Science and technology in Venezuela | Wikipedia audio article

Science and technology in Venezuela | Wikipedia audio article

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Science. And Technology, in Venezuela. Includes, research, based, on exploring, Venezuela's. Diverse, ecology in the lives of its indigenous peoples. Under. The Spanish rule the monarchy, made very little effort to promote education. In the American, colonies, and in particular in. Those in which they had less commercial, interest, as in Venezuela. The. Country, only had its first University. Some 200, years later than, Mexico, Colombia or, Peru. The. First Studies, on the native languages, of Venezuela. And the indigenous customs. Were made in the middle of the 18th, century by the Catholic, missionaries. The. Italian, Jesuit Filippo salvitore, Gilley, was one of the first to theorize, about linguistic. Relations, and propose possible, language families, for the Orinoco, River Basin. The. Swedish, botanist, pear Laughlin, one of the Twelve Apostles of, Carl Linnaeus. Classification. For the first time the excellent, tropical, flora of the Orinoco. River Basin. In. The nineteenth century several. Scientists. Visited, Venezuela. Such as alexander, humboldt amy bond plant Agostino, code at sea jean-baptiste boo, singer Mariano. Rivera, francois. De pons Robert, Herman Schaumburg, Wilhelm, severs Karl, Ferdinand, apon Gustav, Karsten, Adolf Ernst, Benedict, Rosal Karl Moritz Friedrich, Gauss dacha Anton, Goering Johann, Gottlieb Benjamin. Siegert, Alfred, Russel Wallace Jane, Chaffin Jon Amiel Arthur, - ah Jules crevo and many others some of whom are buried in Venezuela. The. Venezuelan. Institute, for scientific research. Ivy IC founded, on February 9th, 1959. By government, decree has its origins, in the venezuelan, institute, of neurology and, brain research, IV, n IC, which dr. Humberto, Fernandes. Moran founded, in 1955. Other. Major research, institutions. Include, the Central, University of Venezuela, and, the University. Of the Andes Venezuela. Notable. Venezuelan, scientists, include nineteenth-century, physician. Jose, Maria Vargas the chemist, Vicente, marcano, and the botanist, and geographer, Alfredo, yarn. 1867. To 1940. More. Recently, baruj, Bennett sheriff shared the 1980, Nobel, Prize in Physiology or, medicine August, oppai Sonia, 1955. Aristides, bass treatise 1980. Marcel. Roche. 1987. And maricella, Salvatierra. 2002. Have been recipients, of UNESCO, 's Kalinga prize for promotion, of the public, understanding.

Of Science, on. July 2nd, 2012, L Rafael, Reif a Venezuelan. American, electrical, engineer, inventor, and academic, administrator. Was elected, president of the Massachusetts Institute. Of, Technology. Topic. Biology. Topic. Ecology. Pay. Laughlin, Topher's, Brooke gave la sweeden, January. 31st. 1729. San Antonio, del Corona guana. Venezuela. February, 22nd. 1756. Swedish. Botanist, who studied, at the University. Of Uppsala where, he attended, courses taught by Carl, Linnaeus. When. The Spanish ambassador, at Stockholm, asked, Linnaeus, to select a botanist, for service, in the American, colonies, the professor, at once named laughing, he. Went to Spain in 1751. To learn Spanish, and then embarked, with other scientists. For Venezuela. In February. 1754. In. Commander. He had entire, charge, of the Department, of Natural History and, was assisted by two young, Spanish doctors. He. Introduced, the first microscope. In Venezuela. His, premature, or death was considered, a great loss to Natural History and especially, to botany. Linnaeus. Believed, the loss irreparable the. Manuscripts. Of Laughlin, which were found after his death were preserved, by his two assistants, and Linnaeus, posthumously, published, his, Ida Hispanic, am Ella recitals. Spans colon Dan a UTI, Europa. Oak America, 17:51. Till, 1756. In 1758. Park. A laughing in Theo Dada Greiner Venezuela. Is named after him. Henry. Francois, Padilla August, 13th. 1857. Beck's Switzerland. January, 27. 1952. Aqus Venezuela. Was a Swiss born geographer. And botanist, he. Graduated, as an engineer from, the University. Of Jena and moved to Costa Rica in 1887. Where, he founded, the physical, Geographic, Institute and, an herbarium. Piteå. Arrived, in Venezuela. In 1917. Where he classified, more than 30,000, plants and devoted, many years to studying the flora and fauna in the country, in. 1937. Had achieved the, creation, of the Rancho, Grand National, Park north of Maracay a ragout estate the first National Park of Venezuela. The. Plant general, P Tierra now considered, a synonym, of Polly Clara PT Ella now considered, a synonym, of Krypto syndrome and pity our awesomeness now considered, a synonym, of an fedosya and named after him, his. Name is also associated, with, pity as crab-eating, rat eke theame, spitieri. In. 1953. The Rancho, Grande National, Park was renamed, in his honor as Henry Padilla National, Park. William. H Phelps, New York June 14, 18, 75. Caracas, december, 8, 1965. Was an american, ornithologist. And businessman. He. Studied, biology at, Milton, Academy and, Harvard College in. The summer of 1896. He decided, to go on an honor theological, exploration. To Venezuela. Following, the advice of Wirt Robinson, who had visited Margarita, Island the year before and from his mentor Frank M Chapman. After. A long stay in Sucre, and monica's he became fascinated with, the country, and its birds he. Returned, to the United, States with a small collection of specimens, that he brought to Chapman, at the American, Museum of Natural History. The. Specimens, he collected, became the basis, for his first publication. Published, with Chapman in 1897. Once. He finished his studies at Harvard, Phelps return to Venezuela in, 1897. To marry Alicia Elvira, Tucker and settle in mato rain, there. He began one of many successful, business, ventures, by selling, coffee and in 1930. Founded, radio, Caracas, radio, in. 1938. He founded, the Phelps collection, considered, the largest ornithological. Collection. In Latin America, and the largest private, collection, in the world it.

