Computing Innovation and Diversity of Thought
You. Please. Welcome director, data, science, Microsoft. Research Vani, man Dava. Hello. Everyone, and welcome to. These last two sessions of faculty summit 2018. So. In, 2017. 57%. Of professional, occupations, in the United States were held by women yet. Only. 17%, of, Fortune, 500 CIOs, positions. Were held by women in computing. Specifically. Only 26%. Of jobs were, held by women, the. Numbers are even lower for underrepresented groups. Black. And Hispanic men for example hold. Only 9% of, computing, jobs and the, numbers for, black and Hispanic women are, an, abysmal 4 percent as, a. Result, the. Technical, products, and services, that we use today have. Been created, by a single large homogenous, group of people men. Considering. The impact that technology has on our. Economy our society and, our lives it. Makes sense to pause and consider the, question. What. Is women and other groups underrepresented, in, technology, were. At the table, designing. And creating technology. Alongside men. This. Panel of computing, innovators, will. Explore, the, exciting outcomes. That are possible, if diverse, perspectives, were brought to the table, it. Is my pleasure to, introduce, Lucy. Sanders, our esteemed, moderator, for this distinguished, panel lucy, sanders a CEO, and co-founder of, the National Center, for Women and information, technology. And C wit Lucy. Has extensive, industry background, having worked in R&D in executive. Vp positions, at AT&T Labs Bell, Labs and Avaya Labs for. Over 20 years lucy. Specialized, in systems-level software and solutions, and also, holds six patents, in the area of communications. Technology. Lucy. Is the recipient of the very prestigious, Bell. Labs fellow award which, is the highest. Technical accomplishment. Bestowed, at the company, Luci. Currently, serves as a trustee, for the Colorado, School of Mines, the Center for American entrepreneurship. In Washington, DC and the, international computer science Institute at the University of California, Berkeley she. Has served on the information, technology research, and development ecosystem, Commission, for the National Academies, and the. Innovation, advisory board for the US Department of Commerce on behalf. Of Microsoft, it is a great honor to welcome Lucy Sanders, and our distinguished, and our distinguished, panel for this session. Well, thanks Barney for that really great welcome. And welcome, to, Jim, and Margaret and a, Bellotti for coming. Today and sharing some, insights around diversity and, innovation. As. A community. Those. Of us in computing and all of us are I think in this room we, talk about broadening participation in. Computing quite, a bit when we get together and. Often. We'll talk about it as, a pipeline issue we need to focus on, the computing, educational, pipeline and that's, true, we do that's, a very important, thing or we'll, talk about it as being the. Right thing to do well. Paying jobs for a diverse group of people a workforce. Issue and those are all true as well but. Today we're not going to talk about any of those important. Things we're. Going to talk today about the link between innovation. And diversity. It's, often a conversation, we don't stop and have and.
