CONNECTIVITY TECHNOLOGIES- PART-I
So. Far what. We have, gone. Through and have, understood, at. The different, basic. Concepts. That are involved, in, the networking aspects. Of IOT. So. We have gone through different protocols, and. These. Protocols include, the, XMPP, protocol the. MQ, titi. Protocol, CoAP. Protocol, hope and. The, a the. AMQP, protocol, so. These are the different protocols that we have gone through so far and these. Protocols are. Primarily. Involved. With. Service. Offerings, so. They're at a higher level and. Now. We are going to understand, we, are going to go down and we are going to understand, that more. At the. Physical, level and so. Physical and, partially. Mac, so. Or the link layer and the, physical level and the link layer, level what, are these different protocols, that are there these, protocols can, as a whole, offer connectivity. To, the, different devices. Which. Can help in physical. Establishment. Of the, network so. We are now going to go through some, of these protocols, so. When we. Talk. About these. Protocols. These. Can be used for both, consumer. IOT and. Industrial. IOT so. Consumer, IOT means like smart home. Then. Different. Applications, of smart home then. For, different serving, different applications. For, you. Know consumer, devices. Consumer. Based systems, and so, on then. For industrial, IOT it is like connecting. Different machines, the. Industrial machines. Manufacturing. Machines and so, on offering different connectivities, and. Smart. Intelligence, on top of those. Devices and, so on so so. All these different. Protocols that are listed in, front, of us for example, this, IQ p80, 2.14. Point four which is a protocol as well as standard as well. This can be used ZigBee. Is very, much useful 6lowpan. Well, as hurt said. Wave is a 100, Bluetooth. NFC, and, RFID, so we are going to go through most. Of these protocols in, the subsequent, lectures. So. We will start with the first one which, is the. 802.2. Mission. I Triple E standard and, this. Basically is used, for, forming, wireless. Personal area network. So personal. Skill personal, skill means like, you, know in the scale of persons. So personal area networks are used, for forming, networks at, personal. Scale and. So. These are basically, normally, low data rate networks, and. So. These. Basically, are developed. For low data rate monitoring, and control, so monitoring means sensing, low data rate sensing. Then. Control, maybe. Through actuation, and so on and, in. The process, offering. Because, it is low data rate and is. Used for wireless. Personal area network, these can help in offering. Extended. Lifetime to. Their networks extending. The lifetime of the network because of the reduced power, consumption. So. This standard uses. Two sub layers two. Layers sorry two, layers one, is the physical layer the other one is the mac layer plus. The. Sub layers like logical, link control the. SS CS, which is the surface specific, convergence. Sub-layer. Etcetera. To. Communicate, with the upper layers but. This particular. Standard, it focuses, on primarily. The, two layers which is the physical, and mac, so. Physical mac partly. LLC, and SS CS that's it about h0 2.15. Point for, as such, so. Before before we go any further I would like to remind you that. In. This case the. Communication, takes place in, the is M band. So. This is what I was explaining to you so far. This. Particular, standard this particular protocol. This. Defines. Specifications. These give specifications. For operating. In the physical layer Mac, layer, SSC. S and LLC sub layers and how. These are going to connect. With the network. Layer. So. But. The main focus is, on, the physical layer and the, data link layer of the, traditional, OSI, stack a. Few.