Is A mandatory, study, resource, on tropical birds, for experts, who wish to know more about this area. Currently. The Phelps collection, has a heritage, of 80 thousand, birds in feathers, a thousand, preserved in alcohol and. 1,500. Skeletons. His. Second, son William, H Phelps, jr. became one of his foremost, collaborators. In all matters concerning, ornithology. Hermano. Gains Bilbao. 1912. Caracas, 2011. Born. Under the name of Pablo, Mendes, in soto hermano. Gains arrived, in Caracas, in 1939. When, Venezuela, who worked from the lethargy of the long gama sister dictatorship. Poverty. And illiteracy were, combined, with epidemics. When oil seemed, to give a new impetus to the country. It. Is thus that hermano, gains creator, of the LaSalle foundation. Of natural sciences together, with committed, young students, of the college LaSalle, created. In 1940. The Society, of Natural, Sciences LaSalle. From, which the foundation, LaSalle, was born, in 1957. These. Visionaries, sowed the seed of science, knowledge, and education in. A country urged by likes. Several. New Cleo's today, rooted, in most places of, Venezuela. Serving, its people, in its environment. Leandro. Eres de Goya de grâce, I party. 1923. Caracas 2012. Botanist, graduated. At the Central, University of, Venezuela. In. 1959. Participated. In the design of the park of the East now Park generalize, Omo Francisco. De Miranda together. With Brazilian, landscape architect Roberto Burle Marx Fernando. De Bora and John Stoddard, who combined, the majesty, of the national flora with a small but very zoological. Collection. Individual. Number of the Academy, of physical, mathematical. And Natural Sciences having, been first vice-president. 1997. To 2001. And president. 2001. To 2003. In. His honor was designated a, Hall of the Faculty, of Sciences, of the Central, University, of Venezuela. Doctor. Honoris causa, of the university, of cara barber. Francisco. May go lechea, to Marama bowl, of our state venezuela. May 21st. 1931. Puerto la cruz and. Aggi State Venezuela. On February, 27. 2004. Mego. Was a distinguished. Venezuelan, ecologist, who specialized. In electric, fish of the rivers and lagoons, of South America, particularly. Of Venezuela. His. Education. Was docent, in biology and, chemistry graduate. From the, instituto. Pedagogical. Caracas. Today. Universidad. Pedagogical. Experimental. El Libertador master. Of Sciences, marine, biology. From the University of, Miami, Florida USA. Dr. in sciences, from Universidad. Central de, Venezuela. His. Doctoral, thesis was entitled lost pcs Jim nota forms de Venezuela. Un, estudio, preliminarily. Revision. Del grupo in LA America, del Sur the Jim no deforms, fish of Venezuela. A preliminary, study, for the revision of the group in South America. Mego. Was a founding, member of the Institute of Oceanography code, la Universidad. De Oriente, in commonness, Sucre state Venezuela. And a founding, member of the instituto. De zoological. Eyes ET, de la universidad. Central. De Venezuela, situated. In Caracas, Venezuela. He. Was a teacher of the chair of animal, biology, vertebrate. Biology and. Systematic. Theology. At the biology school, of Sciences, Faculty, of the Universidad. Central de, Venezuela. He. Was director, of the Museo, de biological. A Universidad. Central de, Venezuela. MBU, CV, and a queue area Augustine, code at sea, he. Was editor of the actor biologic, of Venezuela, car ABV, in. 1968. He founded, the Mako collection, of MBU CV, considered, the largest, ecological. Collection, in Latin America. Currently. The Mako collection, has a heritage, of 33,000. Fishes preserved, in alcohol and skeletons. Gustavo. Adolfo romero. Born in caracas in 1955. Botanist. Graduated. At Central, University, of Venezuela, has, a PhD. At Harvard, University, where he also works, as research, specialist.

And Curator of herbarium, orchid, Oakes Ames replaces. Leslie, ager I Romero. Has an important, contribution with. 248. Records, on identification. And, classification of. New species of orchid, ACI which regularly, publish, in Noven Harvard, PAP but. Botanical. Explorer monographic. System, botanical. Missouri, botanic, garden, collection, of orchids brazil, Brittany ah Selby, Anna orchid, II orchids, Venezuela. Lindley, Anna, part. Of the editors at Lancaster, Rihanna and the Botanical, Institute, of Venezuela. Some. Publications, include, G carnevale, GA, Romero. Gonzalez. Orchid. ACI. 1991. Dance, de valera my ain you dry Adela from Venezuelan. Guana, Noven. Volume, 1 number 2 PP. 73. To 75. Leslie. Ager I GA. Romero. Gonzalez. Shady, early 1998. Or. Kadhim 10, PP, Romero, Gonzales. Gar, G Carnevale, Fernandes. Conquer, 2000. Orchids. In Venezuela. An illustrated. Field guide 2nd, ed our Matano, editors, Caracas. 364. PP, g, Carnevale, I Ramirez. GA, Romero. Gonzales. CA. Vargas, 'if old it's 2003. Orchid. ACI pp. 202. 619. PE. Berry at al Edie flora, a Venezuelan. Guana volume, 7. Missouri. Botanic, Garden sent, Louie the. Guerra marrow abbreviation. Is used to indicate the author when citing a botanical, name. Niklaus. Grunwald, born in Caracas, in, 1965. Venezuelan. American, biologist and, plant pathologist. Of German, and Swiss ancestry. He, obtained, a Bachelor, of Science in, plant science, at University. Of California. Davis UC. Davis, in 1992. He, completed, his PhD, in ecology and plant pathology, in, 1997. At UC Davis, studying, the effect of cover crop decomposition. On soil nutrient, cycling, and soil microbiology. Grunwald. Pursued, postdoctoral. Research, at Cornell, University. His, academic research. Focuses. On the evolution genomics. And ecology, of plant pathogens, in the genus Phytophthora. And management, of the diseases, they caused, this. Pathogen, group, includes, some of the most costly, diseases, affecting, crops and ecosystems. These. Pathogens, have well-characterized. Effectors, to circumvent, plant, hosts recognition. That in the genus Phytophthora. Include, our XLR, crinkle and other small secreted, proteins. Grunwald. Is best known for providing novel. Insights, into how plant pathogens, emerge methods, to study pathogen. Evolution, particularly. When populations. Are clonal, and characterizing. The evolutionary. History of Phytophthora, pathogens. He. Is currently working with the USDA Agricultural, Research. Service. A professor, courtesy, in the Department, of botany and plant pathology. At Oregon, State University. And a professor adjunct. In the Department, of Plant Pathology and, plant, microbiology. At Cornell University. Topic. Epidemiology. Bluie Daniel, bow pathway, Basseterre. Guadalupe. France, August, 25th, 1808. Demerara, British, Guiana September. 3rd 1871. Was, a venezuelan, french physician who made important, contributions to. The study of the causes of infectious. Diseases such as yellow, fever malaria. And leprosy. He. Was the first to systematically. Argue, that malaria, and yellow fever were, transmitted. By mosquitoes. He. Studied, medicine at, the Paris Faculty, of Medicine and obtained, his MD, in 1837. He. Was immediately, appointed by the Paris, Museum of Natural History, as are travelling. Naturalist. To. Work in Orinoco, Basin, Venezuela. He. Was one of the earliest scientists. To observe, microorganism. Using microscopy, in relation, to diseases. In. 1838. He developed, a theory that all infectious. Diseases were due to parasitic, infection, with animalcules. Microorganisms. With, the help of his friend emma del de Rossville he presented his theory in a formal, presentation before. The French Academy of Sciences in Paris. He. Suspected, that mosquitoes. Were the carriers of the infectious, pathogens, including. Those of leprosy, in. 1842. He worked at the facultad, médica, de caracas, Caracas Medical, School in. 1850. He became professor of anatomy at, the School of Medicine of the College of kumano he. Was appointed the director of the leper hospital, in Demerara in British Guiana the post he held till his death, by. 1853. He was convinced, that malaria, and yellow fever were, spread by mosquitoes. He. Even identified. The particular group, of mosquitoes, that transmit yellow. Fever as their domestic. Species, of. Striped. Legged, mosquito, which. Can be recognized, as a HEDIS Egypt II the actual, vector, he, published, his theory, in 1854. In the caseta official. De kamana Official. Gazette of kamana. His reports, were assessed by an official Commission, which, discarded, his mosquito, theory. Only. After 1891. With, the works of Carlos, Finlay, his investigations. Are reviewed with seriousness, a. Hospital. In Basseterre, called the Center Hospital yo Louie Daniel Bo pathway, was established, in 1959. In his honor, Raphael, Rangel, Betty Jacque, 1877. Caracas, 1909. Venezuelan. Scientist, and researcher who. Devoted himself to tropical, diseases he. Is considered, the father of parasitology.

