Colonizing the Oceans

Colonizing the Oceans

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We. Often say we reside on a small pale-blue dot and, indeed, most of our planet, is covered in oceans but. There is land down there buried. So deep under the water no, light ever reaches, it yeah, we might come to dwell there one day. Today. We will be continuing, our look at the oceans this, is part 2 of our thought experiment. Begun in seasteading, and artificial, islands, so. While you don't have to have seen that forest I would, recommend, watching it before, continuing. The. Ocean depths fascinate, us and, are still largely unexplored, as alien. In many ways as other, planets, and hosting. Some life in greater depths that looks quite alien. Mankind. Has been travelling the seas as long as we've history to record it but. Until the last century, we couldn't go very deep, just, brush the surface. Humanity. Has often imagine, living in domed cities on the seafloor and we'll be looking at how you could do that today but. We'll also be exploring many other options for utilizing the deep sea and even, discuss how we might make artificial, volcanoes. To make islands. However. We, have to start by acknowledging one. Key point a big, glass dome on the sea floor under, a kilometer of ocean is not a place most folks would want to live or even, visit even. Annoying that you'll protected, from the water by a glass dome under a hundred atmospheres of, pressure there's. Nothing to see there is no night darker, than the oceans once your kilometer deep sunlight. Just cannot, penetrate down there, if. You want to live down there and see some creatures, or the seafloor you need to have external, lights and in, doing that you will attract things that can use light to live which, means your dome will probably get covered in algae and scum and not, be too fun to look through and again. There's that pressure issue, this, isn't like space, where the atmosphere, difference, is 0, and 1 this, is 100, to 1 higher. Than, on the surface of Venus every. Square inch of that dome is under 40 hundred pounds, of weight every. Square centimeter, 100, kilograms. We. Can build stuff that can handle that that's, about the pressure absorbed, by someone walking around in stiletto, heels well. It's not really something you want to do with a thin transparent dome. So. The glass dome concept, for underwater bases is more likely to be above, structure set, into the seafloor that has windows in rooms that all compartmentalized. Against. Flooding if they break, now. Domes are an option closer to the coast where the seafloor isn't, as deep and the light still penetrates, but even then you're, likely to use the bunker with windows approach not. A big glass dome that. Has an appeal on a less walls for agriculture. So you can grow plants but, for the sea that's not necessary, as you can just grow the stuff on the surface of the water anyways, and, save on the tone such. Bunker window is Wallis or need wiper blades, like your call has since, again they'll get covered in muck quite quickly either. Algae, will grow they'll all will fall down to lower depths, as marine snow, the, various organic, detritus dropped. From higher levels that feeds the midnight ecologies, of the battle ajik and abyss Atlantic regions, thing. Is most, the ocean goes a lot deeper than, sunlight or indeed, even a kilometre most, of our planet is ocean and most of that has an average depth of 3 to 4 kilometers there, are spots that are rich in life as Sun, and nutrients of core together but, that's the minority, most, the oceans are a desert, sure, they have plenty of water plenty of, Sun plenty. Of nutrients, but in most the ocean, those last two don't mix much with the, light above and the nutrients, below. Next. Week we will dive into the environments. Of space habitats, we'll, discuss how the varying, gravity, will let us grow trees of stupendous heights and. This is one approach to terraforming, all our own oceans as we might be able to create see trees able, to grow from the lowest depths all the way up to the surface to get nutrients, from the seafloor and light, from the sky like seaweed, does at more modest, steps such. A plant would be how to engineer or evolve. There's too much distance, from light to nutrient, or nutrient. To light and, would need many tricky, features to permit the needed strength energy, and nutrient, movement but, it could be possible, for. That matter we, will see today there is a ton of geothermal, energy down on the sea floor and an, organism, could be created, to make use of that. One could imagine some, massive, tree that kept the oxygen it makes in buoyant, sacks Oh inflated, leaves to help it handle its mass setting. Roots in the ocean floor and spreading.

Its Leaves across the surface well. We could also build skyscrapers or. See, scrapers which, might use the same approach so. Massive, in size they could only be viewed as Alcala jeez more. On that in a bit but it's worth remembering that bio engineering is on, the table for plants, and for people too mythology. Is full of mermaids and it may be possible to treat people or all pets to have gills or more, modestly, to handle pressure changes, battle if folks, who really want to live in the Seas there. Are not too many reasons, why folks would move to the deep ocean unlike, living on the top of it but we did find some like, wanting to be protected from supernova, blasts or, just be as far from other humans as possible, without leaving off we'll. Go over some of the others as we discuss our options today, but, it raises a big point we make in the outward-bound series. That, colonizing. A planet does, not necessarily. Mean a lot of folks live there a factory. Planet, showing up megatons, of manufactured. Goods every, minute is certainly, colonized, but, might only have a few thousand folks living there to do maintenance. Similarly. Under water, of oceanic, colonization, offers. Us a lot of resources, and benefits but. Not too many for housing you. Might retreat there as a refuge, from invasion or disaster, or like many colonists, in history have, been exiled, or left specifically, to get away from others but. Those imply the surface, has in some way become hostile, to you one. Novel example. As an exception, to small groups for science, or tourism or machine, maintenance is, prisons. If you, want to build a Supermax, people, can't escape from even. The moon is less secure. Worldwide. A little, over 1% of the population is, in prison which, probably vastly, exceeds the number of folks we'd have engaging in tourism or science, under the sea at any given time I'm. Not sure the practicality. Or ethics, of such a concept, but. It does amusingly, fear with our remarks, from last time about a lot of early oceanic, colonies, being, founded, by those trying to evade laws back, on land, you. Can even give them a diverse, mix of oxygen, and helium or hydrogen oxygen. And helium instead, of oxygen and nitrogen sir, someone, did get out they'd be stuck for many hours decompressing. Somewhere, you could grab them, current. Mixes and suits, still put a fairly shallow limit on diving but, we may improve both, this. By the way is one, of our options for fairly deep habitats, that all classic, domes you don't have a pressure differential, because, you put the dome at the same pressure as the wattle and change, the a low mix, nitrogen. Becomes a null conic at higher pressures, it's, not just the nitrogen, bubble issue for decompression so. You have to remove it for people to operate at pressures deeper, than about 60 meters or 6 atmospheres. Incidentally. You add one atmosphere, of pressure for. Every 10 meters of death, that's, Earth's gravity, and the density, of the material stacking. Up and Waddell. Has a specific, gravity of one or, density, of 1000, kilograms, per cubic meter, although, salt water is just, slightly higher gravity. Is 9.8 meters. Per second, squared and, 1.03. Is the specific, gravity for salt water conveniently. 9.8. X, 1.03. Equals. 10 10. Meters of additional. Depth adds an atmosphere, of pressure in salt water however. If, you under rock that's twice as dense it would be every 5 meters or, if you're under a or which is about a thousand, times less dense it's, about a kilometer, if, you're on Europa where gravity is only thirteen point four percent of orth normal, it would be one atmosphere for, every 75 meters. That's. One of the appeals of saying up under sea habitats, on moons, with, subsurface, oceans. Sunlight. Is a non-issue, at that point anyway and so, all natural. Hail mixes, so, you can spread out a lot more before water, pressure becomes a problem, oceans. Are truly, huge volumes, you can't really think of them as areas, and we, often talk about using hydroponics, to help with food needs on earth or.

