehicle charging stations can be  expensive to install, it is beneficial to study   and plan where best to locate these stations so  that the investment in this infrastructure will   both be utilized by electric vehicle drivers but  also encourage further electric vehicle adoption.   Oftentimes, chargers are commonly installed in  urban areas where many electric vehicle owners   tend to live. Urban areas generally need a  higher density of chargers to accommodate   the larger population of electric vehicles.  Additionally, electric vehicle owners will be less   likely to have access to a personal or private  charger that some single-family homes may have.   So there would need to be more chargers in urbans  areas to accommodate the number of drivers who   exclusively charge using public stations. An important consideration with the current  

generation of electric vehicles is they generally  have a shorter range than comparable gas vehicles,   meaning they may need to refuel more frequently  in order to travel the same distance.   This has led many consumers to have concerns  about electric vehicles limiting their ability for   long-distance travel. For this reason, it is extra  critical for chargers to be installed at popular   destinations such as nearby towns, beaches or  other attractions along with key highway corridors   or commonly traveled routes between destinations.  When locating charging stations along corridors,   keep in mind the average range of  electric vehicle in order to locate them   along measured intervals so that drivers will  not have to worry about running out of fuel.

Addressing this range anxiety through  the installation of adequate public   charging infrastructure is a broadly recognized  requirement to support the transition to electric   transportation. Effective mitigation of  range anxiety will require both widespread   deployment of charging stations so  drivers can be confident in their   ability to access a charging station and  vehicle models with longer driving range. While there is a lot of focus on deploying  public charging, I want to acknowledge that   electric vehicle owners are currently most likely  to charge at home if possible. Research shows   that at-home charging is currently the most common  form of charging personal vehicles. Since electric  

vehicles are likely to be parked at home for  many hours during the night while we’re sleeping,   it makes sense that this is also a good  time to plug in the vehicle to an outlet   and slowly charge the vehicle  overnight. Nearly all electric   vehicle models can be fully charged with  a Level 2 charger in eight hours or less   which works for at-home charging. And depending  on the electric vehicle owner’s driving habits,   certain owners may rarely have the need  to fuel outside their home beyond this. While this is – while charging at home is very  convenient for many electric vehicle owners,   especially in urban areas, many might not have  access to a private charger or outlet. This is   why it’s critical that multifamily housing like  apartments and condominiums with parking areas   also have charging stations for the residents.  This is something that policymakers can encourage   with the use of specific building codes that  require chargers to be installed in parking lots.

For electric vehicle owners who do not have a  dedicated parking spot with the ability to charge,   they’ll need to entirely rely on publicly  available infrastructure, which we’ll talk   about more in the next slide. Before moving  on, I did want to address the diagram on the   right side of this slide. This pyramid shows the  different electric vehicle charging infrastructure   categories ranked by their likely importance  for increasing electric vehicle adoption.  

Each of these rows are closely associated with  the amount of time that a vehicle’s parked in   a given location since that is a great time  to be charging a vehicle when it’s parked. Starting at the bottom, the first category  or row we have is home charging followed by   workplace charging, which would include things  like office buildings or other workplaces.   This is followed by intracity Level 2 and  DC fast charging and, lastly, interstate DC   chargers, which is needed for drivers to  refuel on longer travel such as multiday   or longer than, you know, a  normal battery range would last. Public charging is especially critical to electric  vehicle adoption since it is the most similar to   how we currently fuel vehicles with public  gas stations. They're also the most visible.   As mentioned earlier, some drivers may be entirely  reliant on public chargers to fuel their vehicles.   When considering locations for public charging,   you might compare and contrast it to  how gas stations are currently used.  

