Golden Age of Dutch science and technology | Wikipedia audio article

Golden Age of Dutch science and technology | Wikipedia audio article

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The. Dutch Golden, Age Dutch, Gaudin, euw. Dutch pronunciation food. N EU, was a period, in the history of the Netherlands roughly, spanning, the 17th, century in which Dutch trade science, military. And art were among the most acclaimed in the world the. First section, is characterized. By the 30 Years War which, ended in 1648. The golden, age continued. In peacetime during, the Dutch Republic until. The end of the century, the. Transition. By the Netherlands, to the foremost, maritime, and economic, power in the world has been called the Dutch, miracle. By, historian. K W Swart. Topic. Causes. Of the Golden Age. In, 1568. The seven provinces that, later signed the union of Utrecht, Dutch Unni van Utrecht, started, a rebellion against, philip ii, of spain that, led to the eighty years war before. The Low Countries could, be completely, reconquered, a war between England and Spain the, anglo-spanish, war of. 1585. - 1604. Broke out forcing, Spanish, troops to hold their advances. And leaving them in control of the important, trading cities, of Bruges and Ghent, but without control of Antwerp, which was then arguably, the most important. Port in the world. Antwerp. Fell on the 17th, of August 1585. After, a siege and the division, between the northern and southern Netherlands. The latter mostly, modern Belgium, was established. The. United, Provinces, roughly, today's Netherlands. Fought on until, the twelve years truce which, did not end the hostilities the. Peace. Of Westphalia. In 1648. Which, ended the eighty Years War between the, Dutch Republic and, Spain and the 30 Years War between other, European, superpowers. Brought the Dutch Republic formal. Recognition and, independence. From the Spanish crown. Topic. Migration. Of skilled workers, to the Dutch Republic. Under, the terms of the surrender of Antwerp, in 1585. The Protestant, population if, I'm willing to reconvert, were given four years to settle their affairs before leaving, the city in Habsburg, territory. Similar. Arrangements. Were made in other places. Protestants. Were especially, well represented. Among the skilled craftsmen. And rich merchants. Of the port cities of Bruges Ghent, and Antwerp. More. Moved to the north between, 1585. And 1630. Than catholics moved in the other direction although, there were also many, of these, many. Of those moving, north settled, in Amsterdam, transforming. What was a small port into one of the most important, ports and commercial, centres in the world by, 1630. In. Addition, to the mass migration of, Protestant, natives from the southern Netherlands, to the northern Netherlands, there were also influxes. Of non-native, refugees. Who had previously, fled from religious, persecution, particularly. Sephardic, Jews from Portugal, and Spain and, later Protestants. From France, the. Pilgrim, Fathers also. Spent time there before, their voyage to the New World. Topic. Protestant. Work ethic. Economists. Ronald Findlay, and Kevin HR or contribute, part of the Dutch ascendancy. To its Protestant, work ethic based, on Calvinism. Which promoted, thrift, and education. This. Contributed. To the lowest interest rates and the highest literacy rates, in Europe the. Abundance, of capital, made it possible to maintain an impressive, stock of wealth embodied, not only in the large fleet but in the plentiful stocks, of an array of commodities. That were used to stabilize prices, and, take advantage of, profit opportunities. Topic. Cheap, energy sources. Several. Other factors also, contributed. To the flowering, of trade industry the, arts and the sciences in. The Netherlands, during this time a, necessary. Condition was, a supply of cheap energy from windmills, and from peat easily, transported. By canal, to the cities, the. Invention, of the wind powered sawmill, enabled, the construction, of a massive fleet, of ships for worldwide trading. And for military defence of the Republic's, economic, interests. Topic. Birth, and wealth of corporate finance. In, the 17th, century the, Dutch, traditionally. Able seafarers. And key map makers began. To trade with the Far East and as the century wore on they gained an increasingly, dominant, position, in world trade a position, previously, occupied by the Portuguese. And Spanish in, 1602. The Dutch East India, Company Dutch, Veronique, de Austin - a companyi, or vo C was founded, it. Was the first ever multinational.