When You think about it it's the real reason why we're in this game it's, not just a numbers game we, want to see what. Great creative ideas would come to the table when diverse populations. Are there, so. The link between innovation, and diversity, between creativity, and diversity between, great, research, outcomes, and diversity. All really, important, things that this panel, will. Explore everybody. On the panel today is a noted, innovator, and his or her own right and also, somebody who cares deeply about diversity. And inclusion or, my, favorite new word belonging, you know where, you where you are working and where you are studying, so. It's. A super important topic, because we know from research, and bonnie mentioned some of this in her opening remarks that. Diverse, teams, solve. Complex, problems faster. And they, get to a better answer. They, are also. Have. They have higher collective, intelligence in, problem-solving, as, well, it's, very important that these diverse teams be, very well managed, because, homogeneous, teams are often easier to manage but. They don't necessarily get, to the, most innovative outcome. So it's important that they be, really. Well managed, as well, so. I know these are things we all care about. And our. Panelists, care about, it too so, we're going to start the question with a little bit of storytelling here. Because. I think it's important to establish this, link from. Their broad perspective, this as innovators. About. The links they've seen between technical, innovation. And diversity. So, I'm, going to ask each one we'll go will go first to Margaret. Thank. You Margaret to, talk, about a technical. Project, or team they were involved, in that, had. Particularly. Innovative, results. So the link between innovation. And, diversity, so Margaret. Tell. Us about your story we're going to geek out so, we're gonna really be talking about technology, and really geek out here so go, ahead Margaret sure, thanks, so, it's wonderful to be here I, guess I rather. Than think about sort of one zoomed, in I'm going to talk about sort of an overall culture, that's been a my my research group over, the twenty five years now nearly that I've been at Princeton and that, is about projects, that are interdisciplinary. So there's a diversity of topic, a diversity. Of skill sets that come in and then a diversity, of backgrounds. And genders and so forth as well so. About. A, little. Over 15 years ago I started a project called zebra net, that. Was basically started because I a computer, systems person who cared about power efficiency, got. Coupled, with one, of my biology colleagues, from across campus who wanted, better wildlife, tracking devices and we, worked across that intellectual. Gap to, come up with designs, that sort. Of abided, by their needs and their desires to get better fine grained tracking, of zebras and abided. By I'm. Sort of the engineering. Constraints to the problem which was very tough, power. Constraints and. GPS. Limitations, and so forth coupled. In all of that was a diversity of people as well because you bring in people with, conservation. Experience, you bring in people with deep engineering, experience. Male/female. Different. Parts of the stack and I think it was a very, fertile. Place, to have group meetings because you'd have to explain things carefully across those lines which, makes you a better communicator, but, you also come up with interesting. Research. Ideas that lie in the inner sis's between different topic areas I, think. It's the first time I've heard diversity, being different parts of the stack.
It's. Pretty fun Morgan, well, Jim. What about to you tell us your story okay, well, before I say its story, let me let me I have to set the stage for the story all right I think something that we're seeing in computing, now is sort. Of a move from computing, being tools to computing being partners, with people at, the National Science Foundation where I'm working right now we. Talked about the human technology, frontier, and we talked about technology that. Really means computing, maybe. We shouldn't say that tall everybody. Across the National Science Foundation, but that's sighs that's what we think about and when, we think about you know the human technology, frontier it's all of humanity, so in a sense I take, it to be really axiomatic, that if we're building. Tools. That we're going to partner with as, humans, that it's got to be for all of humanity so it's axiomatic, that we're going to that, we want to embrace and, engage across, all different, aspects, of diversity whether it be cultural, socio-economic. Gender. However, you measure it so my, story my favorite project, I worked on actually, it was all the way up and down the stack also. When. At, the University of Massachusetts we, had a project on, collaborative. Adaptive sensing, of the atmosphere. It was about the, system concept was this dense network, of low powered radars that would sense hazardous, weather and predict, and into early-warning, and detection of. Hazardous, weather and the do morning out to. Folks and to, me that's sort of a quintessential. Socio. Technical smack, at the dab smack, dab at the human technology, frontier. And it, was diverse so yes it went all the way up and down the stack all the way from designing waveforms, to deciding. When to issue warnings, to. People it. Was all so diverse, in in. The. The. Backgrounds, of people who were there we had meteorologists. We had computer scientists, that was me in terms of the leadership. Meteorologists. Computer scientists, atmospheric, scientists. Sociologists. Electrical, engineers all working side by side we. Had, let's. See an Asian American that, was, indian-american. We, had a Latino. And african-american and two white males in our in our leadership, team and. So. I think we just had incredible, diversity. In, that and I think of all of the projects. That that I've worked on to me that was the most rewarding, because of all of the diverse, viewpoints we had to bring to solve that end-to-end system all the way from the designing, radar forms all the way up to doing notifications, so. Interdisciplinary also. Seems to be coming out in this conversation, as well so habla do you how tell us your story, I also, have an interdisciplinary story. And. So we see I think you know the things, that you share the gym you know and Maya really resonated, the project. That I'm thinking about is, project, Rome which. Was an effort that we started, to really rethink you. Know how, you, interact, you know with your computer, in, a world where you, don't just have one where. You have several you know you're doing things on your mobile device, you're doing things you know maybe on a laptop maybe, you have a workstation, where you do other things and as, we got started on this project, one of the first things that we did is we assembled, a team.
