Music technology (electric) | Wikipedia audio article
Electric. Music technology, refers. To musical, instruments, and recording, devices that, use electrical, circuits, which are often combined, with mechanical. Technologies. Examples. Of electric, musical, instruments, include the electromechanical, electric. Piano, invented, in 1929. The electric, guitar invented, in 1931. The electromechanical, hammond. Organ developed, in 1934. And the electric, bass invented, in 1935. All. Of these electric, instruments, do not produce, a sound that is audible by the performer, or audience, in a performance setting, unless they are connected, to instrument, amplifiers, and loudspeakers cabinets. Which made them sound loud enough for performers, in the audience to hear. Amplifiers. And loudspeakers are. Separate from the instrument, in the case of the electric guitar which uses a guitar amplifier electric. Bass which uses a bass amplifier, and some electric, organs which use a Leslie, speaker or similar, cabinet, and most electric, pianos. Some. Electric, organs and electric, pianos, include, the amplifier, and speaker cabinet, within the main housing for the instrument. Electric. Sound recording, and reproduction, or electrical, or mechanical techniques. And devices for the inscription, and recreation. Of sound waves such, as spoken, voice singing. Instrumental, music or, sound effects. Acoustic. Analogue recording is achieved by a small microphone, diaphragm that can record sound waves on a phonograph in which a stylus, senses, grooves on a record or magnetic, tape, the. First practical, sound, recording, and reproduction, device, was the mechanical, phonograph, cylinder, invented, by Thomas Edison, in 1877. And patented, in 1878. The. Next, major technical, development. Was the invention of the gramophone disc in 1889. For, much. Of the twentieth century, records, were the most common way of selling sound recordings. The. Widespread availability of, records, and the development, of radio broadcasting. Enabled, a much larger, proportion of people to listen to songs and pieces performed, by the top artists, enabling, the development, of national and even international, musical. In. The 1970s. The Compact, Cassette became. A major consumer, audio, format. Advances. In electronic, and mechanical miniaturization. Led, to the development, of the Sony Walkman, a pocket-sized. Cassette, player introduced, in 1979. Which, allowed consumers, to listen to their favorite albums, outside, of their home. Topic. Electric. Instruments. You. Topic. Electric. Piano. An electric. Piano is, an electric, musical, instrument, which produces. Sounds, when a performer presses. The keys of the piano style, musical, keyboard. Pressing. Keys causes, mechanical hammers, to strike metal strings or times leading, to vibrations. Which are converted into electrical. Signals, by magnetic pickups, which are then connected to an instrument amplifier. And loudspeaker. To make a sound loud enough for the performer, and audience to, hear, unlike. A synthesizer. The electric, piano is not an electronic, instrument. Instead. It is an electromechanical. Instrument. Some. Early electric, pianos, used lengths of wire to produce the tone like a traditional. Piano. Smaller. Electric, pianos, used short slivers, of steel metal, tines or short wires to produce the tone the. Earliest, electric, pianos, were invented, in the late 1920s. The, 1929. Neo Bechstein, electric, grand piano, was among the first, probably. The earliest stringless, model, was Lloyd Laws VV tone clavier, a few. Other noteworthy producers. Of electric, pianos, include, Baldwin piano, and organ company, in the Wurlitzer company. Early. Electric, piano, recordings, include Duke Ellington's, in 1955. And sunrise, india as well as other tracks from the 1956. Sessions, included, on his second album supersonic. Jazz aka, supersonic. Sounds, the. Popularity, of the electric, piano began to grow in the late 1950s. After, Ray Charles's. 1959. Hit record, what, did I say, reaching. Its height during the 1970s. After which they were progressively, displaced, by more lightweight electronic. Pianos, capable, of piano like sounds, without the disadvantages. Of electric, pianos, heavy weight and moving mechanical, parts. Another. Factor, driving their development, and acceptance, was the progressive, electrification, of, popular, music and the need for a portable, keyboard, instrument, capable of high volume amplification.
