Music technology | Wikipedia audio article
Music. Technology, is, the use of any device. Mechanism. Machine. Or tool by a musician, or, composer, to, make or perform, music, to compose, notate. Playback. Or record, songs, or pieces or, to analyze, or edit music. The. Earliest-known. Applications. Of technology. To music, was prehistoric, people's. Use of a tool to hand drill holes in bones to, make simple, flutes. Ancient. Egyptians. Developed stringed. Instruments. Such as harps liar's and lutes, which required, making, thin, strings, and some type of PEG system, for adjusting, the pitch of the strings. Ancient. Egyptians. Also used, wind, instruments. Such as double, clarinets. And percussion. Instruments such. As cymbals. In. Ancient. Greece. Instruments. Included. The double reed all oohs and the lyre. Numerous. Instruments, are, referred to in the bible including the, horn pipe, lyre. Harp, and bagpipe. During. Biblical, times the, cornet, flute harp. Eye. And trumpet. Were also, used. During. The Middle Ages, music. Notation, was, used to create a written, record of the notes of plainchant melodies. During. The Renaissance, music era, the, printing, press was invented which. Made it much easier to, mass-produce, music. Which had previously, been hand, copied. This. Helped, to spread musical. Styles, more quickly and across a larger, area. During. The Baroque era. 1600. To 1750. Technologies. For keyboard, instruments. Developed which led to improvements. In the designs, of pipe organs, and harpsichords. And the development. Of a new keyboard, instrument. In about seven 1800. The piano. In. The classical, era, Beethoven. Added new instruments. To the orchestra, to create new sounds such, as the piccolo, contrabassoon. Trombones. And untuned. Percussion. In his ninth symphony. During. The romantic. Music, era si. 1810. To 1900. One of the key ways that new, compositions. Became, known to the public was, by the sales, of sheet music, which, amateur, music, lovers, would perform, at home on their piano, or other instruments. In. The, 19th, century new, instruments. Such as saxophones. Euphoniums. Vogner. Tubas, and cornets. Were added to the orchestra. Around. The turn of the 20th, century, with, the invention. And, popularization. Of the gramophone. Record. Commercialized. In, 1892. And, radio. Broadcasting. Starting. On a commercial, basis, see a. 1919. 1920. There. Was a vast increase, in music. Listening, and it was easier to distribute, music, to, a wider public. The. Development. Of sound recording. Had a major influence. On the development of. Popular, music genres, because, it enabled, recordings. Of songs and bands to be widely, distributed. The. Invention. Of sound recording. Gave rise to new, sub-genre, of, classical. Music, the music, concrete. Style, of electronic. Composition. The. Invention. Of multitrack. Recording. Enabled, pop bands to overdub, many layers of instrument. Tracks and vocals, creating. New sounds, that would not be possible in, a live performance. In. The early 20th. Century electric. Technologies. Such, as, electromagnetic. Pickups. Amplifiers. And loudspeakers were. Used, to develop, new electric. Instruments, such as the electric, piano. 1929. Electric. Guitar. 1931. Electromechanical. Organ. 1934. And electric. Bass. 1935. The. 20th, century, orchestra, gained new instruments. And new sounds. Some. Orchestra. Pieces, used, the electric guitar electric. Bass, or, the theremin. The. Invention. Of the miniature, transistor. In. 1947. Enabled, the creation of, a new generation, of, synthesizers. Which. Were used first in pop music in. The 1960s. Unlike. Prior, keyboard. Instrument. Technologies. Synthesizer. Keyboards, do. Not have strings, pipes, or, metal, tines a. Synthesizer. Keyboard. Creates, musical. Sounds. Using electronic. Circuitry. Or later.
Computer. Chips and software. Synthesizers. Became, popular. In the mass market in, the early, 1980s. With. The development. Of powerful, microchips. A number, of new electronic. Or digital music. Technologies. Were introduced. In the 1980s. And subsequent. Decades, including, drum. Machines, and music, sequences. Electronic. And digital music. Technologies. Are any device, such. As a computer, an, electronic. Effects, unit, or software, that is used by a musician. Or composer, to, help make or perform, music. The. Term usually, refers. To the use of electronic. Devices. Computer. Hardware, and computer. Software that, is used in the performance. Playback. Recording. Composition. Sound, recording. And reproduction. Mixing. Analysis. And editing, of music. You. Topic. Mechanical. Technologies. You. Topic. Prehistoric. Errors. Findings. From Paleolithic. Archaeology. Sites suggests. That prehistoric, people. Used carving, and piercing, tools to, create instruments. Archaeologists. Have found, Paleolithic. Flutes, carved. From bones in which lateral, holes have, been pierced. The. Divya, babe, flute carved, from a cave bear femur is thought, to be at least, 40,000. Years old. Instruments. Such as the seven, holed flute, and various, types of stringed, instruments. Such, as the ravana, hatter have, been recovered, from the indus valley civilization. Archaeological. Sites. India. Has one of the oldest, musical. Traditions. In the world. References. To Indian, classical music. Marga. Are found in the Vedas, ancient. Scriptures. Of the Hindu, tradition. The. Earliest, and largest, collection. Of prehistoric. Musical. Instruments. Was found in China and dates back to between, 7,000. And. 6600. B.c. Topic. Ancient. Egypt. In prehistoric. Egypt. Music. And chanting, were commonly, used in, magic and, rituals, and small, shells, were used as whistles. Evidence. Of Egyptian, musical. Instruments. Dates to the pre-dynastic period, when. Funerary, chants, played, an important. Role in Egyptian. Religion, and were accompanied. By clappers. And possibly, the flute. The. Most reliable, evidence. Of