Mongols VS Knights
This video is sponsored by the great causes plus. In, the 13th century Europe, became a theater, of combat conquest, and striving, for survival, as the Mongol hordes started spreading to Eastern and Central Europe and European, countries prepared, to fight but, what made the Mongol army so, dreadful, and efficient. Often, time when people study the effectiveness or the mongols in combat in war they, mostly focus, on the sort of weapons, they use the sort of armour that they were using and also calls the idea of mounted, archery but there are other aspects, that I believe have a most significant, role in trying to understand, and gain our answer, at that time the Mongol army was a brilliantly. Led an exceptionally, well organized military machine capable of outstanding. Military feats, this. Brought, to the clash of the west and the East of Y where, the Mongols so difficult, to, stop Mongol, commanders, at a very professional way of utilizing soldiers, resources. Materials and, time, effectively. Not, only they were able to weave complex, plans often consisting, of multiple and simultaneous operations. But they could also adjust these plans and adapt them depending, on the results, of battle engagements, and reallocate. Their resources, depending on how the battle, engagements. Panned out this, very sophisticated and, advanced, way of approaching warfare, and conquest, is what you would call operation. Of vision. The. Mongols were nomadic pastoralists, this already sets them aside from, Han the main Chinese, ethnicity, who were instead sedimentary. Farmers, these, nomadic, traditions were. The basis, of the, method, of war used by the Mongolian, Empire a people, so used, in a custom, to riding, for whom riding, would have been a natural, endeavor, however, it came at a cost the, Mongolian, Pony did not require barley, or grain but it did require grass, keeping. In mind that generally. Speaking on average every soldier. Would have three to four ponies so one of the reasons such an army was so well-organized, is because it needed to be in order to provide the fodder to keep the animals, alive and combat ready.
Before. Moving to the next section I would like to talk about the sponsor, that made this video possible namely. The great course S Plus now, the great course s plus is probably, the perfect sponsor. Both, for, me as a person but, also for, the kind of channel that I run and for the kind of audience that I have in, other words you, know the ones now, the reason I say that is because as you know apart, from being a youtuber, I'm also an educator, and a teacher so, I do teach, as my daily, job apart from making videos on YouTube and the great courses plus is an excellent, addition to my own kind. Of studies, personal. Studies but also to the lessons and lectures that I have and that is because it contains courses. Taught by, professors. At an extremely. Professional, level, through your subscription, you get access to a huge, library with over 11,000. Videos and these videos, they are really, good and when I started watching these courses, I was really impressed with the quality of the information presented one. Course I really liked by professor, Kenneth half is barbarians. Of the steps and I strongly, recommend it to you of course I also used some of the information from this course particularly, the section, when he speaks about Genghis. Khan and the passion. He puts into the you can't in fact the professor, himself says that he, feels, as sometimes they might think he's a sort of fanboy, that these are not the exact words that he uses but he, does go so much, in details, about, the life of Jenga scan both as a military, leader but, as a political, figure and as a historical. Figure and he gives so much information that, I just rewatched. It three times per episode and clearly the course doesn't just focus on the Mongols but it also talks about the steps, in general, about the conquest, and the fight in live in the battles between the Islamic forces, and powers against. The Mongols, it's fascinating, now. The great kosis plus has given you a great offer with a free trial and at the same time by subscribing, to the great courses plus you will be supporting, the Metatron channel and my, production here on site so it's a win-win, for everyone, please.