And Bio analysis. In Venezuela, he, is famous for being the first to describe in Venezuela. The Nicator americanus. Parasite. That caused hookworm, between, 1903. And, 1904. As a. Researcher. In 1902. Rangel. Was appointed, first director, of the laboratory of histology, and, bacteriology. Of Vargas Hospital, in. 1908. At the request of President cheap, Riano Castro, he was in charge of the sanitary, campaign, to eradicate bubonic. Plague in, La Guaira a year. Later after, falling into depression by, several, problems that arose during the plague and by the refusal, to along, for scholarship, abroad he committed suicide with, cyanide. His. Remains, were buried in the national, pantheon, on August, 20th. 1977. Arnold. O Gabaldon, trujillo, March, 1st 1909. Caracas, September. 1st 1990. Was a physician researcher, and, politician. Graduated. In 1928. Earned a doctorate in medical, sciences, at the Universidad. Central de, Venezuela. In. Germany, completed, a specialty, at the Institute, for maritime, and tropical, diseases of Hamburg. Later. Traveling, in 1935. To the United, States as a fellow of the Rockefeller, Foundation. To obtain a doctorate, from Johns Hopkins University in, hygiene sciences. With speciality. In protozoa, AG back. In Venezuela he, was appointed to head the newly created special. Directorate, of Malaya ecology, within the Ministry, of Health and Welfare a position, he held until, 1950. Under. The direction of, Gabaldon, Venezuela. Became, the first country which organized, a nationwide, campaign, against. Malaria by using DDT, which, led to be the first to achieve eradication. Of the disease in a large area extension. Of the tropical, zone, he. Also discovered. New species, of malaria parasites. And devoted, himself to, studying the mosquito, Anopheles Nunez. Davari action, that catalyzed, the recognition. Of educational. Needs and preparing, managerial. Staff of the Ministry of Health through, the creation, of the school that bears his name in Maracay a deep and additional, contribution. Between. 1959. And, 1964. President, rómulo, betancourt appointed. Him Minister, of Health and Welfare and Gabaldon. He. Was the first professor of the Simon, Bolivar chair, of Latin American, Studies at the University of, Cambridge England. 1968-69. And, directed, postdoctoral, studies, at the Central, University of Venezuela. Gabaldon. Wrote more than 200. Papers published, in national, and international medical. Journals. Gabaldon. Was active, as an expert of the World Health Organization. Who for, malaria control in, countries, from five continents. Jacinto. Combat Caracas, September. 11th, 1913. Caracas, May 12 2014. Was a physician and researcher known. For developing a vaccine to fight leprosy, and his studies to cure different, types of cancer, in. 1987. He received the Prince of Asturias Award, in the scientific. And technical research, category. Inspired. By leprosy, victims, he entered medical school at Central, University, of Venezuela. Ucv, in, 1932. He. Earned his title as a medical, science, doctor in 1938. In. 1968. Convert, was elected, president of the International. Leprosy, Association.

Ela And was re-elected in. 1973. In, 1971. Convert. Was named by the who as director, of the co-operative, Center, for the Study and histological. Classification. Of leprosy, in. 1976. Convert, was elected, director, of the pan-american, research. And training, in leprosy, and tropical, diseases. He. Was also named, president of the International. Journal of leprosy, in. 1987. Convert, had had killed, Mycobacterium. Leprae to the BCG. Vaccine. The. Combined, vaccine, was tested worldwide, but was not more effective than, regular BCG. A, vaccine. For leishmaniasis. Was, later developed, using convex, method he, also worked, on mycosis, on cosec Isis, and other tropical diseases. In. 1988. The Venezuelan. Government nominated. Convert for a Nobel, Prize in medicine for, his experimental, anti, leprosy, vaccine. Felix. Pavano, San, Felipe, yarek, we may 1st 1912. To August 8, 2003. Was a Venezuelan, physician, and researcher, graduated. In the Central, University, of Venezuela. 1935. And laureate, of the National, Academy, of Medicine in Paris, back. In Jarek we he practiced, tropical medicine with, enrique Tahara in the institute, that he had founded, ten years earlier treating, diseases such, as leishmaniasis. Tuberculosis. Diarrhea, and malaria. Together. With arnold o Gabaldon, he traveled through Central America in 1938. To follow the work of the Rockefeller, Foundation. In Costa, Rica and Panama. With. This training he worked with Gabaldon, in the newly created venezuelan. Institute of malaria, Logie leading, the effort to eradicate, the yellow fever of venezuela. In. That position along, with Martin Maher founded, the research, section, of the National Institute, of Hygiene in, Caracas, in. His recently, founded, section, he studied, chagas disease-- Trypanosoma. R Angele cutaneous, and, visceral leishmaniasis. Intestinal. And hepatic amoebiasis. Schistosomiasis. Honk. Psychosis systemic. Mycoses. Malnutrition. And poisonous, animals. During. The dictatorship of. Marcos, pérez jiménez, signed a document prepared, by Arturo, usely, Petri, that forces, him to exile, in Mexico, where he studied, cardiology. With. The fall of the Venezuelan dictator. - Oh returned, to Venezuela, and founded, the Institute of, Tropical, Medicine of, the ucv and directed, it for almost 50, years, this. Institute, earned him immense affection, from his disciples, and respect, in all spheres of national, society. Topic. Microbiology. Manuel. Nunez, Tovar, que Cara Monica's, September.

24, 1872. Maracay era, guar Dan uary 27. 1928. Was, naturalist. Researcher. Parasitologist. And entomologist. Nunez. Tovar began his studies at caiçara, and later continued. In Mattern where he graduated, from high school at, age 16. The. First two years studied, medicine at the federal, college of Barcelona, and gained the title at the Central, University of, Venezuela, in, 1895. In. 1909. With. Says afla Marek and Rafael, Nunez, I Sava he was part of the Public Health Commission and that same year he began his studies in entomology. In. This discipline, studied, the importance, of insects, as vectors in the transmission. Of diseases was, the author of numerous papers, and identified. Nicator, americanus. As the cause of anemia in, patients, who had suffered from malaria. After. 20 years in Monica's, state Nunez, Tovar, lived temporarily, in Caracas, and la victoria, settling. Permanently, in morocco after being appointed medical. Brigade in the garrison of the city, during. This time many animal, species collected. In the valleys of irregular, and around the lake Valencia, Venezuela. Nunez. Never left Venezuela. But scientists, visited, the country to personally, know the voluminous, scientific. Work included, the discovery, of several species, of mosquitoes. That carry, his name for. His scientific, Leggett, a high school and university hospital. Of Mattern were named in his honor and his entomology. Collection, was acquired by the government of Venezuela. This. Is preserved in the department, of malaria, OG and environmental. Sanitation, Ministry. Of Health of Maracay. Jose. Francisco Torrealba. Santa. Maria de I pyre June, 16th, 1896. Caracas, July 24th. 1973. Graduated. At the Central, University of, Venezuela, as, doctor of Medical Sciences. In 1922. He served as director of the, at SIA loader Energon, ADO's in. Caracas. 1924. To 1927. In. Germany, visit, the Institute, of tropical, diseases Hamburg. In 1928. Since. 1929. He, studied, with dedication. The most frequent, tropical, diseases in the Venezuelan central. Plains malaria. Chagas. Bull haji OSIS intestinal. Parasitosis. Elephantiasis. Leishmaniasis. With special attention to Chagas, disease. He. Published numerous scientific. Works, that make him an international personality. In tropical medicine even, without postgraduate. Studies, it. Is visited, by important. Scientists. Such as Cecilia, Romagna. Argentina, Maria, and Leonidas dn Antonio. - EO Franco. Do amaral Emanuel, Dias Brazil. Jaqen egg me Chile, Emil, Brandt and Jean coup de France enrique. Tahera arnold o Gabaldon, Humberto, Fernandez. Moran, Felix, Pavano, Otto Hernandez. Peretti josé, Vicente Scorza. Venezuela. He. Received, numerous week knowledge mints Vargas. Prize. Brault, prize. Awarded, by the Academy, of Medicine of Paris, order, of the Liberator, degree, commander, applause, of the creole petroleum, corporation honorary. Professor, of the Faculty, of Medicine of, the University of. Los Andes corresponding. Member of the National, Academy of Medicine member. Of the Royal Society of, Tropical, Medicine and, hygiene London. Illustrious. Son of Santa, Maria di pyre and raised below order, post mortem in the honour band class. Topic. Immunology. Miguel. Lares Caracas.