instrument. Technologies. Dates, from the Old Kingdom, when. Technologies. For constructing. Harps, flutes, and double, clarinets. Were developed. Percussion. Instruments. Lyres and lutes, were used by the Middle, Kingdom. Metal. Symbols, were used by ancient Egyptians. In. The, early, 21st, century. Interest. In the music of the fair Raunak, period, began, to grow inspired. By the research, of such foreign-born. Musicologists. As hands hickman. By. The early, 21st. Century. Egyptian, musicians. And, musicologists. Led by the musicology. Professor. Kerry al malt at Helwan university. In cairo had, begun to reconstruct. Musical. Instruments. Of ancient, egypt, a project, that is ongoing. You. Topic. Asian. Cultures. The, indus, valley civilization. Has. Sculptures. That show old musical. Instruments. Like the seven holed flute. Various. Types of stringed, instruments. And drums have, been recovered, from Harappa. And mohenjo-daro. By excavations. Carried, out by sir Mortimer, wheeler. Topic. References. In the Bible. According. To the Scriptures, Jubal. Was the father of harpists. And Organists. Gen4. 20-21. The. Harp was among the chief instruments. And the favorite, of David, and it is referred, to more than 50, times in the Bible, it. Was, used at both joyful. And mournful, ceremonies. And its use was raised. To, its highest. Perfection. Under David. One. Sam. 1623. Blockier. Adds that, it was the sweet music, of the harp that often dispossessed. Saul of his melancholy, one, Sam 16. 14, -, 23. 1810, -, 11. When. The Jews were captive. In Babylon they. Hung their harps up, and refused, to use them while in exile, earlier, being part of the instruments. Used in the temple 1, kgs. 1012. Another. Stringed, instrument. Of the harp class and, one also used, by the ancient. Greeks was, the lyre, a, similar. Instrument. Was the lute which, had a large, pear-shaped. Body long. Neck and fretted, fingerboard. With head screws, for tuning. Poins. Displaying. Musical. Instruments. The Bar Kochba revolt, coinage. Were issued, by the Jews, during the 2nd, Jewish revolt, against. The Roman Empire. Of 132. -. 135. Ad, in. Addition. To those there, was the psaltery, another. Stringed, instrument. Which is referred, to almost 30 times in, Scripture. According. To Josephus, it, had 12, strings, and was played with a quill not, with the hand. Another. Writer, suggested. That it was like a guitar but, with a flat triangular.
Form, And strung from side to side. Among, the wind instruments. Used in the biblical, period whether, cornet, flute for. Organ. Pipe, and, trumpet. There. Were also silver, trumpets. And the double oboe, werner. Concludes. That from the measurements. Taken of the trumpets, on the arch of Titus in. Rome and, from coins that, the. Trumpets. Were very high-pitched, with thin body and shrill, sound. He. Adds that in war of the sons of light against. The sons of darkness, a manual, for military. Organization. And strategy. Discovered. Among the Dead Sea Scrolls, these, trumpets. Appear. Clearly, capable. Of regulating. Their pitch pretty, accurately. As they, are supposed, to blow rather, complicated. Signals. In unison. Whitcomb. Writes that, the pair of silver, trumpets, were fashioned, according, to Mosaic, law and, were probably, among the trophies, which the emperor, Titus, brought to Rome when, he conquered Jerusalem. She. Adds that on the arch raised, to the victorious. Titus, there. Is a sculptured. Relief, of these trumpets. Showing. Their ancient. Form, see, photo, the. Flute was commonly, used for festal, and mourning, occasions. According, to Whitcomb. Quote. Even. The poorest, Hebrew, was obliged, to employ two flute, players to, perform at his wife's funeral. Quotes, the. Shofar. The, horn of a ram is still, used for special. Liturgical. Purposes. Such as the Jewish New Year services. In Orthodox. Communities. As. Such. It, is not considered, a musical. Instrument but. An instrument, of theological. Symbolism. Which has been intentionally. Kept to its primitive, character. In. Ancient. Times it, was used for warning. Of danger to. Announce the, new moon, or beginning, of Sabbath, or to announce the, death of a notable. Quotes. In, it's, strictly, ritual, usage, it carried, the cries of the multitude. To God rights. Werner, among. The percussion. Instruments were. Bells, cymbals. Sistrum. Tablet. Hand, drums, and tambourines. The. Tablet. Or timbrel, was, a small, hand, drum, used, for festive, occasions. And was considered. A woman's, instrument. In. Modern. Times it, was often used by the Salvation. Army. According. To the Bible, when the children of, Israel, came out of Egypt, and. Crossed the Red Sea. Miriam. Took, timbrel in her hands. And all the women went out after, her with timbrels, and with dance. You. Topic. Ancient. Greece. In, ancient Greece. Instruments. In all music can, be divided, into three, categories based. On how sound, is produced, string. Wind, and percussion the. Following. Were among the instruments. Used in the music of ancient, Greece. The, liar a strummed, and occasionally. Plucked string, instrument. Essentially. A handheld, zipper, built on a tortoiseshell. Frame. Generally, with seven or more strings, tuned, to the notes of one of the modes. The. Lyre was used to accompany others. Or even oneself. For recitation. And song. The Kythera also. A strummed, string, instrument. More, complicated. Than the lyre, it. Had a box type, frame, with strings, stretched, from the crossbar. At the top to the sounding, box at the bottom, it was held upright, and played with a plectrum. The. Strings, were tunable, by adjusting. Wooden wedges along, the crossbar. The, or lows usually. Double, consisting. Of two double-reed. Like an oboe, pipes, not. Joined but generally, played with a mouth band, to hold both pipes steadily, between, the player's lips. Modern. Reconstruction x', indicate. That they produced, a low clarinet. Like sound. There.