Of. Folks from marketing, folks, from user experience. Design, you know folks like me who are plumbers who understand, the operating system, and communications. And, we. Started by trying to tell the story and. What we found was that by start by trying to tell the story first, that. Multidisciplinary. Approach, you, know we we, picked the problems, that we wanted to solve you, know in a much better way you know and we were able to focus some. Of you may have seen you know like we launched, a feature recently, called your phone that, lets you link your phone and PC and use them seamlessly get, messages, on, your PC you know see photos you know in your PC from your phone you know that in a lot of ways is a culmination of a journey that started you, know from taking a slightly different approach, traditionally. In the operating, system we would start with the technology, and then we would go looking for the problem, and. In this in this in this in this case I think it. Was it, was eye-opening you know how much of a difference it made and the final result, you, know just assembling, a different. Set of perspectives, at. An, early, phase you, know in going after a problem, excuse. Me so, so it's, so interesting I've loved operating systems too I'd, rather just do operating systems let the problems find me you know more. Fun, just. A joke anyway. So. So when I was at Bell Labs in the early 90s I did a project it was a multimedia, communications server enterprise, it's, a mash-up between Skype, and Google Docs you, know in 1993. And, the. Team was hugely, diverse you. Know racial, racial diversity gender. Diversity, all, kinds, of ethnicities, on this team and it, was really that project, that kind of got me thinking about a little bit of a slow learner like, wait a minute wow this is awesome all these different kinds of people well, apps had great diversity, you know and a, lot of that came because we hired. Really, smart thinkers mathematicians. Scientists, and they learned how to create, hardware and software yes. So it was very diverse it was a really interesting project, and unfortunately, not. All teams are this way we know from. From our stats and I'm gonna give you a few stats just to kind of put a little, foundational. Grounding, under this that I'm, gonna give you some stats that are about gender but I also want to reinforce again, we. Need stats on all groups, participation. There are a number of historically, marginalized groups, in computing, in this particular case and these case studies I'm, about ready to tell you it the, process, we, could really only look at gender but their, innovation. Metrics, different, than participation. Metrics which makes them different than, the ones we normally, look at so this is really around you. Know more meaningful, participation in, computing so and see what runs a patenting, study we update it every couple, years we. Crowd the US Patent database with gender matching software and we assign a gender, to every, every. Inventor. On every IT patent, and then we look at the results, and IT. Is the government's, definition of IT so it's all things computing, it's everything in the computing, community. And end. Result over the last 30 years 88%. Of all, patents.