Food In space but. We often skip aquaponics. Or aeroponics. As options, to we'll, skip ill panics today as well but aquaponics. Is a growing, industry no, pun intended and, is ideal, for subsurface, ocean, farming we, think of floating farms but, they all downsides. They are and one of those is waves the. Surface, of the sea is choppy but, before though you descend in the ocean the more that dissipates, as, submarines. And fishes, both show your. Options, in the sea are not limited, to floating, on the surface or routing, to the seafloor so. You could have farms or cities that just kept themselves slightly. Submerged. And indeed, they could barb around so, fishing when they wanted, or dippy a bit deeper if the weather was bad, even. At just 50 metres so, as you're far from shore you're, pretty safe from even the worst of storms, an aquaponics. Farm need not stay to set depth you, could tow them depot for nights or bad weather but, planting, one at that depth still, permits a solid amount of light to get in and is, still shallow enough that divers, could go down without messing with their air mix such. Farms aren't much more than a bunch of nets and rods to hoard some structural, and, presumably, some ballast, to allow to keep or change death, so. We're not contemplating, anything very fancy. Going. Deeper you'd have to stop suffer main sunlight, with artificial, lights and that's a power issue that. Could easily end up a non-issue, in the future as we get better energy sources like fusion or the power satellites, we discuss someone's, back but. The oceans offer us some power options, too we've. Discussed, some surface, options last time but. Deep down has, to of interest to us forced. There's fission, as we. Improve our reactor, designs to, better utilize the fuel we put in them better, of a cycle the materials, used in and around them and accessed new fuels like thorium, we get access to a vast supply of energy, from fissile, materials, enough. To last us as long as civilization, has already been around at least but. People still don't like it in their backyards. And they solely delight the waste there, remote undersea, nuclear plants, are a handy, option that regard and water, is one the best shields, against radiation, dumping. Radioactive, waste in the sea is actually, banned by international treaty. Under the London convention, but mostly relates to some model contemptible, practices, at the time and, ocean, floor disposal, particularly, into subduction, zones, where, the materials, will get dragged down into the planets mantle, poured, some good options for disposal. Of waste which, might not be recyclable, and be radioactive for, very, long periods of course. It's also a potentially.

Awesome Place to find such materials, - most. Of all is underwater, and the seafloor is a lot closer to the mantle, than the continental surfaces, all and not, just because the seafloor is deep or the. Moho discontinuity. The boundary, between the crust and the mantle is, typically, closed all under the sea 20. To 90 kilometers below the surface of the continents, but only about five to ten kilometres beneath, the ocean floor, beyond. Mineral, wealth that, makes it a great place for geothermal, power, and as, we get better with superconductors. We, may well start to move all of our power generation, off or, lands, to the seas and space, such. Power lines would, be one of many examples of, infrastructural, networks, we might run on or, maybe, in if we buried them just under the ocean floor we, already lay fiber optic cables, that way and we may do power, or pipelines, but, we may also do transport. Elon. Musk's, Hyperloop passenger. Transport, system and love it or hate it has, popularized, the notion of vacuum, trains or, near, vacuum trains, but, the concept, is much Oertel and I regard it as something, of an inevitability. Hypersonic. Or suborbital, flights may, be on the table in even the near future but. Ultimately, you, can't have craft moving through the atmosphere, or over land at such speeds the, sonic booms would be ruinous, and that's very fuel, intensive, you. Can set up a transport, network using orbital rings see, that episode for details but those are essentially, vacuum, trains in space, when. Flying you. Late and as you gain out to the atmosphere thins. Letting, you speed up with, less a low-resistance go. High enough and it causes no track or booms and you can accelerate as fast as you please, however. A vacuum, train or neo, vacuum, train like the Hyperloop, on ground, or buried under it off, was the same option, and, maintain iya vacuum deep underwater is, no harder than maintaining one, atmosphere, of pressure they, are he. Was the cool thing much, like a launch loop when you've no AO in the way you, can accelerate as fast as folks can comfortably, handle and even. If that was just one G you, would hit Mach 1 in 35. Seconds, and Mach, 10 in 6 minutes, such. A mega shuttle would permit travel, from New York to London in half, an hour and you could leave right from a station in the middle the city you.