1919. Caracas. 2002. He. Obtained, his doctor, of Medical Sciences. Degree from the Central, University, of Venezuela, in, 1943. He. Completed, his postgraduate. Studies, at the Institute, of pathological anatomy. At Vargas, Hospital, and New England Medical, Center, in Boston, in. 1949. He returned to Venezuela. To devote himself to teaching, and research. He. Was professor of the Central, University. 1944. To 1980. Head of the research center of the blood bank. 1952. To 1961. Researcher. Of the venezuelan, institute of scientific. Research IV, IC. 1961. To 1990. In. His investigative. Activity, on immuno, hematology. And nutritional, anemia, he made important, scientific. Findings, at the national, and international, levels, such as the diego blood factor, and the use of precooked, maize flour enriched, with iron vitamin. A and beta carotenes, that favor the absorption, of iron as a vehicle, to decrease the rates of anemia of the population. Throughout. His career he served, as president of the National Council for scientific and, technological research. 1972. To, 1975. Was, head of the research center, of the blood bank. 1952. To 1961, head. Of the department, of pathophysiology. Of IV IC. 1961. To 69, rector, of the Central, University, of Venezuela. 1976. To 1980. And director, of the Venezuelan institute, of scientific, research 1980. To 1984. Baruj. Bennett Sheriff Caracas, October, 29th. 1920. Jamaica, Plain, Massachusetts. USA August, 2nd, 2011 was, a Venezuelan, born American, immunologist. Who shared the 1980. Nobel, Prize in Physiology or, medicine for, the discovery. Of the major histocompatibility. Pat ability, complex. Genes which encode cell. Surface, protein, molecules, important. For the immune systems, distinction. Between self, and non-self. His. Colleagues, and shared recipients. Were Jean Dorsett and George Davis, no. Raymundo, villages, Caracas, September. 14, 1931. Caracas, October. 21st, 2014. Venezuelan. Physician, researcher. And scientist, graduated. At the Central, University of Venezuela. Thanks. To the support of the Mendoza, foundation. Between. 1956. And 1958. He was a research, fellow in the laboratory, of biophysics. At Harvard Medical School as. Student. And graduate, he participated. Between, 1952. And 1957. In the Institute, of medical research of the Luis Roche foundation. In. This institution, he carried out research on, the mechanical, resistance of tissues, to know the effect of various, substances on elasticity. Which could have interesting, repercussions on, various, diseases affecting. Tissue such, as varicose. Veins or pulmonary emphysema. In. 1958. He was a researcher. At the venezuelan. Institute, of scientific. Research IV. IC in charge, of the biophysics. Laboratory. During. This stage he concentrated. On the biophysical, and biochemical.

Characterization. Of the peripheral, nerve membranes, especially. The nerve fibers of squid and sea lobster, and the sodium channel present, in these membranes. From. 1982. He, continued, his research from, the molecular, biology, unit of the institute of advanced studies idea, deepening, the study of neurotoxins. In the molecular biology of, neuronal. Differentiation. And phylogenetics, of, neurons. Director. Of the venezuelan, institute, of scientific. Research. 1969. To, 1974. In. 1979. He was appointed as the first minister, of science, and technology, by the president, luis herrera Campins. Jose. Esparza, born in Maracaibo, on December, 9. 19:45. Is a venezuelan, american virologist. Appointed, as president of the global virus network since january 2016. He. Is known for his efforts to promote the international. Development, and testing, of vaccines, against, hiv/aids. During. 17, years till 1985. He, pursued an academic, career at the venezuelan, institute, for scientific, research IV, IC. From. 1986. To 2014. He worked continuously as, a viral, vaccine, expert, and senior, public, health advisor, for international. Health policy, agencies, such as the World Health Organization. The joint United, Nations, program on, hiv/aids, and, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Jose. G Esparza, is currently, an adjunct professor, of medicine at the Institute. Of human biology, University. Of Maryland, School of Medicine. Topic. Chemistry. Topic. Electrochemistry. Benjamin, Sherif Kapaa dulski, born in Buenos Aires Argentina. September. 21st. 1953. Chérif. Car migrated, with his Jewish family, to Venezuela. When he was 4 years old. Graduated. In chemistry, from the universidad. Simon, bolivar. 1976. Had a PhD. In physio chemistry, from the University of, Southampton. 1980. Professor. Emeritus of Simon, Bolivar University. Where he was head of the Department, of Chemistry. 1987. To 1989. Dean, of research and development. 1992. To 1996. Vice rector of administration. 2001. To 2005. And rector. 2005. To 2009. Coordinator. Of the nuclei, of scientific. Humanistic. And technological. Development, councils. 1994. To 1996. Deputy. Director, of the hydrogen, Research Center, at Texas A&M University. 1984. To 1986. Visiting. Professor, at the universities. Of Southampton. 1988. And Bristol. 2009. Director. Of National Council, for scientific and, technological research. 1994. To 1999. Secretary-general. Caracas. Chapter, Venezuelan. Association. For the Advancement of. Science. 2001. His. Investigation. Lines interest, is interfacial. Electrochemistry. Including. Kinetics, of electrochemical. Reactions. Phase formation, conducting. Polymers, energy, conversion, and environmental. Sanitation. Author. Of more than 100. Publications, in the international. Scientific, literature, and three patents, of invention, registered, in several, countries. He. Has received among, other awards the, Tajima award from the International. Society of, electrochemistry. 1986. Lorenzo, Mandir a flurry, award, from the Empress's polar foundation. 1993. Number. Individual, of the Academy, of physical, mathematical. And Natural Sciences since. 2003. President, 2009. To 2011. Member. Of the Academy, of Sciences of Latin America, since, 2003. Fellow. Of the Academy of, Sciences, of the developing, world, twas since, 2009. Vice. Rector academic. 2010. And rector, since 2011, of, the Metropolitan. University, Caracas. Topic. Food, chemistry. Vicente. Marcano, caracas, October, 27th. 1848. Valencia, July 17, 1891. Was an outstanding engineer. Chemist, geologist. University. Professor, and scientific. Disseminator. Graduated. In philosophical, sciences. At the Central, University, of Venezuela, he continued, his education. At the French school of st. Louis at the institution. De vino Delano, and at the School of Arts and manufacturers, of Paris, in. 1887. He was appointed as chief of the Anthropology. Commission, who conducted, archaeological. Expeditions. Of Lake Valencia, May to June the Orinoco, August, December, the casted, formations. In the monoghan State and Falcon at the end of 1889. In. These explorations, Carlos. Villanueva, alfredo. Yarn, and Bonifacio, marcano, also, participated. Archaeological. Objects, collected were sent to Paris and today are in the Museum of Man his. Exploration. Work served, as a basis, for the ethnological work. Of his brother Gaspar marcano. Author. Of elements, of chemical, philosophy where, he defended, the atomic, theory 1881.

