Kiruba Krishnaswamy: Food Innovation Technologies to Address Hidden Hunger

Kiruba Krishnaswamy: Food Innovation Technologies to Address Hidden Hunger

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All right good afternoon everyone, it's my pleasure  to welcome you back to the CAFNR webinar series.   This is our 12th webinar in the series and the  final one for this year. Well today we have one of   our own faculty, Dr. Kiruba Krishnaswamy as the  speaker, and she will be introduced by Dr. Sarah Low , who is the chair of the CAFNR Research  Council. Before I hand over to Sarah I want   to remind everyone to post your questions  using the Q&A box, not the chat room. Sarah  

will facilitate the Q&A session in the end. So  without further ado, Sarah, the floor is yours. Thank you Shibu. Welcome everyone and happy finals  week. I'm really delighted to introduce today Dr.   Kiruba Krishnaswamy. I had the pleasure of getting  to know her in 2019 during the new CAFNR   faculty bus tour and we really hit it off. I saw  her present at the agroforestry conference last   winter and she was fantastic so I'm really glad  she's able to present for us today. With that let   me do her formal introduction. Dr. Kiruba Krishnaswamy is a Pillars of Pursuit food sustainability joint  

hire between the College of Engineering and CAFNR.  She started her research program named FEAST   in the fall of 2018. Her unique skill set is  integrating sustainable food system engineering   by connecting upcycling of food loss, waste,  food fortification to address hidden hunger   and innovative micro nano encapsulation  systems to deliver micro nutrients via food.   Her FEAST research team  consists of transdisciplinary   students, engineers, scientists working together  on a sustainable food process. She'll be talking   a little bit today about her zero hunger set  of goals, hidden hunger, connecting food and   nutrition security together and those sorts of  challenges. She has worked with industry and NGOs  

around the world, notably in India, Canada, the  USA and Kenya. Thank you Kiruba for joining us,   take it away. Thank you Sarah for that kind  introduction and Dr. Jose for having me here and let me share my script. Are you able to see my screen? So good afternoon everyone and I'm going to present  about food innovation technologies to address   hidden hunger, so the outline of my talk will be: I  will give a brief journey about myself and what's   food process engineering. We'll talk about hidden  hunger and I'll introduce my research program,   that's FEAST, current projects in our group and  an overview about food innovation technologies.   So how did I start? So my journey to become  a food engineer started with food because I'm a   big foodie and I wanted to know how they make  chocolates and when I was searching, and I was   good in STEM and I was interested in food, so this  was the only university that was offering   a food process engineering course. It's called  Tamil Nadu Agriculture University and it's pretty  

old. It's 114 years old institute. It's a land-grant  institution and you know university   had a pilot plant, like a food processing  engineering pilot plant at TNA and that's   where we started we worked on processing and  cardinal had a dual degree at TNA. So when I was   doing my undergraduate like you know we did a lot  of value-added processing in the processing plant   for fruits and vegetable  processing like mangoes because the southern part   of India is known for its spices and agroforestry.  It's rich in horticulture so how do we add value  

to these highly perishable commodities? So that  was the interest but one particular project I was   really interested was the consolidation of  food security in south India which was   a multi international project  connecting TNAU, McGill and a lot of universities,   and we were trying to transfer some of the food  processing skills to rural women and improving the   livelihood. So this particular experience uh gave  me a profound understanding that how technology   could be used to improve people's life and that's  how I started to become more involved in this   field and I got my commonwealth scholarship  to continue my master's research at McGill   and I continued my PhD at McGill in bio  resource engineering and medical university   is also pretty old like you know 199 years uh  sorry yeah around 200 years old institution   and it's an AAU institution. And then I did my post-doc in chemical engineering at University of Toronto   which is also old 193 years old and it's also  an AAU so McGill and TNA and University of Toronto   are the only two universities outside the U.S.  that has AAU status and now I'm at University   of Missouri and it's a delight to be here  because it's also one of the oldest institutions   and something very unique. It's an AAU  member and also it's a land-grant institution  

so that is a very powerful combination and I'm so  and that's that's why I am so excited to be here   at Mizzou and do research. Another reason is Mizzou  is the only university in the state of Missouri   accredited to offer a food science program. So  you need to be accredited by IFT, that's Institute   of Food Technologists, to offer a food science  program and we have a accreditation and to offer   a food engineering you need to be accredited by  both ABET and so we have both accreditations and we   can offer the food process engineering course.  So that's why Mizzou is important to  