Don't Necessarily have to stop accelerating at that speed either same. As the Bonin flip method we discuss with spaceships, a vac. Train essentially. A spaceship, can, potentially, accelerate, the whole way flipping. Halfway through and if. Folks don't mind a bit more acceleration or you're sending priority, call go you. Are looking at being able to get anywhere on the planet in half an hour or less, but. You have to have a track and it has to be pretty straight beyond, the curvature, of the earth indeed. As we discussed in orbital, rings that, does impose a maximum, velocity because. You all toning with the sphere of auth and we, can cheat and torn, upside, down so, that the centrifugal force from, turning is counteracted, by Earth's gravity, and it, works as well underground, or undersea, as in, space, you. Tale through that tube at insane speeds, upside. Down at 2 G walking. Around on the ceiling for the trip and in, doing so can achieve twice the speed satellites. Fly over at while, still feeling, like you under normal gravitational. Force albeit. To an outsider upside, down needless. To say building, such a net walk would, not be cheap but, only in the context, of normal, highways. We've, millions, of miles of road and track after. These are horrid ability and pricier but will getting much better at boy tunnels, key. Thing to recall about vacuum, trains though isn't, just that they could get you across the oceans, very quickly is that it could get you from Chicago to, Detroit in minutes, or Atlanta. To Houston, it's, not just for glow spanning, trips, however. All interest, is in those big people, pipelines, under, the sea today so. We'll save discussing, huge underground networks, of them for, later in the series, they. Are a good way to get your feet wet in, deep-sea colonization. Though because all those vac trains and fiber-optic, trunk and power and pipelines, need, maintenance and, need outposts, along the way for safety reasons as we. Said with, any colony, operation, whatever the main purposes, you. Want secondary. Industries, to help move mulch operations. Into, profitable, zones and, geothermal. Power or aquaponics. Or efficient, plants or even an undersea, supermax, prison, are options, they are but. Mining, is likely to be a big one and can, maybe get even, bigger we. Always talk about mining asteroids, or moons but, every asteroid, and Moon al solar system, has less combined, mass than Earth and most of that is in the mantle, and core, and again, the Moho discontinuity. The edge of the mantle is a lot closer on the sea floors. Trying. To mine the mantle, sometimes. Called Moho mining, is a lot easier, said, than done even, the context, of mine things millions of kilometres away in space and, we'll discuss it more down the road but, it is theoretically. Doable, he essentially born a hole down into the magma below we. Have materials, that can handle those temperatures, and, while the pressures involved make that much Horrell it's, not impossible. Let's. Imagine for the moment though we took such a material, and made it a big straw with. One end poking down into the mantle and the other all the way up to the surface and let it fill with a oh not, wattle, straw. Is an apt analogy as, you now have a huge pressure differential. And magma, can rise up we. Might refine, this extracting. What material, we want and, dump the spill around a lava straw building. An artificial island in the process, indeed. We might use such an approach along with good earthquake, modeling to relieve the pressures, that cause earthquakes, volcanic. Eruptions but we don't want them and so, on these. Especially. As uncontrolled, events, are not your friend when engaging in massive, planetary, engineering projects. Needless. To say the mineral wealth and the raw power available. By steam turbines, using, this heat might make for major industries, too but. The ocean floor alone offers, a lot of mineral wealth and, we mentioned an idea last time of a jellyfish, habitat, where, most folks live in a main facility, on or, near the ocean surface while. Long tentacles, scrape the sea floor for minerals and nutrients and move the place around or anchored it we. Talked about lighting those tentacles to provide for ecosystems, at my Hall along with it but, you need not necessarily move, such thing either we, said near the beginning that you wouldn't want to live under the sea very deep because there's nothing to see unless, you light it and, we just discussed, a straw many kilometres long, buried.