Musicians. Adopted, a number of types of domestic electric, pianos, for rock and pop use, this. Encouraged, their manufacturers. To modify, them for stage use, and then develop, models primarily, intended for stage use. Digital. Electronic. Stage pianos, have largely replaced most, of the original electromechanical. Instruments. In the 2000s. Due to the small size low, weight and versatility. Of digital, instruments, which can produce a huge range of tones besides, piano, tones eg, emulations. Of hammond organ sounds, synthesizer. Sounds, etc, however. Some. Performers, still perform, and record with vintage electric, pianos, in. 2009. Fender, Rhodes produced. A new line of electromechanical. Pianos. Known as the Rhodes mark 7 followed by an offering from vintage vibe. Topic. Electric. Guitar. An electric. Guitar is a guitar that uses, a pickup to convert the vibration, of its strings into electrical, impulses. The. Most common, guitar pickup, uses, the principle, of direct, electromagnetic. Induction, the. Signal, generated, by an electric, guitar is too weak to drive a loudspeaker so, it is amplified before. Being sent to a loudspeaker, the. Output, of an electric, guitar is an electric, signal and the signal can, easily be altered by electronic, circuits, to add color, to. The sound often the, signal is modified, using electronic. Effects, such as reverb and distortion. Invented. In 1931. The electric, guitar became, a necessity as, jazz guitarists, sought to amplify the sound, in the big-band format. Early. Proponents, of the electric, guitar on record included, Les Paul Lonnie Johnson Sister. Rosetta Tharpe t-bone. Walker and Charlie, Christian. During. The 1950s. And 1960s the. Electric, guitar became the most important, instrument, in pop music, it. Has evolved, into an instrument, that is capable of a multitude of sounds, and styles, it. Served as a major component, in the development, of electric, blues rock, and roll rock music, and many other genres of music. Electric. Guitar design and construction, vary, greatly in, the shape of the body and the configuration of the neck bridge and pickups. Guitars. Have a fixed, bridge or a spring-loaded, hinge bridge that lets players bend notes or chords up or down in pitch or perform, a vibrato, the. Sound of a guitar can, be modified by new playing techniques, such as string bending tapping, hammering, on using, audio feedback or slide guitar playing, there.
Are Several types of electric, guitar including, the solid-body guitar various. Types of hollow body guitars, the seven string guitar which, typically, adds a low B string below, the low E and the 12 string electric guitar, which has six pairs of strings. Popular. Music and rock groups often use the electric, guitar in two roles as a rhythm, guitar which provides the chord sequence or progression and sets the beat as part of a rhythm section and as a guitar which is used to perform melody, lines melodic, instrumental. Fill passages, and solos. Topic. Hammond, organ. The. Hammond organ is an electric, organ invented. By Lawrence Hammond, and John M Hannett and first manufactured. In 1935. Various. Models have been produced most, of which used sliding, draw bars to create a variety of sounds. Until. 1975. Hammond, organs generated. Sound by creating, an electric, current from rotating a metal tone wheel near an electromagnetic. Pickup. Around. Two-million hammond organs have been manufactured. And it has been described, as one of the most successful organs. The. Organ is commonly used with and associated. With the Leslie speaker. The. Organ was originally, marketed and, sold by, the Hammond organ company, to churches, as a lower-cost alternative to. The wind-driven pipe organ, or instead, of a piano, it. Quickly became, popular with professional, jazz musicians. Who found it a cheaper alternative to. The big-band, Jimmy. Smith's use of the hammond b-3 with its additional harmonic. Percussion, feature inspired. A generation of. Organ players and its use became more widespread in, the 1960s. And 1970s in. Rhythm and blues rock, and reggae as well as being an important, instrument in progressive, rock, the. Hammond organ company, struggled financially during. The 1970s. As they abandoned, own wheel organs and switched to manufacturing. Instruments. Using integrated, circuits. These. Instruments, were not as popular with musicians, as the tone wheels had been and the company, went out of business in, 1985. The. Hammond name was purchased, by the Suzuki, musical, instrument, corporation, which proceeded, to manufacture. Digital, simulations. Of the most popular, tone wheel organs, this. Culminated. In the production of their new, b3. In. 2002. Which provided, an accurate recreation, of the original b3.