Wrote, About his investigations. In the NL of the science agronomic, front says a tetran je bulletin, of the society, jimick de France and the Comte rendus with wide, popularization. In Germany, England United. States, and Venezuela. His. Main interest was the study of the fermentation, of tropical, fruits the nitrated. Lands and the industrialization. Of sugar cane in. 1891. He founded, the municipal, laboratory, in Caracas, later converted, into the National Laboratory. His. Most important, discovery, was bromelain, a proteolytic, enzyme. Extracted. From pineapple, juice, his. Remains, were buried in the National Pantheon on July 10th, 1991. Werner Yaffa Frankfurt, October. 27. 1914. Caracas, may 3rd 2009. Was, a chemist, and university, professor. He, received, his doctoral degree, at the University. Of Zurich under the supervision of the Nobel Prize winner Paul Carra. After. Graduating. Yaffa arrived in Venezuela. In 1940. And showed interest in the area of nutrition, focusing. His attention on, food toxicity. Nutrient. Complementation. Presence. Of anti-nutritional. Factors in. Edible legumes, seeds presence, of selenium, in food and enrichment of flowers, with minerals and vitamins. He. Was co-author, of the, lactobacillus. Norm. EULA for Scholars Children's, he. Started, the teaching, of biochemistry. At the Venezuela, Central, University. And founded, the instituto. Nacional de, nutrition. He. Was co-founder. Of the Venezuelan, Association. For the Advancement of. Science in. 1946. He received a grant from the Rockefeller, Foundation. And among several science, prizes, he was awarded the Premio, nacional, de ciencia, co nici, t in, 1978. During. The 50 years that he taught at the college level he also published over 200 academic. Papers, and was named honorary professor. At the Simon Bolivar University. Topic. In organic, chemistry. Manuel. Palacio, Fajardo, majagual. 1784. Angostura. 1819. Venezuelan. Lawyer physician. Chemist, diplomatic. And politician. Graduated. At the University. Of Santa Fe Viceroyalty. Of New Granada when, the independence. Movement exploded. In 1810. Was practicing, its profession, as physician, in Gwang re the. Province, of Barinas, elected, him as his deputy to, the first Constituent. Congress, of Venezuela, and as such signed on July 5th 1811.

The Absolute, independence from, Spanish, rule in. 1812. After the fall of First Republic he was exiled, to United, Provinces, of the New Granada the. Patriotic. Government, of Cartagena, de Indias commissioned, him with Pedro guell as diplomats, to seek foreign, support, for the Spanish American, independence, cause, they. Arrived in Washington, in December, 1812. And although they meet with the President, James Madison this, indicated. That the United States could, not take part in the war by the no aggression, agreement. Signed with Spain under Neutrality. Act. 1794. During. His stay in Europe he studied, chemistry, and perfected, his medical, knowledge, back. In Venezuela was, elected, deputy, is witness, of exception, of the installation. Of the Congress of Angostura, the February, 15th, 1819. A, few. Days later the Liberator, Simon Bolivar. Appointed, him as secretary of state of Colombia, but he is seriously, Hill and does not assume the charge because he died on May 8th 1819. In, London. He published, several articles on, Natural, Sciences, three. Unknown on the exploitation, of, carbonates, of sodium, in the Euroleague une of merida province 1816. Notes on the main circumstances. Of the earthquake, of caracas, 1817. And a geographic. Description, of valley of cuecard 1817. His. Remains, were buried in the national pantheon, on August 21st. 8 seventy-six. Rodolfo. Low arrow Arizmendi. Rio Caribe, sucre, September. 26th. 1896. Caracas, March 6 1987. He. Was son of Domenico, lo arrow Luigi. An Italian. Immigrant, an NS Maria Arizmendi, Laurette, he. Completed, studies, at the Central, University of. Venezuela gained, the title of Oden tal ageist in 1917. He. Then pursued his, studies, graduating. From chemistry, at the University. Of Surrey Spain. Back. In Caracas, he attended, the chemistry, chart at the Central, University of. Venezuela. He. Was notable, for his educational. Contributions. To this university. As well as other educational. Institutions such. As las Dos Caminos College, the Sucre, College national, pedagogical. Institute, and the Lyceum, Furman Toro, he. Founded, and directed, for more than 35, years the first school of industrial chemistry. In Venezuela. And in 1943. Founded. The instituto. Universitário. Tecnológico. Rodolfo, Loara Arizmendi, I UTI, r-la. He. Worked with the first procedures, of color photography in, the National photographic, laboratory. Topic. Organic. Chemistry. August. Obon @c Rome December. 1890. Caracas, March. 1974. Burn. At sea studied, chemistry in the Universities, of Naples and earth sciences in university, of rome from. 1911, to. 1924. He worked as researcher, at Worcester experimental. Agricultural. Station in Ohio United. States. In. 1926. Moved, to Havana Cuba and became, director of the sugarcane, Experimental. Station of the American, Sugar Refining Company. In. 1937. He arrived in Venezuela. As a researcher. At the chemistry, laboratory at, the El Valle experimental. Station, and later was nominated, director of the Research Service of the Ministry, of Agriculture. In. Caracas, founded, the school of agriculture, and zoo techni of the Central, University of Venezuela, that, soon would become the Faculty, of agronomic, engineering. He. Was professor, of chemistry of the Faculty, of pharmacy of the ucv and when the Faculty, of Sciences. Was created, in 1958. He, became professor of the School of Chemistry of which he was director, until he's dead in, 1974. He was, also founder, of the Venezuelan, Society, of Chemistry, in 1938. Where, it publishes, an important. Number of articles, of scientific. Diffusion, in magazines and, newspapers of national, coverage. Bern. At C was member of the Special, Committee for the standardization. Of methods, of edifact, microbiology. Of the International. Society of, pathology. And candidate, for the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in.

1969. Dr.. Bennett C founded, the studies, in geochemistry, in Venezuela. Throughout his career opened, lines of research that still, persist, in the Institute, of Earth Sciences, the former Institute, of chemistry, that he directed since, 1964. And which formed a considerable, number of professionals. In that area. Oscar. Grunwald, Graz. 1895. Caracas. 1978. Austrian. Venezuelan. Chemist, officer. Of the austro-hungarian. During the First World War, 1915. To 1918. Graduated. In chemical, engineering from, the Polytechnic, Institute Technische Hochschule ER in Graz Austria. 1922. He. Worked as laboratory, technician. In the potash mines, Keller work be grounds line Berg grass Alban Germany, and Riva fabrics. AG. Vienna, Austria and, Poland in. 1927. Emigrated. To Dominican. Republic, contracted, by jawbone Rosanna, Durst LCI, Bao, and. The. National, Laboratory, of the Secretary, of Health and Welfare, he. Arrived in Venezuela. In 1930. In the group of foreign scientists, under contract, to develop the agriculture. In this country. From. 1930. To, 1937. He worked at the chemical, laboratory for, the Directorate, of Health after, 1931. Ministry. Of Health and agriculture, and breeding and from, 1937. As director, of the laboratory of agricultural. Chemistry, later department. And division of, chemistry, of the Agriculture, Directorate, of the Ministry, of Agriculture, and breeding Mac, in. The period. 1937. To 1953. He, was a professor, of chemistry at the School of Agriculture, later the Faculty, of agronomic, engineering. Of the Central, University, of Venezuela, and, one of the founders, of the faculty, along with Ludwig Schnee, Augusto. Burn at sea Luis Maria la Zout and Jaime henna Jaramillo, among, others, he. Was a founding, member of the Venezuela. Symphony, Orchestra, created, in 1930. Played first solo violist. At honorum, until, 1947. Until. His last year's he made quartets, with pedro antonio rios Rainer, Renato Bell Archie Jose, Antonio, Escobar, Salazar. And Soriano Rothman. He. Was an ordinary member, of the Venezuelan, Association. Of Engineers, see IV the Venezuelan. Society, of Natural, Sciences and, the American Chemical. Society. And a founding member of the Venezuelan Chemical. Society. A convinced. Environmentalist. Grunwald, worked on studies on Lake Valencia, katia Lamar and the use of coumarine. In. 1955. Was a precursor, of the moron petrochemical. Complex. He. Died in Caracas, on September, 13. 1978. Gioconda. Cantu de san blas born in caracas in 1943. Graduated. In chemistry, ucv. 1967. PhD. Biochemistry. Heriot-watt, University, Edinburgh, Scotland. 1972. Emeritus. Titular, researcher, venezuelan. Institute, of scientific. Research IV, i see, where she did her full scientific, career. 1972. To 2010. In the field of biochemistry and. Cell biology, of pathogenic, fungi. She. Is the author of more than 130. Publications. In specialized, international. Journals, author of three books on, pathogenic, fungi published. By k-stew Academic, Press Norfolk, UK, between. 2004. And 2008. In. 2009. She, was elected, as the first woman president of, the Academy, of Sciences of, Venezuela. Topic. Engineering. Topic. Civil. Engineering. Alfredo. Yarn Caracas. 1867. Caracas. 1942. Finished, his studies at the Central, University of, Venezuela, in, 1886. The, following, year he participated, in the preliminary, studies, for the construction, of a major railroad, between Caracas, and Valencia, with extension, to San Carlos, as a. Civil, engineer he, worked with civil engineer, and lawyer German, Jimenez, in the national, plan of highways, and railroads of, Venezuela, by order of the national, government. He. Was responsible, for the construction of, the railroad from Caracas, to Valencia. He. Also built, the highway from Caracas. To Elgin Quito in. 1887. He accompanied. The Venezuelan, chemist Vicente, marcano, on a scientific. Expedition to, the upper Orinoco, River sent. By President Antonio. Guzman, Blanco, the. Trip provided, geographical. Positions, and a collection of plants and archaeological. Objects, found today in United, States and Germany as a. Geographer. He identified. The levels of the lake of Valencia, it's tributaries, River and determined, all the heights of the range of the coast, he. Lived with the Orinoco. Basin indigenous. People and wrote books on their customs, and dialects. As a. Botanist. He classified, many plants, in Venezuela. Donated. Rare specimen, samples to, the Smithsonian. Institution. And wrote a book on the palms of Venezuela, the palms of the flora Venezuela. Caracas, 1908. In. 1911. He, became, the first person to ascend, pico Humboldt, in the Sierra Nevada, de Merida in Venezuela.