In The mantle and reaching, to the surface, which, could become a habitat, of itself much, like oil, vegs, lettuce. Instead imagine. A skyscraper, built, on the ocean floor and all the way up into the skies you. Could put windows on such a thing so long as you compartmentalize, every. Section against flooding if one shadows, and indeed, all the air surrounded. By water provides, a strong buoyant, force that. Will relieve a lot of the weight and compression. Normal, skyscrapers. Face letting, you get away with, a thicker skin one. Could give it tendrils, to just. Cords, floating out from one side giving. Some lights and attracting and boosting, the local ecology so. Now you can see it and there's plenty to see and it provides some food, for those living inside, this. Is very like the al ecology, notion we've often discussed, vast. Buildings, in which horse cities live and form, their own food vertical. Farming and mega skyscrapers. Essentially, and like, many such structures, it benefits, from being bigger we. Said in the Alcala g's episode that, you generally make them why, and used the middle for for me and manufacturing. Folks, will live on the outer edge with a battle view, depending. On how safe those windows are and how good the view is you. Might reverse that in deeper waddles or stick, to it but, you could have vast columns, or cones of all colleges rising. Up from the middle of the oceans and not, just the surface either but, fall above, indeed. If we get good enough with our materials, or active, support systems we've discussed before these. Could be spaced Alice to one. Might imagine earth in a few centuries sporting. Mega arcologies, that rooted themselves, all the way down to the mantle and all the way up to space from. Moho discontinuity. To common line such. A structure, would have by, normal, building standards, about, 40,000. Floors and a, big cone or neo shaped one just, 10 kilometers in, radius quite. Small for an island would, have an internal floor space equivalent. To a small continents. And one, could know tens, of thousands, of such structures, each, housing billions. In comfort, as we. Mentioned in the ecumene oculus episode planet-wide, cities the, follow-up on ecologies, finding. Room for trillions, of people on earth if you have the energy doesn't, involve paving, over everything, indeed. You'd be enhancing, and empowering. Local ecosystems. If done, properly, the. Problem, is getting rid of all the heat fall. Future, stuff but, that's what we look at he'll and I'd be remiss if I didn't mention one, other approach to colonizing, the oceans which, would be to drain them we. Have a lot of waddle indeed, we have a lot in the mantle, - not, just the oceans and, precious, stuff in space but. All you be mostly in the way down he'll, almost. All the ecology, happens, in the forced hundred meters or so as does, the evaporation, that fuels our lane supply and weather, systems, last. Time you mentioned the scenario, in, which we, might start building me skinny, and long islands, across the oceans and even cunning canals into the continents, you, can do - a force to drain. Those seas out and cut, deep lakes and smaller seas as. Stones while, making new land on what used to be the ocean floor, and moving. Much of that waddle into habitats. Built, in orbit, around Earth, one. Need not go all-in on this either water. Levels have been much lower in the past that's, how our ancestors, could watch the Americas, or Australia, and one, might decide to restore that leaving. A very different-looking planet, again. Such things are why we call this the earth 2.0. Series, as they, fundamentally, change, the planet whether, for better or worse is an ethics question we'll skip heal though certainly a worthy one for contemplation for. The series we'll just lay out the options that might be on the table and where, they might not be something we want to do on earth the, galaxy, is full of other walls we, might employ such techniques, on or. In our day dreams too as I, said the beginning the ocean depths fascinate, us and are still largely, unexplored, alien, places. Mankind. Has been traveling the sea is as long as we've history to record it but, until the last century, we couldn't go very deep just, brush the surface, we. Often talk about the Golden Age of science fiction and the classics. Written in the middle of the 20th century but it goes back before them and one of the true classics, is shows, vorlons 20,000. Leagues Under the Sea our, book of the month a chronicle. Is a trip around and, under, the oceans in the submarine Nautilus, appropriately. Sharing a name with the actual, Nautilus, a craft, built in 1800. That's, usually considered the first practical, submarine, indeed. It was also the name of the forced nuclear-powered.

Submarine Which also forced, transit under, the North Pole in 1958. The. Vorlons Nautilus, which he chronicled, the voyages of 150. Years ago sets. Out in the 1860s. For a trip around the world initially. Our narrator for the tale joins, an expedition, hunting, the Nautilus thinking, at a sea monster not, a submarine making, a long journey the. Commander, for this 20,000. Lead journey is Captain, Nemo, a fascinating. Character that also appears, in another Vaughn's, novels, the mysterious, island and. Has shown up and many of the tribute walks to Vaughn, like the League of Extraordinary Gentlemen. Needless. To say this. Story has been adapted to film and TV many, times both, good and bad but. The book is still amazing even now it's, dated a bit in its science and technology. Needless, to say however. That's, not only part of its charm but also a plus he. Is so easy for us to forget that science and technology and, the drive for contemplating. The future is not, something, new and we, had already accomplished, so much by the mid 19th, century while. Hall D without their faults, there is so much to admire about, our ancestors. And, such walks lets you immerse yourself in, the wall as they saw it and the, future, as they saw it what, they got right and what they got wrong always. Something to keep in mind as we ponder all future, here, on this channel, there. Are many audio adaptations. And performances, to pick from and if you'd like to grab a free copy of the audiobook from audible. Forest. And find, the narrator whose voice you like the most I think, I saw a dozen or more to pick from and a noticed one was done by Harlan Ellison, that fantastic, and flamboyant. Arthur who said they left us a few months back I had, a chance to attend a talk by him many years ago and, he's always a pleasure to listen to and he narrated quite a few audiobooks, another. Thing I like about audible. If you find a narrator, you like you, can easily pull up other stories, they've read and, it's often a good way to find new authors you enjoy too if. You'd like to grab a free copy of 20,000. Leagues Under the Sea by, which everyone nearly will you enjoy just, use my link in this episode's description, Slash, Isaak, or text, Isaak to 500, 500, to get a free book and a 30-day free trial, and that book. Is yours, to keep whether, you stay on with audible or not. Next. Week we'll be back up in space in environments. Of space habitats. We're, discuss O'Neil Saunders and other space habitats, focusing. On their environments, ecology. And weather which. We'll see is not just inside, but, also outside, in, the not-quite void of space. And two weeks from now we'll, be teaming, up with the Sens Research Foundation, to. Discuss extending. The human lifespan a topic, we've discussed before heal in terms of his implications. For civilization. But, this time we'll dig deeper into the biology of Aging and the signs of how to slow it down way. Down for. Lots when those and other episodes come out make, sure to subscribe the channel and, hit the notifications.

Bell And if, you enjoyed this episode hit, the like button and share it with others until. Next time thanks, for watching and have a great week. You.

2018-10-26 01:33

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What about colonizing a waterworld with oceans hundreds of miles deep? Also, carbon world colonization would be interesting...

I chose... Rapture, a city where the artist would not fear the censor, where the scientist would not be bound by petty morality, Where the great would not be constrained by the small! And with the sweat of your brow, Rapture can become your city as well.

Twenty thousand leagues is one of my most favourite books

I couldn't handle wonking under all that pressure.

jonny bones

Nitrogen becomes a narcotic? Neat you just talk me a new way to get high, now how do I get nitrogen

9:54 i mean ideally what you want is to just be below wave action height so that you arn't being tossed about in storms ...sort of the inverse of "flying above the weather as it were

1:41 how ever closer to land ... at say scba type depths...

Can someone tell me what to take in university that deals with everything Arthur talks about

Isaac Arthur thank you!

errr... good question, I've no idea, probably a decent amount of math & physics, that's my own background so what I probably lean heaviest on. But really any STEM field, and probably Econ or History, would likely do the job, that's just guessing from areas I've noted a lot of the audience have and/or that I study a lot.

