Nanosensors for Aerospace & Building Industries
Afternoon. Between. You and the break I'll be brief I promise now. So. My name is Sammy Arizona I'm a principal, research engineer, at UT, RC I. I. Will. Start this talk by. Talking. About DTC, in general what, it is about and what we do in terms of business and products and I will also, provide. Some, description, our initiative. In the area of advanced manufacturing including. Sensors. And and some. Other electronic components. Using direct, right and which one is printing technologies, and, then, I will end up with some application. Examples, as well as highlight. Some contracts. We have with next Institute, and we'll also describe the baddest. It as well and what we do with it as a. Member, so. You know technologies, is a. Large. Company, that that. Has four business units right more, or less like GE Corporation. So we have. Business. In the area of airspace and and building management technologies. And the. Four unit units that that, kind. Of create products, for us or all, these elevators this is a company that makes it innovators and systems. We. Have a second. One in the aerospace, industry called. Penn Whitney and they're. Making. Aircraft. Engines mainly and. Then. We hope we also have a business unit in the record, the CCS, or the. Control. The climate's and system. Our, security, systems this, is a business that combines, many small. Companies. Dealing. With with, systems. And subsystems for, building management including HVAC, security. And intrusion and and, access. Control technologies, and. The. Fourth one is aerospace. This. Is a new. One that combined. Legacy. Goodrich. And Hamilton. Sundstrand together. Married three, years ago and they. Provide a lot of components, for Airbus, and Boeing including, landing gears and and. Climate. Control for the cabin interior designs and and some of the sensors. For altitude, and four other. Functionalities. They also provide the icing, and is detection. Systems, and technologies, so. The research center for e.t.c. Is kind, of a global. Integrate. Now we have offices, in in, the u.s. we have ones. In Europe we have also one. In China as well as the. Ones, in Europe are basically in Italy and and Ireland. So. The main the main campus is in East Hobbit Connecticut and this is where most of our facilities. And staff exist so. So. That what we do we we work with. Our business units we we work on technologies. For the future we, look, ahead we. Look in what will, change, our products, in terms of improvement, and we also look into ways. Of making. Things, better for our business units coming, up with the innovative solutions, and ideas, that can be added, to the place provide convening, age. So. The areas of. Activities. For the research center include advanced manufacturing things.
Like Aerodynamics, and acoustics, we do have a lot of material. Development and measurement. Activities. We also do, have. Activities, in the area of power electronics and. Circuit. Designs as well as communications. And thermal management, and. Those are also boarding the air space and building technologies. So. We can we collaborate we actively. Work. With universities. We work with government to agencies, we work with small companies and and we. Also work with competing, industries as well to four to form partnerships, we write joint, proposals, and so on so there's, a lot of activities what we do in, the US and outside the US to create sort of growth. And and progress, for our industry. So. The. Advanced. Manufacturing, initiative. At UT RC was. Launched five years ago and the. Idea, there. Was to kind. Of map, what. We can do in the, area of that right and print, electronics, for for. The Corbitt at, large right so this is this. Is an activity that sort of looked into what, is there in terms of direct write and fabrication. And manufacturing, of sensors and. Active components, and where. Those could be utilized, within e.t.c products. Right so, that's on the table you can see that I mean. In the aerospace and building, industries. There's altered need for sensors and actuators. And functional. Devices and those include things. Like. The, icing detection. Of eyes detection, of pressure, detection, of strain, temperature. I mean in. In the building management we we look into a smoke detection fire, detection. Flame detection, we look into access. Control how do we how do we control the axis on buildings, how we measure if, there is an intrusion event and so on how we count. EB will sometimes even tracking people movement in buildings, to control the. Ventilation, and and control the energy of buildings and so on a lot, of needed sensors, that we can, do you. Got now and look for even using. In the future, in. Terms of in terms of direct. Right technologies, we have been looking at all. Options, for, printing and manufacturing sensors. Right so this is a list of things that you, can use to print and, integrate. Functional, coatings, or device, into, flexible. Or rigid substrates, or even make, them into your product. Service right away so embedding them into the surface of the component so, we have been looking things, like screen printing, aerosol it's printing extrusion, printing, inkjet printing animal spray and so on we. We have most of those components and the, ones we don't have we work with outside vendors we, collaborate with other companies small, companies and. Universities. To, sort of prototype.