Have Male only invention teams or, that's one or more men, 2%. Have female only invention teams and the rest are, mixed so. So, of course patenting. Is only one innovation, metric, so. We did the same thing on the ACM paper database, for. Papers accepted, to ACM, conferences. And we did the same type of thing, the. End of over 600,000. It was a pretty big end and about. 78%. Of. All authors, on accepted, papers, to to ACM, about 78%. Are. Male and and. The, rest are female 22 % now, that numbers not, you'd. Like it to be higher let's just face it right but it's not so bad when you consider women's. Participation is, computing faculty, in major. In research, institutions, it tracks about. What, you would expect but, the real thing in this particular study was the substation. Of papers. Between women and men women. Were mostly in in documentation. Human-computer. Interface, not systems not networking, not algorithms, so. Huge substation. Real. Quickly just to let you know overall, participation numbers. Women. Make up about 13 percent of all hardware developers, and about 18%, of all software, developers. So, I think it's pretty safe to say with numbers like these and others, that. We're missing out on a large. Set. Of creative. Ideas from over half the population when. It comes to innovation. And research in, the areas we care about so. That's like a huge untapped potential. That, if we could just figure out what to do here there's an innovation. Gap and a. Huge upside potential. If we solve it so my second question is going to be if, I get to it. Here. We go, the. As. Panelist and as in you know as innovators, yourself, you. Know what, do you think why. Do you think it's critical to close this innovation, gap you've hinted at some of that in the answers to your first questions, why. Do you think it's critical, to close this and why. Do you think we have this why do you think it's happening. I'm going for style bloody all right yeah the, word that comes to mind to me when I think about the, importance, of diversity in. Innovation. Is robustness. If. You think about an idea sort, of as a living thing you, know like it's survivability. You. Know depends. Heavily you know on its. Composition at birth and, ideas. That come out of diverse, teams ideas, that reflect, at birth you, know a set of diverse perspectives not just you know that a coders. Perspective. On what algorithm, he can write you, know but say, a marketing, person's perspective on what what, things matter you know to end-users, you know a human-computer. Interaction. Specialist, you know perspective. You, know on on what is usable, you know a man's. Perspective, you, know a woman's perspective and, Africans, perspective. You know various. Backgrounds. You know when all of those are present, you. Know at the birth of an idea. It's. The, likelihood, that it will not die, on the way to adulthood. Is much, higher you. Know and I think that metaphor, is is helpful because really. I think what we care about not just as innovation. But, innovation that has impact. And. Innovation. That has impact, you know has the characteristic. To me at least you know that that, there are things that have been thought, through and incorporated. At every stage along the way that really can only get in there that, can only really be woven, in you know if you have a set, of diverse perspectives that reflects, the world in which that idea. Is, going to actually exist. There. Was another question I know it was a double-barreled. Question, which is really unfair so. The. The second, part of the question was why do you think we have this gap why, do I think it's familiarity. I think that the the easiest, thing to do is what, you tend to see the most stuff and I think it takes real effort, you.
Know To apply, a multidisciplinary. Approach, I think it takes real effort, to number. One identify, a lack, of diversity and then number two correct, it you, have to be intentional about it and I think that without, the right mindset, you, know without the right framework, you know around optimizing. For you, know diversity. In our approach, I think, the default behaviors. Tend to dominate I. Might. Answer the second, question first, by how did we get here I think it ties back to this this, notion of the. Human technology, frontier and a shift from computing. Focusing. More on computing, in. Databases. And operating system network says artifacts, and more now towards, computing, partnering. With humans, and more on the application, side and I think we, were able to maybe, slide, by without the diversity, as much diversity before. Because it was more looking at artifacts now, if we're building, we're. Building technologies, that are going to partner with humans, there's just absolutely no way we can get by without that university of perspectives, I think that's a really good point Margit. What do you think I wanted to zoom in on a particular part, of the timeline which is sort of the time from late. In a PhD, onwards, into one's career and I want to zoom in in particular on the systems research, community, writ large and. I want to say that it is really. Easy. To, think, about the numbers that we have in our undergrad programs, which thankfully, are coming back up again actually, first. Thing is concrete, example, I, represent. The peak year, in terms of percentage, production, of women CS, bachelor's. Degrees in America, I'm 53. Years old the peak was 1986. We. Came back down for. Many many years and now we're coming back up so so, first of all there's this notion that the pipeline will save us where, the pipeline was draining and the. Second, of all the other part of it is that PhD, production, has hung. In there at around 15. To 20 percent women, for many years because we refill. Internationally. Even though our, us. Numbers undergrad have, fluctuated. So. You look in that later part of the career, and you say we could have been sort, of sustaining. About 20 percent participation in, our systems research community, but. If you look at the ACM, Sigma, Mercia. Precedes. The we represent, in this room. Sig. Ops sigplan, and, sigcomm have, less than 5% women, membership. Sig. Ark comes. In that's my sig at around, 8% and, kudos. To sig Mobile which tops. Out just above 10% so. Something's, happening, in how we're cultivating the, second, part of a person's career like, we, get them to the point of getting a PhD but do we cultivate what. Sustains. Them longer, term than that that's. Not as clear to me that we are doing as much in the way of long term mentoring and long. Term appreciation. And and, I think a first step is, as. Systems, researchers, we measure what we care about so we should be measuring, more of this data in an ongoing way we should get a friend or represented, groups so, that we can see at a conference how many of the first authors. Presenting. The paper were women or underrepresented minorities. It's often very small and, and, it's very hard to know so I think better, data tracking. Used. To motivate better mentorship. And sustained, career, development, would be great, and. You're touching some on culture, so we again to really not focus, on the educational, pipeline but what happens after I, can. I can say a bit about the workforce you know the corporate workforce. Oh one. Of the biggest things that we hear there unhospitable.