As. Founding. Member of the Sociedad, Venice Alana Dickens's Naturals, Venezuelan. Society, of Natural Sciences, was its president in 1935. And 1937. He. Received, an honorary Doctorate. From the University of. Hamburg and, the medal of the Berlin geographical. Society. He. Received, the order of the Liberator, the alfredo. Yarn, cave in miranda, is named for him it is the sixth largest in the country. Topic. Hydraulic, engineering. Ignacio, Rodriguez. Atop Maracaibo. Zuly estate. 1942. Is a venezuelan, hydrologist. Graduated. From the University, of Zulia, as a civil, engineer studied. At Caltech, earning, his PhD at, Colorado State. University. In 1967. Rodriguez. Iturbe has taught at many universities, including. The University of. Zulia, Simon. Bolivar University. MIT, Texas. A&M, and the University. Of Iowa, he. Was awarded with the Robert Horton medal. 1998. The Stockholm, water prize, 2002. And the William BAU a medal, 2009. He. Has been a member of the US National Committee, for the International. Institute for applied systems. Analysis, since, 2004. In. 2008. He received a special recognition from, the World Cultural Council, in. 2010. Was elected, as member of the United, States National. Academy of Sciences. And was appointed by pope benedict xvi to the Pontifical. Academy of, Sciences, he currently serves, as the james s mcdonnell distinguished. University. Professor at, Princeton, University. Topic. Food, engineering. Carlos. Rubra check Prager, 1916. Caracas. 2004. Check master, Brewer of Jewish origin, in. 1937. Emigrated. To Ecuador, after the occupation, of his country, by Adolf, Hitler troops, on. January. 1st, 1943. He joined the polar group of Venezuela, founded, in 1941. By Lorenzo, Alejandro. Mendoza, Fleury. Four. Months after his entry, Ruba check raised the board of directors, the need to change the formula of the beer as it detected, that the consumer, wanted a product more refreshing, and so adapted, to the Venezuelan palette, and our tropical climate. Then. Decided, to make a variation. In the ingredients. Of the beer replaced, 20%. Of the malted, barley with, corn flakes also, known as beer chips and add more carbon, dioxide. So. He managed to reformulate, the polar beer adapting, it to the consumers, tastes printing, in an unrivaled, body, and flavor, this. Led her quickly to occupy, the first place in the preference, of Venezuelans. In. 1954. Created, the process to produce the cornflake for polar group in order to substitute, the import, of this raw material. Counting. By then with three brewing plants in operation and being the Corn Flakes one, of the main ingredients of the beer formula, the company, decided, to build its own corn processing. Plant in term era a ragout estate, this. Decision, would be a decisive, step in, the later development. Of the food business the precooked maize flour herring, a PA n for the era pass, Ruba. Checked old when, had the idea of making a flower to make arrow pass with the corn flakes that we used in the beer industry. I met. With some manufacturers. Of era pass in era Paris, that existed, in the country and they considered, our project, to be very complicated, I. Thought. That if we change the grinding, and the humidity, of the. Cornflakes. We, could get a precooked, flour that would not give so much work to the housewife, I, called. A REM Avenger technician. To prepare, a sample and we got what we wanted. Launched. In 1960. The herring our PA n rapidly, gained acceptance among, housewives, because, of the tremendous, saving, in domestic, labor and its high quality. Topic. Structural. Engineering. Ibraheim. Lopez Garcia, caviar. 1925. Maracaibo. 1994. A, visionary. Like few formed, in civil engineering, exerted. For many years the teaching, and the investigation. In the Central, University, of Venezuela, and, the University. Of Zulia. His. Practice, was based on a careful, observation of, nature it's surprising. Structures, and designs. He. Tried to make engineering proposals. Lighter and fresh optimizing. Resources and, reducing, environmental, impact, as a. Result, of these deep convictions, he founded, the social, ecological movement. For the 21, century at the end of the 60s, with strong environmental. Principles. He. Also carried, out several construction, projects. Such as the roof of the Jose. Perez Colmenares. Stadium, mary, kay a ragu estate in which his new thinking, becomes evident, with a design, inspired by the shape of the palm leaf, in. 1970. He prepared, a challenging, work of promotion, titled, on tops domes and flights that tried to break with some paradigms, of the modernity.