Organ Using, modern digital technology. Hammond. Suzuki, continues, to manufacture, a variety of, organs, for both professional. Players and churches, other. Companies. Such, as korg roland and clavia have also achieve success, in providing emulations. Of the original, tone wheel organs, the. Sound of a tone wheel Hammond can also be emulated, using modern software such as Native, Instruments b4. Topic. Electric. Bass. The. Electric, bass or bass guitar, is a stringed, instrument, played primarily with the fingers or thumb by plucking slapping. Popping, strumming, tapping, thumping, or picking, with a plectrum often, known as a pick the. Bass guitar, is similar, in appearance and, construction, to an electric, guitar but with a longer neck and scale length and four to six strings or courses, the. 4 string bass by far the most common, is usually, tuned the same as the double bass which corresponds. To pitches, one octave lower than the four lowest pitched strings, of a guitar e a D, and G the. Bass guitar, is a transposing. Instrument. As it is notated, in bass clef an, octave higher than it sounds, as is the double bass to avoid excessive ledger lines, like. The electric, guitar the bass guitar is plugged into an amplifier, and speaker, for live performances. Since. The 1960s. The bass guitar, has largely replaced the double bass in popular, music as the bass instrument, in the rhythm section, while. Types of bass lines vary widely from one style of music to another the bassist, usually, fulfils, a similar role anchoring, the harmonic, framework, and establishing, the beat, many. Styles, of music utilize, the bass guitar, including, rock metal pop, punk rock country reggae, gospel, blues and jazz, it. Is often a solo instrument in, jazz jazz, fusion Latin. Funk progressive. Rock and other rock and metal styles. Topic. Electric. Sound recording. And reproduction. Electric. Sound recording, and reproduction, are electrical, or mechanical techniques. And devices for the inscription, and recreation. Of sound waves such, as spoken, voice singing. Instrumental, music or, sound effects. Acoustic. Analog recording, is achieved by a small microphone, diaphragm, that can detect changes in atmospheric pressure, acoustic.
Sound Waves and record, am is a graphic, representation, of, the sound waves, on a medium, such as a phonograph in which a stylus, senses, grooves on a record in magnetic, tape recording the, sound waves vibrate the, microphone, diaphragm and are converted, into a varying, electric, current which is then converted to a varying, magnetic field, by an electromagnet. Which makes a representation. Of the sound as magnetized, areas, on a plastic, tape with a magnetic, coating on it, analog. Sound reproduction. Is the reverse process with, a bigger loudspeaker. Diaphragm, causing changes. To atmospheric, pressure to form acoustic, sound waves. Electrically. Generated, signals, may also be recorded, directly from devices, such as an electric, guitar pickup, without the use of acoustic, sounds, or amplifiers, in the recording, process other, than the need for musicians to, hear herself playing, during recording, session. Topic. 4 autograph. The. First device that could record actual, sounds, as they pass through the air but could not play them back the, purpose was only visual study was the photograph, patented. In 1857. By Parisian, inventor, edad Leon scott de martinville, the. Earliest, known recordings. Of the human voice are for autograph, recordings, called fer nota grams made. In, 1857. They, consist, of sheets of paper with sound wave modulated, white lines created, by a vibrating, stylus, that cut through a coating of Surtur's the paper was passed under it. Topic. Phonograph. You. Topic. Phonograph. Cylinder. The. First practical, sound, recording, and reproduction, device, was the mechanical, phonograph, cylinder, invented, by Thomas Edison, in, 1877. And patented, in 1878. The, invention. Soon spread across the globe and over the next two decades the, commercial, recording, distribution. And sale of sound recordings, became a growing, new international. Industry with the most popular, titles, selling millions of units by the early 1900's the. Development, of mass production, techniques enabled. Cylinder, recordings, to become a major new consumer, item in industrial, countries and the cylinder, was the main consumer, format, from the late 1880s. Until around, 1910. Topic. Disk phonograph. The. Next major technical, development. Was the invention, of the gramophone disk generally, credited to, Emile Berliner and commercially. Introduced, in the United, States in 1889. Though, others had demonstrated, similar discs apparatus, earlier most notably, Alexander. Graham Bell in 1881. Discs. Were easier to manufacture, transport. And store and they had the additional benefit, of being louder marginally. Than cylinders, which by necessity were, single sided, sales.