the state of Missouri. And then let's see some  of the processing areas. So what are the key raw   materials in Missouri, like you have agriculture,  livestock production and agroforestry, right, and   so when we want to develop value-added products,  it could be of two things, like you know you take   the raw materials and you convert into high-value  products in two ways. One is a food material like   so one, it can go into the food material, then  it's been processed, it's been distributed   and it can reach food and nutrition security. The  other one is non-food and feedstock that is also   needs to be processed. It's distributed and it  can improve the economic security of people.   So there is a lot of opportunities for  processing in the state of Missouri   and if you see the Show-me State Food, Beverage  and Forest Product Manufacturing Initiative,   you can see there could be around 71 billion  dollars of increased economic activity and   that's around 70,000 new jobs in the state. So  there is a lot of potential for Missouri to be   one of the key players in the area of processing.  What I would say is Missouri has a lot of  

potentials for value-added processing. So when we  have value-added processing we need to know how   to do this right. So that's where food processing  engineering comes to play. What is food process   engineering? But before we go into that, we need to  look about what is food science. Food science is an   interdisciplinary STEM field. It connects chemistry,  microbiology, law, statistics, nutrition, physics,   horticulture, biochemistry, engineering and this  where food process engineering comes into play.  

So now we've seen how food science  and food engineering are connected,   but it is really food engineering state like you  know. It is in the interface of science   engineering and technology so it's an applied  field where it connects all these and what   do we do in food process engineering? We take raw  materials and we transform them into food we eat.   We convert them into safe and nutritious food  and also we increase these products' shelf life   and so that gave you an overview of  what is food engineer, food processor engineering.  

Now I want to take you to what is sustainable  food process engineering and what I mean by this.   You might ask, why do I care about  sustainable food and nutrition security,   right? Because the start of the 21st century  saw a lot of changes and so we had a lot of   climate crisis from earthquakes, tsunamis, floods  and last year we had floods in Missouri. Fires,   wildfires are often a big challenge and drought.  These are some of the climate crisis that we face   in this century and now we are in a global  pandemic, right? This global pandemic has exposed   some of the social disparities in the world and  you can see on one hand, people having less to eat,   and on the other hand, we don't know how to process  a food so that goes as waste. We waste around so   much tons of food and if we know like you know if  we had a better food systems we wouldn't have had   these challenges and who are the people who are  really affected? Around 80 percent of people living   in rural communities are drastically afflicted by  hunger issues and 20 percent of people in the urban areas   are malnourished and this is a  big challenge that we need to address as we move   forward towards a post-COVID era. When we  talk about hunger, the first thing that comes to  

our mind is chronic hunger. That is when you don't  have enough food eat for a long period of time and   that affects around 821 million people in this  world. It is a big number, one in   nine people are affected by this, but there is  something called hidden hunger and that affects   around two billion people, approximately one  third of the world population, and it's all due to   vitamins and mineral deficiency like iron and zinc.  The sad thing is around seven million children,   before they reach the fifth birthday, die annually  because of some form of malnutrition problem.   We say children are our future but we lose around seven million  children and all these statistics and numbers were   before the onset of COVID. It has been projected  around 10 to 15 increase in these numbers are  

going are going to be in the post-COVID era.  So this is something we need to address.   Whenever we talk about malnutrition, right,  it's a complex terminology. It's complex because   there are so much interconnected challenges with  malnutrition. So these are some of the ecological   pathways for the double burden of malnutrition.  I just want to simplify this. If you take an   umbrella and you call that as a double burden  of malnutrition. On one side you have wasting  

and stunting, so that is this particular cycle  here, wasting and stunting. On the other hand you   have overweight and obesity. So here that leads to  overweight and obesity. The interconnecting factor   is micronutrient deficiencies. That's lack of  micronutrients and this is a big challenge that is   affecting two billion people are affected by  micronutrient deficiency as well as two billion   people are affected by obesity and overweight. So  these are all interconnected complex challenges.   So that's one thing. On the other hand as I said  before, we waste around 1.3 billion tons of food  

annually. Edible food is wasted. So you  have two billion people without food   like suffering from hidden hunger and  1.3 billion tons of food going as waste.   Waste is a terminology that's created by humans.  In nature there is nothing called waste. Everything   flowed in a cycle and it transformed into  something else, a product. So if we could learn  