Features. That. We are going to just. List. Over. Here and we, are not going to go through them in detail because. Here I am assuming that. I. Mean. You have some. Basic background in. Networks, and. Communication. If. You have you will be able to understand. These little, little better however. If you don't have you know this is just for you to remember we cannot go through the details of how these, communication. Technologies. These different, schemes they, work. So. This H 0 2.15. Point for it is based on the modulation scheme which is known as the D Triple S which is direct sequence spread spectrum technique. So, this is the modulation scheme that it uses the. Triple-s modulation. Scheme. So. This basically, is highly, tolerant of the, noise and interference and, offers. Link, reliability, improvement. Mechanisms, so. This particular standard is, helpful, in environments. Which, are noise. Prone have, lot of interferences. And, in. The presence of noise and interference, this. Particular standard can help in improving the, reliability of the network. So. It has two. Different variants two different versions the. Low-speed version basically uses, the BPSK, and. The. High-speed person. Uses. What. Is known as the offset, QPSK, oqpsk. And. For. Mac. Communication. It uses the csma/ca. For. Channel a channel axis, that means carrier. Sense multiple axis. And. Carrier. Sense multiple and C stands for basically collision avoidance so, carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance, is, used for general, axis and, multiplexing. Basically, allows the multiple users of nodes. To. Communicate. With one. Another, in. An interference, free manner, at. Different times over the same channel. So. Our. Consumption, using. This particular protocol is minimized. Due. To the infrequently, occurring very short, transmissions. With low duty cycle which. Is less than 1%. So. The minimum power level that is defined in, this particular, standard, is minus, 3 DBM or 0.5. Micro. Watts the. Transmission. For. Most of these cases is line-of-sight. Transmission. And, however. Non line of time side transmission, is also possible but you get better, efficiency. Better, performance, if line, of sight communication is, used. The. Standard, transmission range basically varies between 10 meters to 75. Meters 75, meters will particularly, be obtained. If it is used, outdoors but, for indoor environments, typically like 10, meters - I would say about. 30-40. Meters and so on. So. The best case transmission. That is. Received. For. Outdoors, can. Be even up to thousand, meters also in certain cases but typically, you know so that. Is the theoretical possibility but typically. You do not get that much of, transmission. Range even if it is outdoors. The. Networking. Technologies, that is that are supported or the star topology and, the mesh.
Topology. So. There are different variants of 8/0 2.14, point four so so, in a nutshell before we proceed further eight zero two point fifty, point four the, I Triple, E standard is. Useful, for, forming. Wireless. Personal area network, that means. Small, range low. Data rate low. Power consuming. Networks. These. Can use the 8 0 to 0.5 teen point 4, now. This basically, has different, variants. The. Base variants, are a and B, but. There, are variants like the, C variant which is used for, China. The. D for Japan. The. Eve. Aryan is used for industrial applications. The. A variant, for active, RFID uses. The. G for smart, utility, networks such as smart. Grids. So. These are the different variants of the. 802.2. Used. For different purposes in different, parts of the world. Now. It is 0-2 point 15 point 4. Can. These networks, can be classified into two types the beacon, enabled Network the other one is the non beacon enabled, network, and. So. Will look at what, is became a labeled and non become enabled shortly. And, also. These. Networks, basically, use. Different. Types of devices. One. Is the f, FD which stands for fully, functional, device f FD the, other one is the reduced, functional, device the, rft, the. Fully functional, devices, include. The, pen coordinator, that means the personal area network coordinator, the. Router or the device they can act as full, functional device which, can undertake, all, different. Types of functionalities. Whereas, the reduced. Functional device can only sames and, send and something. Very similar so they have reduced functionality, they cannot route they, cannot switch, they cannot send, the packets they cannot relay the packets and so on so they, can only do very simple things, these. Are the are if these the reduced functional devices, so. Once, again we have the fully functional, device which can talk to all types of devices and can support full. Protocols, the. Reduced functional, devices can only talk to a fully functional, device, has. Lower power consumption and. Uses. Minimal. CPU. And RAM so. Minimal processing and storage. So. There. Are different frame, formats, frame, types that are defined for. 802.3. In point four, so. There are typically five frames there. Are typically, five frames that are defined for 802.15.4. So. We have the data frame the, acknowledgement, frame, the. Command frame the mac frame and the beacon frame so data an acknowledgment I do not need to elaborate, further because these are quite obvious. The. Comment frame is, used. For. Things. Such as different. Control functions, such as, associating. A device with. A band. Coordinator, or. Disassociating. A device or performing. Different other control, functions. So. These are the common. Frames, and then. The mac frames also i do not need to elaborate further this is a standard and then, we have the beacon frames these become frames basically, what they do is the, span coordinator, at regular, intervals, of time, they. It. Basically sends these. Beacons which. Can. Basically, advertise, its, presence, and the. Different devices that are able, to get, the signal that means the beacon from that, is broadcast by this, particular pam coordinator. These. Devices, they, know that, there is this pam coordinator, which is present, so this is basically enable this particular, functionality is enabled with, the help of these, beacon, frames. So. Going, back to the previous classification. We have seen that we have a beacon enabled network and the non beacon enabled network so what is this beacon enable network.