Corporation. Financed, by shares that established, the first modern Stock Exchange, the company. Received, a Dutch monopoly. On Asian, trade which it would keep for two centuries and it became the world's largest commercial. Enterprise, of the 17th, century. Spices. Were imported, in bulk and brought huge profits, due to the efforts and risks involved and seemingly, insatiable, demand. This. Is remembered, to this day in the Dutch word pepper door as expensive. As pepper meaning, something is very expensive, reflecting. The prices, of spices, at the time to. Finance, the growing trade within the region the Bank of Amsterdam, was established. In 1609, the, precursor. To if not the first true central bank although the trade with the Far East was the more famous of the VOCs, exploits, the main source of wealth for the Republic, was in fact its trade with the Baltic, States and Poland, called. The mother, trade, Dutch. Modena. Gosha the. Dutch imported, enormous, amounts, of bulk resources. Like grain and wood stockpiling, him in Amsterdam sir, Holland would never lack for basic, goods as well as being able sell, them on for profit this. Meant that unlike the main rivals, the Republic, wouldn't face the diary percussions. Of a bad harvest, and the starvation, it accompanied, instead, profiting, when this happened, in other states bad harvests, were commonplace, in France in England in, the 17th, century which, also contributed. To the Republic's, success, in that time in. Time, the Dutch traders gained, such a dominant, position in, Poland, and the Baltic they, all but turned into de facto satellite, states. You. Topic. Geography. According. To Ronald Findlay, and Kevin HR or geography, favored. The Dutch Republic, contributing. To its wealth, they. Write the foundations, were laid by taking, advantage of, location, midway between the, Bay of Biscay, and the Baltic, Seville. And Lisbon, and the Baltic ports were too far apart for, direct, trade between the two terminal, points, enabling, the Dutch to provide profitable. Intermediation, carrying. Salt wine cloth, and later silver, spices. And colonial. Products, eastward, while bringing Baltic, grains fish and naval, stalls to the west the. Dutch share of European, shipping tonnage was, enormous well over half during, most of the period of, their ascendancy. Topic. Monopoly. On trade, with Japan. Amsterdam's. Dominant, position, as a trade center, was strengthened, in 1640. With a monopoly for the Dutch East India, Company, vo C for trade with Japan, through its trading post on Dejima, an island, in the bay of Nagasaki. From. Here the Dutch traded, between China and Japan and paid tribute to the Shogun. Until. 1854. The Dutch were Japan's sole window, to the Western world the. Collection, of scientific. Learning introduced. From Europe became, known in japan, as rangiku. Or Dutch learning, the. Dutch were instrumental, in, transmitting, to Japan some knowledge of the industrial, and scientific revolution. Then occurring, in Europe the. Japanese, purchased. And translated. Numerous, scientific. Books from the Dutch obtained, from them Western, curiosities. And manufactures. Such as clocks and received, demonstrations. Of various, Western, innovations, such, as electric, phenomena, and the flight of a hot air balloon in the early 19th, century, in. The 17th, and 18th centuries. The Dutch were arguably, the most economically. Wealthy, and scientifically. Advanced, of all European, nations which put them in a privileged, position to, transfer, Western, knowledge to Japan. Topic. European. Great power. The, Dutch also, dominated, trade, between European. Countries the. Low Countries were, favorably, positioned, at a crossing of east-west, and north-south trade. Routes and connected, to a large German hinterland. Through the Rhine River Dutch. Traders, shipped, wine from France and, Portugal to. The Baltic lands, and returned with grain for countries, around the Mediterranean. Sea by. The 1680s. An average, of nearly 1,000. Dutch ships entered, the Baltic Sea each year to trade with markets, of the fading Hanseatic. League the. Dutch were able to gain control of much of the trade with the nasa and english colonies, in north america, and after, the end of war with spain in 1648. Dutch trade with that country, also flourished. Topic. Other, industries. National. Industries. Expanded. As well, shipyards. And sugar refineries. Are prime examples as. More, and more land was utilized, partially. Through transforming. Lakes into polders, such as the beamster, Sherman and perma local, grain production and dairy farming, soared. Topic. National. Consciousness. The. Outcome, of the revolt against Spain better known as the eighty years war that, had been fought over religious. Freedom, and economic and political independence. And ended, in total independence.