Happy 300k!

This is both horrific and wonderful at once. Well done! No mention of Cthulhu down there, so I'm sure it'll be perfectly fine... Except draining the planet or messing with deep sea thermal vents seem like bad ideas to me... The ethics part of it, which I won't nag about, just that I had to hold my breath for certain parts of this video. Still, what a fun concept! Thanks!!

Sea trees!!

.... Sea trees!!!

Great material as always. I'd love to see a more detailed exploration of mining the mantle options. The Russians failed to even reach it, but as you point out it is theoretically possible.

I suspect we maybe could now, we've made some big improvements since Kola in terms of drilling and material tech and that shut down more out of funding drying up than technical challenges, Chikyu's confident they could do it at least.

Im so interested about the topics in question but I just cant bring myself to listen to ur voice / fucked up cuck pronounciation so I cant subscribe to you

Why even bother with Windows on the sea bunker, why not use really good cameras and set it up to look like Windows.

Congrats on 300 subscribers by the way!

I want to say how much I enjoy your videos. Best friend and I watch at least 3-4 episodes every night. Also wanted to say that after about the 6th episode I quit using the cc option. The way you speak is NOT a problem, it is just how you speak. I really dont notice it anymore. Others, if they criticize it, are the ones with the problem. Love you! Keep explaining the confusing stuff for us that stunk at all things math...LOL.

+Isaac Arthur thanks! Going to watch right now! You are great keep doing what you do!

No problem, 'twas a time I actually could respond in detail to every comment, nowadays I'm lucky to get 1 in 10 and they tend to be rushed. There is an episode on star types, sadly not one of our better known episodes, "The Stellar Compendium"

+Isaac Arthur That's cool you take time to respond! Although some stuff you talk about is beyond me I still always feel I learned something. We discuss your videos for weeks, I consider myself intelligent, even with my math handicap, and your topics are in my interest sphere. Wish my teachers had been like you, would have probably been better at math, lol

Thanks Jojo, will do, however some folks do genuinely have a problem understanding me, hence the speech therapy. I think most are just trolls exaggerating it to complain, but I'd rather no one needed to adjust at all. :)

I do not want to colonise the oceans, I want to colonise Vega!

The thumbnail reminds me of underwater city of Bioshock

At about 20:00 I noticed, you could build those around the magma straws, then you’d have a giant tree-looking thing going from near the planet’s core to space. I imagine one would be named after that giant Norse tree with worlds for branches. I’d also like to note that water is great fission fuel, and we’ve got a lot of water don’t we?

A retarded capitalist tried this in bioshock - it didn't work

Excellent take on Verne's books.

Slightly related topic. For all the fear of spent nuclear fuel being ditched in the Ocean we already have lost a few subs on depths that made them and their reactor cores unrecoverable. Also in the arctic there are tons of radiated ice there from soviet nuclear tests. A similar situation is also present on tropical island in the pacific where the US did their tests. So while there are accords that limit the right to dump fuel there nuclear reactors are far safer than a lot of other radioactive leakage already present.

Nice content. I do enjoy it... Really... But the enunciation bothers me a lot...

And where are you from?

+stefan r okay thank you!

Isaac lives in Ohio.

The hardest part about vacuum trains is security. It's one thing to protect a space ship against debris - it's a whole different matter building a vacuum tube across tectonic plates, crossing volcanic and earthquake regions. Every little damage to the actual tube and you have the capsules at mach 10 scraping along the dented wall or crashing into a wall of incoming water. And you can't really stop passenger cars on short notice either - at least not without killing them in the process. The only solution there is to make sure it can't happen, requiring a lot of security measures.

There is a constant challenge of keeping the tubes under vacuum. A true vacuum does not really exist. The cars are traveling at over mach speed and up what would be mach 10. You should be able to ram scoop a lot of the gas. The front of a train might look something like the front of a ram jet engines. Instead of adding fuel it would take the compressed gas and compress it more while cooling it so that you have liquid. You would need a thermal mass to cool the compressed gas. The lead car has a large container of ice and coolant. A "slow leak" would mean you have either air or steam getting into the tube or you have gas leaking out of the cars. A maglev system probably has liquid nitrogen cooling the superconducting magnets.

My point exactly. Most people hear "vacuum train" and picture a simple tube bolted to the ground or even underground. You'd instead need multiple layers each with multiple fail saves and every meter monitored and serviced. And I disagree with the tectonic plates not being an issue - at least not until you solve it. You'd still need enough flexibility in your construction (which has to somehow be kept in place after all) to accommodate for shifts of sometimes up to a few meters in those regions. Same for emergency breaking systems. It's technically easy - but even decelerating at >5g would take about a minute, traveling another 90 km (assuming mach 10). And since you'd need to stop all trains traveling that route you'd effectively flood all of it with gas that needs to be pumped out again. And then there's actually getting the people out of the tube in such a situation. Will the train run as a regular maglev until it has reached the next access point? What if the train itself is damaged? What if the tunnel is slowly flooding? I don't mean to say it's impossible - not at all. It's just far more complex of a concept than most people think.

Tectonic plates are a non-issue. The water around a straw can move back and forth without damaging the straw. A passenger car can carry a tank of inert gas (helium, maybe nitrogen) in addition to the air supply for passengers. You blow the gas in front of the car in emergencies. The gas slows down from friction and your car catches up with it. Anything blowing down the tunnel will hit the helium first. In effect an airbag. If the catastrophe occurred right at the car then it would likely be fatal but an airplane making contact with the ground is also usually fatal. Imagine if the wings came off of your airplane. The tunnels can also have airbags positioned in the side of the tube. They can inflate and block/slow flooding gas leaks but a train hitting one would just destroy the bag and only somewhat annoy the passengers. The vacuum tube would be inside an atmospheric pressure air tube. There would likely be 3 or 4 tubes inside of the air tube, 2 vacuums tubes for 2 directional travel and the others for lower speed cargo. You would need multiple freak failures to occur at once in order to have a wall of water impact the passenger car while it was at full speed.