Culture. When. You start to really, you, know sort of dig into that you find out that for example. Women. Tend to be more in the support roles that support, the creative endeavors. Of an you know innovators, so, they would be in project management system, verification. Customer. Requirements. Very important things by the way don't get me wrong super, important but. They're not the things that would lead generally, to a promotion. Up the technical ladder. So. So, what happens then you'll like to be a CTO, or an architect or a distinguished, engineer and. They just don't lead there generally, speaking so, by mid-career they get sort of frustrated and they leave you. Know so so they're not even at the stage of their career yet where they could be innovators, they don't have the task assignments, okay. So when you drill down into that a lot, of supervisors, technicals supervisors, really have no idea how they are signed rolls, tasks. Assignments. Etc so those, are the kinds of things we have to really start being curious about and, all the people in this room are analytical, you, all have a great spirit of inquiry if we, start really getting your data and digging into it and being curious about it as market, is saying and look for some of the ways we can take bias out of some of these systems I think the, gap will will close but. We have to really be curious and analytical, about it just in the same way you are around cloud computing, or you. Know anything. Else so, that's. What we've seen in workforce and I suspect, it's it's somewhat true in academia as well would anybody want to comment on what the culture is like for young. Researchers, and or old researchers, who are your new PhDs, in academia. So. I'm, a lifelong, unapologetic. Academic, I I. Love it I think it's the best job in the world and. Frankly. I think we do an okay job in, many ways of, cultivating. Our. Young faculty members, I would. X, worried that we don't explicitly. Say how much fun we're having I try to explicitly, say how much fun I'm having because. I think people need to see that you you want to engage, in a path that a shows, impact and B. Looks, enjoyable. And, so. I try. To model that more explicitly myself, and. I think in academia, there are flexibilities. To the way you operate groups, and the way you so, manage your time that, are incredibly, compelling and getting. The word out about that is super. Important super important, so Tim what is NSF, doing in this space you're. Well known for a brand new participate, let me answer the NSF question but I will say that like Margaret I'm a lifelong academic, and absolutely loved it and and many. Of the challenges that I think we face with diversity in computing. Are, faced across, really, across, the university, and that my sense is that universities. Are becoming, more attuned, to that and more flexible, in. Hiring. And tenure processes, and so I see, some light at the end of the tunnel there let, me put on my NSF, hat and say a couple words about NSF. So there's. A long history well ten years I suppose it's not that long but, certainly. A recent, and. Really storied history of activities, here in broadening. Participation in, computing there the BPC alliances. Like nCWIT. Like CRA w. Access. Computing, kashi, and others, and these have been ongoing activities, for ten years that that I just think I've been absolutely. Fabulous there are mentoring programs, so Margaret mented mentioned, the importance of mentoring, at. The undergraduate level career, mentoring. Grad. Women's cohort so projects, and activities like. That we're. Not talking much about the pipeline but I can't, help but mention computer. Science for all and, we like to really say for all, to emphasize, the equity, and the access, to. A rigorous, and. Really compelling computer science education in, cake, through twelve and that's an activity that make, we're, really really proud of one of the things that's happened there in addition, to the ECS computing. That folks may have heard about the computer, science principles the second AP exam was, offered the first time in 2017. 50,000. Students took it between. What 2017. And 2016. The number, of students, taking, the. AP exam either, of the AP exams in computer science more than double the number of women more than double the number of Hispanic students more than double the number of african-american, students so I think that speaks, really well for the pipeline I will tell you since many of you are academics, here that challenge, is going to be when those students show up on our academic doorsteps. Are we going to have programs that. That welcome, them and the kinds of computing, that that they want to do I see that as a as, a challenge.