Of The reformist, northern provinces, see also Dutch Republic almost. Certainly, would have boosted, national, morale. Already. In 1609, much, of this was accomplished, when a temporary, truce was signed with Spain which would last for 12 years. Topic. Social. Structure. In the Netherlands, in the 17th, century social, status, was largely determined. By income, the. Landed, nobility had. Relatively, little importance. Since, they mostly lived in the more underdeveloped, inland. Provinces and, it was the urban merchant. Class that dominated, Dutch society, the. Clergy, did not have much worldly, influence, either the Roman Catholic Church had been more or less suppressed. Since the onset of the eighty years war with, Spain the. New Protestant movement. Was divided, although, exercising. Social, control, in many areas to an even greater extent than under the Catholic Church that is, not to say that aristocrats. Were without social, status, on the, contrary, wealthy, merchants, bought themselves, into the nobility by, becoming landowners. And acquiring, a coat of arms and a seal. Aristocrats. Also, mixed with other classes for financial, reasons they married their daughters to wealthy merchants, became, traders, themselves or, took up public, or military, office. Merchants. Also started. To value public office, as a means to greater, economic power, and prestige. Universities. Became, career, pathways, to public office rich. Merchants. And aristocrats sent. The Sons on a so-called grand, tour through Europe often. Accompanied. By a private, tutor preferably, a scientist. Himself these, young people, visited, universities. In several, European, countries, this. Intermixing. Of patricians. And aristocrats. Was most prominent, in the second, half of the century after. Aristocrats. And patricians, came the affluent, middle class consisting. Of Protestant, ministers, lawyers, physicians, small. Merchants. Industrialists. And parks of large state institutions. Lower. Status was, attributed, to farmers, crafts and tradesmen, shopkeepers. And government, bureaucrats. Below. That stood skilled, laborers maids, servants. Sailors, and other persons, employed in the service industry. At. The bottom of the pyramid were, paupers. Impoverished, peasants many, of whom tried their luck in a city as a beggar or day laborer. Workers. And laborers were generally, paid better than in most of Europe and enjoyed, relatively. High living standards although. They also paid, higher than normal taxes. Farmers. Prospered, from mainly cash crops needed, to support the urban and seafaring, population. Topic. Women's, roles. The, central, role of women in the 17th, century Dutch household, revolved, around the home and domestic. Tasks, in. Dutch culture, the home was regarded, as a safe haven from the lack of Christian. Virtue and immorality of the outside, world. Additionally. The home represented. A microcosm. Of the Dutch Republic in, that the smooth running of an ideal household, reflected. The relative, stability and, prosperity of, the government, the. Home was an integral, part of public life in Dutch society. Public. Passes, B could clearly view the entrance, halls of Dutch homes decorated. To show off a particular, family's, wealth and social standing, the. Home was also a place for neighbors, friends. And extended, family, to interact, further, cementing, its importance, in the social, lives of 17th, century Dutch, burghers, the. Physical, space of the Dutch home was constructed along, gender lines, in. The front of the house the men had control, over a small space where they could do their work or conduct, business known, as the voor house while women controlled, most every other space, in the house such as the kitchens, and private, family, rooms.