Is Some confusion about, the exact, nature of the instrument. Alternate. Descriptions. Indicate. Single, reeds instead. Of double, reeds. The, panpipes. Also. Known as pan flute and syrinx, Greek syrinx, so-called, for the nymph who was changed, into a reed in order to hide from pan is an ancient musical. Instrument. Based on the principle. Of the stopped pipe, consisting. Of a series, of search pipes of gradually, increasing. Length tuned. By cutting, to a desired, scale. Sound. Is produced, by blowing, across the top of the open, pipe like, blowing, across a bottle, top. The. Hydrolyse. A keyboard, instrument, the, forerunner, of the modern organ. As, the. Name indicates the. Instrument. Used water to supply, a constant, flow, of pressure, to the pipes. To. Detailed. Descriptions. Have survived, that of Vitruvius, and, Heron, of Alexandria. These. Descriptions. Deal. Primarily, with, the keyboard, mechanism. And with the device by, which the, instrument, was supplied, with air, a. Well-preserved. Model. In pottery, was found at Carthage, in, 1885. Essentially. The air to the pipes that produced, the sound comes, from a wind chest, connected. By a pipe, to a dome air is pumped, into compressed, water and, the water rises. In the dome compressing. The air and causing, a steady supply of air to the pipes in the Aeneid Virgil makes. Numerous, references, to, the trumpet, the, lyre. Kythera. All oohs, hydrolyse. Water, organ. And trumpet. All found, their way into the, music, of ancient, Rome. Topic. Ancient. Rome. The, Romans, may have borrowed the Greek method, one, of interior. Ditch notation. To record, their music if, they used any notation. At all. Four. Letters, in English, notation. A G. F and, C. Indicated. A series, of for, succeeding. Tones. Rhythm. Signs, written, above the letters, indicated. The duration. Of each note. Roman. Art depicts. Various. Woodwinds. Brass. Percussion. And. Stringed, instruments. To Roman. Style instruments. Are found in parts, of the Empire where. They did not originate. And indicate. That music. Was among the aspects. Of Roman, culture, that spread throughout the provinces. Roman. Instruments. Include. The, Roman tuba was a long straight. Bronze trumpet. With a detachable, conical. Mouthpiece. Extant. Examples are. About 1.3. Meters. Long and have a cylindrical, bore. From, the mouthpiece to the point where the Bell flares, abruptly. Three, similar, to the modern straight, trumpet, seen in presentations. Of period, music. Since. There were no valves. The tuba, was capable only of a single, overtone, series, for. In the military, it was used, for, bugle. Calls. The. Tuba, is also, depicted, in art such, as mosaics. Accompanying. Games. Ludi and spectacle. Events. The. Cornu, latin. Horn. Was. A long tubular. Metal, wind instrument. That curved around the musician's body shaped. Rather like an uppercase, G, it had a conical. Bore again, like a French, horn, and a conical, mouthpiece. It. May. Be hard, to distinguish. From the bachina, the. Cornu, was used for military signals. And on parade, v the, corner sin was a military, signal, officer who, translated. Orders, into calls. Like. The tuba, the cornu, also, appears, as accompaniment, for, public, events, and spectacle. Entertainments. The tibia, Grieco. Lowe's or Lowe's usually. Double, had to double, read as in a modern, oboe pipes, not. Joined but generally, played with a mouth band, Kapus, trimmed to hold both pipes steadily, between, the players lips. Six. The, ass calls a, bagpipe. Versions. Of the modern flute, and panpipes. The. Lyre borrowed. From the Greeks was, not a harp, but instead, had a sounding. Body of wood or a tortoiseshell, covered. With skin and arms, of animal, horn or wood with strings, stretched, from a crossbar, to the sounding, body seven. The. Cythera was the premier musical. Instrument. Of ancient, Rome and was played both, in popular, and elevated. Forms, of music. Larger. And heavier than a lyre the, Sephora, was a loud sweet, and piercing, instrument. With precision, tuning, ability. The. Lute Pandora. Or monochord. Was known by several names among. The Greeks and Romans. In. Construction. The lute differs, from the lyre in having, fewer strings, stretched, over a solid neck, or fretboard, on which the strings can be stopped, to produce, graduated. Notes. Each. Lute, string, is thereby capable. Of producing, a greater range, of notes than, a lyre string, 8 although. Long necked lutes are depicted, in art from, Mesopotamia. As early, as 2 3 4 O 2, 1 9 8 BC. And also. Occur in Egyptian, iconography, the. Lute in the greco-roman, world, was, far less common than the liar and Cythera, the. Lute of the medieval, West, is thought to owe more to the era booed from, which its name derives allude. 9. The, hydraulic. Pipe organ. Hydrolyse. Which, worked by water pressure, was, one.
