Michio Kaku on The Future of Humanity (Google I/O'19)
All. Right welcome everybody, um I'm, Taylor Wilson for. Those of you who know I am I'm a nuclear. Physicist, in my day job I built. A nuclear reactor, and I was 14 I think that's one, of the many things that we share in common our interests, and things. Of that nature and we're really young so I'm excited to be here today to interview, dr. Kaku about. Physics. And the, future so, I, guess, what that we'll get, started I will, say that when we finish our, talking, up here we're, gonna take questions from the audience so if you want to start thinking about some. Questions. That you have for dr. Kaku about the future of humanity, or physics we're, happy to try to give you an answer so, with. That thank, you for joining us this morning my, pleasure yeah I wanted, to start with kind of something. That's been in the news the, last couple weeks and I'm sure a lot of people are really interested in and that's that picture. Of a black hole that, was taken by the event horizon telescope, maybe, you could talk a little bit about how you. Feel seeing that image and what that tells us about the. Physics, of the universe well. When, I was a grad student at Berkeley. Black. Holes were considered science, fiction it, was, considered, like finding. A unicorn, it's. A fabled, animal, everyone, talks about unicorns. But no one's ever seen one because they don't exist now. We've, got, it in the bank we've actually photographed, the silhouette, the shadow, of, a black hole but, that's just the beginning, you. See this black hole is spinning spinning. Rapidly, we've. Clocked black holes at about a million miles an hour and, if you look at Einstein's, equations. And. Have. A spinning, black hole they. Don't collapse, to a dot they. Collapsed, to a ring a, ring, of neutrons, such. That centrifugal, force prevents. It from collapsing. It's stable, if, you to fall through, the North Pole of the, Ring you. Wind up mathematically. On a parallel, universe, and. If you go a second, time, you, wind up on another parallel universe, and. You keep on going through, the ring it's, like going through an apartment, building hitting the elevator. Each floor, being. Another, universe. And. We want to know is that real, or is it just a mathematical, fiction. A unicorn. In other, words a wormhole. At the center of a, spinning, black. Hole and. That's, what we want to do with, the next generation. Radio. Telescope. Technology. Okay, that's fascinating, so this idea that black, holes. 4050. Years ago we're something that we might have had theoretical. Evidence of or even in direct observational. Evidence of but now we have that real first, true. Direct. Observational. Evidence of and so what you're saying is maybe, what's next, what. What could those other, possibilities. Be for, objects. That we have not yet seen right in other words a black hole is a cosmic, roach, motel uh-huh. Everything, checks in nothing. Checks out, but. Then the question is where does it go where. Does all that stuff go if it falls into a black hole some. Theorists. Have stated, that maybe is blowing out the other end as a white hole so. Maybe there's a white hole on the other side of, a black hole such. That it spews, out matter now. Doesn't, that sound, like the Big Bang, some. People even think that maybe our universe is. A white, hole and, that, we are connected. With a. Umbilical. Cord to another universe, faster this is the multiverse, idea which, is now gaining a tremendous, amount of theoretical. Credibility. Though, of course we have not yet proven this theory at all well. That's a good segue talking about multiverses, and, into. Something that you're quite familiar with string theory so maybe you want to tell everyone kind of your background and how you ended up in physics you're, from this area originally, correct that's. Right I'm a local kid I was born in San Jose I grew. Up in Palo Alto he, went, to school up. To High School in power. But, when I was 8 years old. When, I was 8 years old, something happened, which changed.
