Восточная Азия на карте. Китай, Тайвань, Южная Корея, КНДР, Япония, Монголия, Гонконг, Макао

Восточная Азия на карте. Китай, Тайвань, Южная Корея, КНДР, Япония, Монголия, Гонконг, Макао

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East Asia One of the largest centers of mankind. It was in East Asia that 3 major nations arose - Chinese, Korean and Japanese. All countries of the region are often united in the East Asian civilization.

The whole region is distinguished by a culture of respect for tradition and hard work. There are 5 generally recognized states in East Asia. People's Republic of China, Mongolia, Japan, North Korea and the Republic of Korea. As well as the partially recognized Republic of China - the island of Taiwan, and two territories dependent on China - Hong Kong and Macau. In the second half of the twentieth century, most of these countries performed some small and some big economic miracles that changed the centers of power around the globe. Because of this, East Asia is the most developed part of all of Asia. About how and for

whom this miracle happened or did not happen, will be discussed in this video. Begin! Let's start with China. It is this country that is the main economic locomotive of the entire region, as well as at the moment the world. The Chinese civilization is one of the most ancient on the planet. They made a huge contribution to science and culture. The four great Chinese inventions, the compass, gunpowder, paper, and printing, are only a small part of what was invented here. In China, paradoxically enough,

under the control of the Communist Party , the world 's largest market arose. At the moment, China is the leader of world industrial production, a kind of huge factory of the modern world. The widest range of goods is produced here, although in terms of living standards, China is quite inferior to developed countries. In general, China is the third largest country in the world, after Russia and Canada. The bulk of the population of China,

like the rest of East Asia, is concentrated in its eastern and southeastern parts. More than 1.4 billion people live in China . Until recently, China was the leader in terms of population on the planet, only recently losing this leadership to India. By the length

of land borders, which are approximately 22 thousand km. km, China ranks first in the world. In general, China is pursuing a rather aggressive policy towards its territory with its neighbors, and this topic deserves a separate video. This nation has endured a lot in its history . By the standards of history, just recently, 1959-1961

, the country experienced the Great Chinese Famine, which claimed the lives of, according to various sources, from 15 to 30 million people. This famine was partly a consequence of the failed China Great Leap Forward program. But the "Policy of Reform and Openness", launched in 1978, gave the results that China has now. The first economy in the world. In those years, large companies such as Coca-Cola, IBM, Panasonic, Motorola enter China and their cases become extremely profitable. Other global brands are following suit. Why is China so successful? There are many factors

. To put it simply, it is Cheap labor, low cost of goods, copy quality and state loyalty. From the monthly average PPP salaries in the world, we see that only South Korea is in the top ten. In China, wages are estimated much lower. For manufacturers, of course, this is a plus. Another important factor is

the price of electricity and energy in general. China is developing its energy sector on a large scale. There are currently 18 nuclear power plants operating in China. There are 53 reactors in operation with a gross installed capacity of 53,495 MW, or about 13% of the gross installed capacity of all operating nuclear power plants in the world. Also, do not forget that China is the world leader in coal mining.

Approximately half of all coal in the world is mined in China, mainly for domestic consumption. In the country, the predominant number of boiler houses and thermal power plants operate on coal. In general, the Chinese worker has a huge labor productivity. The Chinese understand very well that time is money! Most of the products of the famous Italian brands Prada, Armani and the like are made in China. In China , they can repeat almost everything that falls into their hands.

A lot of almost identical analogues of car models of world brands have appeared on the Chinese car market. Moreover, as everyone knows, it is practically useless to conduct legal proceedings over copyright with the Chinese side. After China attracted world brands and high technologies, it adapted this production and technologies and began to make its own, thereby removing the extra link. Today, the situation is developing in such a way that foreign companies do not meet with a particularly warm welcome in the Chinese market. Many even openly declare

that the time when foreign companies dominated the Chinese market is far behind, and now China needs only net investment in the areas and industries developed by the country. The fact is that in our time , the Chinese government is trying with all its might to encourage domestic manufacturers, and as a result of this, many large Chinese companies now demonstrate high competitiveness, and in some areas they have not only caught up, but even outperformed foreign companies. If earlier here foreign specialists were worth their weight in gold, now China has its own professionals. Such a special Chinese economic miracle ... China's northern neighbor, from whose ancestors they were thoroughly and unsuccessfully separated by the Great Wall of China in ancient times, and at the beginning of the 20th century they did not recognize their independent separation from themselves - this is Mongolia. Most of the country lies at an altitude of 1000-2000 meters above sea level. It is dominated by

mountains and high plains, as well as the vast Gobi Desert. At the same time, approximately 11% of the territory of Mongolia is occupied by forests, mainly in its northern part. The country covers a large area. Mongolia is the second country after China in terms of area in the region. Despite the vast territory, Mongolia has only 2 neighbors - Russia and China. The country is, as it were, in the ring

of two giants. The natural conditions for life in Mongolia are quite severe. The population is the smallest compared to other countries in the region, except for the territory dependent on China - Macau.