Of The gramophone, record, overtook, the cylinder, ca, 1910. And by the end of World War one the disc had become the dominant commercial, recording, format, in. Various, permutations the. Audio disc format, became the primary medium for consumer, sound recordings, until the end of the 20th, century, and the double-sided 78. Revolutions per, minute shellac, disc was the standard consumer music, format from the early 1910s, to the late 1950s. The, long. Playing 33. One third of a revolution, per minute microgroove. Vinyl record or LP. Was. Developed, at columbia records and introduced, in 1948. The. Short playing but convenient, 7-inch, 45. Revolutions, per minute microgroove. Vinyl single was introduced, by RCA, Victor, in 1949. In. The US and most developed countries, the two new vinyl formats, completely, replaced 78. Revolutions per, minute shellac, discs by the end of the 1950's. But in some corners, of the world there 78. Lingered. On far into the 1960s. Vinyl. Was much more expensive than shellac, one of several factors that made its use for 78, revolutions per, minute records, very unusual, but with a long playing disc the added cost was acceptable, in the compact, 45. Format. Required, very little material, vinyl. Offered improved performance, both in stamping, and in playback, if played, with a good diamond stylus, mounted, in a lightweight pickup, on a well adjusted tone, arm it was long lasting, if. Protected from, dust scarf, and scratches, there was very little noise. Vinyl. Records, were over optimistically. Advertised. As, unbreakable. They. Were not that they were much less fragile than shellac, which had itself once been touted, as, unbreakable. Compared. To wax cylinders. Topic. Electrical. Recording. Between. The invention, of the phonograph in, 1877, and. The advent of digital media arguably. The most important, milestone in the history of sound recording, was the introduction, of what was then called electrical, recording, in which a microphone, was used to convert the sound into an electrical, signal that was amplified and, used to actuate the recording, stylus. This. Innovation. Eliminated, the horn sound. Resonances. Characteristic. Of the acoustical, process, produced, clearer and more full-bodied recordings. By greatly extending. The useful range of audio frequencies. And allowed previously. Unrecorded all distant, and feeble sounds to be captured. Sound. Recording, began as a purely mechanical process. Except. For a few crude telephone, based recording, devices with no means of amplification such. As the Telegraph phone it remained, so until the 1920s, when. Several recent, radio related, developments. In electronics, converge, to revolutionize. The recording, process, these. Included. Improved microphones. And auxilary devices. Such as electronic filters. All dependent. On electronic, amplification, to, be of practical, use in recording, in. 1906. Lee de Forest, invented, the Audion triode vacuum tube. An electronic. Valve that could amplify weak, electrical, signals, by. 1915. It was in use in long-distance telephone, circuits, that made conversations. Between New York and San Francisco practical. Refined. Versions, of this tube were the basis, of all electronic. Sound systems, until the commercial, introduction, of the first transistor, based audio devices, in the 1950s. Topic. Magnetic. Tape. An important. Field of invention during, this period was the tape recorder. Magnetic. Tape recording uses. An amplified, electrical, audio signal, to generate, analogous, variations. Of the magnetic, field produced by a tape head which impresses, corresponding. Variations, of magnetization, on, the moving tape in. Playback, mode the signal path is reversed the tape head acting, as a miniature electric generator, as the varyingly magnetized, tape passes, over it magnetic, tape brought, about sweeping, changes, in both radio in the recording, industry. Sound. Could be recorded, a raised and re-recorded, on the same tape many times sounds, could be duplicated from, tape to tape with only minor loss of quality and recordings, could now be very precisely, edited, by physically, cutting the tape and rejoining it within. A few years of the introduction, of the first commercial, tape recorder, the. Ampex 200, model launched, in 1948. American. Musician, inventor, Les Paul had invented the first multitrack. Tape recorder. Assuring, in another technical, revolution in, the recording, industry.