My Whole destiny. And that, is in, the newspapers, they. Announced, that a great scientist. Had just died and they, put a picture of his, desk on the front page and the, caption, said this. Is, the unfinished. Manuscript. From. The greatest scientists. Of our time and. I thought to myself why. Couldn't he finish it what's. So hard. That. A great, scientist. Could not finish this theory it's a homework problem right, why, didn't he ask his mother what. Could be so hard so. When did the library, I found that this man's name, was Albert. Einstein. And that. Book that book, on, the desk was the unfinished, theory. Of, everything. He. Wanted an equation one inch long, that, it would allow him to quote, read, the, mind of, God. So. I said to myself wow, that's. For, me yeah, that's what I want to work on I want to help finish this. Great, theory, that I understand could not finish well, today we, think we have it it's, called string theory has. Not yet been tested, but, we think that this could be the. Final unicorn. The, final, theory, of everything. So. That every, Neutron, every, proton, every, electron, there's, nothing but tiny vibrations, on, a tiny, string this, is an electron, that's. A quark this is a neutrino. Nothing. But musical, notes on a string, physics. Therefore. Is the, harmonies, you, can write on a string. Chemistry. Is the. Melodies. You can play on vibrating, strings the, universe, is a, symphony. Of strings and then, the, mind of God. The. Mind of God that Einstein, wrote about for the last thirty years of his life the. Mind of God is. Cosmic. Music. Resonating. Through 11 dimensional, hyperspace, amazing. That is the mind of God so. This this idea this grand, unified theory that's based on string theory is. Something. You've spent your entire career, working on that's. Right we want that equation, when inch-long now. Four strings not membranes, but just four strings we had that equation yes, that's my equation I'm the, co-founder of string field theory which, allows you to summarize this vast body, of knowledge into. An equation one inch long but, today we have membranes. M-theory, which makes things more complicated, so. It's unfinished, so. If one of you in the audience ever, figures, out the final, theory be, sure to tell me first. We'll. Split the Nobel Prize together. Now. It's not a bad deal for you. That's. Really, interesting so this is the idea of taking the, physics large. Like. The. Laws that govern, gravitation. And the like and. Unifying, it with the theories, that govern the very small and the very hot the the quantum rules of the universe so your idea is that the, best way to solve this problem is through, string theory, that's, right nature has a left hand and a right hand the. Left tennis you said is a theory of the very big black, holes the Big Bang Einstein's, theory, of gravity but. The other hand of God is. The, quantum theory the theories are very small so why should we have two hands, yes, but.
Don't Coordinate, with each other and that's what we do believe that there is a final theory yes and we're, gonna test it the, Lauren change on collider has. Given, us the Higgs boson giving, us the so-called god particle but. Now we're, gonna build a successor. To. The Large Hadron Collider the Japanese. With, the international. Linear collider the. Chinese, with, a circular, Collider and the, European. Union, three. Three. Ventures, have been proposed for, the successor, of the Large Hadron Collider but unfortunately. Not, from the United States we're. Left in the dust, one again yeah, but that's the way to really, test the theory is to build a very large Collider collide, the particles and, see, what comes out our, super, collider was cancelled in the 1990s. To be built outside Dallas, Texas, one. Reason why it was canceled is because. A congressman. Asked, the physicist on the last days of hearing quote, will. We, find, God with. Your machine if. So I will change my vote well. The. Physicists, didn't know what to say. Ten. Billion. Dollars, to, find God so. He said we're gonna find the Higgs boson. Well. All the jaws hit the floor in, the United States Congress ten, billion. Dollars, for. Another goddamn subatomic particle. They. Took the vote and it was cancelled yeah since, then we, physicists. Had to ask ourselves how. Would, we answer that question yes, the next time someone asks us will we find God with your machine, how, will we answer, it mm-hmm I would, have answered it differently. I. Would. Have said. God. But. Whatever signs, or symbols you ascribe to the deity this. Machine, the. Super collider will. Take us as close as humanly. Possible to, his greatest, creation. Genesis. This. Is a Genesis. Machine, it. Will recreate, on, a small scale the, most incredible. Event in the history of the universe, its. Birth. Unfortunately. We said Higgs, boson. Not. As exciting, wrong, answer, wrong. Answer and you, have a little. Personal. Experience of colliders, maybe you want to talk a little bit about what you built when you were in high school yeah, well just like you when. I was a junior. In Cubberley, high school which is just about two miles from here I decided. To build a particle accelerator an, atom, smasher in my mom's garage. So. I went to my mom and I said mom can, I have permission to build a two point three mil, in electron-volt, betadron electron, accelerator, in the garage and she. Kind of looked at me and said. Sure. Yeah. Why. Not no and don't forget to take out the garbage, yeah, so. I went to Westinghouse. I got 400, pounds of transformer steel I went, to Varian got 22, miles of copper wire and on the football field over, Christmas, we're, on, 22. Mile of copper wire it, finally, was finished it soot consumes, six kilowatts, of power, I put. Plug it in I close, my, ears and. I heard this crackling, sound is all this energy surge, in the capacitor, bank and then, I heard this pop pop pop sound as I blew out all the fuses, in my mom's house yeah so.