Despite the Xinhai Revolution in 1911 and a series of uprisings with the support of the USSR to separate Mongolia from China, Mongolia as a sovereign state except the USSR was recognized by other countries only after the Second World War. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, both countries mutually recognized each other in 1949. Of all the East Asian countries, Mongolia is the least developed economically. At the moment, in terms of GDP in East Asia, Mongolia ranks last. Mining is the leading industry in the country, accounting for approximately 23% of GDP. The share of exports of

minerals is approximately 80% of the total. Mongolia sends the bulk of raw material exports to China. In Asia in the second half of the twentieth century, the so-called "Asian Tigers" appeared. Countries demonstrating

very high rates of economic development. These are South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Singapore. Singapore belongs to Southeast Asia, and we will talk about it in another issue. The three remaining tigers, like Japan, are located on the shores of the Pacific Ocean. Moreover, Hong Kong and Taiwan are directly connected with China. The most important Asian tiger is the Republic of Korea. It is impossible to talk about South Korea

without knowing why it became South and separated from North. The once united people (which was a colony of Japan for a long time ) after the seemingly temporary division of Korea between the USSR and the USA in 1945, was divided up to our time. After the Second World War, Korea was supposed to be reunited into an integral single state, but this was not destined to happen against the backdrop of the beginning of the Cold War between the USSR and the USA. The parties could not agree among themselves on the conditions for the reunification of the two trust territories into a single entity. Indeed, in fact , two states were formed on the territory of Korea, with fundamentally different ideologies. The aftermath culminated in a full-scale civil war in 1950 in Korea, which ended in 1953 in a near draw but with heavy casualties.

Data on casualties in the Korean War are contradictory. The total number of victims of this war reaches 5 million people. The border between the two Koreas remained where it was before the war. On the 38th parallel. After the civil war, Korea was divided into 2 parts - the DPRK and the Republic of Korea (or South Korea).

The first, currently one of the most closed states in the world, is a communist dictatorship that relies on its own forces in development (the so-called Juche ideas). The country almost does not participate in the global division of labor, the main import, as well as export, comes from China. The export of the DPRK mainly consists in the sale of raw materials. Ferrous, non-ferrous and precious metals,

as well as other minerals. The population of the DPRK is about 23 million people. South Korea has about 48 million people. That is, on relatively equal territories in terms of area in South Korea, there are 2 times more people than in North Korea. South Korea is currently

a democratic state with a developed market economy. The upswing of the South Korean economy is referred to as the "Miracle on the Hangang River". From the time of the Korean War until 1961, South Korea was in a very bad decline. In 1961, a coup d'état took place in the country, as a result of which General Pak Chung-hee came to power . Since 1962, the Republic of Korea has begun to change the structure of the economy, moving to an export-oriented one. Relying on the hardworking,

responsible mentality of the people and low wages , the country began to show serious growth rates. The wages of Korean workers in electronics assembly plants in the 1960s were 10 times lower than American wages, and productivity was 2.5 times higher. The country has confidently integrated into the world economy, of course, not without the help of Japan and the United States. Nowadays, the country is known for its automotive and electronic industries, holdings LG, Samsung, Daewoo, Hyundai, Kia are world famous. South Korea is a leader in the shipbuilding industry with an impressive 45 percent share of the global market. The standard of living in South Korea greatly increased at the end of the 20th century, and the country from one of the poorest countries has firmly entered the group of developed countries, exporting its goods and services as an end product, including high technology.