And And develop concepts, in this area. So. I will go through the. Description of two key technologies. We have at the research center and those technologies are meant, to enable us to kind, of manufacture. Design. And manufacture, sensors. And and other electronic, circuits in our, products. So the, goal here is really took into what. Is available there that we, can, use to integrate functional. Sensors, into our components, and one example is that is the. Aero soldiers printing, machine, made by Optima, so. This is a technology that uses. Kind of nano dispersed, materials. So this is, relying. On mainly, nano or Micro dispersed. Inks. And then. You do you have your inks suspended, in a solvent and then he used atomizers, using ultrasonic or pneumatic methods to atomize, your nano, ink and, then. Create a mist which is really small. Spheres micro spheres of particles. Or aerosolized, or, carried, through tubing, with a with. A gas flow and then. This is being, fed into a small nozzle at. A controlled, rate and then at the nozzle exit there is a sheath gas, that kind of forces, the. Aerosol. Aerosolized. Particles, into, the substrate so you control the. Atomizer. Atomizer, you control the flow rate and you also control the pressure or, the flow rate of this chief gas and. Eventually. You would be able to control the trace how, much you deliver in terms of ink or nano ink, and you, control eventually, the geometric, view trace thickness and width right you. Also can have have, options of replacing this nozzle using different size and so on to come up with some some. Variation. Of trace. Size right so, this is a very, very, robust machine. If you can get it to work it's these. A lot of tweaking and and kind of alignment to really get. This to operate for long hours. But, once you get to work you go through the steps. Of making. All the needed tweaks, and and. And tuning, then, this can print really consistently. And fancy, and good good, designs, if, you, wish so this. Video here is it's, kind of showing. So, this video shows basically, the printing. Of, resistors, using carbon, nano, ink this. Is a good thing about this one is also the standoff, distance so, when you print your, not, like. Five millimeters ocean substrate surface so, that means, if your substrate has roughness, or has other features in it you are away from that and you kind, of spray on it and away from it which is really, helpful. Some for some design and for some for, some substrates. Right this. Is printing, resistors, on a substrate, and then. The. Second. Technology that we rely, on in prototyping. And creating. Some of the designs we need for our application. Is is made by in script this is micro. Dispensing, technology. This. Relies on kind, of a sealant. Pump really. Kind. Of symbol you. Load your ink to this syringe here and you apply a back pressure to, it so, you keep kind, of a back, pressure at the ink and your, ink can really. Range from low viscosity high, viscosity it, could have nano. Particles. Or even micro, particles, it's kind of very, broad and flexible in, the, material type and and characteristics. And then. You control the the. Opening, on, the event of the back of the syringe by having this valve moving, up and down with. High precision therefore. You. Can really control the amount of ink. You feed into the nozzle down. To Tim pica leaders which is really it's very tiny good.
Control On the amount of ink and then, you have a conical. Nozzle at, the end made out of ceramics, very, robust reliable and you, can feed through that with, this process, this machine has taken. Place it has. More. Than one labels in head you can have two, of them or three of them which, means you can print more than one material you can mix and print different, materials, and the same design. And then. It has all the 3d surface mapping which means if your surfaces, is a non planar if it's curved, or it's like a sphere or cylinder you, can map it scan, it and then you can print it on it so. So. This video here shows. The. Printing. Of. An. Active. Circuit. You. Can see that you you you have one. Printing. Head that prints, silver inks nano, inks, and. Then. You. Can also have another printing, head to print the conductive. Adhesive, right, so. This is a very print head that comes and prints. I. Think. Prints, the pads, from quizzing. Conductive ink. And then you have a pic in a place arm built. Into the same machine to click, pick, ICS thinned ICS and place, them with where you need them so this is this is an example of being, able to manufacture a. Functional. Device with. The same, machine. Feeding, one design, into the machine so your design in this. Case is. A CAD file that integrates. Basically. All those elements and specifies, what material to use and when, to pick in place and what to begin to place from the tree and then. Eventually have one functional device with just one. Design and and in more, than one material. So. I'm. Going to go through a few examples application. Examples, for some. Our. Business. Units. And I'm going to describe them and and, he liked what, how, printing, can help us and how many materials is being effective, in in those, devices, right so the. First one is really sensing. The the weir or the. Or. The or the degradation of echoing so we we do, have a lot of mechanical. Surfaces. Removing. Components. I would say and and. And, those components. We do they have kind, of a coating, on them for, some reason it. Could be meant. For. Encapsulation. Could be meant for thermal, kind. Of. Protection. And so on and we'd. Like to track any weed or damage this coating securely so and this, helps us can understand, when to worry, about maintenance, and want to kind. Of stop using, the part and and and go into repair, and so on so. This example shows you basically an, embedded, design. Where where, you. Really can, have your, coding and then you design, your sensor, and in. This case is very simple design right it's really just think.