Of The most, significant. Technical, and musical. Achievements. Of antiquity. 10. Essentially. The, air to the pipes that produce, the sound comes, from a mechanism, of a wind chest, connected. By a pipe to a dome air is pumped into compressed, water and, the water rises. In the dome compressing. The air and causing, a steady supply to, reach the pipes 11. Also, see pipe organ, hashtag, history. The. Hydrolysable. A. Da Turk on tests, and events, in the arena as well as stage, performances. Variations. Of a hinged, wooden, or metal device. Called, ask a bellum used to beat time. Also. There. Were various, rattles, bells, and tambourines. Drum. And percussion. Instruments. Like timpani, and castanets. The Egyptian, Systrom and brazen. Pans served. Various. Musical. And other purposes. In ancient Rome. Including. Backgrounds. For rhythmic, dance. Celebratory. Rites, like, those of the back auntie's and military, uses. The. Systrom was a rattle, consisting. Of rings strung, across the, crossbars, of a metal, frame which, was often used for, ritual, purposes. Symbol. Ax lat. Plural, of symbol, 'm from, the greek Kimberlin, were small symbols. Metal. Disks, with concave, centres, and turned rims, used, in pairs which were clashed together. Topic. Middle. Ages. During. The medieval, music era. 476. To, 1400. The plain chant tunes used, for religious, songs were primarily, monophonic. A single, line, unaccompanied. Melody, in. The. Early, centuries of the medieval era these, chants, were taught and spread by oral, tradition. By. Ear, the. Earliest, medieval. Music did, not have any kind, of notational. System, for writing down melodies. As. Rome. Tried to standardize, the, various, chants across, vast distances, of its Empire a form, of music notation. Was, needed, to write down the melodies. Various. Signs, written, above, the chant texts. Called norms were introduced. By. The 9th, century it. Was firmly established. As the primary, method, of musical. Notation. The. Next, development, in, musical. Notation, was, heighted. Gnomes, in. Which, gnomes, were carefully, placed at different heights in relation. To each other. This. Allowed, the noise to, give a rough indication. Of the size of a given interval, as well as the direction. This. Quickly, led to one, or two lines each, representing. A particular note, being, placed, on the music, with all of the noise relating. Back to them, the. Line or lines acted. As a reference, point to help the singer gauge which, notes were higher or lower. At. First, these. Lines, had no particular, meaning. And instead, had a letter placed, at the beginning indicating. Which note was represented. However. The, lines, indicating. Middle C in the FA 5th below slowly, became, most common, the. Completion. Of the four line staff, is usually, credited to, ghido d arezzo. C. 1002. 10:50, one, of the most important. Musical. Theorists. Of the Middle Ages. It. Should, be noted, that the pneumatic. Notational. System, even, in its fully, developed, state did, not clearly define, any kind, of rhythm for the singing, of notes or, playing of melodies. The. Development. Of music notation, made, it faster. And easier to teach melodies. To new people and, facilitated. The spread of music. Over long Geographic. Distances. Instruments. Used to perform, medieval. Music include. Earlier, less, mechanically. Sophisticated. Versions, of a number, of instruments, that, continued.
To Be used in the 2010s. Medieval. Instruments. Include, the flute which, was made of wood and could be made as a side, blown, or end blown, instrument. It lacked the complex, metal, keys and airtight pads of 2010. Zehra metal, flutes the wooden, recorder. And the related instrument. Called the jams horn and the pan flute a group of air columns, attached, together. Medieval. Music used. Many plucked, string, instruments like. The lute man, dog kitten, and psaltery. The. Dulcimers. Similar. In structure, to the psaltery, and zipper were, originally. Plucked, but, became struck, by hammers in, the 14th, century after. The arrival of new technology. That made metal strings, possible. Bowed. Strings. Were used as well, the, bowed lyre, of the Byzantine. Empire was the first recorded. European. Bowed string, instrument. The. Persian. Geographer. Urban Kura Darbar, of the 9th century d. 9-1-1. Cited. The Byzantine. Lyra is about, instrument. Equivalent. To the Arab Rabab, and typical, instrument, of the Byzantines. Along, with the urchin, organ, Giuliani. Probably. A type of harp, or lyre and, thus allenge probably. A bagpipe. The. Hurdy-gurdy was. A mechanical. Violin, using, a rose and wooden wheel attached, to a crank to bow. It. Strings. Instruments. Without, sound, boxes. Like the jaw harp were also, popular in the time. Early. Versions, of the organ, fiddle, or VL, and trombone. Called, the sack bet existed. In the medieval era. You. Topic. Rene. Sons. The, Renaissance music, here, at C. 1400. To, 1600. Saw, the development, of, many new technologies. That affected. The performance and distribution, of, songs and musical, pieces. Around. 1450. The printing, press was invented which. Made printed, sheet music, much less expensive. And easier to mass-produce, prior. To the invention of the printing press all notated. Music, was laborious, ly hand copied. The. Increased, availability of. Printed, sheet music, helped, to spread musical. Styles, more quickly and across the larger, geographic. Area. Many. Instruments. Originated. During the Renaissance. Others. Were variations, of, or improvements. Upon, instruments. That had existed previously, in, the medieval era. Brass. Instruments. In the Renaissance. Were traditionally. Played by professionals. Some. Of the more common, brass, instruments. That were played included. Slide. Trumpet, similar. To the trombone, of today, except, that instead of a section, of the body sliding, only. A small, part of the body near, the mouthpiece. And the mouthpiece, itself is, stationary. Cornet. Made, of wood and was played like the recorder, but blown like a trumpet. Trumpet. Early. Trumpets. From the Renaissance, era had no valves and were limited, to the tones present.