With gas vehicles, you generally go to a gas  station just to refuel and for no other reason. But because electric vehicles take more time to  refuel, the approach is different. For example,   with Level 2 charging, it’s best to locate  them in places where people are often parked   for an hour or more. With DC fast charging, it’s  best to reserve that more expensive investment  

for locations where drivers spend less time  and need to quickly return to their travels. To demonstrate the location differences  for Level 2 versus DC fast charging,   I’ve included the diagram pictured here.   On the left side of the diagram, you’ll see places  where cars are parked for long periods of time.   As mentioned earlier, the majority of  charging generally happens at home during   the night while folks are sleeping. Publicly  available chargers located near apartments  

or areas of dense housing would work well here  followed closely by workplaces such as offices. In the middle we have other places that cars tend  to be parked for one to four hours or longer.   With a Level 2 charger, this amount of time  could be enough to fully charge a partially   depleted battery or partially  charge a fully depleted battery.   That kind of charge could, hopefully, help  the driver get back home or enough to kind   of top off their vehicle until they are  parked somewhere else and can charge again.   These types of locations are often prime examples  of where electric vehicle drivers like to take   advantage of opportunity charging. Opportunity  charging is charging an electric vehicle while  

it is parked for another purpose such  as shopping or visiting an attraction. On the far right of the diagram, we have  locations that are better suited for DC   fast charging. Sometimes drivers really just need  something that is most similar to gas refueling.   And DC fast charging is great for this, especially  for long-distance travel along corridors or when   traveling between towns. Drivers prefer this  kind of charging and are generally willing   to pay a premium for the ability to refuel  their vehicle in a shorter amount of time. While charging for personal vehicles is the  main focus of many planners and policymakers,   I wanted to briefly bring your attention to  the unique needs of charging fleet vehicles   that are part of a public or private fleet  such as delivery vehicles or transit buses.   This is worth your consideration because  globally the battery electric bus market   is the fastest-growing form of  electrified transportation happening.  

We are seeing more electrified public transit  vehicle and densities because it is key to traffic   congestion reduction and air quality improvements. In the case of transit fleets or other fleets,   it is important to fully understand the duty cycle  of the vehicles that will need charging. The duty   cycle is a way to understand how much a vehicle is  used in a day, the number of kilometers traveled,   the number of hours in operation and the  frequency and length of non-operational time.   Listed are four major  considerations for fleet charging.

The first is type of charger. As discussed,  there’s Level 2 charging and DC fast charging,   which are both popular options. And the amount of  time the vehicle’s parked and how far it needs to   travel will likely dictate with  option is best. But keep in mind that   some heavy-duty vehicles may also be good  candidates for overhead charging as well.

Next is where to locate the chargers  and what type of access they will have,   either public or private. Many fleet vehicles  are accustomed to charging their vehicles   privately at their depot and may prefer to  continue doing this. This offers advantages   of having control over the availability of  the charger. But, depending on the route   the vehicle runs, they may need to use public  charging and should do research to make sure   that public chargers are available in locations  that the vehicles need to travel to. Some fleets   may also be able to have partnerships with other  fleets in order to share private depot charging. Lastly, certain fleets,  especially transit vehicles,   may require en route chargers so that the  vehicle can get a full or partial charge   without having to return to the depot.  This is an expensive option, though,  

but many transit fleets are pursuing this as they  progress towards fully electrifying their fleet. A last major factor worth considering  when it comes to fleet charging is how   many chargers to install. It can be tempting  to one to install one charger per vehicle.   This can quickly become quite expensive. So  careful analysis of fleet’s average vehicle   dwell time, the facility’s electrical capacity and  staff availability should be reviewed. I mention   staffing because some fleets may need to have more  people dedicated to the management of fueling and   moving vehicles around than they're used to,  especially when they plan on charging at night,   in order to make sure that all the charging  stations are being fully utilized at capacity   and that the vehicles are fueled appropriately.  This contrasts to fueling at a gasoline station  

when perhaps the drivers might be accustomed  to doing that for their own vehicle. As a word of encouragement about fleet charging,  I’ve included some pictures here of fleets that   have made progress towards electrification.t The  first at the top is a military application. And on   the bottom is a photo of a bus depot in Shenzhen,  China, with many electric buses parked there in   the lot. Shenzhen has added approximately, I  think, 17,000 electric buses or so. And to fuel   those, they’ve added over 500 bus chargers around  the city along with 8,000 streetlight chargers and   a combination of private depot charging as  well. So it’s generally, you know, multiple   types of chargers are needed for fleets in order  to fuel in a way that works with their operations. In the last section of this presentation,  I’d like to discuss the deployment of   electric vehicle chargers, and I’ll address  a couple of things, including cost variables,   a timeline of anticipated expenses, who  owns and who manages charging stations,   different business models and how best  to coordinate with the electric utility.