Visit The great horses plus comm, slash Metatron, or click the link in the gription below to start your free trial today. In. This video we're mostly focusing, on Knights vs. Mongols but it is important, to realize that medieval, armies, who are usually made of several, different kinds of troops the sort of armies, the European, powers and countries could field in the Middle Ages were very diverse you, would have Knights yes but also many Tom's infantry, archers, now, the Mongols, are specifically, fighting, mid, 13th, century Knights it is important, to realize that all, of these are Knights and you can appreciate, that, they are very, very diverse in the sort of equipment. That they can use it's, very easy, in fact to be rather, anachronistic. For instance the sort of brass plated that I'm wearing now so. This one here. This. Is a, invention. That would have been very futuristic, all, the Knights of the mid 13th, century this is a late 14th, century breastplate. Specifically. So in this section of the video we're going to discuss the sort of evolution, that Armour went, through in Europe, from the first kind of Knights or the first kind of mounted, warriors such, as the Norman, knights during the Battle of Hastings for, example in 1066 all the way up to, the gendarme, of the French gendarme, zuv the late 16th, century after. This section we will be diving into a section, dedicated to. The Horde so the Mongols the sort of strategy, politics. And the events, that led to the invasion of Europe in 1241. An example, of a knight of the 11th. Century will, be the sort of mounted, warriors that fought for the duchy of normandy for instance in the Battle of Hastings in 1066 at, this time if you were to fight a knight he would have been wearing a conical. Nasal helmet a male, who Burke usually, long with a rider split with the arm only being partially, covered generally speaking mid. Sleeve length in this period the male coif male hood that protects the head underneath, the helmet is integral, to the whole burg it's not detached a 12th, century Knight is similar, but the male now covers, more of the arm it's also very well tailored, and it tapers all the way down to the wrists we see no hand protection, in the iconography towards. The end of the 12th century nasal, helmets are still used but new Shae are also available such as a round shape or protruding, at the front in the mid 12th century shows disappeared so the sort of male protection, of the leg which at first only protects, the front it is at the end of the 12th century that hands start to be protected, either with, individual. Finger gauntlets, attached, to the male Harburg not detached, or more commonly mittens, which tend to be more constant, in iconography still, in the early 13th century, male is the prevalent, form of protection, of Knights we start having the development, of primitive. Great helms it is in the mid 13th, century, that we have the fully developed flattop, great helm so this is the sort of helmet that most likely Knights, would have been wearing at this time against, the Mongols at the end of the 13th century however we have the development of a new, improved, form of the great helm which is the Sugarloaf which has a conical, shape which, helps making sure the hits would glance away one characteristic, of 13th century great helms though is that they are smaller than the 14th, century counterpart. And that is because in the 13th century the great helm in all of its forms it's a standalone, helmet, something that you put on your male koi more on that later another helmet that we might have seen in this period would have been the kettle hat of the early forms of kettle hat early, forms would ever longer brim my reproduction, here is a late, 15th, century kettle, hat so the brim is a lot smaller and it looks a lot more like a salad also it is in the mid 13th, century, that we start seeing separated. Male coils as a form of protection detached, from the rest of the Hobart it is in the late 13th, century that we have fully enclosed, male, legs and nice, start, experimenting with, half Greaves at the end of the 13th century we, have the development of the first coat of plaits, in the 14th century the, male hopper becomes a hobo Jone so it's smaller, in size small boulders of plate start, protecting, the shoulders, and finally, it is in the mid 14th, century, that the plate limb partial, protection, starts to appear or we will have to wait for the late 14th, century to see full plate limbs, and the. Beginning of the breastplate the great helm by this time has become a very, big helmet, that is used in conjunction with, a smaller helmet granting. Much, more protection. Usually worn over, a secret helmet first or a bassinet, later, the bassinet as a helmet begins, in mid 14th, century and then it is in the early 15th century that we have the development of breast plate and back plate voyeurs.
Discrete, Males, sewn, onto a garment, usually, the arming doublet replace, male shirt, generally, speaking Italians. Would still wear for male shirt but it is in 1420. That the full plate suit of armor including breastplate back plate and fold is created. And by 1485. During, the circuit last period european. Armor is reach the, peak of full, plate armor, and smithing. Technology, as we, move into the 16th century we, will see even greater, development allowing. For more protective. Harnesses, that by this time can use plate even for, the joints, and other areas, there would have been weak areas, up to now. Facing. The Mongols at this time didn't, just mean facing, one tribe. The Mongols proper, but it meant having to do with, a huge, consideration. Of unified, warrior. Tribes, that, were exceptionally. Dangerous and, that were unified. Violently. Prior, to the invasion of Europe but also prior, to, the attacks against Islam, or the invasion, of against, the Russian, principalities that, were unified, violently, by one man Temujin, who will later become jenga's. Khan in, other words the Universal, Lord the. Unification. Of the great tribes, was, probably. One of the most important. Geopolitical. Event. Of this, period, and the prerogative. To the expansion's. Of the Mongol Empire the, Tatars often, called Tartars. By the Europeans, in reference, to the classical, concept of Hell the Nieman's the, markets, the, carrots up to the moment of unification, and political, stability. Created. By Jiang g-scan all of these tribes had been in constant. Tribal, warfare one, against the other which, is one of the reasons why the, Jin dynasty the, Chinese, are never really considered them, to be too, much of a threat and they in fact probably, underestimated. What it meant that these tribes, all of the tribes of the steppes had unified, creating. The Horde so jenga's can unified. The tribes but it will be his sons and, grandsons. That will begin. The, expansions. To the west now, it's interesting and, I'd like to mention very briefly how, the Russian, princes, tried, to, stop the Mongol horde from advancing, and one, by one the, Mongols not only, completely. Devastated. The Russian. Armies, of the Russian principalities but, they also burned, to the ground, almost. Every. Single city, in the Russian or main city in the Russian territories. Including the, at the time extremely. Beautiful and exquisite Kiev. Now one thing they would like to underline which i think is poignant, through our discussion, is the fact that yes the Mongol army was, mostly, cavalry. Mounted, archers and heavy, Lance's, however, they, also used, Persian. And Chinese. Engineers and, they, made use of the humans after they subjugated. Them so generally, speaking when. The Mongols, conquered, territory. They, will use the, people there they have conquered anding.