Tape. Made possible, the first sound recordings, totally, created, by electronic, means opening. The way for the bold sonic experiments. Of the musique concrète, school in avant-garde, composers, like karl-heinz, Stockhausen which, in turn led to the innovative, pop music, recordings, of artists, such as Frank Zappa The Beatles and The Beach Boys the. Ease, and accuracy of tape editing, as compared, to the cumbersome, disk to disk editing, procedures, previously, in some limited use together. With tapes consistently. High audio quality finally. Convinced, radio networks to routinely pre record their entertainment. Programming, most of which had formerly been broadcast, live, also. For, the first time, broadcasters. Regulators. And other interested, parties, were able to undertake comprehensive, audio. Logging, of each day's radio, broadcasts. Innovations. Like multi-tracking, and tape echo allowed, radio, programs, and advertisements. To be produced, to a high level of complexity, and sophistication. Their. Combined, impact with innovations, such as the endless loop broadcast, cartridge, led to significant. Changes in the pacing, and style, of radio program, content, and advertising. Topic. Stereo. And hifi. Magnetic. Tape enabled. The development of the first practical, commercial, sound systems, that could record and reproduce, high fidelity, stereophonic. Sound, the. Experiments. With stereo, during, the 1930s. And 1940s were, hampered by problems, with synchronization, a major. Breakthrough, in practical, stereo sound was made by Bell Laboratories who, in 1937. Demonstrated. A practical, system of two-channel stereo using. Dual optical, soundtracks, on film, major. Movie, studios, quickly, developed three track and four track sound systems, and the first stereo sound recording, for a commercial film was made by Judy, Garland for, the MGM, movie listen, darling in 1938. The. First commercially. Released movie, with a stereo, soundtrack, was Walt Disney's, Fantasia released. In 1940. The. 1941. Release, of Fantasia, used the fantasy. Laund. System, this, system used, a separate film for the sound synchronized. With the film carrying, the picture, the. Sound film had four double-width optical, soundtracks, three for left center. And right audio, and a, fourth is a control. Track. With three recorded, tones that controlled the playback volume of the three audio channels. Because. Of the complex equipment this system, required Disney, exhibited, the movie as a road show and only in the United, States. Regular. Releases of the movie used standard, mono optical, 35, millimetres stock until, 1956. When Disney released the film with a stereo, soundtrack, that used the cinema. Scope for. Track magnetic. Sound system. Emmy. UK, was the first company, to release commercial. Stereophonic. Tapes, they. Issued, their first stereo, sonic, tape in 1954. Others. Quickly followed under the his master's, voice in, columbia labels. 161. Stereosonic, tapes, were released mostly, classical, music, or lyric recordings. RCA. Imported. These tapes into the u.s., two-track. Stereophonic. Tapes were, more successful, in America. The second half of the 1950s. They were duplicated. At real-time one-to-one. Or at twice the normal speed two-to-one, when later for track tapes were often duplicated at, up to 16, times the normal speed providing, a lower sound quality, in many cases. Early. American, two-track stereophonic. Tapes were, very expensive, a typical. Example is, the price list of the cenote, westminster, reels. $6.95. $11.95. In. $17.95. For the seven thousand nine thousand, and eight thousand, series respectively. Some. HMV, tapes released in the USA, also cost, up to fifteen dollars, record. Companies mixed, most popular, music