The Whole house would be plunged in darkness and, my poor mom she must have said to herself. Why. Couldn't, I have a son who. Plays basketball huh. Maybe. If I buy him a football and, for, God's sake why can't he find a nice Japanese, girlfriend. Why. Does he build these machines, in, the garage I, think, our parents would get along I think they have similar, similar. Opinions, about these things so, that's that's really exciting so that was kind of something. You did in high school and then you went on to college to, study, theoretical. Physics and develop, string theory and now I guess you spend, a lot of time thinking about the future and what. All this science of technology, means for our species and, our evolution, that. Leads me into kind of a segue, away from, basic. Theoretical, physics which is the, topic of the brain it's, something I think a lot of people are interested in knowing, what is the nature of consciousness, and and, this, thing inside our head that controls, our lives but, it's something we know very little about today, I. Know you've spent a lot of time thinking and writing about the. Brain and human consciousness. I was. Recently in China with. The. What. China calls the father, of quantum pangaean. Way and he, was talking about this idea of quantum. Consciousness or. The quantum mechanics, that underlie, consciousness. So I. Give. You that question for. Your thoughts what. Are kind of the quantum, mechanical, possibilities. That underlie, the, functioning, of the brain and, consciousness. Well. The two greatest, mysteries. In all of science, in all of science, the, two greatest, mysteries, are if one what. Happened, before creation, why. Did, we have a big bang what, banged, are there other universes. A multiverse, before. The Big Bang that's, out of space then. The second, mystery is inner space yes, what, goes on behind, your, eyeballs, we. Have a hundred, billion neurons in. Your brain, as, many. As stars, in, the Milky Way galaxy, each, neuron is, connected to 10,000. Other neurons and. So what is the brain we. Made a mistake fifty years ago and we're still paying the price for it today, fifty. Years ago we, made a huge mistake we. Thought the, brain. Was. A computer, a digital. Computer, but. You see the brain has no operating, system it. Has no programming, it, has no windows, it has, no GPU. It, has no Pentium, chip it, has no subroutines. The. Brain doesn't, have anything. Resembling. The. Brain except. Neural, activity. Fifty. Years later, after. This wild-goose chase, we. Now understand. That the brain is a. Pattern. Seeking. Neural, network, a learning. Machine and it, learns and rewires, every. Time you learn something new for. Example, your laptop, today is. Just, as stupid, as it was yesterday, your. Laptop, never, learns, anything. Except. Now we have deep learning, but. Our brain constantly. Rewires. Itself and, that process can, be recreated, with, MRI. Machines, with. Physics, we can look at the blood flow in, brain now and, actually, sees thoughts, as they move in the brain amazing. We, can actually test, Freudian. Theory we. Can actually test, old wives tales. For example, there's. An old wives tale that everyone, believes but no one could prove until now, that. When a man talks to a pretty girl he starts to act stupid. Yeah. Now everyone, believes it no but. We now know why. When. A man talks to a pretty girl blood, drains. From the prefrontal cortex and they, start to act mentally, retarded. Absolutely. True we can quantify this effect, now yes we can actually measure this dropping. Of blood in the, prefrontal cortex, because. Of MRI machines, we. Can now extract images. Images. Can be extracted, from the living brain with an MRI machine, meaning. That art design. Will. Be revolutionized. Artists. Of the future, will simply think. Think. Of a conception, and will, print it out on a 3d, printer hmm. Designers. Of Buildings, architects. Will, dream of their creation, and a. 3d, printer will then print. It out and, when. You go to sleep, the. MRI machine keeps, on plugging away and, will, print out your. Dream in, the. Future when. You wake up in the morning you, may push a button and see, the videotape, of the dream you, had the previous night, just. Don't tell your wife or husband. So. These are things that were considered, science, fiction, but, now we. Can put these on the Internet the. Future, of the Internet is. Brain. Net. Instead. Of sending digital.