Them To their armies and it was because of the Chinese engineers and, the Persian engineers, that they managed, to literally, scorch. The, Russian towns whenever, the russians understood, that facing, the mongols in open field was suicide, but still even trying, to stay close and remain, within the confines. Of their cities was not safe because of the engineers, of the mongols had access to then, managed to burn their cities because, again these cities was mostly were mostly fortified, with wood so the Mongol horde led by battle, swipes. Through, what's today's, Iran. Utilizes. The grasslands, which were absolutely, ideal for, their, kind of cavalry, for the fact that they were mostly, mounted, and then, they go into the Russian, territories, and completely. Annihilate. Any resistance. The, information. At this point starts to become vague, of, course the Mongols send their spies send, their, Scouts. To collect as much information about. The political situation in, Central and Eastern Europe which is what they did with, the Russians and it's what they did against Islam it was part of their, assessing. Before. Mobilization. But they don't know a lot they. Are aware that we have a pope which, for them probably was just an emperor considering, you know Mandate. Of Heaven that the Chinese had that's probably how they saw the Pope but one thing that they knew that, shaped. Their strategy, of attack and conquest, in 1241. Was, the fact that hungary, and poland and. Silesia, could. Unite. To help each other and they did not want that to happen and that's why they, begin, an expedition. After reassessing. Re-equip and resetting, the army and gaining, support and new troops from the east from Karakoram, they decide, to move into, a simultaneous, double. Invasion, but another thing that is really. Apart. From where, they mobilize, and how they mobilize, their armies is also the sort of psychological. Warfare that the, Mongols used against, their opponents, the atrocities. That, even, by 13th, century, standards, were absolutely. Unheard of that the Mongols did to. Their conquered, lands, so, in other words what, they did is that whenever they would find a city and this, city would, resist. They, will level it to the ground they would Massacre, and butcher everyone, and they would make sure that these things would be heard by other countries, so, that the next city that they would go and conquer rather. Than going through what the previous. Target. Of the Mongols had to go through they, would just, decide to peacefully, surrender, so the Europeans, were also and that this kind of psychological. Pressure and yet they, choose to resist battle, Genji scans grandson, understands. That he needs to divide the army he takes four, major, columns, and moves, into, Hungary at the same time the rest of the army is being moved by general, subbu tae-soo.
Butai Is going to the, north is going to Poland but why does he do that he does that because he wants to make sure that Poland, but also the Teutonic, Knights couldn't. Possibly rescue, the king of Hungary during, their, invasion, because, they knew and fully understood, that even though they were exceptionally. Good at fighting having. To deal with both the Teutonic, Knights the. Polish. Knights the Hungarian. Knights would have been too much even, for the Mongol horde so, they split them they attacked them separately, and simultaneously. Sue booty faces, the army of Duke Boris loved the chaste of Krakow and they, destroy, him the same way the army of duke henry the pious of Silesia, is annihilated. Why can, the Mongols, destroy, European. Armies well the main reason that we have to understand, is that when. We talk about sue butai when, we talk about the generals, and generally speaking the family, of Genghis. Khan we are talking about war, veterans. These are people, all the soldiers all the generals that have already gone through, the campaign against Islam through, the campaign. Against the Russians so these are all veterans battle, hardened soldiers, battle-hardened. Generals, are not, easy to fight, particularly. For one specific reason that I noticed, that a lot of people don't take into consideration. The areas, where they are fighting of Europe you see both, Poland, but mostly, Hungary. At the time was, not, fortified, the. Mongols fight in open, grassland, which is perfect, for them and perfect, for the kind of army that they have in, that, natural, equilibrium. The Hungarian. And polish, armies don't stand a chance but the Mongols are not invincible. In fact, there is one battle that I think is very significant. April, 10th and April, 11th, of 1241. The army, of King Bella the 4th faces, the Mongols this is a famous battle because, of the take of a bridge, tactical. Mistake, made by king Vella made, by the Hungarian. That gives the upper hand and the advantage, to the Mongols that take them by surprise but, it is interesting to see that, even though the Hungarians, lose against, the Mongols the. Mongols, sustain very. Very, high casualties. A lot, of Mongols, died in that, battle why, because, of the courage, and professionalism of. The Hungarian, Knights an incredible. Effectiveness. Of the Templars, even, though the Templars were a significant. Number elite, to European, troops perform. Exceptionally well, but. The infantry, panics. And runs away, that's, why I say it's not really just Knights vs., Mongoose medieval. Infantry, wasn't as professionals, as a Roman infantry so, the only real pros in, a European, army at the time where, the Knights particularly. The Holy Orders so the Mongols win and yet the expansion, stops now, the reason, why the expansion, stops and multiple. The, main reason, and I agree with that is the fact that the Great Khan the, son of Jango scan Agha, died dies.