Although. There was a clear separation in, spheres of power between husband, and wife the husband, had authority, in the public realm the wife in the domestic, and private, women, in 17th, century Dutch, society still. Enjoyed a wide range of freedoms, within, their own sphere, of control. Unmarried. Young women were known to enjoy various. Freedoms, with their lovers and suitors while married women enjoyed the right to publicly shame their husbands, who patronized, brothels. Moreover. Married, women could legally, reject the sexual, desires, of their husbands, if there were proof or reason, to believe that a sexual, encounter would, result in transmission, of syphilis or other venereal, diseases. Dutch. Women were also allowed to take communion alongside, men, and widows, were able to inherit property, and maintain, control over their finances, and husbands wills. However. A woman's, sphere of authority still. Primarily lay, in household, duties to, historical. Evidence showing. Certain cases of wives maintaining. Considerable, control in, family, businesses. Manuals. Written, by men instructing. Women and wives in various aspects, of domestic, duties proliferated. The most popular, being Jacob, cats howling. Evidenced. By numerous 17th, century, Dutch genre, paintings, the most important, domestic tasks, performed by women included. Supervising. Maids cooking. Cleaning, needlework. And spinning. Topic. Unmarried. Women. As. Seen, in art and literature at the time unmarried. Young women, were valued for maintaining, their modesty, and diligence, as this time in a woman's life was regarded, to be the most uncertain. From. A young age Berger. Women were taught various, household, related, duties by the mothers, including. Reading so, as to prepare them for their lives as housewives. Dutch. Art at this time shows the idealized, situation. In which an unmarried young girl ought to conduct herself in, situations. Such as courtship. Which commonly, included, themes relating. To gardens or nature, music, lessons, or parties, needlework. And reading, and receiving, love letters. However. Ideals, of the young women espoused, by genre, painting, and Petrarch in poetry did, not reflect the reality. Accounts.

From Travellers described. The various freedoms, young women were provided, in the realm of courtship, the. Prevalence, of Calvinist, sermons, regarding. The consequences. Of leaving young women unsupervised. Also, spoke to a general, trend of a lack of parental oversight in. The matters of young love. Topic. Married, women and mothers. Dutch. Writers, such, as Jacob, Katz held, the prevailing, public opinion, concerning marriage, he. And other cultural, authorities. Were influenced, by Calvinist. Ideals, that stressed an equality between, man and wife considered. Companionship. A primary, reason for marriage and regarded, procreation. As a mere consequence. Of that companionship. However. Non-egg-etarian. Ideas. Still existed, regarding, women as the weaker sex and the image of the turtle, was commonly used to express the separate spheres and strengths, of both genders, in. Addition, to supervising, maids cooking. Cleaning, and patting, needlework, women, were also encouraged, to maintain, some financial, control, over domestic affairs, such as going to market, and buying their own food. Maternity. And motherhood were also, highly valued, in Dutch culture, mothers. Were encouraged, to breastfeed, their children as using, a wet nurse would prevent a bond from forming, between mother and child the Dutch, also believed, that a mother's milk came, from the blood originally. In her womb and that feeding the infant such substances. Would also read physiological. And health related benefits. 17th. Century, Dutch society, also dictated. That children, should first begin to learn religion, at home. Therefore. Along, with their husbands, women used family, meal times to discuss religious, topics and to focus on prayer. Topic. Old women, and widows. 17th. Century, Dutch culture, maintained, contradictory. Attitudes. Regarding the elderly, in particular, elderly, women, some. Dutch writers, idealized. Old age as a poetic transition. From life to death. Others. Criticized, aging, as an illness in which one is gradually, deteriorating. Until they reach their final destination. While some lauded the elderly, as wise and people who deserve the highest forms of respect. However. Treatises. On behaviour, for elderly women and widows stressed not necessarily. Their inherent, wisdom but, that they should maintain piety. Practice, moderation, and live a relatively, secluded. Life, unlike. Other European, artistic, traditions, Dutch art rarely depicts elderly, women as disgusting. Or grotesque, creatures, but rather their idolized, as figures, of piety and purity, whom the younger generations. Of women can look up to. Topic. Religion. Calvinism. Was, the state religion, in the Dutch Republic though, this does not mean that unity, existed. Although. The Netherlands, was a tolerant, nation compared. To neighboring states wealth and social status belonged. Almost, exclusively. To Protestants. The. Cities with a predominantly, Catholic background, such. As Utrecht, and Gowda did not enjoy the benefits of the Golden Age as, for. The Protestant, towns unity. Of belief was also far from standard. In, the beginning of the century bitter, controversies. Between strict, Calvinists. And more permissive Protestants. Known as remonstrance. Split, the country, the. Remonstrance, denied, predestination. And championed, freedom, of conscience, while the more dogmatic. Adversaries. Known as contra, remonstrance, gained, a major victory at, the Synod of dort, 1618, to 19 the. Variety, of sects, may well have worked to make religious, intolerance, impractical. Renaissance. Humanism, of which does it reassess --mess c14. 66, to 1536. Was an important, advocate, had also, gained a firm foothold and, was partially, responsible for, a climate of tolerance. Tolerance. Towards. Catholics was not so easy to uphold, as religion. Had played an important, part in the eighty years war of, independence against. Spain with, political, and economic, freedom being, other important, motives. Intolerant. Inclinations, however. Could be overcome by money thus, Catholics, could buy the privilege, of holding ceremonies. In a conventicle, a house doubling, inconspicuously, as, a church, but, public offices, were out of the question. Catholics. Tended, to keep to themselves in, their own section of each town even though they were one of the largest single, denominations. For example, the Catholic painter, johannes vermeer. Lived in the papist. Corner, of, the town of Delft, the, same applied, to anabaptists.