About Resistors, being in parallel configuration and, you have lines, that are kind of located. Where the wear events, would happen and those. Lines are discrete lines obviously and. Then. The idea here is that when wear happens. It's going, to remove the lines one by one those are really thin and narrow lines right and your you're, coding extended, in the, coating thickness and then. If we're happens then. You are removing the lines and when the lines are removed your change there is a sense of your circuit, eventually, so but. So with this concept you need to do a little bit of circuit, analysis and and a little bit of simulation, so if you if, you have as you know if you have many resistors in parallel if. You change if you take one of them out of the circuit then the change is one over and, very, tiny change especially if you have a large number of them right so, to make this design kind, of effective, and and and work for a small number of resistors right then, you need to customize, your, circuit, such that you. Don't have the same resistors we have different risks but you have the same Delta V Delta R every, time you lose one resistor right so so. You to go with this kind of approach and, then. This, is kind, of showing a prototype, to, to show how this concept could be fabricated. With nanomaterials, right and nano inks right so this is fully. Printed we. Are sensor that that's, made by the Institute machine that I just showed you before so this is this is showing that you can print those, silver, lines and you can make them really close to each other so, obviously the resolution of the sensor the resolution will depend on the, line is spacing here right the more lines you fit per units. Per, millimeter, the, higher resolution of that of the track of the wear event and the damage event and so on so showing. That you have many, lines next, to each other and. Then. You can also print those resistors as well so you have the ink that, really, prints the right resistor and an advantage. Here is that if you take, this design and you look for resistors that are commercial, kind. Of surface mount resistors that are commercial you will not be able to find the exact number you, have to sort of trade. Off some of their varies because in the, design for example a resistor could be 131. Oh. And. If, you go out to the catalog to look for this various that doesn't exist nobody would have this in the, inventory. Right but, with this technology if your, design says this resistor should be. 211. Home you, can print that number with. This technology using, nano materials, and using the printing technology this week we had so this is one when, area were printing. Resistors, and and passive components, really could make, more like an analogue kind. Of process right and then. Testing, this device, you can see that this is experimental, data where if. You remove the lines you can get really even change in voltage as. A function of depth as a function of where or time in this case right, it's. A second application. Example. For for nano sensors and nano materials. It's. Kind of a flame detector or, flame sensor this is this is an area of interest for us because we. As. I mentioned in, the beginning in the morning session there, we, do have, a lot of kind, of need for smoke alarm and if. We can combine smoke, detection with flame detection, then we'll have kind of better. Kind. Of safety. Measure, of. The space and and, especially. In buildings were there are children, and kids, sometimes. They play with with with flame and fire and few hand report to that early, on who will, avoid, accidents. And and. Thanks. Right so this is a, design. That shows photoconductive, methods. Where you print electrodes. That are inter digitated and, this. Is also printed using silver nano inks and then on top of that you print an active photo. Conductive, layer, right so in this case this is zinc, stearate material, and the.
Good Thing about this kind of material is that you, can, tune the band, gap. Or, the absorption, wavelength. By, tuning the size, of the particles, so this is a nano formulation. That we also worked with the university to create, for. This approach I will this, class of materials has a wide bandgap, right. And then you can't unit it make it even wider, right. By changing, the size and the doping level of the, nanoparticles, and the. Reason, we need to do that because we're trying to be solar blind, we are trying to move, the detection zone more. Into the short, UV. And that. Means we are not going to be responsive, to any solar radiation, in this technology, so this is an area where we. Are we still need some improvement but just, showing an example of where where. Nanomaterials, could sort of improve, the quality. Of those devices. So. A third. Application. Example, is in, the area of smoke, detection and what. You see here is it's more like a concept, for creating, electron. Beams right this is this is probably new but. But what, the idea here is that you are going to rely on nano needles or CNT. Is to to, work. As a cold cathode, and, usually. They are packaged, in in vacuum, and then. You are expecting, to create field, emission effect, if you apply a small voltage across the CMT's, right so this is kind of a field emission device, and you. Emit electrons. In vacuum. So. If you can design what. We call electron window where, your window is made, out of supporting. Structure, will. Open, areas. Or open kind. Of zones, and then. On top of that you have a very thin layer of boron. Nitride or light, kind, of atomic weight material, you. Will get to the scenario where those electrons will go through the opening of that structure, and through the membrane, and travel. Into the outside so this is this is a this, is more like creating. Environmental, friendly. Electron. Beam. Source right, and the. Way this could, be, used in smoke detection, is that those. Electrons will eventually ionize the air, outside. The window and create. A baseline of current so if I measure the current. That those, returns will create I'll have, a baseline of how much current. There is and if. Those images are stable, over time and they create the same amount to feel the emission then. This current will be the same roughly. But. This current will change if, there is smoke if, you have smoke particles coming this way what will happen is that they will interact with those. Electrons and reduce the amount of ionized air and therefore. You will know that there is a smoke or or particles in the. In the vicinity or in that space right this is the this is the principle or the mechanism, of sensing, smoke and particles. Or. Even gases and then one. Remaining, challenge for this technology to, be deployed is really, the lifetime of those called. Emitters so we. Have been doing a lot of testing and evaluation, looking for materials, are pretty stable. Consistent, in creating those field, emission characteristics. For. A long time because again, the lifetime, for those devices, is, very long and and, we. Need those to be qualified, for for, this kind of performance so. This. Is this, slide is describing. The next flix Institute this is again. More. Like a public, private consortium, of companies, in, very seasoned and nonprofit, organizations. And. The. Mission here or the idea is to improve, or mature than, the. Flexible, hybrid electronic, technology. In general by, addressing some of the remaining gaps to, enable. Manufacturing. Flexible. Hybrid, printed. Platforms. For biomedical, aerospace. Automotive and, many industries, right and, flexible. Hybrid here, means the. Idea. Is not to print, everything, the. Itit is to print what can work when, printed, and then, pick-and-place, thinned, isyes so. For example right now nobody can come around and claim that they can print microprocessor. Or microcontroller. Right or a memory right those, are the things, I see that are being picked, and placed into the circuit however. You can print resistors you can print capacitors, you can print interconnects. And so on and those, will be printed eventually, so this is the meaning of hybrid here right, so this. Is a list of member, companies, and universities and, ET RC is a member of that, Institute they, have proposal, calls and, they. Have an active and open one right now I think was at least in May for those who are interested in this Institute. So. We, are working with them on two, activities, on. Two project and one of them is really looking into. Manufacturing. High, density sensor. Layer right so this is this is meant for improving.