Signals, Will. Send emotions. Memories. Feelings, on, the Internet, the first memories, were recorded, about three years ago at Wake, Forest University also. In Los Angeles. Memories. From animals can now be recorded, next. Will be, memories in monkeys, we're doing that today. Next. Is Alzheimers. Patients and, Alzheimer's, patients, will push a button and memories. Memories. Will, come flooding into their, mind and after. That, who. Knows maybe. We'll be able to upload calculus, or. Learn. Learning. Disciplines. Inside. Our mind and. By the way let me ask you guys a question. Let me ask you guys a question one. Day we may be able, to upload, reality. Itself just. Like in the movie The Matrix right. How, many of you early. Late, late at night just before you go to sleep how. Many of you have ever had that weird, feeling. That, strange. Feeling, that maybe. Life. Is, an, illusion. Maybe. Everything. Has been uploaded into your mind maybe, you're the only real thing, and, life. Is an illusion raise your hand raise, your hand if you ever had that feeling oh my. God you're all crazy. We. Have so many crazy people in this audience how. Can you be the only person in the world when, I'm the, only person, in the world. I'm. Just dreaming I'm, here at Google, I'm just dreamy I'm I'm in New York right now you know that yeah, I'm just about to go to sleep in New York I mean come on give me a break. But. This is this idea of kind of humanity. And our brains interfacing. With machines, and and that being kind of a future, step in our evolution as a species I think that's a very interesting topic to think about what, are the implications of, that both, positive, talking about being able to learn things at a fast, rate or download, memories. But you know potentially, the the negative consequences. Of that, we. Can definitely see with digital architecture, today the the problems that we face so imagine, if we're a part of that architecture well there's good news and bad news the. Good news is, that, information, will be everywhere. No we're almost, for free the. Internet might be in your contact, lens you'll. Simply blink, blink. And then. The internet, will appear inside, your contact, lens and who, were the first people to buy Internet. Contact, lenses. College. Students, taking final, examinations. College. Students will blink and see, all the answers, to my exam, right, there in their contact. Lens this, could be really helpful your, contact, lens will recognize, people's, faces and tell, you what. Their background, is and translate, Chinese into. German, into, English so let's. Say you're at a cocktail party and, there's, some very important. People at that cocktail party but, you don't know, who they are in, the, future you. Will know exactly who, to suck up to at, any, cocktail, party. On. A, blind date know, if your blind date says that he's rich he's, single, he's, loaded. But, your contact lens says that no he's three times of course pays, child support, payments. It, is a loser. It. Could be very useful now. That's the good news, yeah the bad news though the future does have bad news the. Bad news is that in the future. We. Will have lawyers. Significance, because only a human, can, argue, to a jury only. A human, can argue, to a judge robots, can't do that robots. Cannot, understand. Death ixora, morals, so yeah, people, involved, in person-to-person. Relationships. Like lawyers professors. Mentors, they. Will have jobs in the future yeah, but. The, more monotonous tasks, will probably be going away what. The more monotonous tasks they'll probably be going away well, those dirty. Dangerous yes the 3ds, dull. Jobs dirty, dangerous. Repetitive. Jobs jobs, that involve danger, those, jobs will be done by robots in, the future yeah that's. Interesting so okay we've talked a little bit about the brain we've talked a little bit about. Artificial, intelligence. When, to ask your thoughts on something I think it that is near to dear to both of our hearts which is space exploration and, we're, we're going beyond. Earth you've, written a lot about this subject about, missions. To Mars and and the planets and beyond what. Are some of the most exciting, things you can imagine us. Seeing in our lifetimes, and then maybe even.