And Jews. Overall, the country, was tolerant, enough to attract religious, refugees, from other countries, notably, Jewish, merchants, from Portugal, who brought much wealth with them the. Revocation of, the Edict of Nantes, France in. 1685. Resulted. In the emigration of many French Huguenots, many of whom were shopkeepers. Or scientists. However. Some, figures, such, as the philosopher, Baroque de Spinoza. 1632. To, 1677. Experienced. Social stigma. Topic. Science. Due, to its climate, of intellectual. Tolerance, the Dutch Republic attracted. Scientists. And other thinkers, from all over Europe. In. Particular the, renowned University. Of Leiden, established, in 1575. By the Dutch stat holder Willem van aranya, as a token of gratitude for. Leiden x' fierce resistance against, spain during the eighty years war became, a gathering, place for intellectuals. Jan. A moscow, - the, czech educator, and writer was known for his theories, of education, but also as a pioneer, of czech Protestantism. During, the 17th, century, to. Escape the counter-reformation he, migrated, to the Dutch Republic and, is buried in Nardin North Holland. Comenius. Accepted, the invitation of, Lawrence de Geer to visit Amsterdam where he lived the last fourteen years of his life, 16:56. - 1670. He. Published, his most important, works there 43 volumes, in all about half of his total output. French. Philosopher. And mathematician Rene. Descartes. 1596. To 1650. Lived in Holland from, 1628. Until. 1649. He. Also had, his most important, works published in, Amsterdam, and Leiden, another. French born philosopher. Pierre, Bayle left, France in 1681. For, the Dutch Republic where, he became a professor, of history and, philosophy at, the illustrious school, of Rotterdam. He. Lived in Rotterdam, until, his death in 1706. As, Bertrand. Russel noted in his a history of Western, philosophy. 1945. He, Descartes. Lived in Holland for 20 years, 16:29. To 49, except, for a few brief visits, to France and one to England, all on business. It. Is impossible. To exaggerate. The importance, of Holland in the 17th, century as, the one country where there was freedom of speculation. Hobbes. Had to have his books printed, there Locke took refuge there, during the five worst years of reaction. In England, before, 1688. Bail of the dictionary, found in necessary, to live there and Spinoza, would, hardly have been allowed to do, his work in any other country. Dutch, lawyers, were famous, for the knowledge of international. Law of the sea and commercial, law, Hugo. Brosius, 1583. To, 1645. Played a leading part in the foundation. Of international, law he. Invented, the concept of, their free, seas or, mayor, libram which was fiercely, contested by, England, the Netherlands, main rival, for domination of world trade, he. Also formulated. Laws on conflicts. Between nations in, his book de I you re belly AC patches. On law. Of war and peace. Christiaan. Huygens. 1629, to 1695. Was a famous astronomer, physicist. And mathematician. He. Invented, the pendulum, clock which was a major step forward towards, exact, timekeeping. Among. His contributions. To astronomy, was his explanation of, Saturn's, planetary, rings, he. Also contributed. To the field of optics the. Most famous Dutch scientist. In the area of optics, is Anton, van Leeuwenhoek who, was the first to methodically, study microscopic.