On this slide I wanted to touch on  some of the cost variables that can   affect the overall price of installing  an electric vehicle charging station.   First, equipment costs can vary based on  many factors such as application, location,   charging level and type of charger. When  choosing charging infrastructure equipment,   consider available features such as networking  capabilities, the output power rating in   kilowatts, number and type of connectors, and the  number of vehicles that can simultaneously charge. Even the structure of the charger, for  example, a wall-mounted unit or pedestal unit,   can affect the overall price of the  station. Generally, wall-mounted   units are more affordable—about 30 percent  so—than upright podium or pedestal chargers.  

Installation costs can vary based on many  factors as well such as the number and   type of charging stations. For installation,  don’t forget to include the price of labor,   which can vary significantly by region,  along with permitting and inspection fees. Sitework is heavily affected by the geographic  location, site location, any required trenching,   existing wiring and required electrical upgrades  that are needed to accommodate the existing and   future needs of charging infrastructure on  the site. Sitework may also include signage   and pavement markers that might be necessary  to help inform drivers. Other considerations,   such as lighting and minimizing vandalism may be  necessary to be used as preventative strategies.  

Equipment such as motion detectors or  anti-vandalism hardware may be necessary. When it comes to operations, the cost of  operating a charging station includes,   of course, the electricity but also maintenance  as well as any monthly or annual internet access   and networking fees. The cost of electricity to  charge vehicles includes per-kilowatt-hour charges   as well as any demand charges incurred, if the use  of charging infrastructure increases peak demand,   and if the local utility has demand charges  in place. DC fast charging equipment is   more likely to trigger demand charges than  Level 2 charging. Note that some utilities  

may offer time-of-use rates or other rate  incentives for charging infrastructure owners. General maintenance for charging infrastructure  includes storing charging cables security,   checking parts periodically and  keeping the equipment clean.   Chargers may need intermittent repairs.  Warrantied prices vary by manufacturer,   including plans that are fixed-term, renewable  and may not be included with the equipment costs.   While ongoing infrastructure maintenance can be  minimal, repairing broken chargers could be costly   if they're no longer under warranty. Therefore,  it’s important to establish responsibility for   maintenance costs and determine if the site host,  charging network or installer is responsible.

Well, on the last slide we discussed the  multiple different kinds of costs variables.   On this slide I want to address the timeline  that these costs or expenses can occur.   The amount of time it takes to install  a charging station is dependent on the   project but generally varies from a few months  to over a year. Projects can take longer when   the electric utility needs to be involved.  Adding additional transformers, a meter,   conductors or even substations to a site can  increase the timeline of the project. You can  

anticipate more involvement from the utility  with DC fast charging stations or locations   with multiple Level 2 stations being installed  due to the increased power demand on the site. When planning for a charging station, it’s  important to work with an electrician and   to contact the utility as early as possible.  Depending on the project, it might be beneficial   to conduct a site analysis or feasibility  study to compare the current power demands   to the anticipated power demands on the site once  the chargers are installed. Depending on the cost   or infrastructure needed, it maybe determined  that another location or site might work better.   We’ll talk more about coordinating with  your electric utility in a later slide. After conducting the site assessment and once  you’ve determined the necessary site work that   will need to happen, you might then proceed  to more of the administrative expenses of the   project. That being said, depending on the  project, these first two steps might happen  

concurrently. Administrative expenses include  financing, land acquisition and permitting.   Not all charging stations need to be  owned and operated by the same entity   that owns the land where it  sits, but if this is the case,   you’ll need to work with the landowner on a  leasing contract or shared ownership of the site. From there, you’ll move onto the actual  construction and installation of the station.   This involves purchasing equipment, installing the  service panel and separate circuit breakers along   with any sitework such as trenching and repaving.  This area also includes the skilled labor cost to   hire qualified and licensed electricians who  are familiar with the codes and standards of   installing charging stations in a manner that  is safe for people, vehicles and the grid. This phase could be delayed if  you're waiting on the utility to   install transformers or add additional  power supply to the specific site.  