Beyond, That well. The fundamental problem. With space travel, has been a four-letter word cost. C. OST. It, costs, $10,000. To put a pound of anything in, orbit, around the Earth that's your weight in gold your. Weight in gold that's how expensive, space, travel, is until. Recently. Prices. Are dropping, like, a rock now, for, example how. Many people here in this room have seen the movie the, Martian with, Matt Damon raise, your hand, Wow, that, movie, cost, a hundred, million. Dollars. But. The Indians, sent, a probe to Mars for, 70, million, dollars. So. Going to Mars, costs. A Hollywood, movie about going, to Mars cost. More, than. Actually, going to Mars. That's. How much space travel, has dropped, and, when. You drive a car and you commute to work do. You jump your car after, one ride no. Cars, would be expensive, if you junked, it after one ride but, that's what we do for rockets yes week's junk rockets, after just one, use we, junked them all, that's changing, with reusable, rockets, with, Silicon, Valley billionaires. Now fulfilling, their dream of creating. Fantastic. Devices, in space we're, entering the second, golden. Era of space, exploration I wouldn't. Be surprised, if some of your grandkids. Honeymoon. On the, moon I, think. The, moon is only three days away yes, or trip as costs, go down yeah, I think our grandkids, may honeymoon, on the moon it's great weekend location, not. Great scenery but well, look you like craters and dust. That's, great and we were talking backstage you're. One of the, one. Of the interesting. Things that come out of a grand unified theory and string theory is the explanation. Of, what happens, at, these very extreme conditions where, you have incredible. Amounts of energy incredible. Amounts of heat in, a limited space and and, we, were talking about could, this be a way to travel. Vast. Distances that. We can't travel today maybe. You could speak a little bit to that, well. Many people want, to know like in Star Trek can. You break, the light barrier can. You go faster than the speed of light well. It was Einstein himself, in. 1935. That, opened. The door to. Faster, than light travel when. He introduced, the, wormhole, that. Was the first paper, written. About wormholes, the first book about wormholes was, written in the 1800s. By. Charles, Dodgson Mossberg. Mathematician. Who, wrote a children's book Alice, in Wonderland. Now. This Oxford mathematician. Could not write under his name Charles, Dodgson yes it was a children's book so. He wrote under a pen name Lewis, Carroll. But. The looking-glass is, the. Wormhole you, put your hand through the looking-glass and, you, wind up on a different, space, and time, so. We think that yes that would be a way to go faster than, the speed of light now. What's the catch there's. Always a catch someplace first. Of all the, energy, necessary. To, punch a hole in space in time is that. Of a black hole you're. Talking about fantastic. Amounts of energy, second. You have to stabilize it, that means negative, energy. Positive. Energy to open the gateway and then, negative energy, to prevent it from collapsing. In other words stability. And this, has not yet been, worked, out it. Would take a very advanced. Civilization. To, do this now. I'm, on radio. And. I, broadcast, every week and, some people call me on the telephone and, they say professor. You're wrong. You're. Totally wrong the aliens, aren't very not a space, with warp drive the, aliens, are here, on. The earth and then. I asked them how do you know and they. Say well they've been kidnapped, kidnapped. By flying saucers they know that they're out there well. I have a word of advice the. Next time you. Are kidnapped. By a flying saucer, for. God's sake, steal something. There's. No law against. Stealing from, an extraterrestrial, civilization. Stir, yeah, no law whatsoever, an, alien, ship an alien, hammer an alien paperclip. Anything. So, that you have bragging, rights about, going into outer space. It's. Good advice it's good advice all. Right I guess we. Can start opening it up to questions if you want to make your way to the mics start to line up we'll, try. To do our best to answer the, questions that you have so over. Here you were the first doctor. Thank. You so much for coming out I'm really inspired I wanted, to hear some of your thoughts on. Ethical. Development and, how, we might be able to help machines, uphold, ethics, in our society. Ethics. And how we help machines, uphold, the ethics that we as a society hold, is that correct.
Well. Several, things first. Of all we have to make sure that. This. Technology. Is used by. The largest. Numbers, of people but. You see when technology, first, becomes, available it's, always for the rich when. The telephone, first. Came out over a hundred years ago who, had personal, telephones. It, was rich people, but, eventually we have things like Moore's, Law computer. Power doubling, every 18 months, and so with time the, cost of telephone, goes down we. Once thought that was going to be a digital divide, when. Rich, people would, have laptops, poor. People, would have nothing. But. Now we know that most children, are the first to be wired up because. If a child is not on the Internet, they don't exist, on the Internet. But, there's also another, ethical, problem, for the next coming decades. Some. People wonder when, robots, become. Smarter, and smarter are they. Gonna have a civil rights movement. Maybe. Because. In the future robots, may, be programmed, to feel pain. Today. We feel pain because. It's good for us otherwise. We lose our fingers. They our, fingers get burned cut, up pain, is, good, because. It prevents, us from destroying. Ourselves. Eventually. Robots, may have to feel pain, otherwise. We will tell them to jump off a cliff and they'll destroy themselves they, have to feel pain at. That point it has to be regulated so. We may have a robots civil, rights movement, to limit, the, amount of pain that a master, can impose upon, their, robot. Now. That of course is many many decades away but, eventually robots. May also be part of our ethical, understanding. Of Technology. When, they, feel, pain. Interesting. All. Right over here, dr.. Kaku one, of my earliest. Memories, is of watching, the Discovery Channel, and seeing you on there thank, you for the role that you played in shaping that part of my early childhood executives. And related. To that I wanted, to hear what you are excited, about when, it comes to expanding, the scale, and accessibility, of science communication into, the future.