singles into monophonic, sound, until, the mid 1960s. Then. Commonly, released major recordings. In both mono and stereo until. The early 1970s. Many. Sixties, pop albums now available, only in stereo, were originally, released only in mono and record, companies produced. The stereo. Versions. Of these albums, by simply, separating, the two tracks of the master, tape. Magnetic. Tape, transformed. The recording, industry by. The early, 1950s, most, commercial, recordings, were mastered on tape instead of recorded, directly to disc, tape. Facilitated. A degree of manipulation. In the recording, process that, was impractical, with mixes, and multiple, generations, of, directly, recorded, discs, an, early. Example is Les Paul's, 1951. Recording, of how high the moon on which Paul played eight overdubbed, guitar tracks in. The 1960s. Brian Wilson, of the Beach Boys, Frank, Zappa and the Beatles with producer, George Martin were, among the first popular, artists, to explore the possibilities. Of multitrack. Recording, techniques, and effects, on their landmark albums, Pet Sounds freaked-out and sergeant.
Pepper's. Lonely Hearts Club, Band. The. Compact, Cassette became. A major consumer, audio, format, and advances, in electronic, and mechanical miniaturization. Led, to the development, of the Sony Walkman, a pocket-sized. Cassette, player introduced, in. 29, the. Walkman was the first personal, music player and it gave a major boost to sales of pre-recorded cassettes, which, became the first widely successful release. Format, that used a rerecord, Irbil medium the vinyl record was a playback, only, medium, and commercially, pre-recorded, tapes for reel-to-reel, tape, decks which many consumers, found difficult, to operate were, never more than an uncommon niche market, item. Topic. Timeline. 1874. Alicia Gray's musical. Telegraph. 1876. Alexander Graham. Bell completed, his designs for the telephone. 1877. Thomas Edison, and Emile Berliner, simultaneously. Invented, the first prototypes. Of the phonograph. 1888. Thomas, Edison introduces, the electric, motor-driven phonograph. 1896. Edwin, s voti completes, the first pianola. 1898. Valdemar Poulsen patents. The Telegraph own. 1906. Thaddeus, Cahill, introduces. The telharmonium to. The public. 1906. Lee de Forest, invented, the triode the first vacuum tube. 1910. Vladimir, Baranof racine constructed, the piano up to phonic. 1912. Major Edwin, F Armstrong, is issued a patent for a regenerative, circuit making, radio reception, practical. 1915. Lee de Forest, created, the Audion piano. 1917. Leon, theremin invented. The prototype, of the theremin. 1921. First commercial, AM radio broadcast. Made by KDKA, Pittsburgh. PA. 1926. Jorge maker presented, his electronic, instruments, in the spareth online. 1927. Pierre tool on and crop base invent, the cellular, phone. 1928. Rene, bertrand, invents, the dinah phone. 1928. Fritz, flim ear patents, a system for recording on paper coated, with a magnetizable. Powdered, steel layer a precursor. To tape. 1929. Nikolia. Bokov commissioned, mitchell bill adat and pierre du valley to design the sonorous cross. 1929. Pete alerts and Bruno hell Berger developed, the hell ocean. 1930. Robert Hickok completes, the westinghouse organ. 1931. George Beecham the general manager, of the national, guitar corporation, develops. The first electric, guitar. 1934. Lawrence, Hammond, created, the first Hammond organ. 1935. Yamaha, releases, magna organ an early electrostatic. Reed organ. 1935. Pull top mark invents, the electric, bass but the instrument, does not attract buyers until, Leo fender developed, the precision, bass in the 1950s. Topic. See, also. Evo. Fripp. Atronics. Gizmo. Tron, mood. Swinger. Prepared. Guitar. Tape. Loop, third. Bridge.