In The overtone, series. They. Were also made, in different sizes. Sack. Bets a different, name for the trombone which, replaced, the slide trumpet, by, the middle, of the 15th century, stringed. Instruments. Included. Vile, this, instrument. Developed. In the 15th, century, commonly. Has six strings. It. Was, usually, played with a bow. Liar. Its construction, is. Similar, to a small harp, although, instead of, being plucked it is strummed with a plectrum. Its. Strings. Varied. In quantity. From four seven. And ten depending, on the era, it. Was played with the right hand, while the left hand silenced. The notes that were not desired. Newer. Liars were, modified, to be played with a bow. Hurdy-gurdy. Also. Known as the wheel fiddle, in which the strings are sounded, by a wheel which the strings pass over. Its. Functionality. Can be compared, to that of a mechanical. Violin, in that its bow wheel, is turned, by a crank. Its. Distinctive. Sound is mainly because of its, drone, strings. Which. Provide, a constant. Pitch similar, in the sound to that of bagpipes. Gittin. And manned all these, instruments, were, used throughout, Europe. Forerunners. Of modern, instruments. Including, the mandolin, and acoustic. Guitar, percussion. Instruments. Included. Tambourine. The, tambourine, is a frame, drum, equipped, with jingles, that produce a sound when, the drum is struck. Jew's-harp. An instrument. That produces sound. Using, shapes, of the mouth and attempting, to pronounce, different vowels. With one's mouth, woodwind. Instruments. Included. Shawn. A typical, Shawn is keyless, and is about a foot, long with, seven finger, holes and, a thumb hole, the. Pipes were, also, most commonly. Made of wood and many of them had carvings, and decorations. On em, it. Was, the most popular double, reed instrument, of the Renaissance, period, it was commonly, used in the streets, with drums and trumpets because. Of its brilliant, piercing. And often, deafening, sound. To. Play the Shawn a person, puts the entire reed. In their mouth puffs, out their cheeks and blows, into the pipe whilst, breathing. Through their nose. Reed. Pipe, made, from a single short, length of cane with a mouthpiece, four. Or five finger. Holes and, Reed fashioned, from it, the. Reed is made, by cutting out a small, tongue, but, leaving, the bass attached. It. Is, the predecessor. Of the saxophone, and the clarinet. Horn. Pipe same. As Reed pipe but with a bell at the end. Bagpipe. Bladder, pipe, it used, a bag made out of, sheep or goat skin, that would provide air pressure for a pipe. When. Its player takes, a breath the, player only needs, to squeeze the bag tucked, underneath, their, arm to continue, the tone. The. Mouth pipe, has, a simple, round piece, of leather hinged, on to the bag end of the pipe and acts like a non-return, valve. The. Reed is located. Inside the, long metal mouthpiece. Known, as a bocal. Pan. Pipe designed. To have sixteen, wooden, tubes with a stopper, at one end and open on the other, each.
Tube, Is a different, size thereby, producing a, different tone giving, it a range of an octave and a half. The. Player can then place their lips against, the desired, tube, and blow across it. Transverse. Flute, the, transverse. Flute, is similar, to the modern flute, with a mouth hole near, the stop at end and finger, holes along, the body. The. Player blows, in the side and holds, the flute to the right side. Recorder. It uses, a whistle, mouthpiece. Which, is a beak shaped, mouthpiece. As its main source of sound production. It. Is usually. Made with seven. Finger, holes and a thumb hole. Topic. Barack. During. The baroque era of music CA. 1600. To 1750. Technologies. For keyboard, instruments. Developed which. Led to improvements. In the designs, of pipe organs, and harpsichords. And to the development, of the first pianos. During. The Baroque period, organ. Builders, developed. New types, of pipes and reeds that created. New tonal. Colors. Organ. Builders, fashioned. New stops, that imitated. Various, instruments, such. As the viola, da gamba. The. Baroque period is. Often thought of as organ, buildings. Golden. Age as. Virtually. Every, important. Refinement. To the instrument. Was brought to a peak. Builders. Such as ARP - NIT ger jasper. Johansson. Zacharias, Hildebrandt. And Gottfried, Silberman. Constructed. Instruments. That displayed, both exquisite, craftsmanship, and. Beautiful, sound. These. Organs, featured. Well balanced, mechanical. Key actions, giving, the organist, precise, control. Over the pipe speech. Sh'not. Cos organs, featured. Particularly. Distinctive. Reed Tambor's, and large pedal, and rut positive, divisions. Harpsichord. Builders, in the southern, netherlands, built instruments. With two keyboards. Which could be used for transposition. These. Flemish, instruments. Served as the model for Baroque, era harpsichord. Construction. In other nations. In. France. The, double keyboards. Were adapted, to control, different choirs, of strings, making. A more musically. Flexible. Instrument, eg. The upper manual could, be set to a quiet lute stop while, the lower manual, could, be set to a stop with multiple. String choirs for, a louder sound. Instruments. From the peak of the French tradition. By makers, such as the Blanchett family, and Pascal, taskin. Are among the most widely admired, of, all harpsichords. And are frequently, used as models, for the construction. Of modern, instruments. In. England. The, Kirkman, and Xu D firms produced. Sophisticated. Harpsichords. Of great power and sonority. German. Builders, extended. The sound repertoire. Of the instrument. By adding, 16-foot. Choirs adding. To the lower register and, two foot choirs which, added, to the upper register. The. Piano, was invented. During the Baroque era, by the expert. Harpsichord. Maker, Bartolomeo, Christopher. E. 16:55. To. 1731. Of Padua, Italy who. Was employed, by, ferdinando. De Medici. Grand, Prince, of Tuscany.