Well. It used to be that mass media would. Stay, away from science because, quote science, doesn't sell, so. Back, in those days we only had three networks, and. Science. Was invisible, for the most part and most. People when they learned about science, they learned about science in school, but. There's a problem there first. Of all we're all born, scientists. When we're born we, want to know why the Sun shines we, want to know where we came from but. Then we. Hit the. Killer. Of. Scientists. Known to science, the. Greatest, destroyer, of scientists. Known to science, is. Junior. High school. While. We hit you in your high school it's, all over we, lose, scientists. By them hundreds. Of thousands. Why because. Scientists, made boring, It's, Made repetitive. You, have to learn to name, name, things, rather. Than learning the great principles, the, great concepts. Of science and that's, why more recently, we have the internet we have cable which. Brings, science, to an audience now. It, turns out that about a million people, subscribe. To. Scientific. American that's. The hard core these. People, will seek out science. Even, when there's no science, about a million people the hard-core but, then there's another five, to ten million people who. Will tune in, sometimes. To Discovery. Science Channel, National, Geographic if there's, something really, interesting happening. So, we know that we can reach five. To ten million people on a good, program. And then, with, the discovery, of the black hole we, can reach a hundred million people when. We, reach, residents. We resonate, with the people of the world so, we need more people. To, write books more, people to be on television to, do radio shows we, need more, people like that rather, than less people to become role, models for. A. New, scientific. Revolution. Definitely. Trade. Advice. All, right up here I think. Sir thanks, for coming out today, I was wondering your thoughts on NASA's recently. Announced. Plan to return to the moon in 2024, do. You think it's feasible. First. Of all I think we're gonna have a traffic jam. Around. The moon very, soon, first. The, NASA has. The SLS. Booster, rocket next, year, we'll orbit, around the. Moon then. We have Elon Musk of SpaceX. Who's, selling tickets. Tickets. To the general public, he's. Been sold out a Japanese, billionaire, bought out the entire tickets. For. The, Falcon, Heavy rocket, that is also fully, capable of, going around the moon and then. We have Jeff Bezos of, Amazon. Formally. The richest man in the world he. Has, a whole spaceport. The. Blue Origins rocket, program, to, go to the moon with, the new Armstrong, rocket. And then, we have the Chinese, the. Chinese have announced, they're gonna plant the Chinese, flag on the. Moon so. I think we're gonna have a traffic jam with. Three American, rockets one. Chinese, and perhaps one European, rocket, fully, committed, to go back, to the moon and the, question is why. Because. Costs, have been dropping. Technology. Is catching up you, realize it your cell phone your. Cell phone has more computer, power than. All of, NASA in. 1969. When. We put two men on the, moon that's, right your cell phone today has, more computer, power than all of NASA in.