Oftentimes, we find that a project is really  beholden to the timeline of the electric utility,   which is why we encourage you to get on their  schedule and contact them as soon as possible.   Lastly, once installed and operational,  you might think you're finished. But don’t   forget about those ongoing expenses due  to operations and maintenance of the site. On this slide and the next slide, I want to  discuss some of the different business models   that exist for public charging station. Where  there is a business, there are various entities   that can be involved, so I’ll review some of the  more common options. Before getting into that,  

it’s important to note that the business of  owning charging stations is essentially the   business of reselling electricity. This fact can  potentially be a cause for concern in places where   there are regulations limiting who can sell  and distribute electricity. These regulations   were originally intended to protect electric  utilities. But the regulations have recently   encountered problems with the proliferation of  electric vehicles and charging stations. Without   further clarification on these regulations,  charging stations could be in violation.  

In this case, it will be necessary to have the  utility, utility commission or even the state make   a formal ruling on this issue so that owners of  stations are not defined as a utility and do not   encounter restrictions to reselling electricity  through the operation of the charging station. So continuing onto the list of five of  the more important entities that often   own and operate charging stations, the first  being the government. In some situations it   might be appropriate for the government to  deploy, own and operate charging stations.   This is especially the case for locations  that might not be profitable in the long-term   but, otherwise, would still benefit from having  a charger. This could be the case for rural   communities, small towns, certain highways  or roads that are less frequently traveled.   Over time, if needed, the ownership could  be handed over to a private business.

Next being the electric utility,   it’s also appropriate for the electric utility  to install, own and operate public charging.   This can be a really natural fit for a utility  if they are already selling electricity and,   of course, have control of the infrastructure  necessary to supply power to the stations. Next is the most common option that we  see: private charging network providers.   And, like I said, this is the most common one.  Examples include auto manufacturers like Tesla,   Toyota or BMW along with standalone charging  companies such as Blink, EVgo or ChargePoint.  

We are also seeing oil companies getting into  the business and starting to deploy stations.   An example of this is Shell Recharge  at Shell gas stations in Singapore. Next, we have site hosts. A site host is the  owner of a property where a charger is installed.   Sometimes a charger could be part of  a larger network but not necessarily.   This is often the case with workplace charging  where an office building might install a charger   as a benefit for the employees who work there.  But the station might be available to the public   on the weekends or in the evenings after work,  in which case it’s just owned and managed by   the office building or office park and not  associated with a larger charging network.

Lastly, we have another very common  kind of situation that we see,   which is a partnership so a partnership between  two or more of the previously stated options,   generally. There are a lot of examples of  this, especially when considering the many   governments providing financial incentives  to companies to install charging stations.   One example is the state-owned utility  in Thailand has partnered with private   companies, GreenLots and BMW, to install  multiple Level 2 chargers in Thailand. On this slide I want to discuss business models in  a bit more detail, especially as it relates to who   installs, owns and operates different components  of infrastructure. As you can see by this diagram,   the electric utility generally always manages the  distribution network, the transformers and the   meters. However, when it come sot the electrical  panel and charging station equipment, we see  

a lot more variation. While there are only four  business models listed on this diagram, know that   there are in fact many different combinations for  who can install, own and operate this equipment.   Especially important to note is that many of these  business models can exist at once in a country.   And this might, in fact, be necessary in  order to provide full geographic coverage.   I’ll touch on each of these  options in a bit more detail,   but know that these are not  the only options that exist. The first one listed is the “business as usual”  model. This model’s the most hands-off for the  