Christopher. E invented. The piano, at some point before. 1700. While. The clavichord. Allowed expressive. Control, of volume, with, harder, or louder key, presses, creating. Louder sound, and, vice-versa. And fairly, sustained, notes, it was too quiet for large, performances. The. Harpsichord. Produced. A sufficiently. Loud sound, but, offered little expressive. Control, over, each note. Pressing. A harpsichord, key. Harder, or softer had, no effect, on the instruments. Loudness. The. Piano, offered, the best of both combining. Loudness, with dynamic. Control. Christopher. E's great, success. Was solving, with no prior example. The fundamental. Mechanical. Problem, of piano, design, the hammer must strike, the string but not remain, in contact with, it as a tangent. Remains, in contact with, a clavichord. String, because, this would dump the sound. Moreover, the, hammer must return, to its rest position without. Bouncing. Violently. And it must be possible to repeat the same note rapidly. Christopher. E's piano. Action was, a model, for the many approaches. To piano actions. That followed. Christopher. Ease early, instruments. Were much louder and had more sustain than the clavichord. Even. Though the piano, was invented. In, 1700. The harpsichord, and pipe organ. Continued. To be widely used in, orchestra, and chamber, music concerts. Until the end of the 1700s. It. Took, time for the new piano, to gain in popularity. By. 1800. Though, the piano, generally, was used in place of the harpsichord. Although pipe organ, continued. To be used in church music, such as masses. Topic. Classicism. From. About 1790. Onward. The, Mozart, era piano. Underwent, tremendous, changes. That led to the modern form of the instrument. This. Revolution. Was in response, to a preference, by composers. And pianists. For a more powerful, sustained. Piano, sound, and made possible, by the ongoing, industrial, revolution, with resources, such, as high quality steel. Piano. Wire for, Strings and precision, casting. For the production. Of iron frames. Over. Time, the, tonal, range of the piano, was also, increased, from the five octaves of, Mozart's. Day to the seven plus range found, on modern pianos. Early. Technological. Progress owed, much to the firm of broad, where'd John. Broad weird joined with another Scott. Robert, Stoddard and a Dutchman, America's, backers, to design, a piano. In the harpsichord, case. The. Origin, of their grand. They. Achieved, this in about. 1777. They. Quickly, gained, a reputation, for, the splendor, and powerful. Tone of their instruments. With broad wid constructing. Ones that were progressively. Larger louder. And, more robustly. Constructed. They. Sent, pianos. To both Joseph, Haydn. And Ludwig, van Beethoven. And were the first firm, to build pianos. With a range of more than five, octaves, five. Octaves and, a fifth interval, during, the, 1790s. Six, octaves by, 1810. Beethoven. Used the extra, notes in his later works, and, seven, octaves, by 1820. The. Viennese. Makers. Similarly, followed, these trends. However, the two schools, used, different, piano actions. Broad, words were more robust, Viennese. Instruments. Were more sensitive. Beethoven's. Instrumentation. For Orchestra, added piccolo, contrabassoon. And trombones. To, the triumphal. Finale, of his symphony number, five a. Piccolo. And a pair of trombones. Help, deliver, storm, and sunshine. In the six. Beethoven's. Use, of piccolo, contrabassoon. Trombones. And untuned. Percussion. In his ninth symphony, expanded. The sound of the orchestra. Topic. Romanticism. During, the romantic. Music, era C. 1810. To, 1900. One of the key ways that new compositions. Became, known to the public was. By the sales, of sheet music which. Amateur, music, lovers, would perform, a home on their piano or, in chamber, music groups, such, as string, quartets. Saxophones. Began, to appear in some nineteenth-century. Orchestra. Scores, while. Appearing, only as featured, solo, instruments. In some works for, example Morris, travels orchestration. Of modest, MICEX keys pictures, at an Exhibition and. Sergei, Rachmaninoff's. Symphonic.