First. It criticizes. Our reliance on fire based technology. On combustion. By proposing, the use of alternative, energies. He. Criticizes. That humans, have been inspired, by fish, and birds to design aircraft, helicopters and. Submarines, since its principle, is linear which in its opinion, has the result of waste of energy and fuel. Thanks. To a study that for a long time made on the spores shells, of turtles and, other natural domes, proposes. The construction, of an airship based, on the way of moving of these beings. His. Airship, model consisted, of a large central, dome surrounded by a ring of aerodynamic. Rotating, domes that would allow it to travel in the air and even in the water to which is added an engine that applies the laws of electromagnetism. Topic. Petroleum. Engineering. Gustavo. In chart Perich, 1938. Maracaibo. Venezuela. 2010, Norman, Oklahoma. Graduated. With a Bachelor, of Science degree in petroleum. Engineering from the University. Of Oklahoma in. 1957. And later revalidated. His title, at the Universidad. Del zulia, in. Chart was the first Venezuelan. To become chief petroleum, engineer, for any of Shels group of companies, worldwide and, after, many years of a very successful, career in PDVSA. Was named the first president, of int, EVP, Venezuela's. Technology Research & Development Center in. 1998. He was the first Latin American elected. As president of the Society, of petroleum engineers. SPE. In. 1998. Ended his 41, year career in the oil industry as, a member, of PDVSA. Board which was at the time one, of the biggest oil companies, in the world, since. 2003. He was a visiting, research, scholar at the University of Oklahoma, in, the sakis, Energy Center and worked mainly with the Energy Institute of, the Americas. Topic. Inventors. Carlos. Del Pozo, Y Sucre. 1743. Calibos, o 1814. Gama Guan is probably, the first outstanding. Inventor, that Venezuela. Had. Alexander. Von Humboldt mentions. A meeting with this man in 1800. Site we found in calabaza, in the heart of the plains an electric, machine of, large discs electro, force batteries. Electrometers. A material. Almost as complete, as that of our physicists. In Europe all. These objects, had not been purchased, in the United, States were the work of a man who had never seen any instrument, which no one could consult, who did not know the phenomena, of electricity. More than by reading the treaty of Sagada, Lafond. Joseph hey Nancy gourd elephant, and the memoirs of Franklin, Benjamin Franklin. Journey to the equinoctial, regions, of the new continent. In. 1804. Participated. With the spanish scientist, Francisco. Xavier, Bal --mess in the vaccination. Against, smallpox in. Venezuela. Del. Pozo, was a partisan, of the Spanish colonial government. And for this reason he received, no support from the new independent, government established. In 1811. He. Died forgotten, in 1814. Johann, Gottlieb Benjamin. Sigurd Grose waltz. 1796. Theo Dada Bolivar. 1870. German, Surgeon, General in simón, bolívar's army, who developed, the recipe of the called Angostura, bitter as a tonic for soldiers affected. By upset, stomachs, and tropical, diseases. Siegert. Began to sell it in 1824. And established. A distillery, for the purpose, in 1830. Siegert. Was based in the town of Angostura. Now see you dad Bolivar, and used locally, available ingredients. Perhaps aided by botanical. Knowledge of the local Amerindians. The. Product, was exported, abroad from, 1853. Used, for flavoring cocktails. Beverages. Or less often food, in. 1875. The plant was moved from Thea dad bola to Port of Spain Trinidad, where. It remains. Angostura. Bitter won a medal at the welt house talung, 1873. When. The. Metal is still depicted, on the oversized, label, along with reverse which shows Emperor, Franz Joseph, the first of Austria in profile, the, exact, formula is a closely, guarded secret with, only one person knowing, the whole recipe past, hereditarily. Luis. Zambrano, Bale adores, 1901. Tovar, 1990. Was a Venezuelan. Self-taught, inventor, and popular, technologist. He. Left formal, education. After the fourth year of primary school but soon began to develop an interest in mechanics, enjoying, discovering. For himself, the speed ratios, produced, by connecting, oranges, of different, diameters, and rotating, them by means of Jets of water, these. Gadgets led him to consider new challenges. And discover of physical, principles, in practical, ways in. His val nuevo, workshop, near baler doors he empirically, and intuitively, learned enough about water turbines, to generate electricity.

And Mechanics, to allow him to create about 50, inventions, some of which were Commission's such as a strawberry peeling, machine and, a sieve for categorizing garlic. And numerous, improvements, to various different, machines, despite, having lost his right hand to a saw in an accident, in. 1977. In. November. 1984. The university, of los andes awarded, him the title of doctor honoris causa for. His useful, creative, work the. First time that this award had been given to a country man he. Was declared an illustrious son, of baler doors and a street in this Meriden village is now named after him. Luis. Caballero. Mejias, caracas. 1903. Caracas. 1959. Was a venezuelan. Engineer, who invented, the precooked maize flour for the era pass in the 1950s. The. Traditional, preparation, of our wrapper flour is very labor-intensive. Requiring. The pounding, of maize in a large mortar, boiling, and grind. Caballero. Used. The profits from his patent, to finance, a technical, school system. The. Precooked flour was later mass produced, and sold in larger, quantities, in. 1954. The venezuelan beer and malted, drinks company impresses. Paulo developed. An industrial, production, method launching, the brand Harry no PA n in 1960. The. Product, rapidly, gained acceptance among, housewives, because, of the tremendous saving, in domestic, labor and its high quality, the. Original, slogan was se. Acabó, la pila Dara which. Means no. More pounding. Harry. No PA n has remained, essentially, unchanged. Since then as can be seen from the original, advertisements. Humberto. Fernandez moran Maracaibo. February, 18, 1924. Stockholm, March 17. 1999. Was, a Venezuelan. Research scientist. Renowned for inventing, the diamond, knife or scalpel, significantly. Advancing, the development of, electromagnetic. Lenses for electron, microscopy, based, on superconducting. Technology. And many other scientific, contributions. Dr.. Fernandes, Moran founded, the Venezuelan, Institute, for neurological. And brain studies the predecessor. Of the current Venezuelan, Institute, of scientific. Research IV. I see, in. 1958. He was appointed, Minister of Education during. The last year of the regime, of Marcos, pérez jiménez, and was forced to leave Venezuela, when the dictatorship. Was overthrown. He. Worked with NASA for the Apollo project. And taught in many universities such. As Massachusetts Institute. Of, Technology. University. Of Chicago, and the University of. Stockholm. In. The United, States he was proposed, to be nominated for the Nobel Prize. He. Rejected, the nomination. Because he would have had to embrace American. Citizenship, which he refused, wanting, to maintain his Venezuelan. Nationality. Among. Honors and awards includes. The John Scott Medal. Knight. Of the Order of the last our Claude, Bernard medal, Cambridge, annual, medical, prize. El. Rafael. Reif born, in Maracaibo, August, 21st. 1950. Venezuelan. American, electrical, engineer, inventor, and academic, administrator. Descendant. Of Czech Jews ancestor, on July 2nd, 2012, was elected, president of the Massachusetts Institute. Of, Technology, succeeding. Susan, Hockfield the, first woman in charge. Reif, received, his undergraduate, degree in electrical, engineering from.

The Universidad. De Cara Barbra Valencia. Venezuela, in. 1973. He then, served for a year as an assistant, professor at Universidad. Simon Bolivar in, Caracas. He. Went to the United, States for, graduate, school earning, his doctorate in electrical engineering. From Stanford University, in. 1979. He. Then spent a year as a visiting, assistant professor in, the Department, of Electrical Engineering. At Stanford. His. Research, centered, on three-dimensional. Integrated. Circuit, technologies. And on environmentally. Benign micro. Electronics, fabrication. An, early. Champion of MIT's engagement. In micro, and nano technologies. Dr., Rieff is the inventor or co-inventor. On 13, patents, has edited or co-edited, five books and has supervised, 38. Doctoral, theses. Ignacio. Lares born in caracas. 1952. Graduated. As chemist, at Simon Bolivar University. Engaged. By int, EVP. In. 1977. Led the first investigative. Sketches, referring, to heavy oil emulsion surfactant. Technology, that conducted, to the or emotion, trademark, in, 1983. In. 1985. Managed, int, EVP. Groups to study the feasibility of, using it, as fuel for boilers. In. 1988. The, commercialization. Of this product, was in charge of the company bitumen. Eased l Orinoco, sa bi tio our subsidiary. Of pdvsa. Finally. That same year the first commercial-scale. Cargo. Was exported, to the chub you electric, power plant, in Japan, the. Are emulsion, developed, by Venezuelan, scientists, represents. One of the most significant. Inventions, of the 20th century. Managing, director, pdvsa, until, 2002. When migrated. To Mexico, in. 2005. Was chief executive officer. Of Monclova, peroneus. Gas s a. Responsible. For the technical activities. From the planning phase to construction, for the company, that was awarded the PME, x multi, services, contract, of the Piron a a block, at. IHS. A, realized, technical, activities, from planning, phase to execution. Of geology, reservoir. Drilling, infrastructure. Operational. And maintenance and, health security and environment. For. Vectrex pleurae ssin and production, colombia sa, since 2013, handle. Colombian, and Peruvian, assets, with an operated, production, of some 200,000. BD of oil and seven exploratory. Blocks. Manuel. Rendon, born in San Cristobal. 1968. Venezuelan. Chemical, engineer, graduated, at Simon, Bolivar University. Who invented, the first published, formulation. For the degradation of, fossil, based high-density. Plastics, it. Is composed, of heptane, cellulose. Methyl, rhenium trioxide. Mutilated. Hydroxy, toluene, and polyphenol. Oxidase. The. Additive, can be selectively, programmed, to cause the plastic to begin disintegrating. At a predetermined time. Gabriele. A Rincon Mora born in Caracas, in 1972. Is a Venezuelan. American, electrical, engineer, scientist. Professor, inventor, and author who was elevated, to the grade of fellow by the Institute. Of Electrical and, Electronics, Engineers, I Triple, E in 2011. And to the grade of fellow by the institution. Of Engineering, and Technology, IET. In 2009. For his contributions. To energy, harvesting, and power conditioning.