So. In beginner level network basically. Periodically. The pan coordinator, it is going to send periodic. Transmissions, of, beacon. Messages so, periodically beacon, messages are going to be transmitted, which, are going to be received, by different. Devices which, one to get associated with the pan and so on. Then. The data frames are sent via slotted. Csma/ca, with, a super frame structure that is managed by the pan, coordinator, the. Beacons are used for synchronization and, association, of other nodes with the coordinator, and the. Scope of operation, basically spends, the, whole network in the context of beacon, beacon, enabled networks. In. The case of non beacon enabled networks the data frames are sent to fire on slotted, csma/ca. The previous one for, beacon enable Network it was the slotted. Csma/ca, but in the case of non beacon enabled networks it is the unspotted, csma/ca. The. Beacons are used only, for link. Layer discovery, and. That. Means whether there is any connectivity, where there is any link from. One device to another, and, so on so we can messages basically will help in the, discovery of these different links from the pan. Coordinator, to, the different devices and so on so. This basically network this type of network that means the non beacon enabled network requires. Both the source and the destination IDs, so, as 802.3. 2.4, is primarily, a miss protocol, it, is primarily based on a misrata call all the. Protocol addressing, must, adhere to the Miss configuration. So. This is basically, in a nutshell how. The. 802.3. No point for. Protocol. Functions, and the, different features of it we, are now going to look at the. Signal protocol which, is heavily, used for. IOT, applications, for. Establishing, connectivity, between the different nodes and the. Zbe as we will see shortly. Is. Basically. It works on top of the. 802.1. Extending, these functionalities, to, the different other layers so if you recall ad, zro 2.15, point four is, useful. For, establishing. Connections. And functional, functionalities. In, the physical layer and the, mac layer and. Xingu, basically will take these, functionalities. To the, higher layers network, and beyond, network, layer and beyond. So. Let us look at how is, it, be basically, functions.
So. Sigma protocol is defined by the layer 3 and above so it work, it works on top of layers 1 & 2 of 8 0 2.15, point 4 and. Extends. To layer 3 and above. And. Zingy. Basically, works on top of eight zero two point fifty point four so, this is something that we, have to understand and we have remembered, that there is a difference, between a 2-0 2.15, point 4 and ZB and this, is what many people often confuse people. Think that ZB. + 8 is zero 2.15, point four are one, and the same but, it is not so, ZB. Is definitely, based on the 802.3, and for but, it has its own distinct identity. So. The zebu basically, uses, layer 3 and layer 4 to define, additional, communication, enhancements. And these enhancements, include. Authentication. With valid nodes, encryption. For security, and data. Routing and forwarding capability. That, enables, miss networking, and. Zebu. Is typically, used in, wireless. Sensor network applications. It is heavily used in wireless sensor network applications, where. Missed, apologies, are formed, with the help of ZigBee. So. This is a diagram, diagram, which, basically, shows the position, of Z, B with respect to, a 2 0 to point 15 point 4 so. Whereas 802.3. No point for it. Focuses, mostly on the Phi. And the mac layers. ZigBee. Takes it beyond. Macam. Your network layer. So. Network layer and the. Rest of the layers all the way up to the, application layer basically, this, extension, or the enhancement, is. Made, possible, with the help of ZB over, the 8 0 to 0.5 teen point for, protocol. In. ZigBee there are, primarily. Two different, components the. First one is known as the Z do. Which. Stands for ZB, device, object, and it. Takes care of. Issues. Such as device, management, security. Professional, policies. And so, on so. These are the different. Functionalities. Of the Z, do where. That means the ZigBee. Device. Object. Component. The. Second component is the APS which stands for application support, sub layer which. Takes care of services. Such as. Control. Services, interfacing. Bridging. Between network, and other layers and so on so. These are the two distinct, components, with separate. Functionalities. As we, have just gone, through. So. Sigma basically, supports. Star, topology so. This is the star topology that we, see over here and we, do not need to elaborate, on this further so, we have this controller, node and we, have this different, eh-eh-eh, devices.