this from nature and change our  perspectives, then we wouldn't be   calling it as waste but rather 1.3 billion tons  of raw materials that could be transformed into   food and could feed the people who are in need  of it and that's the   whole vision of my research program. I do know this is a very complex challenge.   There is no single solution to address this  problem, but every small contribution can   lead to addressing this challenge. So how are we  addressing this challenge in a research group?   A research group is called the FEAST lab that is  food engineering and sustainable technologies lab.   We work in three areas. One is sustainable food  engineering that is upcycling of waste and food  

loss and value addition to food, like   recovering micronutrients and then fortifying   those foods with micronutrients to address the  problems of hidden hunger and once we develop   therapeutic food, then we need to deliver them  efficiently so developing innovative technologies   for oral delivery mechanisms to deliver  these micro nutrients and by active compounds   so the interested population groups, we're  interested in women, children and elderly, and   urban and rural populations in tribal communities.  So if you see here that everything is connected to   zero hunger. So zero hunger is the human sustainable  development goal number two, that is SDG2 and this   is the... you would have seen this particular  thing. Something I would really want you to  

see is the 70 code that is SDG number 17. And  this is something very unique about and comparing   MDGs to SDGs. You cannot address challenges: hunger,  poverty, malnutrition, climate crisis by addressing   them in silos because water, energy, all these  things are interconnected so you need to have   an integrated approach to address these problems.  And so that gave an overview of my program   and how it's connected with zero hunger. Now let  me share with you some of the current research  

that is happening in the group. The first research  I want to share with you is about sustainable food   engineering that is upcycling of food waste and  food loss. So here this particular project we like   you know Black and Veatch funded this project  and it was upcycling of food waste. For example  

there is a tremendous growth in  consuming Greek yogurt the past decade. In   2005 one percent of the market was Greek yogurt  but now nearly half of the yogurt market is taken   by Greek yogurt industry. So for every one cup of  Greek yogurt, approximately two to three cups of   acid whey waste is generated. So that's for one cup,  you get at least three cups of waste and this is   an environmental problem because like generally  it's dumped down in the surroundings which is   not good and it affects both the land and water  resources. So it it is a threat to the marine life   and sometimes like you know people are using it  as an animal feed and in fertilizer and also it's   been used in anaerobic digestion but as the demand  for greek yogurt increases, then the amount of   waste is also going to increase, right? So we need  to find more sustainable solutions to address this   particular problem otherwise we might be creating  a lot of environmental issues disposing this waste.  

That's why there's a need for a novel method to  upscale the waste. So what do we do is like   that was on one side but on the other hand we had  some underutilized ancient grains like millets.   These grains are drought tolerant. They are climate  resilient. They have health-promoting phytochemicals   and they are considered as functional foods and  in the U.S. they are currently used as livestock   feed or bird feed and these are gluten free and  it has high proteins, fiber, vitamins and minerals.   What was the reason we took this  is because we need to have a base. So we took this  

millets and mixed with the acid whey to upcycle it,  to develop baby feeding food so we could recover   some of the minerals, like high level of calcium  and bioactive compounds that are generally present   in the whey when we mix with the millets then  we could develop healthy formulations   for baby food. You can see the colors  are different here. When you   have different lists, you have different texture  profiles but once we do a spray drying process   then you could change the surface morphology.  You can change the texture, the flowability   of the powder and make it more uniform and this  is a simple processing that we do here in the lab.   You take acid, we mix it with millets, different  combinations and develop nutrition millet based   nutritious weaning food powder formulations so that's one upcycling of food waste.  

Another thing I wanted to share is how do we have  post-harvest reduction in fruits and vegetables?   Mostly the Agroforestry Center is providing  us a lot of samples. I'm so glad that we are   able to get some high value compo like you  know samples like the pawpaw. This is a   colorimetric analysis of the pawpaw fruit. This is  a PH analysis of the pop-up fruit juice so we're   trying to add value to this Missouri  based crop, and black walnuts and berries so   these are some of the value addition  to prevent post harvest losses in agroforestry   sector. So here, this is the berries. We could use a  spray dryer to convert berry juice into powder so  

that could increase the shelf life of the product  and also can be used as food colors so so that's   one area of sustainable food engineering. Now let's  go now, since we have recovered some of the micro   nutrients, we need to fortify them, right? So we  need to go, we'll talk about fortification of food.   Here I'm going to talk about this particular  project. This is an ongoing project funded by  