I like the magma straws

As a transhumanist, I don't see any particular reason to live in the sea.

Actually went Op shopping and found a nice hardback copy of the book.

If Sandy Cheeks from Spongebob can do it so can we!

You can't *see* down in the *sea*

This kind of future sounds awesome but it’s never going to happen. Unchecked climate change will end modern technological civilisation.

I think Sheldon should be nicer to you.

Hey I been watching some of your content Isaac and I am very impressed I will continue to watch your content because you seem to talk about real deal possible technologies that would revolutionize the world in miraculous ways one could percieve. Keep going man you got another supporter.

In the future, we could build underground vacuum-trains to have an intercontinental subway system! Cool!

Ok.. I'll give you an insanely big vacuum tube in 1atm conditions.. new materials etc.. might someday be possible... but the same under 100+ atm... are there any theoretical materials that could stand those kind of forces?

Throw a normal nail in the see and it will land, even at the bottom of the deepest trench, unaffected, though it will rust a lot faster as I recall. Keep in mind when you stand on your floor, maximum compressive strength is way over what the crush pressure is for most things we make

+Isaac Arthur "but for most cases, it's only the net difference that matters" ty ... so I remembered the physics correctly "Remember a lot of load bearing material in your house handle similiar high pressure, 100 atm itself is not that much." so the added 100atm from the debth + the higher pressure difference from the near vacuum can be compensated with supersizing and materials?... those kinds of forces just seem to me to be too big for even the best steel not to bend. especialy once you add in moving parts (trains) tyvm ... if you could point me to some sources that show how those calcualtions are done in environments with different pressures I'd be interested (though I'll search for it myself after work... haven't got enough time now during my lunch break)

Want to phrase this careful because the relative pressures involved have a lot of effect on chemistry and materials in and of themselves, but for *most* cases, it's only the net difference that matters. The analogy being that two people pushing on you from two sides (both exerting force and pressure) might have no net force, but if they're pushing on you with machine guns, obviously that's a fairly secondary consideration. Remember a lot of load bearing material in your house handle similiar high pressure, 100 atm itself is not that much.

+Isaac Arthur I don't know too much about material sciences ... but aren't the forces the material is exposed to a result of pressure differences? so the Trieste with at least 1atm inside (couldn't find the real numbers) faces 100x less force than a vacuum tube with just 1% of its gasses remaining... guessing the numbers obviously if I'm wrong about that I'd reverse my earlier statement ^^ because unlike on the surface the temperature down there is constant so you wouldn't have to deal with heat expansion... one of the bigger problems facing hyperloop in my opinion

Oh sure, tons, remember we have sent stuff down there made out of fairly mundane materials, Trieste made all the way down to 11km with a manned crew and withstood 1100 atm, and indeed was over-enegineered to handle much more and still only about 12cm of hull, and it had a window and external lights too. A lot of rock won't even form until it gets to higher pressure than that. The big issue has more to with changing pressure and temperature as ones moving around and diving breaking the welds on a vessel that also can only operate on batteries to move and so needs to be pretty light, Trieste was fairly large, though tiny compared to military sub, but only had room for 2 people barely because it needed so much devoted to maintaining buoyancy. The game changes a lot when you are building something heavier than water that's also not being subjected to changes in pressure/temp, and where you're building big so you can take advantage of the square-cube law for hull thickness.

Awesome video as usual. Just a minor nitpick. The ancestors of the First Nations did not walk to Australia. Recent finds push the dates way back, and make that impossible. They sailed here. From memory the broadest stretch they had to cross was 90km.

Issac, I see you’ve got an episode planned about reclaiming the deserts. It might also be interesting to look at some of the other difficult places to live on the surface: particularly northern Canada, Siberia and Antarctica. Given what’s happening with the climate, it might be critical to find new places to resettle people.

A real life S.O.M.A scenario would be amazing for this reality :D idk...maybe just for me


This is so deep

Love the vids bro

These are interesting ideas, but the ones about changing sea levels and making many cities that reshape the ecosystems should stay hypothetical or for the uninhabited water worlds.

There won’t be a future is we don’t limit the cultural destruction of LEFT politics.

*I’m Andrew Ryan, and I’m here to ask you a question. Is a man not entitled to the sweat of his brow?*

I chose the impossible... I chose RAPTURE!

take a look at a game series called aquanox very awsome games and idea

Transparent Aluminum!!!!!!!

1:19 con, sonar, we are cavitating.