All The Mongols will go, back they leave Europe and they go back to Mongolia because. There is going to be an election but. That is not the only reason, why they don't continue. The expansion because generally. In the idea that the Mongol have the plan was go, as west as you can you know until you see the sea just keep conquering destroying, plundering, and raiding but could they have done that if they, hadn't gone back to Mongolia and my answer, is No, so one thing at a time why did they go back to Mongolia why was it so important, to be part of this, election and why did it take so long well. First, and foremost Mongolian. Elections. So their cons weren't. Like, situation. Where you go you vote someone, yet somebody else votes and then you've got a majority now that's, a democratic, system that's a Republican, Constitution. That's not what the Mongols had for them the election. Of the Great Khan had to be unanimous so you can understand, that because of the political inner, feminine fragmentation. And all the different personal. Interests, that every single one of jenga, scan as had. This, already was gonna be a really really difficult and tough situation, but, to also wanted to make sure that, his, voice will be heard so, for him it was more important, to go back try to influence, these elections, as much as possible then, it would have been to just continue, plundering, and gaining land and then lose basically. All his power depending. On who was going to become the new Great Khan but, another fundamental, reason. Why the Mongols, could not continue, even, if this hadn't happened and this is of course my personal thesis. And I'd like to hear your opinion, in the comments is the, fact that the Mongols, up to that point had never, encountered. Fortified. Castles. In fact, and this is history the moment, that they start seeing the fortified, stone, masonry, castles, they stop they. Stop even before the, political, inner fragmentation, because the Mongol, army was, a very, specialized. Army it was exceptionally. Good at fighting, in the fields but it was not meant to attack castles, now one thing that is important, to say is that yes Eastern, Europe didn't have many castles Hungary, not, even, less than that but, Germany.
At The time had tens, of thousands. Of castles, so thinking, that the mongols could have just as easily conquered. The entirety, of germany the entirety of france and italy although. It wasn't italy, at the time but you know what i'm what i mean the italian area is unreasonable. The Mongol army was not made to. Capture. And siege castles, secondly. An attack, to, the Vatican, would have meant that the Pope could have called for, all the, holy orders, from, everywhere. From all the Christian kingdoms in the east in, the Middle East the, Templar, knights from France from Italy from Germany from everywhere could have all United. To defend the Pope in my opinion, even though the Mongols were definitely, the bane of Europe, it was the bane of Central, and Eastern Europe but Western, Europe was a different, thing and the Mongols knew the, much more, powerful countries. Resided. On the western, section and they knew that that would have taken years. Of intelligence. And possibly. A complete, reorganization. Of. The entire concept. Of the Mongol army so my opinion is is that if a god I had and died probably. Europe. Would have been split, all of this to say there, are a lot of things that need to be considered it is not just a matter of the, Knights used Lancers, had steel helmets, and iron. Male shirts and the, Mongols, used lamella armor our iron, helmets, and our em and bows and so the Mongols won over the Knights because, whatever it's, not just a matter of equipment. Versus equipment, and not even just a matter of the, Mongols used the retreat tactics, and they and the Knights wear when it's fast enough, that's too reductive. There are a lot of factors. At play that, need to be considered, Mongols. Attacking, in the 11th century absolutely. Mongols, attacking, in the 12th century 13th century. Absolutely. But if you have a Mongol, army, fighting. A late 15th, century or a late 16th, century. European. Army it would have been a completely, different situation, even, for a field, battle, not just for siege warfare and that is because at that time by, that time European, technology, had become in my, opinion, the, most advanced, in terms of warfare, in fact if you think of the French gendarme, switch I will make a dedicated, video because they're absolutely fascinating, the, only thing that could really stop those incredibly. Heavy armored. Knights was the Spanish technique Pike, and shot having ganas, shooting. Other knights while, the pikemen proved, to the charge so probably. The Mongol army would have been incredibly, different because, the, 13th century Mongol, army couldn't, beat a 15. To 16th, century European, Western European, army in my, humble opinion but. Of course by that time if the mongol empire had, kept growing and didn't have the political, contrasts. That it did and eventually fragment, it and then, probably would have seen a completely, different and who knows even more dreadful, mongolian, army but that's probably for. A different video, all. Right in over once well i hope that you enjoyed this video if you did please remember thumbs up and if you're yet not members of this community become, a noble one subscribe, to my channel for more content from the Metatron and don't forget to check out the gray kosis plus utilizing. The link in the description, below and remember, the, Metatron has spread his wings. Goodbye.