You. Know I think one of the as, wonderful, as those are. You. Know it's. Sometimes, it's too easy to sit here and say oh look at all those great things that are going on but Lucy Sanders of the world will take care of B PC for, us right and and, and they do wonderful things but. It's a challenge for all of us I think and, you, know looking out here. Really. All of us here have. A responsibility. And. A need to address, that and and so a new program, actually that we're we're, sort of piloting, at the National Science Foundation. I know many people here don't read the Dear Colleague letters, that I write but you, should read Dear Colleague letter, 17, 1:10. Meaningful. Engaging. In meaningful broadening. Participation activities. And what we're trying to do here is to make this what we NSF, are trying to do here we've, piloted this in the very large grants we're going to pilot it next year in some of the select mediums, and. In large grants the idea here is that everybody. Who's. Funded, under, an NSF grant should take part in some, kind of meaningful. BPC activity, it doesn't mean you have to go out and start the next MC wint or or, CRA W but there's something, that every, one of us can do to help. Broaden. Participation and. Convene many of the ones that Margaret just mentioned for example and so you. Know we're really very excited, about that and so if I, could leave you with one thought I've been a teacher for 32. Years I guess you know if you walk away with one thing here's one thing to walk away read, Dear Colleague letter, 17, 110, or send me an email and all I'll send it to you that's. Great what's, number again. 17. 110, okay so. If we had rehearsed this we'd have November show up. Announcements. Tab of the Microsoft, you. Know research, to faculty and faculty, research site, that'd be great I want, to just throw in sort of a one, question before I ask the final question cuz I don't want to leave the panel without maybe. Asking, for a few observations on. What. The researchers will call intersectionality. The the, notion that we all identify, in. Different ways and multiple. Ways you know that, in fact you know I could, be a white woman from the south or, you know I could be I could, be a black man from, New. York City or you know all kinds of different intersecting, identities and, so we, don't want to leave you with the notion that there's you know like, a shopping list of things you can do a proffer, abroad new participation, and have to be very, thoughtfully. Done so, anybody, I didn't, you know any thoughts, on this or, I think it's a super important topic to just make sure people know that word intersectionality. And how we, can't just assume all women are the same, blacks are the same or a Latinas, are the same. So. III guess I would again stress, that as Lucy just said it shouldn't be a checklist that you should find something that. You want to do and and actually engaging. In existing, structures, and what people, will call scaffolding. So maybe there is you. Know a CSTA, that you working and engage with there may be your department or your college, is doing something that you can engage in and, it's not like you have to go out and oh do a checklist oh I better go do X find, something that's meaningful for, you that you can relate to because that's the kind of contribution, that will make a difference to people or, on the receiving end of that contribution. Any. Thoughts on that one I guess I would add you. Know when I'm running a research group one of the things I try. To be aware of is. Having, enough diversity along. Many dimensions, that everybody in the end can, just be themselves it, doesn't feel like a dominant, group and a outsider. Department, and, in, the process, you end up with, you. Know a weight, lifter who happens to be female and. A. Kind. Of quiet. Harry Potter male, and, you know sort of everything. Everyone's. Allowed to be individuals, because, there isn't sort of a dominant culture and. Recessive. Or Outsiders, feeling, again. Returning, to the word belonging and I think that's everybody wants, to belong and contribute, and do, the best work of their lives so it's. Super important, so. Let's, do one last question, to each panelist, with starting for Bellotti. One. Idea, Jim, already gave us his so you get another one. Are. You not repeat the same on if you really if you really want to emphasize that one. Idea that you can take out of this room today. And. Do immediately, that. Doesn't cost much, money for. Broadening, participation as. It relates to innovation, and diversity again I think you know you really want to come back and and hit, that you know that where we have the.