Good topic. Glad you covered it. At 5:35 however (and here is where constructive criticism, and badly-needed philosophy, begins) you touched on reasons why humans would want to colonize the ocean (such as survive a supernova blast, or to get away from other humans, or for prisons or for resources or to retreat from surface invasion or disaster, or due to exile or because the surface has become hostile to you, or to escape the law (either in childish capriciousness (the main level of thinking in YouTube comments) or to escape truly unjust laws). That level of thinking is not only inadequate, it is clueless. Let me take you to a deeper (higher) level (plane) of thinking (meaning ‘clue you in’): There is a wiser reason (courtesy of microbes, no less) for living in the oceans (and you don’t have to thank them, they secretly know that humans need a LOT of mental help, humans still being universally clueless) (and people can take ‘secretly’ as a new conspiracy theory that they can latch on to while they wait for philosophical enlightenment): The wiser reason is Broader Survival. Consider microbes. Microbes use three fundamental Strategies for Broader Survival: the main Strategy being Population Dispersal, which serves Population Diversity, and both of which are served by Population Increase. All three are critical to broader survival. On a microbial level, the main specific goal is living under your eyelid. On a human level, it is increasing the odds of survival in a harsh and deadly universe (which also serves all of lower life) (which is to be valued, since that is where we came from, going on existing evidence, so we are dealing with potential future higher consciousnesses, which will serve Population Increase, Population Diversity, and Population Dispersal). Now, note that developing the ability to live in the ocean serves all three Fundamental Strategies of Broader Survival – it achieves Population Dispersal, which in turn increases Population Diversity, and both require, and promote, Population Increase, all still critical to Broader Survival, meaning, in the case of humans, in a harsh and deadly universe, meaning it prepares them for living in the various (all harsh) habitats that will be encountered in space (which we will need to Disperse into, sorry, but that is the universe that we have awakened to). All other philosophies are weak, and are thus philosophies of Failure and Death. Three more Strategies emerged with human higher consciousness (and sad that humans do not use it adequately yet) (‘adequately’ meaning ‘philosophically’, because this is the highest level of thinking, meaning it underpins (directs) the pursuit of science, the use of technology, the formation of politics, governments, laws, and justice, and social mores, social purpose, social goals, and ethics, and education and the economy, not to mention art, and not to mention eradication festering human mental pathologies such as greed, domination, manipulation, crime, hate, envy, vanity, xenophobia, prejudice, war, and even a lack of self-worth) – the main Higher Strategy being Proaction (‘higher’ because microbes do not think or act ‘proactively’, they rely on ‘reacting’ which is too late in many cases), with the other two Higher Strategies, Extended Reason and Higher Technology, being strategic tools that serve Proaction. Proaction in our case means proactively seeking-out still-undiscovered threats to life, and proactively developing and implementing solutions (and note the plural – it is better if more than one solution is developed to a threat, especially habitat-specific solutions). Note that all three Higher Strategies serve the three Fundamental Strategies: Population Dispersal, Population Diversity, and Population Increase. Also note that broader survival critically affects general individual survival, the longest-range issue being life after death (for us, since we are destined to die, not having found a solution to biological death yet, with the prudent assumption that our consciousness dies with our biology (all else is speculation, which does not serve survival as well as verified knowledge), life after death being another topic, which addresses specific individual survival (so this is a philosophy of survival (individual and broader) and morality, and for the space age, no less) (which is why I call it The Philosophy of Universal Survival and Morality, for the Space Age, no less). Now consider how such a higher philosophy (thinking on a higher plane) affects ALL of the topic categories that you have covered (and the sooner you understand it (as well as everyone), the better off we will all be). Meanwhile, humans will be attempting to spread their current infant mentality throughout the galaxy, which, as you can imagine, will not be a good thing, since it is self-doomed, cluelessness being blindly destructive, to everything in the galaxy, including one’s self. Philosophy out.

Isaac, I love the show as always, but you said 6 atmospheres of pressure at 60 meters but it should be 7 (there's already 1 atmosphere at the surface, then 2 at 10 meters and 3 at 20). It's a little nitpick but I only say it because I love your show so much. I study marine conservation and I do a bit of SCUBA so this episode is especially cool for me. Thanks for all you do on here!

+Isaac Arthur that's fair, you got most everything else right (nitrogen narcosis, air mixes, toxicity of various gases at pressure) which is better than I did before I scuba dived for the first time. Have you ever been diving? I suspect you'd greatly enjoy the weightlessness and the technicality of the kit.

Yeah that was me just being distracted, I should have been saying 'additional' but I'm usually thinking of very deep and just divide depth by 10 to get approximate pressure where precision's rarely relevant.

sorta hoped you'll mention peter watt's rifters trilogy. there's heavy ocean floor colonisation theme, including body modification. most of verne's books is deffo classics( specially with the original illustrations) but more for youngsters or young adults, the 19th century naivety and unchecked optimism while it's kinda cute and has its charm, it also gets old rather quickly.

I'm so stoked that you're going to be on Event Horizon with John next week! Great video as always, and next Thursday is pretty much going to be a DOUBLE Arthursday. Can't wait to see it! Cheers, Isaac!

this is weawwy coow

Ahh there's the floating crops and even more that I expected in the last vid. Btw - Thanks for the reminder to watch last weeks, I almost forgot. Next weeks video looks awesome.

Love your videos. Any chance your working on how humanity will be able to come back from the global collapse that's going to happen in the next 30 years?

12 second queef

Isaac, this was freakin' amazing! Thanks! Great array of new visuals also!

If you had ultra high-speed trains running under the oceans, you'd probably want one or more hubs in the middle of the ocean. That station would probably need to be a small city to handle passengers, freight, and maintenance. I think if you go back to 19th century American history, you'll find towns popping up along newly established railway; especially in places of necessity (fueling, water, maintenance, junctions). It would also make for a great place to have international summits and meetings since it would be truly international and have secured entrance and exit.

I enjoy your quality issac

Prisons we need more of those

Let's build cities under the ocean Lets drink green magic potion

Did I miss you talking about genetically engineering humanity to survive under the waves?

Great video, but count me in the wouldn't live there and don't care to visit group, depressing just thinking about it. I'm all in for the vacuum tubes though. Getting there fast easily trumps claustrophobia and the lack of scenery

Kinky Boots!!

Hyperloop is bullshit! Basically a death trap that would be marginally faster than air travel or not faster at all.