Dances. The saxophone. Is included. In other works such, as Ravel's, Bolero Sergei. Prokofiev's. Romeo, and Juliet, sweeps 1 & 2, the. Euphonium, is, featured, in a few late romantic, and, twentieth-century, works. Usually. Playing, parts, marked, tenor tuba, including. Gustav, Holst's, the planets and. Richard, Strauss's I'm held in Leoben, the. Vogner tuba. A modified. Member of, the horn family. Appears, in Richard, Wagner's, cycled, air Ring des Nibelungen and. Several, other works by, Strauss, bela bartok and others, it has a prominent role, in Anton. Bruckner Symphony. Number seven in E major. Cornets. Appear, in Potter Ilyich. Tchaikovsky's. Ballet Swan. Lake Claude. Debussy's, lemare, and several, orchestral. Works by, Hector, Berlioz. The. Piano, continued. To undergo. Technological. Developments. In the Romantic. Era up until, the 1860s. By. The, 1820s. The center, of piano, building, innovation, had, shifted, to Paris, where, the play off M, manufactured. Pianos, used, by Frederic. Chopin and. The Erhard firm, manufactured. Those used by Franz, Liszt. In. 1821. Che, Bastian, Arad invented. The double escapement. Action, which, incorporated. A repetition, lever, also. Called the balancier that, permitted, repeating, a note even if the key had not yet risen to its maximum. Vertical position. This. Facilitated. Rapid, playing of repeated, notes a musical. Device, exploited. By lists. When. The invention. Became public. As revised. By Henry Hertz the, double escapement. Action, gradually. Became standard. In grand pianos. And is still incorporated. Into all grand, pianos. Currently. Produced. Other. Improvements. Of the mechanism. Included. The use of felt, hammer coverings. Instead. Of layered leather, or cotton. Felt. Which, was first introduced. By Jean, Henri Pape in. 1826. Was a more consistent, material. Permitting. Wider dynamic, ranges. As hammer weights and, string tension increased. The. Sostenuto pedal. Invented. In, 1844. By Jean, Louie Boyce salaat than copied, by the Steinway, firm, in. 1874. Allowed, a wider, range of effects. One. Innovation, that, helped, create the, sound of the modern piano, was the use of a strong iron frame. Also. Called, the plate the, iron frame sits, atop the soundboard. And serves, as the primary bulwark. Against, the force of string tension that, can exceed 20, tonnes in a modern grand, the. Single, piece cast-iron. Frame, was patented. In, 1825. In Boston, by Alphaeus, Babcock. Combining. The metal hitch pin plate. 1821, claimed. By broad word on behalf of, Samuel, herve and resisting. Bars Tom and Allen. 1820. But also claimed by Broadway and Ayer odd, the. Increased, structural. Integrity of, the iron frame allowed, the use of thicker denser, and, more numerous strings. In. 1834. The Webster, and Horst full firm, of Birmingham. Brought out a form, of piano, wire made, from cast steel, according. To Daljit, was, so, superior, to the iron wire that, the English firm soon had a monopoly, other, important. Advances. Included. Changes. To the way the piano, is strung, such, as the use of a choir of three, strings, rather, than two for all but, the lowest notes, and, the implementation. Of an over strung scale, in which the strings are placed in two separate, planes each with its own bridge, height. The. Mechanical. Action structure. Of the upright, piano. Was invented. In London, England in. 1826. By Robert, Warren 'im and upright, models, became, the most popular, model, also, amplifying. The sound. Topic. 20th. And 21st. Century. Music. With, 20th. Century, music there. Was a vast increase, in music. Listening, as the radio gained popularity. And, phonographs. Were used to replay, and distribute. Music. The. Invention. Of sound recording. And the ability, to edit music, gave, rise to new, sub-genre, of, classical. Music, including. The acousmatic and. Musique, concrète. Schools, of electronic. Composition. Sound. Recording. Was also, a major influence. On the development of. Popular, music genres, because, it enabled, recordings. Of songs and bands to be widely distributed. The. Introduction. Of the multitrack. Recording. System, had a major influence, on, rock music, because, it could do much more than recorder.
Bands Performance. Using. A multitrack. System, a band and their music producer. Could overdub many layers of instrument. Tracks and vocals, creating. New sounds, that would not be possible in, a live performance. The. Twentieth-century. Orchestra. Was far more flexible. Than its predecessors. In. Beethoven's, and. Felix, Mendelssohn's. Time, the, orchestra, was composed, of a fairly standard, core, of instruments. Which was very rarely modified. As. Time. Progressed. And as the Romantic. Period saw, changes, in accepted. Modification. With composers. Such as Berlioz. And mala. The 20th, century, saw that, instrumentation. Could practically, be handpicked. By the composer. Saxophones. Were used in some 20th, century, orchestra, scores such as Vaughan Williams, symphonies. Number, six and nine and William Waltons, Belshazzar's. Feast and, many other works as a member, of the orchestral, ensemble. In. The, 2000s. The modern orchestra, became, standardized. With the modern. Fashion, that includes, a string section, woodwinds. Brass. Instruments. Percussion piano. Celeste. And even, for, some twentieth. Century, or 21st. Century. Works, electric. Instruments. Such as electric, guitar, electric, bass, and/or, electronic. Instrument such as the theremin or synthesizer. You. Topic. Electric. And electromechanical. Electric. Music technology. Refers. To musical, instruments. And recording, devices that. Use electrical. Circuits, which, are often combined, with mechanical. Technologies. Examples. Of electric, musical. Instruments. Include, the electromechanical. Electric. Piano, invented. In 1929. The. Electric, guitar invented. In 1931. The, electromechanical. Hammond. Organ, developed. In. 1934. And the electric, bass invented. In, 1935. None. Of these, electric. Instruments. Produce a sound that is audible, by the performer. Or audience, in a performance, setting. Unless they are connected, to