Missouri Soybean uh MSMC and collaborators Dr.  Kristin Bilyeu and we are trying to develop   high value products used for high oliec soybean. So why  soybean? Soybean is an excellent source of proteins   and micronutrients and it has a high nutrient  content and it can be obtained at a very low cost.   So if we are going towards more sustainable  diets, plant-based diets, then soybean is one   alternative solution because it could address  problems of both malnutrition and hidden hunger.   And now like we want to fortify with vitamins,  right? There are two types of vitamins. One  

is the fat soluble vitamins that is A, D, E, K and then  the other one is the water soluble vitamins. So   here in the soybean project, we'll see  how both these vitamins can be fortified   into the matrix. First thing we'll see about fat  soluble vitamin and uh how oil be an excellent   food carrier vehicle to carry it so one, this  oil is high nutritional improved nutrition   profile it has high oleic acid contents that  is around 72 to 75 percent of oleic acid.  

That means it could increase the temperature  of cooking like a high temperature tolerance and   it has low saturated fatty acids, it has no  trans fats and it's more sustainable and it could   improve the frying conditions like longer frying  times and that's why uh high oleic soybean is an   excellent source of fortifying with vitamin A. How do you do this processing, right? Generally mixing when you fortify foods,  it happens in a centralized facility and oil   processing is already taking place in a centralized  facility so if we want to fortify   the oils, you could already use the pre-existing  infrastructure in the plant and just by adding   some mixing tanks, dosing pumps and static mixer  and a flow meter that controls the amount of   refined oil that's going to come into the system,  you could mix them and fortify the oils and this   could be used rather like you know this could  be stored in storage tanks and then packaged in a photo system. When we are  packaging this we need to be careful because   the system needs to be degassed and uh also  it needs to be packaged in a photo productive   uh packaging system. So that's a simple schematic  showing how we could use oil as a fortification   so that we saw about vitamins like fat soluble  vitamins. Now what happens to water soluble   vitamins? they are also heat liable so you need  to encapsulate them. Here we do micro  

encapsulation. There are different ways of micro  encapsulation. I'm just going to share with you   one example using the spray dryer. Here  you can see like this is a tofu waste that you can   generate after soybean processing. It goes into  a peristatic pump. Then as it goes then you have a   spray nozzle here, that atomizer that sprays very  fine droplets around 150 to 200 microns in size,   droplets by the time that droplets comes down,  you have hot air around, like you know the inlet   temperature we keep around 140 degrees or so,   there's going to be a convective heat transfer   happening inside the drying chamber and then it  goes into, we can uh control the feed   rate, the aspirator percentage and all those  things and it gets into the cyclone separate here and you can see fine droplets of particles  being formed and then by the end of this   process, you can see a fine powders like you know  encapsulated powders that has been collected at   the bottom. This is a simple schematic of how micro encapsulation is done using spray drying  

and that's the same schematic but here we have  after it goes into the spray   drying process. You could get any encapsulated  powder or a powder without encapsulation   and we need to do a lot of optimization to get  the right physical characteristics, like the powder   quality solubility so that's why we do a response  of this methodology to optimize those formulation   and what are these variables right here like  we have to control the proper feed rate, inlet   temperature, the aspirator percentage, the outlet  temperature viscosity of the feed, the compressed   air pressure and the thermal efficiency. All  these factors, they have to be optimized in order   to get a perfect encapsulated product. If not, if  your encapsulation efficiency is not good, then   your product might degrade over period of time.  So that's why optimization is very important  

and at the end you will find powders that are  encapsulated. These are some of the products   developed in the lab: soy milk powder, soy meat  powder and you can improve the color, the flavor   the texture of these raw materials before  and after spray dry and some of the ongoing   projects that we have is optimization of food  processing parameters by fortifying with B12   and developing products like soyleic milk, yogurt,  tofu and extruded okra product and this particular   project is funded by MSMC and so we're thankful  to our funders. Now we saw upcycling, we saw   fortification, now let's talk about delivery,  because we want to deliver the food, right?   So here like you know oral delivery systems.  Dysphagia is a problem. So here you see a person   eating food. He's chewing his food and as the food  passes into a system, generally it should go down  