utilities and the government and is the most  private sector-heavy of the ones listed here.   In this case, the utility would install,  own and manage all of the utility system.   And the private sector site host installs, owns  and manages the electrical panel and EVSE unit.   This model makes sense where there is a strong  likelihood of profit to be made from the   charting stations. In this case a private  sector or site host is willing to invest   a significant amount of capital upfront without  any assistance from the utility or the government. The next option is the “make ready” business  model. In this case, the utility is still a  

dominant player, but there’s a growing role for  the private sector or site host. Here the utility   would install, own and manage all the utility  system. And the private sector would install,   own and manage the EVSE. What is special in this  case is that the panel and any associated conduit   would be paid for an installed by the utility but  owned and managed by the private sector or site   host. This model makes sense for the private  sectors motivated to open a charging station  

business but just needs a little bit of help  with affording some of the initial startup costs. Next we have the owner-operator model.  In this case, the utility would install,   own and manage all the utility system and  charging station infrastructure. And in   this case the private sector doesn’t play  any role in this particular business model.   This model works best for a government who may  want to strengthen their utility’s financial   position. It also makes sense in locations or  market segments where the private sector is  

unlikely to participate such as rural areas  or infrequently traveled highway corridors. Lastly, we have the government incentive or  electric company incentive business model.   In this case, the utility would install, own and  manage all the utility system. And the private   sector or site host would install, own and manage  the electrical panel and charging station unit.   However, the government would provide some sort  of incentive to the private sector to help them   do this. Government incentives can include many  things. Examples include direct payments such   as grants, low-interest loans, assistance with  electrical design, permitting and construction.

This model makes sense where the private  sector is motivated to open a business   but needs help with affording the startup  costs. When the government or utility   provides incentive, it can help small or  new businesses break in to this industry. On this last slide, I wanted to talk  about how important it is to coordinate   with your electric utility. When we talk about  deploying electric vehicle charging stations,   we often spend a lot of time talking  about the equipment and hardware   needed for charging station deployment. But  we can forget about the product, which is  

essentially electricity. Now, utilities  are generally excited to sell more of   their product. And electric vehicles are a  growing new market that utilities can tap into. That being said, mass adoption of electric  vehicles could be difficult for current   infrastructure to handle, so it’s important  to never assume that your building, parking   lot or even city can handle this additional  load or demand. For large-scale deployment,   always be sure to let the utility know about your  plans. Some things to consider and share with  

your utility are the following: specifically  where your charger is going to be located.   Is it one Level 2 charger at a local library or is  it 30 DC fast chargers along a highway corridor?   This variation could, you know, make a big  difference in how the utility approaches the   project and what kind of infrastructure  development they night have to provide. Next, how much is the anticipated demand that  the charger will have? It’s important to do   kind of analysis on this. Will the charger  only be used, you know, once or three times   a month or is it a charger that’ll be used, you  know, four times a day every day? If the latter,   your utility might need to create additional  infrastructure to supply the power to that site. Next it’s, you know, going off of that you need  to know how much power you need. What’s the  

anticipated demand? Both you and the utility  should understand how much new power supply   the chargers need and if it’s necessary to bring  that current capacity to these chargers. Knowing   all this information will help you understand,  first, if the project is possible and, second,   what needs to be done to make it possible. This  could require extending electrical distribution,   installing a new transformer, adding meters.  All of these projects take lead times and  

could affect your installation timeline,  which is something we discussed earlier. Lastly, utilities play just an incredibly  important role in supporting the projected future   growth of charging infrastructure and managing the  potential strain that charging stations can have   on the electrical grid. Utilities can mitigate  grid impacts by offering managed charging—also   called “smart charging”—which can allow a utility  to remotely control electric vehicle charging by   increasing, decreasing or even turning off  charging to help meet the needs of the grid.   Lastly, utilities might even be  able to offer incentives or unique   ownership models for charging  equipment and installation. This concludes the presentation for Module  2, Unit 2 of the Virtual Electric Vehicle   Deployment for Southeast Asia course.  Thank you so much for listening.

2021-07-25 02:43

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