And These. H devices, they form a star topology with, the. The. Coordinator. No sorry it's not a controller no it is a coordinated, node we along with the coordinator node, then. We have this coordinator node can be a gateway node also and this, can be a simple. Local area network a simple. Local area network or local area network, equivalent. Then. We have the. Cluster tree topology. Where. These. Are like. Different. Clusters. That are formed. With. These. Different. Blue colored, cluster. Heads, which. Basically, in, reality, are things, such as routers. And hubs, so. These will act as routers. And these. Routers. Will. Form, a, tree. Like structure, with. The. Coordinator, node. So. This is why this is known as the cluster tree topology. And then, we have the mesh topology. Which. Is, forming. A mesh. Network. With. The help of these different, routers these, different. Routers they, form a mesh, backbone. Kind of network and. To. Each of these routers these, different, end devices, are. Attached. So. Basically. These green devices, are the N devices, in this particular diagram and, these. Green devices, attached. To these two devices which, basically denote. The. Routers. And. At. The end of this. Mase network on. One end we, have this core intern node which acts as a gateway. And from. This point on, it. Offers connectivity, to, the outside network. Such as the internet. So. In a Miss any, node can communicate, with any other node within its range so this is the main advantage to. Offer fault, tolerance reliability. Missed. Apologies, are very much useful so, if the nodes are not in the range messages, are related through intermediate, nodes so. This allows the network. Deployment. Over. Large, areas so. Using, missed. Apology, you can extend. The. Network to larger. Areas it can span across a larger, area so this is possible with the help of the, mesh topology. So. The misses have increased, network, reliability for example, if nodes C and F are down in, this particular scenario. So. Let us say that initially we had this kind of a mesh, now. If the. Node C and if these. Routers. Are down for one reason or another, the. Messages, can still go from A to G. Using. This. Particular path because. An alternative, path was, possible. To have, in because. It is a mesh network. Now. The Xingu mesh networks are self configuring and self-healing. So self filling is quite obvious because if there is some link failure or node, failure, or something it, is possible to have other alternative, routes and. They. Can configure on their own they can form the network on their own so this is the advantage of the ZigBee mesh network. So. In me there are different entities the. First one is the, CB coordinator. The. Zc the. CB, when. The coordinator, basically, forms the root of the ZigBee network. So. The entire network or, the network tree, has. A root, and this, root is, known, as the ZigBee coordinator, and, from. This coordinator. There. Is a single, so. First of all there is a single coordinator, and from, this cone intern there, is a single hop connectivity, to, the, N devices, or.
So. Or. Any other device, so so, so. From, this, coordinator, basically, stores information about the network which, is under it and which, is outside it so basically, you, know it's sort of buffers, some of these information that. Are received from these n devices, and stores. With, it for. Certain time it. Buffers it for some certain time. So. It also acts as a trust Center and repository, for the security, keys. Then. Comes the ZigBee router which. Is capable of running applications as, well. As relating information between. The different nodes that are connected to, it and then. We have the N device which. Contains, just enough functionality to. Talk to the parent, node and it, cannot relay data from. Other devices so it has reduced, functionality, so it's a reduced functionality. Device. Now. Sigma. Also incorporates, a network layer so this network layer uses, the ad hoc on-demand, distance-vector routing, protocol, which. Is the. UDP protocol and it, is very popular in the case of ad hoc networks, it is used mostly, in the adop networks for as. A as a routing protocol, that. Operates in the network layer and it, used to find the final destination. So. How it can be found the. AO DV basically this particular protocol, it, broadcasts, a, route, message. To all its intermediate, neighbors. These. Neighbors basically, they relay the, same information, to their neighbors in. Turn and eventually. This, message spreads. Across. Throughout. The network now. Upon discovering, of the destination. A low cost path is calculated, and is informed, to the requesting, device via, the unicast, messaging. So. This is how this, particular protocol functions, so. ZigBee has, different, applications. It can be used for, building. Automation smart. Phones smart. Healthcare, telecom. Services. Offering. Link. Connectivity. To, LED, lighting systems. Then. Smart energy, for home. Energy monitoring. Building. Automation I think I have already mentioned, remote. Control, and so on so these are the different applications. Where this igby protocol, can, be used. So. We. Come to an end of this so we have. Discussed. Two, very important, protocols die, triply. 802.1. Point, 4 and the, ZigBee protocol. In. This particular lecture we. Have seen that whereas, the 802.3. Point, for it. Is primarily, restricted. To, the physical, and, the. Mac layers. Sigma. Basically extends. It or enhance, its and enhances, its functionality. Beyond. So. Network. Layer and all. Way up to application-layer. So. Zinc will basically uses, the protocol UDV, for, routing, purposes, and it, is one of the very, popular protocols, that is used, for. Sensor. Networking applications. Particularly. Using the. Mesh topology and we have also seen that there are different types of topologies, that are there start topology cluster. Tree topology missed, apology, and so on miss tupola Jie is particularly useful when, there is higher, reliability that is required from their network deployment for.
The Application there, for which it is being used. Thank. You.