instrument. Amplifiers. And loudspeaker. Cable nets which, made them sound loud enough, for performers. And the audience to. Hear. Amplifiers. And loudspeakers are. Separate, from the instrument. In the case of the electric, guitar which, uses, a guitar, amplifier. Electric. Bass which, uses, a bass amplifier. And some electric, organs, which, use a Leslie, speaker or similar, cabinet, and electric. Pianos. Some. Electric. Organs, and electric, pianos, include, the amplifier. And speaker, cabinet, within the main housing, for the instruments. Topic. Electric. Piano. An electric. Piano is. An electric, musical. Instrument. Which produces. Sounds, when a performer presses. The keys of the piano style. Musical. Keyboard. Pressing. Keys causes. Mechanical hammers. To strike metal, strings, or tines leading. To vibrations. Which, are converted, into electrical. Signals, by, magnetic, pickups, which, are then connected to an instrument, amplifier. And loudspeaker. To make a sound, loud enough, for the performer. And audience to, hear. Unlike. A synthesizer. The electric. Piano is, not an electronic, instrument. Instead. It is an electromechanical. Instrument. Some. Early, electric. Pianos, used, lengths, of wire to, produce the, tone like, a traditional. Piano. Smaller. Electric. Pianos, used, short, slivers, of steel metal. Tines or short wires to, produce the, tone. The. Earliest, electric. Pianos, were invented. In the late. 1920s. You. Topic. Electric. Guitar. An electric. Guitar is, a guitar that uses. A pickup, to convert, the vibration. Of its strings, into, electrical. Impulses. The. Most common, guitar, pickup, uses, the principle. Of direct. Electromagnetic. Induction. The. Signal, generated. By an electric, guitar is, too weak to drive a loudspeaker, so, it is amplified before. Being sent, to a loudspeaker. The. Output, of an electric, guitar is, an electric, signal and the signal can easily, be altered, by electronic. Circuit, to add color. To, the, sound often, the. Signal, is modified. Using, electronic. Effects, such as reverb, and, Distortion. Invented. In 1931. The, electric. Guitar became a necessity as. Jazz guitarists. Sought to amplify, their, sound in the big-band, format. Topic. Hammond. Organ. The, Hammond, organ is an electric, organ, invented. By Lauren's, Hammond, and John M hannett and first, manufactured. In. 1935. Various. Models, have been produced most. Of which used sliding, draw bars to create a variety, of sounds. Until. 1975. Hammond. Organs, generated. Sound by creating. An electric, current from rotating, a metal tone wheel near an, electromagnetic. Pickup. Around. 2 million hammond. Organs, have been manufactured. And, it has been described, as one of the most successful, organs. The. Organ, is commonly, used with, and associated. With the Leslie, speaker. The. Organ, was originally. Marketed and sold by, the Hammond, organ company. To churches, as a lower-cost alternative to. The wind-driven, pipe, organ.
Or Instead, of a piano. It. Quickly, became, popular with, professional. Jazz band leaders, who, found that the room filling, sound of, a Hammond, organ could, form small, bands, such as organ, trios, which, were less costly. Than paying an, entire, big band. You. Topic. Electric. Bass. The, electric. Bass or, bass guitar, was invented. In the 1930s. But. It did not become commercially. Successful or. Widely used, until the 1950s. It. Is a stringed, instrument. Played primarily with, the fingers, or thumb by plucking, slapping. Popping. Strumming. Tapping. Thumping. Or picking, with a plectrum often. Known as a pig, the. Bass guitar, is similar, in appearance and. Construction. To an electric, guitar but, with a longer, neck and scale length and four, to six strings, or courses. The. Electric. Bass usually. Uses, metal, strings, and an, electromagnetic. Pickup, which senses, the vibrations. In the strings. Like. The electric, guitar the, bass guitar, is plugged into an amplifier, and speaker, for live, performances. Topic. Electronic. Or digital. Electronic. Or digital music. Technology, is, any device, such. As a computer an. Electronic. Effects, unit, or software, that is used by a musician. Or composer, to, help make or perform, music. The. Term usually, refers. To the use of electronic. Devices. Computer. Hardware and computer. Software that, is used in, the performance. Playback. Recording. Composition. Sound, recording. And reproduction. Mixing. Analysis. And editing, of music. Electronic. Or digital music. Technology. Is connected. To both artistic. And technological. Creativity. Musicians. And music, technology, experts. Are constantly. Striving, to, devise new forms. Of expression through. Music, and they are physically, creating. New devices, and software to, enable, them to do so although. In, the 2010s. The term is most commonly used in, reference to, modern, electronic. Devices, and, computer. Software such. As digital audio. Workstations. And Pro Tools digital, sound recording. Software. Electronic. And digital musical. Technologies. Have, precursors. In the electric, music, technologies. Of the early 20th. Century, such, as the electromechanical. Hammond. Organ, which, was invented in, 1929. In. The, 2010s. The ontological, range. Of music, technology has, greatly increased and, it may now be electronic. Digital, software. Based, or indeed even purely, conceptual, a. Synthesizer. Is, an electronic. Musical. Instrument. That generates. Electric. Signals, that are converted. To sound through, instrument. Amplifiers. And loudspeakers or. Headphones. Synthesizers. May either imitate. Existing. Sounds. Instruments. Vocal, natural. Sounds. Etc or. Generate. New electronic. Tambor's, or sounds, that did not exist, before. They. Are often, played with an electronic. Musical. Keyboard, but they can be controlled via a variety of other input, devices. Including. Music, sequences. Instrument. Controllers, finger. Boards, guitar. Synthesizers. Wind, controllers. And electronic. Drums. Synthesizers. Without, built-in, controllers. Are often called sound modules. And are controlled, using a, controller, device.