As we remember, the population of South Korea is about 48 million people. On the other hand, South Korea had the lowest birth rate in the world in 2020, with a total fertility rate of 0.84. From the age-sex pyramid of South Korea, one can clearly see how its population has aged. At the moment, the number of newborns in South Korea is comparable to the number of old people 75-80 years of age. Korean

youth in our time are in no hurry to start a family, but rather want to build a career where children are a serious hindrance. This situation threatens in the future with a demographic crisis if the country's government does not radically intervene in this situation to maintain natural population growth. In China, by the way, the same state policy “One family - one child” has borne fruit and now the population in China, just like in South Korea, is aging. The second Asian tiger is the

Republic of China, which is located on the island of Taiwan. It arose after the defeat of the troops of Chiang Kai Shek and the Kuomintang in the Civil War in 1949 in China. The losing side was forced to evacuate to Taiwan. The island was declared a territory of the Republic of China. At the present time, in fact,

it is an independent state. The population of Taiwan is about 22 million people. The Republic of China is a highly developed state, which produces a significant part of the world's semiconductors and a third of the world's laptop production, 21% of the world's microchip production. For the past 30 years, the country has been a stable democratic state, albeit with limited recognition. It was partially recognized by some small

countries. China, on the other hand, considers Taiwan one of its provinces and is very sensitive to this issue. You must have heard the catchphrase "the last Chinese warning." But it carries real

military warnings under it, which the People's Republic of China announced to the United States for all violations of its air and water space. For example, in April 1962, an American warship patrolled Taiwanese territory in the Yellow Sea for a week, during which time China issued three serious military warnings about the invasion of its territorial waters. Since in those years violations by the United States of Chinese air and water space, especially in the Taiwan Strait area, were not uncommon, the numbering of warnings went off scale for many hundreds. The exact number of

warnings issued by China is difficult to estimate. It is known that only by the end of 1964 there were more than nine hundred of them. Contrary to popular belief, the United States does not recognize Taiwan as a separate independent nation. They changed their mind in 1979. Beijing has taken a principled position: if someone recognizes Taiwan, the PRC breaks off diplomatic relations with this state. There was a choice between an influential enemy and not an influential friend.

The USA chose the first. Although in fact Taiwan is a separate country with its own currency, constitution and government, China has changed its rhetoric from a position of power to economic relations. Nowadays, China and Taiwan are inextricably linked in economic terms, the food sector and other industries. Cooperation is mutually beneficial and no one intends to hide from each other. It is unlikely that the PRC in our time will decide on the use of

force to suppress the sovereignty of Taiwan, unless something out of the ordinary happens. For example, the US official recognition of Taiwan's sovereignty… The US had a major hand in Taiwan's economic miracle . With the help of the United States, Taiwan has created a powerful industrial infrastructure, communications and developed an education system. Several government bodies have been created, and four-year plans have been adopted. In 1959, a program of economic and financial reforms was adopted that included the liberalization of market controls, the promotion of exports, and the development of a strategy to attract foreign companies and foreign capital.

Economic growth averaged 8.7% between 1952 and 1982, and 6.9% between 1983 and 1986. In 1952, Taiwan's per capita gross national product (GNP) was $170, comparable to the economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. But by 2021 , Taiwan's GDP per capita, adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP), has risen to $62,527, roughly equaling or exceeding some advanced Western European economies and Japan. Not far from the Asian tiger of Taiwan, the third Asian tiger is located. Hong Kong. It is not a city or a country, but a special administrative region of China. Hong Kong has been a British colony for over 150 years. Since 1997, it is no longer a British city, but also not quite Chinese. Now there is a transitional period. Until 2047

, Hong Kong will exist on the principle of "one country - two systems." Formally, it is part of the PRC, but under special conditions. It has its own economy, tax system, migration regime. The legal system is British, and China is already responsible for foreign policy and defense.

And every year the influence of mainland China on Hong Kong is increasing. Hong Kong and China are two different planets and Hong Kong people really don't like being called Chinese. English is rarely understood in China, but almost everyone in Hong Kong speaks it. Even Chinese is different here: in China, they mostly speak Mandarin, in Hong Kong - Cantonese. The “great

Chinese firewall” does not apply to Hong Kong, all social networks, instant messengers , including YouTube, which is banned in China, work here. Hong Kong is a mixture of west and east, an Asian metropolis with an international character. Hong Kong is 262 islands and part of the mainland to the border with China. In total, 7.4 million people live here, of which only 1.2 million live on

Hong Kong Island. The island is the historical and business center of Hong Kong. Macau is located just 60 km across the South China Sea from Hong Kong. This is another special administrative region of the PRC, along with Hong Kong, which gained independence from Portugal in 1999. Prior to that, for 442 years, since 1557, Macau was ruled by Portugal, it was the oldest European colony in East Asia. Macau is an open port, a major financial center with its own currency. This place is known for its casinos,

gambling houses, hippodrome, nightclubs. A kind of Asian Las Vegas. Today, Macau is actually the world capital of gambling; since 2010, the gambling business brings more than 70% of income to Macau's budget. Tourism accounts for 2/5 of the region's GDP. Macau manufactures and exports textiles; textile industry enterprises bring up to 3/4 of foreign exchange earnings.