The. Knowledge. Of aerospace. Components right, we're trying to learn. More about what happened to, our components, in the field during operation and trying. To switch from schedule. 2 to, end on demand maintenance, right so we we. Right now we operate is that we have this kind of scheduled maintenance which. Means the, engine will be, can into, a repair hole after. For, example two years or or 200,000, hours of operation regardless, of what. The health is of each component of it right but that's very expensive step, to stub an airplane and take, the engine out and inspect every component on it right this, technology, is really meant to to. Support. Us to move into condition. Based maintenance which means we are going to have a pre knowledge of. The component, health right. We will understand, the strain below, the temperature cycles, and so on before. We decide whether we need to maintain it or not and hopefully it is going to be cost. Effective and and will save us a lot in the maintenance side right and this, network of sensors will include temperatures. Include, strain. And pressure. Sensing. Nodes deployed. In a very small, stretchable. Substrate. And eventually. You can take a substrate, and stretch it to the large size. And you. Can wrap it around a component we can embed it inside, the, component. As a layer, within the composite, and hopefully. Connect wires to it and and and and understand, the. Exact conditions, and and the health of that component during. The. Second program with. Next flexes also this, is this one is lit by UMass, Amherst, and we are kind, of a subcontractor, on it and the. Goal here is to to, to, demonstrate, the. The manufacturing. Of wearable. Human. Performance monitoring, platform this is meant, to be kind of wearable which means it will be designed. And made. On a very flexible substrate, it's. Going to measure. Temperature. Heartbeat. And oxygen, level do and report, on those wirelessly. And then. The idea here is that many. Of the interconnects, will be printed, many of the power. Management. Sex will be printed, and additionally.
Some. High-end ICS, will be kind, of picked, in place therefore they is going to be a lot of activity, around the, integration, die attachment, they will be altered activity on printing fine narrow. Conductive. Line, using using nano inks and, so on so. This is this, is the biomass Emery's and we and other small. Companies are part of this, team. And. I will end with this slide and thank, you for for. Your time and attention. Yeah. We. Have one we. Used is one of them and, the. Sauropod is I would, say effective in in. Making, kind. Of symbol prototypes, and. Our. Experience that because. It's kind of capillary. Based. Printing. It's. Required, that the, printing tip is touching, the surface, to. Draw the, ink at yeah. Verticals, which. Means, that. Limits, the kind. Of subject you can work with because you. Need to have eventually very, smooth and flat. Substrate so. If you have rough, or some. Porosity. In your substrate then this could create. Inconsistency. In the printing, of profiles and. I. Would say it doesn't have a lot of added on features. To enable mapping, of surfaces here I think they are still. Improving. On their design and in, their capability. It's. Kind of I would. Say low-end, prototyping, tool as compared. To the option accordion script those are I would say those are high-end. Fabrication. And prototyping, -. Right tools. Yeah. Using. Atheneum particles. You said yes. So those, this. Ink is made by a company called ESL, if. You know you know so. The, reason we use this ruthenium, is is really, the stability, at. The. Temperature, of that application. It's very expensive it, is actually yeah. The. History for this sensor is that we tried carbon and. We. Tried other things and they. Did the grid at certain temperature. This. Resistor, material has been qualified for, the temperature, of interest for us okay, and has. Been very stable and we, have not seen any change, in, the, distance a function of temperature I would say or a small change compared, to other, materials. And. It's commercial one as well so yeah. Very well I would say double by by that company, thank. You.