Biggest Gap in many ways the pipelines is some sense filling, right we're starting to see where these students arrive we, want them then in their research careers. Or in their, corporate. Careers to be able to innovate and to create. And to bring their best life experiences, to the table and do really, great technology works so what, would be one thing that, you could leave people with that, they could do can. I say two things, yes just like Jim you want to be just like Jim okay, all right so the two things for me really are be an advocate and set. An example we, have an internal conference, here at Microsoft, called. Whips you know it's by invitation only, it's our top. Technical conference, and I remember their few, years ago. Galen Hunt whom 70 of you you may know, stood. Up at whips you know during the session for poster, talks and he said look, around the room you, know everyone, look around the room and he said there. Are very many women here and. I think that's a problem and so, what I would like you to do you know is the next time you want to invite me to whips, take. My invitation. You, know and give it to a woman one of our Women Engineers instead. And he sat down. And. I thought that was really great I think that it's, a it's it's all, of us have the ability, to affect. Decisions. That are made you, know daily, in our context, in a positive, direction and, it's, a tool that is relatively, cheap for, us to exercise and so that's, the first thing that I would leave folks with is you, know look at you know like conference. Selection. You know settings, you know paper selection, and and just be an advocate the, second one is set an example and what, I mean by that is that when you're assembling a team along, the lines that Margaret, you know mentioned. Be intentional. You, know about looking you, know at the set of people that you have around you and asking. Mid-14th. Isis. Are. There people whom I'm not even considering, you, know is the set of perspectives that I have actually, diverse. And. And the reason to do that you know is because the, statistics that we're, looking at they don't come out of a vacuum they. Actually come out of the, set of people you, know who are in this room writ.
Large And the, way in which those statistics, change you know is that all of us you, know exercise. Back pressure against. Our default tendency. That's. Absolutely right absolutely. Right I guess. I have to do - now - when. The pressures on like to keep up again right so one. That's, super, cheap and it just requires, you to remember, is I think we. Lose track of how much students, and people junior to us, responds. To even, modest, tiny bits of feedback and so, the quick email at the end of the class or after, a midterm that, says. You. Would be great if, you continued, on in this field you would be great if you considered, grad school, it's, a 10 word email, and it. Will, make a difference, in someone's life often. Even. If they don't do what you think they'd be great at they. Heard it I guarantee that's. One the second thing is that by virtue of who, we are. We. Are fairly, senior. And so. We're more often in the position of being allies, to things that are going on then are sort of being, in the sort of picked. On situations. Ourselves, these days and so I would encourage you to sort of look at the world with. Your ally hat on and remember. To say things like I didn't. Find that funny we don't do that here you. Don't have to be completely humorless, but you can be the, grown-up in the room that. Just sort of raises the bar don't, wait for the picked on person, to have to say it themselves I think those would be my two very. Important all right Jim you only get one wow, those were really good answers and actually. I note that it's, all about people in the connection the individual, connections, and I think when. I was a-sayin to a bolide I thought, oh that's exactly my answer so, my, answer is the same as his I'd use two different words and and that would be be a mentor and be a role model right, that and and as Margaret said just. Reaching, out to somebody and talking, to them and helping, and and that could be a student, it could be a colleague it could be a staff mit could be lots of different people that really. Personal, touch really makes a huge difference and, and to. Be a role model as, well and. I think. People as Margot said many. People here are senior people look to us and how we behave and, and I think that's really, important, and there are lots of different ways to role, model and being, a mentor and being a role model is absolutely, no cost at all. So. I guess I get to I'll. Take to wine. Would be become, this sounds like a really simple one but you'd be surprised how