Life He. Was the first person, to describe, bacteria. Thus. Laying the foundations. For the field of microbiology. The. Microscopes. Were. Simple, magnifiers, not, compound, microscopes. His. Skill in grinding, lenses, some, as small as one millimetre in diameter, resulted. In a magnification, as, high as. 245. X, today. Grinding. And polishing is. Done with machinery, or in-house tooling, to create optics, for microscopes. And other optics, famous, Dutch hydraulic, engineer, Jan Lee Water 1575. To 1650. Gained important, victories, in the Netherlands, eternal, battle against, the sea Lee. Water added, a considerable, amount of land to the republic by converting, several, large lakes into polders, pumping, the water out with windmills. Again. Due to the Dutch climate, of Tolerance book publishers, flourished. Many. Books on religion philosophy and, science that might have been deemed controversial, a braw were printed, in the Netherlands, and secretly, exported, to other countries. Thus. During, the 17th, century the, Dutch Republic became. More and more Europe's, publishing, house. Topic. Culture. Cultural. Development. In the Low Countries stood, out from neighboring countries with. Some exceptions, notably, Dutch playwright, Yost van den vandal, the Baroque movement, did not gain much influence. Its. Exuberance, did, not fit the austerity, of the largely Calvinistic. Population. The. Major force, behind new, developments. Was the citizenry, notably, in the western, provinces, first, and foremost in Holland to a lesser extent Zeeland. And Utrecht, where. Rich aristocrats often. Became patrons, of art in other countries, because, of their comparative, absence, in the Netherlands, this role was played by wealthy. Merchants, and other patricians. Centers. Of cultural, activity, were town militia Dutch, shutter, age and chambers, of rhetoric red Ridge curse gamer the. Former, were created, for town defense and policing but also served, as a meeting place for the well-to-do, who were proud to play a prominent part and paid well to see this preserved, for posterity by. Means of a group portrait, the. Latter were associations. At a city level that, fostered, literary, activities. Like poetry, drama and discussions, often, through contests. Cities. Took pride in their associations. And promoted, them in. The Dutch Golden Age the meals of the middle class consisted. Of a rich variety of dishes. During. The 15th, century out cuisine, began, to emerge largely, limited, to the aristocracy, but, from the 17th, century onward. Dishes of this kind became, available to the wealthy, citizens as, well the. Dutch Empire enabled. Spices, sugar, and exotic, fruits to be imported, to the country, by. The late 17th, century tea, and coffee consumption. Were increasing. And becoming, part of everyday life, tea. Was served with sweets candy. Or marzipan, and cookies, a rich, Dutch meal time of the time contained, many extravagant. Dishes and drinks. You. Topic. Painting. Dutch. Golden, Age painting. Followed, many of the tendencies, that dominated, Baroque, art in other parts, of Europe such, as Caravaggio.

Naturalism, But was the leader in developing the subjects, of still life landscape, and, genre, painting. Portraiture. Was also popular but history painting, traditionally. The most elevated genre. Struggled, to find buyers. Church. Art was virtually, non-existent and. Little sculpture, of any kind was produced, while. Art collecting, and painting, for the open market, was also common elsewhere art historians. Point to the growing number of wealthy Dutch middle-class, and successful. Mercantile, patrons, as driving forces in the popularity, of certain, pictorial. Subjects, this trend along with the lack of counter-reformation. Church, patronage. That dominated, the Arts in Catholic, Europe resulted. In the great number of scenes. Of everyday life or, genre. Paintings, and other secular, subjects. Landscapes. And seascapes for, example, reflect, the land reclaimed from the sea and the sources, of trade and naval power that marked the Republic's, Golden, Age one. Subject that is quite characteristic, of Dutch baroque painting, is the large group portrait, especially. Of civic and militia guilds, such as Rembrandt, van rains Night Watch a, special. Genre of still life was the so called prankster, leaven Dutch for ostentatious. Still life, this. Style of ornate still-life painting, was developed, in the 1640s. In, antwerp, by Flemish, artists, such as Franz, Snyder's, osseous, beard Adrian, Van