Fact I think it's criminal what they were doing in 1969. Criminals. Say they humans, into space backed. Up by one cell phone would. You go into outer space knowing. That your rocket, is backed up by one cell phone that's. What we did in 1969. I think it's criminal, so. I think that we're gonna witness a second, golden. Era of space, exploration as, costs, begin, to drop not. 10,000, dollars a pound ninety. To one thousand dollars a pound but eventually a few hundred, dollars per, pound that's the goal oh. That's. Great. All. Right over here. It's. An honor to be here with you dr. Kaku, I have, a question simple one do. You believe humans, will reach a type one civilization. Okay. I I'm. A physicist, we rank, civilizations. By two things. Energy. And information, that's. How we rank, anything. Energy. Information. Energy. Of a planet, eventually. Reaches, type 1 so. That earth becomes, planetary. We. For. Example can, control, the weather, we, can mind the oceans type. 2 is stellar, where. You then begin to consume the power of a star, like. Star. Trek Star. Trek would be a type two civilization, where. They've colonized, a few solar systems, but not much more type, 3 is. Galactic. A galactic. Civilization like, star wars where. You can roam the Galactic space, lane now, what are we are. We type one that can mind the oceans play with the weather, well we type two that played with stars we. Type three that play with black holes. No. We're. Type zero. We. Don't even rate on the scale we. Get our energy from dead plants oil, and, coal so. We have all the savagery, of a type 0 civilization. Sectarianism. Religious. Hatred, racism, all, the garbage from the past but, by. The year 2100. In, a. Hundred, years time we. Will become. Type, one and, that. Gives, us room for hope, that. We will be a planetary, civilization, by 2100. For example, what language, will they speak, already. The, two languages, on the Internet are English. And Mandarin. Chinese. Look. At. The Internet what is the Internet, the Internet is the first type one technology. To. Arrive in, this century that's. What the internet is the first type. One technology, to, arrive that. We have the European Union type one economy, we. Have the. Beginning of a type one sports. Olympics. Soccer, we. Have the beginning of a type one music rock. And roll rap, music yuck. We have the beginning of a type one culture, but it's not guaranteed, that. We will make the transition, to type one because, we still have all the savagery, all the backwardness, of our, ancient. Past by. The way I once, spoke in London at the planetarium. And that little boy comes up to me a little, boy says professor. You're. Wrong. You're. Wrong there's, Type four and, so.
I Told them look kid. Look. Kid there are planets stars. And galaxies. That's it folks, planets. Stars, and galaxies. Therefore. We have type 1 type, 2 type 3 and, he said professor, you're wrong this type 4 I said. What energy, is beyond galactic, and he. Said the. Continuum. Now. Who here is a Trekkie who, understands, what I just said what, is the only type 4 civilization. On network television. The. Cue if, you. Did not understand. What just transpired, get. With the program. The. Cue is extra, galactic, and what is that energy dark. Energy, dark. Energy, is beyond, galactic, that, is the energy of a type 4 hmm. Interesting, all right we'll take one more question over here ok. First. Off thank, you for being here. Second. Thank, you for being somebody else who had a question about the Kardashev, scale, so. I had to kind of think of something, new, that's, still in kind of the same veins so. My. Question would be how. Long do you think it will be before we actually. Really. Begin to register on the scale and what can each of us as individuals do. To kind, of do. Our part, in society to push. It that way before we destroy, ourselves as a civilization. Well. On, this question I actually. Differ with. Many, other, scientists. Most. Scientists, would say that technology has. No direction. No moral, direction, science. Is a sword a double-edged, sword one. Side can cut against disease ignorance. Poverty, the, other side can cut against people I disagree. I think, technology, does, have a moral direction because. The internet spreads. Information. Information. Gives, you empowerment. Empowerment. Gives you democracy. And. Democracies. Do not war, with. Other democracies. Let's. Do a science, experiment, write. Down, every. Single war you. Had to memorize as. A child, since. You were in grade school every, single war, every. War has been fought between kings, emperors, queens. Dictators. But, never, between. Two, major. Democracies. And. So I think we are entering a, new moral. Dimension, where. Technology. Is changing. The way humans. Interact. With other humans, so, that we don't tolerate. Dictatorships. So much when. I was young in. Our history class we learned something called, dictator. For life. You. Had Russia you, had the United States if you were a pawn of Russia or a pawn of America. You were there forever, the. Only way to take you out of power is through a coffin. Dictator. And for life today. We, laugh at that, I mean, dictators. For life I mean come on right. We, have the internet, we have empowerment. We have knowledge and so, dictators. Are endangered. Species now, so. I think that technology, does have a moral, correction that I think it is liberating, it is empowering, and. It, is changing, world history, a new, chapter in world history is being written as, individuals. Make. Their mark on human. History. All. Right well, thank you all, it. Was great thank, you all for joining us. It. Was it was a lot of fun to get to talk to you about physics. And the, universe and I think this is a great audience for that because you're all involved, in technology you're, all involved, in that pursuit. Of taking us forward as a civilization, so. I hope this inspired, some interesting, questions and ideas, and hopefully. You helped take us towards that type, one civilization that, we so desperately need so thank, you so much dr. Kaku thank you.