Также основным производством является рыболовство и табачная промышленность. Португалия за 4 века не могла не оставить ощутимый след в Макао – португальский язык является официальным, наравне с китайским. Плотность населения в Макао, считается самой высокой в мире — около 20 тыс. человек на 1 км², при том, что в целом, в Макао, проживает чуть более 500 тыс. человек.

Конечно, ВВП по ППС у такого маленького района в мировом масштабе незначительный. А вот если посмотреть ВВП на душу населения, в доковидные времена был первым в мире…Этот потрясающий результат Макао достиг своим необычайным Азиатско-Европейским контрастом. Желанием приехать сюда и вернуться вновь. Пятой страной региона является

Япония. Япония – уникальная островная страна со своей самобытной культурой. Из кровавых уроков второй мировой войны Япония сделала выводы и теперь по конституции она отказалась от своего права объявлять войну. С 1950 по 1973 год Япония совершила экономическое чудо. Рост экономики в период экономического чуда составлял почти 10 % ежегодно, это были самые высокие темпы роста среди развитых стран того времени. Второй экономикой мира

Япония числилась более 40 лет: с 1968 года, уступив это место Китаю лишь в 2010 году. Суть японского чуда — в удивительном взаимном доверии верховной власти и большого бизнеса… В Японии государство сообща с большим бизнесом вырабатывало экономическую стратегию. Они четко определяли приоритеты развития страны. На первом этапе упор был сделан на развитии металлургии, судостроения, нефтехимии. Создали самую передовую в мире металлургию, стали выплавлять 100 млн тонн стали. Япония превратилась в первую судостроительную

державу мира, строили танкеры водоизмещением 200—300 тысяч тонн. Чтобы у себя перерабатывать нефть, начали развивать нефтехимию. То есть, по сути, почти не имея на своей территории ни запасов железной руды, ни запасов углеводородов, Япония умудрилась добиться ощутимых успехов в металлургической и нефтеперерабатывающей промышленности. На втором

этапе приоритеты были отданы бытовой электротехнике и автомобилестроению. Надо было сломать сложившийся стереотип — до 1960-х годов японские товары были дешевыми, но некачественными. Ценой огромных усилий на своих транзисторах, на своих телевизорах, потом — автомобилях они убедили мир, что японское — значит качественное». В наше время все чаще говорят о японском экономическом застое. Экономика Японии в последнее время показывает не лучшие результаты. Тем не менее эта страна занимает 3е место в мире по номинальному ВВП, что является огромным достижением Японии. Автомобилестроение, робототехника и электронная

промышленность – лидеры японской экономики. Для всех стран Восточной Азии в последние годы характерна очень низкая рождаемость, самая низкая среди всех регионов мира. Лишь в КНДР рождаемость ещё сохраняется относительно высокой, в остальных странах Восточной Азии на одну женщину приходится 1,4 ребенка. При этом, в Южной Корее и Тайване высокая продолжительность жизни, а в Японии САМАЯ ВЫСОКАЯ В МИРЕ продолжительность жизни. Главная причина высокой продолжительности жизни Японии – высокоразвитая медицина в сочетании с малой распространенностью курения и японской культурой питания, основанной на малом потреблении мяса и преобладании в рационе овощей, рыбы и морепродуктов.

Кстати, в Южной Корее у населения практически нет проблем с болезнями сердца так как вся кухня страны основана на чесноке и луке. Слабой стороной стран, сделавших прорыв в сфере науки и техники в Восточной Азии, является сельское хозяйство. Япония, Южная Корея, Тайвань, даже Китай с его огромными сельскохозяйственными территориями не обеспечивают себя продуктами питания полностью и вынуждены их импортировать. Своеобразное мировое разделение труда в действии… Спасибо за просмотр и жду ваших комментарий по поводу ролика. Всегда очень интересно их читать. Именно для таких как вы ребята, кто досматривает

видео до конца и делаются ролики! С вами был канал, Просветись!

2022-08-25 02:05

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