but here like you know it's going in the wrong way  so he's choking. So this is a problem and this is   called dysphagia. It's a swallowing impairment  disorder and it affects around 10 to 15 million   Americans and predominantly premature babies  and elderly. So these are the two groups that are   predominantly affected by dysphagia. When  someone is having this physio what happens?   Then they get malnutrition will become problem  because they're not getting the right nutrients.   Dehydration is another problem and if it  goes in the wrong side, then it could lead to   aspirational pneumonia, poor quality of life and  sometimes mortality. So this is a big challenge  

and we are developing food-based  oral delivery systems to address this and we're   partnering with Dr. Teresa Lever from MU School of  Medicine and this particular project is funded by   the Coulter Acceleration so so that gives an  overview all the these projects that we have   and how everything is connected to the  zero hunger and so that is an overview.   Now we saw my different  food FEAST lab projects. I would like to share  

some of my very favorite food innovation  technologies that reaches millions of   people. The first one is Beyond Meat and this is an amazing food engineering   innovation. I hope many of you in the college  might know Dr. Fu-Hung Hsieh. He's the inventor of   this technology, and he's a professor for  engineering and professor emeritus, and he's   an amazing individual and an excellent food  engineer. So what was his innovation, right?   He took raw materials like the soy meal and  protein and used a system called the extruder.   Extruder is used to extrude materials so there  are three different zones, very important. One is  

the feeding zone where you have the hydration and  compression and then it goes into the kneading or   the mixing zone. This is zone two where like you  know you have kneading and the raw material is   getting unfolded. The proteins  are getting unfolded and then as it goes into the   third zone where you have melting shearing  and fiber formation. This is very important   here because we're going to incorporate  temperature and then by changing the dyes we could   form textures and align fibers that could  mimic the structure of meat so that was   the innovation and now we know that beyond meat  has expanded drastically.  

You can see that how something from the lab  could be transferred into an industry scale .  If you want to put it as a process flow diagram,  when you talk to food engineer, you'll see they   will always talk about process flow diagrams. So  there are various unit operations that needs to be   sequentially aligned so your first raw material in your final product are completely in a safe nutritious way so that's  where most of the processing parameters are   important. If someone is interested to learn  more please do contact me, I'll explain this   whole thing. To sum this up, University  of Missouri Food Engineering Lab, something from   the lab has now reached global markets, right? And  now it's reaching around how like 100,000 grocery   stores and we are reaching people and also if you  are interested, try the Beyond Pizza. That's really  

great and a simple innovation,  innovative technology, but it could reach millions   of people and also it could improve the health  of people, have a positive impact on climate and   also improve animal welfare so there are so many  things that we could do with innovations and food   so that's one example. The other example that I  want to share with you is double fortification   of salt. It's also one interesting  food engineering innovation so why salt? That is the iodization of salt. You don't  hear people suffering from goiter because  

the iodization of salt is one of the  successful fortification program in the world   and it's consumed by everyone, irrespective of  their socio-economic status, gender, religion, region,  and everyone consumes salt at regular intervals. So we thought we saw it was an excellent platform   to deliver micronutrients and this particular,  this is a completed project by Gates Foundation   and Grand Challenges Canada where we tried to  add iron, zinc, folic acid, vitamin B12, iodine onto   a solid matrix and all these things are  based on this double fortified salt technology.   We take, this is the process flow diagram,  a simplified processbook diagram for the DFS,   you take ferrous fumarate and it's extruded into  ferrous fumarate. I showed you   an extruder before, right? A same extruder can be  used for different applications by changing   the screw size, by changing the die. You could  use it for different applications and so then   after that's been extruded, we coated color-masked  and micro-encapsulated to form an iron-free mix.   Then ironing is sprayed on salt to form iodized  salt. When you blend these two things, you form the  

double fortified salt so why it's important, there  are few reasons why we need to encapsulate them.   So if you see this is an extruded iron premix  before it's encapsulated you see a lot of pores   and if there is a lot of force in system then  there is going to be a chemical interaction   between iron and iodine and that might lead to  the sublimation of iodine so that's why we coat   it. We encapsulated with different materials here  to prevent that form a physical barrier between   these two chemicals to avoid the interaction  and also improve the shelf life of the product.   That is the technical side of it but  how did that reach so many people, right? So   it's all about partnerships. The technology  was developed in the university, researchers   in North America and Canada and then it  was transferred to food industries like JVS   and salt industries in India, then global  NGOs like Gates Foundation. Gates and China together   then you have international local NGOs  and you have community development workers   and then you have the government of Uttar Pradesh,  India, Canada, all these stakeholders came together   to solve a problem of malnutrition in India. And  initially it started with reaching 24 million  