Utrecht, and a whole generation of. Dutch Golden, Age painters. They. Painted, still lifes that emphasised, abundance, by depicting, a diversity, of objects, fruits, flowers, and dead game often, together with, living people and animals, the. Style was soon adopted by, artists, from the Dutch Republic today, the best-known painters, of the Dutch Golden Age of the periods, most dominant, figure Rembrandt, the Delft master, of genre Johannes, Vermeer the innovative landscape. Painter, jacob van rice dal and Frans Hals who infused, new life into portraiture. Some. Notable artistic. Styles, and trends include, harlem mannerism, utrecht, caravan azzam the school of Delft the light and fine shoulders, and Dutch classicism. Topic. Architecture. Dutch, architecture. Was taken, to a new height in the golden age, cities. Expanded. Greatly as the economy, thrived new. Town halls way houses, and storehouses were, built merchants. Who had made the fortune ordered. A new house along one of the many new canals, that were dug out in and around many cities, for defense and transport, purposes, a house with an ornamented, facade, that befitted. Their new status, in. The countryside, many, new castles, and stately, homes were built but most of them have not survived. Early. In the 17th, century late. Gothic elements still, prevailed, combined, with Renaissance, motives. After. A few decades French. Classicism, gained, prominence vertical. Elements, were stressed less ornamentation. Was used and natural, stone was preferred, above bricks, in.

The Last decades, of the century this trend towards, sobriety, intensified. From. Around 1670. The, most prominent feature of a house front was its entrance with pillars on each side and possibly, a balcony above it but no further decoration. Starting. At 1595. Reformed, churches were, commissioned, many of which are still landmarks, today. The. Most famous Dutch architects. Of the 17th, century were Jacob van kampen peter post peter, ving booms leave, and a key and Hendrik, de Kaiser. Topic. Sculpture. Dutch. Achievements. In sculpture, in the 17th, century are, less prominent than in painting, an architecture. And fewer examples were. Created, than in neighboring countries, partly, because of their absence in the interiors, of protestant, churches as, objections. To the roman catholic veneration. Of statues, had been one of the contentious, points, of the Reformation. Another. Reason was the comparatively, small, class of Nobles. Sculptures. Were commissioned, for government, buildings, private, buildings, often adorning, house fronts, and the exteriors. Of churches. There. Was also a market, for grave monuments. And portrait, busts. Hendrik. De Kaiser who was active, at the dawn of the Golden, Age is one of the few prominent homegrown, sculptors, in. The 1650s, and, 1660s. The Flemish sculptor, artists iqual eNOS along, with his family and followers like rambha, Verhulst, were responsible. For the Casa sizing, decorations. For the Amsterdam, city hall now the royal palace and stirred am this. Remains, the major monument. Of Dutch Golden, Age sculpture. Topic. Literature. The, Golden Age was also an important, time for developments. In literature. Some. Of the major figures of this period, were Gerber and Brad arrow Jacob, Katz, Peter hoofed and Yost van den vandal. During. This time a climate, of Tolerance developed, in comparison. To other European states, with, strict censorship restrictions. Paving, the way for the Dutch to become a powerhouse, in the book trade this. Transformation. Is described, by modern historians, as that Dutch miracle, additionally. The Dutch enjoyed, high literacy, rates and Dutch entrepreneurs took, advantage of this as a. Result, 17th. Century, Holland became, a great Centre for the production, of news Bibles. Political. Pamphlets. Louie. L Ziva's, and his descendants, created, what is considered, one of the most eminent dynasties. Of the book trade the. House of Elsevier, produced, Pocket editions, of classical, Latin texts, which were scholarly. Reliable. And reasonably. Priced the. ELLs of a dynasty died, out in 1712. And the Dutch miracle, waned as international. Competition. Caught up to the Dutch book trade. Topic. See, also. List, of people from the Dutch Golden Age. First. Stat oldest, period. Tulipmania. Flemish. Painting. Dutch. Golden, Age painting. Vermeer's. Hat the 17th, century and the dawn of the global, world. Equals. Equals, notes.

2019-01-05 13:52

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