Integrated, Circuits icees. Hispanic. Business, magazine, voted him one of the, 100. Most influential. Hispanics. In. 2000. The Society, of Hispanic, Professional Engineers. SHPE. Awarded. Him the National, Hispanic, in technology, award in 2000. Florida, International, University. FIU, awarded. Him the Charles, E Perry visionary, award in, 2000. The Georgia Institute of, Technology inducted. Him into its Council, of outstanding. Young engineering, alumni in 2000. And former, lieutenant, governor Cruz, Buster, Monta of California. Presented, him a commendation, certificate. In 2001. Rincon. Maura grew up in Mary Kay and migrated. To the United States when, he was 11, years old he, graduated, at Florida, International, University. As electrical, engineer, in 1992. Georgia, Tech with a Master, of Science degree. In electrical, engineering with. A minor in, mathematics in. 1994. And Georgia, Tech with a PhD, in electrical engineering. In, 1996. With a dissertation on, current. Efficient, low voltage, low, dropout, regulators. Advisor. Professor. Phil, Allen, he, worked for Texas, Instruments, from, 1994. To 2003. Was, an adjunct professor for, the school of Electrical, and Computer Engineering, at. Georgia Tech. 1999. To 2001. Professor. At Georgia Tech since, 2001. And visiting, professor, at National cheng-chun University. In CKU, in Taiwan, since 2011. He. Has written several books chapters. Of others and over, 160. Other publications. His. Work has generated, 38. Patents, he, has designed over 26, commercial, power chip designs, and delivered, over 95, presentations. Worldwide, as of October, 2014, his, publications. Had been cited, over 5,200. Times. His. Work and research is, on the design and development of silicon, based Microsystems. That draw in conditioned, power from tiny batteries, fuel, cells and generators. Honus ambient, energy from, motion light, temperature, and, radiation, to supply mobile, portable. And self-sustaining, devices. Such as wireless micro, sensors, for biomedical, consumer. Industrial and military, applications. He. Has worked on voltage, references. Low dropout, regulators. Switching. DC, DC convertors. And energy, harvesting, Microsystems. Topic. Mathematics. Topic. Calculus. When. Manuel cadigal. Y Eduardo. Barcelona. 1803. You guara Poirot, 1856. Was a Venezuelan. Mathematician. Engineer and. Statesman. Orphaned. At age seven he was raised in Spain by his cousin once-removed, field, marshal when Manuel cadigal. Former, captain General of Venezuela and, Cuba, he. Studied, in the University. Of alcalá, de Henares and. Later in France finishing. His studies in 1828. He. Returned, to Venezuela, that year he. Helped found the Sociedad economy, Cadoo amigos, del PI East the following, year and in 1830.

The Government, appointed, him to create and direct the new military academy, of mathematics. He. Served on national Congress twice once in 1833. Is, representative. Of Caracas, and in 1835. As senator, of Barcelona, province. With. Jose hermano gildo Garcia, and Furman Toro he founded, the newspaper correo. De Caracas. Which ran from 1838. To 1841. His. Works include tratado. De Mechanica elemental, treatise. On fundamental. Mechanics and. Curso. De astra, no mere y memoria, so brain integral, lays entre limit ace course. On astronomy, and report on integrals, between, limits. The. When Manuel cadigal. Naval Observatory in. The 23, - an arrow of Caracas, metro, station, Carnot, Amarillo when, Manuel cadigal. Municipality. In Enzo a key and asteroid. Minor planet. 12350. 9 cadigal, are named after him. Fan. Sisko J do art Maracaibo. 1883. Caracas. 1972. Engineer. And mathematician. He. Obtained, in 1900. The title of bachelor, and surveyor in queer de cabelo, in. 1902. With only 19, old he dedicated, to study of mathematics. Doing a work on the sine pie up to 200, decimal, digits presented. The Academy, of Sciences, of Paris in 1907. Graduated. In 1908. In the Central, University, of Venezuela, as civil engineer, later served as professor of geometry. 1909. To 1911, an infinitesimal. Calculus. 1936. To 1939. He. Studied, mathematics at. The University. Of Paris, 1920. He, was the consul of Venezuela. In Geneva. 1924. To 1929. Director. Of the astronomical, and meteorological, observatory, when. Manuel cadigal. 1936. To 1941. He. Also served, for many years as border director, of the Ministry, of Foreign Affairs. 1941. To 1968. A position, that allowed him to participate. In the delimitation, of Venezuelan. Borders with neighboring, countries particularly. Brazil, he. Chaired the College of Engineers. 1937. To 1939. And the Academy, of physical, mathematical. And natural sciences. 1941. To 1945. And, 1954. To 1957. Of which he had been a founding, member. 1933. Throughout. His life he maintained. A permanent correspondence. With scientists. From around the world on problems, inherent to his specialty, and has been considered, as one of the most outstanding, mathematicians. Of his time, the. National, astronomical. Observatory. Of Llano del Hato are named after him. Raymundo. Chela kalpana. 1919. Caracas. 1965. Mathematician. Of lebanese, family. Graduated. As professor, of mathematics. In the pedagogical. Institute, he worked there uninterruptedly. For 16 years between, 1942. And 1958. In. The Central, University, of Venezuela, founded. The Faculty, of Sciences. In 1959. And was in charge of the School of Mathematics in. 1961. He was the first recipient, of the Council, of scientific, and humanistic, development. Of the Central, University, of Venezuela, to study postgraduate. Studies at King's College in London where, he obtained his doctorate in, mathematics in. 1963. He. Was a founding, member of the Teachers, Association of, Venezuela. Where he held the presidency of the organization. On two occasions from, 1952. To 1953. And, from 1963. To, 1965. He. Was also a corresponding. Member of the Academy, of physical, mathematical. And natural sciences. Due. To his extensive performance. In the chair he formed several generations. Of students, in his specialty, and was considered, one of the most outstanding. Mathematicians. In Latin America. Ignacio. Era Barron born in Caracas, in 1945. Graduated. In mathematics. At the University. Of Oxford during, the 1960's. He began, his professorial. Career, more than 40, years ago in the Faculty, of engineering. Of the Central, University of Venezuela, where, he won the chair of mathematical. Analysis, by competition. He. Is professor, founder, of Simon, Bolivar University. USB. Where, he held the positions, of chief founder, of the department of mathematics director. Founder, of the division, of physics and mathematics. And vice rector academic. Retired. From USB, since 1989. He. Was a senior, member of CEO and IC IT national. Council for scientific and, technological research. For 19, years until. 1994. And served as vice-president of, CEO and IC IT for, four years. President. 1992-93. Of, the board of directors of the fund for the promotion, of researchers, member, of the National, Council of education. 1989. To 94, member, of the Presidential.

Commission For the study of a national, educational. Project, CEO p en. 1985-86. Visiting. Professor, at the university of oxford 1982. Rector. Of the Metropolitan. University. 1985. To 94. Since. 1986. He has occupied the 17, number. Individual, of the Academy, of physical, mathematical. And Natural Sciences. He. Held the presidency, of the Academy, for the periods. 1

2019-01-04 01:56

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