people, that was our initial target, but after the  success of one state, other states also wanted it   and now it's reaching around 60 million people  like a simple engineering innovation can   reach so many people and it also aligns with  like so many SDG goals like SDG number two,   SDG number three, that is good health and  well-being, gender equality, because we are   improving the maternal nutrition status  of women and also partnership for goals so   so that is one thing. Throughout all  these projects what I learned one thing is,   be it a farm in Missouri or a community  in Kenya, something that connects us all   is food because we all eat and food has a very's a very a powerful connector so that   is something that I learned and I'm still looking  forward to learn more about food. To summarize   what did we see today? We saw an overview of my  research program upcycling food waste and food   loss, fortification of food with hidden hunger  and oral delivery system, and all these things   connecting human sustainable development goals and  few current research programs and food innovation   technologies reaching millions of people. So one  few take home message from this talk, like if I had  

to leave, I would say if we want to build, like post-COVID era,  a resilient food system then we   need to act locally, think globally, and partnership  is the key to success in the 21st century   because everything is connected. Some of my friends  and I would like to thank my team, you know   all my amazing students. This is a team.  FEAST is like a family. We have a lot of students.   here my current students, my former students  and all my collaborators like very kind and very   knowledgeable and supportive collaborative team  and all my funding agencies who've supported us   towards doing all this research that  we do in the lab and my special thanks   to the Deaton Institute and MU Agroforestry  Center. Thank you so much for this opportunity   and if I need to leave one quote with everyone  listening I would say this is an interesting    profound quote that we could think about because we just have one home. Thank you. Thank you Dr. Kristaswamy. That was excellent.  We appreciate your comments. I had one  

question to get started and before I ask  my question I'll encourage everyone to put their   questions in the q&a function. But one question  I had for you is how can we as CAFNR faculty   or students in CAFNR collaborate with the  FEAST lab? If you have something that goes as   based and you think, like, hey, this is something  going on, come and talk to us. I'll be happy to   talk to you and discuss and see how we can take  it forward. Great! And I can vouch for Kiruba.  

She is very collaborative and even for me as  a social scientist, we have tried to collaborate   on some things but I think there is a lot  of connectivity. I mean for me, in extension   economics, there was a lot of talk this summer  about the resilience of the food system and right   now we have a fantastic food system in the U.S.  We create a lot of food. It's very inexpensive   but there was, you know, talk about, well,  should we diversify? Should our supply chains um   be more diverse? So I appreciate your  comments on the COVID resiliency   too. I'm not seeing any questions in the Q&A  so I'll go ahead and ask my second question.  

Kiruba, how does the hidden hunger, have  you studied that a lot in OECD countries   versus developing countries and you  talked about this being a global   a global issue. is this something that's on  the radar in the U.S. or in other OECD countries?   Yes, like you know, if you see that umbrella, one  side, you have stunting and wasting, on the other   side, it's overweight and obesity. So you can see a  child in the same, in a U.S. household. A child could   look like he's fed and he's healthy. He might not, he or she might not have the  

right micronutrients, like you know vitamins and  minerals, so the kid is deprived   of those micronutrients and these are very key  for developing both physically and cognitively.   If these micronutrients are not present during  the early development stages like when a mother is   pregnant or like during the first thousand days of  the child's life, then that could have a drastic   impact throughout his life, like performing in  school and it's   like a cyclic cycle. If the mother is having  a micronutrient problem, then the baby might have,   and then it's an intergenerational thing. Then  that might lead to poverty and that could lower  

employment. Again it's malnutrition, so it's like  a cyclic cycle and food could be a powerful   tool to break that cycle and we could see  that social disparities, even in the U.S. like   you know some communities like under  represented minorities. There are so many   pockets, like food desert pockets, where  you can see that it's very pronounced. Definitely I can relate. I was anemic when I  was pregnant and as a result my son was anemic for   three or four years. It took a long time to get  his iron levels back up just because I was so  