often, it's not done use, the spirit of inquiry, that we all have, to. Challenge. Things in a nice way so it's sort of like a question so when somebody says I, don't. Think Lucy's qualified, for, that award spirit. Of inquiry say well what makes you think that or I. Don't think, you know that our body is a natural-born, leader, well, what's that mean anyway wait what, do you mean by that one more question -. Not to say oh I you, know you're wrong or you know argue, that, can come later right but, just a question, in that learning moment to find out what do they mean because. We say things all the time and we have no idea what. They mean and it's. A learning moment for both people cuz it could be that, Lucy's not a natural-born leader right I mean that might well be. By. The way I don't think there is anything as a natural-born me but anyway, okay, so. So the spirit of inquiry is under, rated and, all of us are researchers, and innovators and, we know how to do that and it's just a question it's the same kind of question you would ask technically, why do you think that works or whatever. So, the, spirit of inquiry I think is. Super important. And. The. Other thing I want, to say is you don't have to do this alone there a lot of free resources and, programs out there there, are some programs that cost a little money but lots of ways to be involved and see what has them CRA, W. Has them ACM. W, has programs, there. Are a lot of great programs out there to give, you research-based, information. So, that's kind of the last idea here is go, become. Informed. This is not a heavy, lift for all of you smart people to. Go and become informed, about what social science research says about, under-representation. And then. You're, going to be well, equipped to use your spirit of inquiry, if you don't know what. Unconscious bias means from a research perspective. Stereotype, threat, civility. Collective, intelligence, intersectionality. They're, like ten words you can find out very easily and then you'll be very well equipped to, base. Your actions on research so. Those. Are sort of our ideas and I think we've got a few minutes for questions Q&A, if if, people. Have. Any questions from the audience I see, somebody with their hand up there wait. A minute someone's coming to you I believe.
Thank. You all for your comments, um the, one thing that I didn't hear talked about was. Diversity. Inclusion with respect to disability and I was wondering if you would. Just take a minute to address. That and and how we can we, can, aid. In DNI, for disability. Well. First. Of all right down the road at u-dub there Richard Ladner. Do. You want to say more about that I will, just say one of the. 7b. PC activities, is access, computing, which really aimed specifically. At exactly. That and as. Lucy mentioned that's been led for quite a long time by by Richard Ladner amazing, guy at u-dub. The. Only thing I'll say too is we just discovered, a gap in working with Richard, and a, researcher, Maya Israel, who. Looks, a lot at universal design, and. Have discovered, a pretty big gap right now in terms of computing. Curriculum and, you know around Universal, Design for students, with learning disabilities, so. Richard, works quite a bit on physical, disabilities, and he's starting to look at learning. Disabilities, and so that's kind of a thing, to think about like how could we possibly create. Curriculum, homework assignments, etc that. Enable, students, with, different learning disabilities, to succeed in our classrooms, you, know I'll just add so, CRA W has for over 15 years offered, a grad cohort, for women but. A year ago we offered the. First URM, D grad, cohort, which was a co-ed grad court for underrepresented, minorities. And people. With disabilities, and, we, just set the date in the place it's, going to be March keep an eye out March. 20:19, will be the second of those you RMD drag cohorts so. Now I may have understood, your question or, comments a little bit differently the, way I understood, it in connection with the. Diversity. And its impact on innovation, is is bringing. In people, with different abilities we. Know into the creative process we, ran into the idea generation, and the innovation, process and I think it's absolutely key, for the same reasons, that we've talked about that what, you get at the end you know sort of born. Accessible. It's born with, multiple perspective. It's born with, the ability to function and be useful for. A broader range of people in a broader range of contexts, you know and so I think it's a thank you so much for grata. Anybody. Else have a question. Well, alright so Thank, You panelists, what's up let's thank our panelists, for yay. All. Right thank you all. You.