anemic when I was pregnant and I'm a well-fed  wealthy person, so it's hard to imagine how   difficult it is for more disadvantaged populations.  I'm not seeing any questions in the Q&A. Shibu   shall we turn it over to you? Well let me ask you  a question and then we will try to wrap it up   if there are no further questions. Well Kiruba, you  talked about the soy oleic or the high oleic    soybean, an invention from our own researchers  in CAFNR, so you talked about some products and   could you elaborate a little bit more on the  commercial potential for some of those products?   Are you already working on that or is that  further down the road? There is a lot of   interest because the soy oleic has a very good  oleic acid content, 70 percent of oleic acid. That means   the temperature of processing, if we are processing  a food at higher temperature, then the oil from   this is good. It can withstand  temperature and because the biggest problem in   oil is the rancidity and oxidative rancidity  so if this particular oil can withstand those   processing temperatures then it could have  a longer frying life and also it   also has a lot of health benefits, like you know  cardio protection. So there is a lot of research  

going on there from a processing aspect, the amino  acid profile is excellent so that's where some of   the food industries are interested and also this  particular soy oleic variety that Kristin and   the CAFNR Mizzou team has developed is a  non-GMO variety. So there's   there is a demand in the Millennials and the Gen  C generation towards more sustainable   products so there is a big market for  products using this soy oleic variety that we have.   So are you currently working with anyone exploring  the market or is anyone helping you with that?   I'm more focusing on the research side  of it but once we get some formulations   planning to contact some of the  industries who might be interested. OK all right   I did talk a few initial discussions  but we want to have some products,   some good data so we could  show these other end products because this   particular fortification of B actually it starts  this like you know should start and fall like   but COVID had an impact  so we are going to start in January,   the B12 project. All right well thank  you Kiruba. Sarah it looks like you   have a couple of questions in the chat box. We  have a couple questions. Andrew Clark asks,  

Americans seem to like Greek yogurt and generate  the acid whey but is there enough local interest   in a weaning food or is it more likely to be  a USAID product for underdeveloped countries? It could be both because here  USAID project as well as here communities like   food deserts where you don't get enough  nutrients and they are tending towards more  more alternatives. This could be a viable alternative  because the millets, actually Dr. Rob Myers   from Plant Science, the shared program,  he has done a lot of research saying that   millets can grow in the Midwest and these are  drought-tolerant and climate-resilient crops.   So there is an opportunity for it to be  available even for the U.S. population like   everyone could consume it, right? The  last question was...that is a need and... Sure, uh, the last question we have, I'm probably  not gonna know how to pronounce this, but it's some   uh probably Latin word for iron. What are the  challenges to encapsulate ferrous fumarate?

Encapsulation. That's a good question. So ferrous  yeah ferrous fumarate is a challenging   complex because the color is brown in color.  If you start using in an extruder,   if you start using ferrous fumarate, if  it's a stainless steel three one sixteen or four   thirty depending upon, your system  can be completely brown and then when your product   as a consumer, we always want to have products  that are more like you know mild white, and here   we are trying to fortify with salt which is pretty  much white in color, so first challenge is masking   the color. The second challenge in that is we  are trying to add this ferrous fumarate in an   iodine complex like an iodized salt. So ferrous is  more absorbed. Ferric is not absorb, like it's not   bioavailable, and here our iron is an iodic form so  if you put these two competing chemicals together   then the iodine will supply if it's not properly  encapsulated so that's why you need to have an   encapsulation proper, like coding mechanism, to  prevent the chemical reaction between these two.  

If we don't do that, then there is no point in  adding these micronutrients. The end goal is I think we have little web  technical difficulty there. There we go. Can you hear my answer for encapsulating that?  Yeah we heard. Should I repeat? OK   OK great, thank you so much! Those are all the  questions we had. I want to thank everyone for   participating today and we hope to see you at  the next CRC webinar which will be in February.   Happy holidays everybody! Shibu I'll let you close.  

All right, well, let me also thank Kiruba and everyone for your participation.   Well I like your quote there, or your  statement, Kiruba. Food connects us all, indeed.   Food connects us all and the holiday season is  approaching so we'll be eating a lot of food.  

Well food indeed connects us all. Thank you  again Kiruba and and thanks to everyone for   attending the webinar. As sarah said our next  webinar is on February 18th. You can see the   announcement on the screen now. Dr. Kerry Clark will  talk about funding opportunities in international  

research and scholarship. I also would like to  take this opportunity to wish everyone a safe and   healthy holiday season. Happy holidays everybody  and thanks again. See you next year! Alright bye.

2020-12-24 19:46

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