We keep pumping up the heat and raising ocean levels, we might have to do this earlier than expected

Nice video, but minor quibble about the vacuum trains. You mentioned that at 1g, you would reach Mach 1 at 35s, but that's technically not correct. The aerodynamics of an object changes drastically when it begins to move faster than surrounding sound waves. For this reason, Mach is not a static, unchanging speed, but refers specifically to the speed of sound in the fluid you are traveling through. So Mach changes depending on type of material and it's density, which is what makes it useful in describing aerodynamics. And since those trains are in a vacuum, and sound can't travel in a vacuum, Mach is undefined (or zero). I haven't done the math though, so maybe you knew this already, and did the calculations for the very, very low density air which would remain in the tunnel, in which case I salute your dedication to technical accuracy.

Should've been 90 minutes from New York to Paris

2nd Favorite Episode. Great Job. 156 Episodes is a great accomplishment.

Isaac, I would love to hear you narrate Dune.

The interesting thing is that it takes significant resources to build habitats on the sea floor or even with surface habitats. It's not a matter of giving out 160 acres of free land to settlers who would invest their own finances and labour to build the settlements. Settlements on the sea floor and on the sea surface would require organizations that can fund them. Aside from shallow coastal areas, private individuals simply can not fund their settlements on their own.

Drilling yes, mining maybe, colonizing no!

No, thanks. There are sharks there.

Sea. This is cool

I really don't think there has been a video that I haven't enjoyed that you've made. So much better than the stuff that they put on TV.

Didn't know Forest Gump was into Science

Fun fact: There are more spaceships in the sea than there are submarines in orbit.

It’s kind of a bummer when you don’t say “grab a snack”

SEA QUEST DSV is the modern day undersea subcity!

What kind of idiot farms tbe mantle? Do you want to just destroy the planet kryptonian style cutting its lifespan?

You need to make a documentary about visiting other worlds ala Carl Sagans pale blue dot

One word: Bioshock.


Yeah.... a vacuum tube like the hyperloop underwater is more idiotic then the hyperloop already is on land. First they need to get away of circular design since creating a perfect circle is not very easy when forging huge tubes and they tend to flex when being set so much higher chance of failure. Don't get me wrong I love the idea of faster travel, but critical thinking really needs to be applied here.

We now have a realistic reason to build the Hall of Doom aka first underwater city!

Colonizing the Skies when??

I would like to live under the sea, also a vacuum train not a new idear

While it would be cool to see humans with gills, I've doubt if humans could extract enough oxygen to sustain the metabolic demands of our large brains. Caloric intake for large brains is one obstacle, add the oxygen into the equation and its no wonder that the smartest sea animals are surfacing air breathers.

Congratulations on 300k subs

Good Lord!I doubt that even Amazon themselves have adverts for Audible that last that long. I understand that you have to make your money from the advertising, and I generally let the adverts run on my favourite channels (this one being in my top 3) but that was too much. I appreciate you trying to tie it in to the content but that, somehow, makes it worse - the whole video becomes tainted by it.

congratulation on hitting 300k subs!!

Suisei no Garugantia. In one or two centuries, those who want to colonize oceans will manage to modify their genetics in order to turn into some aquatic form adapted to high pressure and low temperatures. And so the Hideauze beings will born...

15:08 but with ordinairy people you need comfort aswell. constant accelaration is not comfortable. you might want to set a certain top speeds.

Oh Gerrard K. O'Neal In my teens I used to dream along with visionaries like him and Palo Salari and the great Bucky Fuller! Oh yeah I much prefer that beautiful vision for our species as opposed to the horrible fate we've sealed for ourselves. What everything you postulate about is predicated on; is that the terrifying rapidity of abrupt climate change doesn't happen. That would be nice but, not only is it seemingly inevitable but, it ain't gonna be a linear progression. That's the nature of linked self reinforcing positive feed back loops whose cumulative effect will be exponential in nature. Expect catastrophic agricultural collapse globally within a few years. That's the rumble before the megaquake. We are under the gross misconception that we are a good species going somewhere important and that at the last minute we will correct our errors and God will smile on us. It is delusion.

Thats a High Quality Content

Yeah I used to think like this watching those Cousteau Nat. Geo specials in the late 60s. Our Oceans are dying quickly at present however. 90% of global warming has been absorbed by our Oceans so they are becoming more acidic as they in turn absorb more and more CO2. This in turn will deplete the biomass of phytoplankton which provides us with 60% of our Oxygen. Oh regarding Oxygen trees are massively dying all over our big blue marble but I digress. We are talking Oceans. So additionally Fukashima has been spewing massive amounts of highly radioactive water into the Pacific since 2010. It seems this has already created huge dead zones. These are the red flags of the source of our 6th mass extinction. I much prefer your optimistic Star Trek future but it's already too late.

Nov 29 flat earth......Dang Isaac didn't know your a flat earther lol jk....


Your number for the global population in prison is a bit off, it should be closer to 'just over 0.1%' not 1%. Maybe you mixed up the US numbers with the global ones?

Why do you keep supporting Musk, and the Hyperloop, Isaac? Can you honestly not see it's a scam? How is it even possible to keep an atmospheric vacuum for hundreds of kilometers when it's tough to do it for even just a small building? And that's just the tip of the iceberg of a huge vacuum tube problems. Hyperloop is a joke. How can you casually talk about futurism, and the future of humanity, and then bring Musk, and his troll projects in the spotlight? I don't get you man. Maybe you should do a whole episode reasoning your belief in him, and if by the scientific method you, and he are correct, then I'll become a fan myself. For now I just hate this guy. I honestly believe he's a hindrance to everything to humanity.

Where can I get the pictures used on your thumbnail. I'm dying to have these

It was my understanding that gills can't take up enough O2 for us to live on. Am I mistaken here?

I don't know about the rest, I just don't trust the guy. He never gives a straight answer, never takes anything seriously (as to not give a straight answer), and hasn't offered anything new or innovative, as far as I know. He just baptizes older ideas with fancy names, then uses the media to overhype and praise him like a God. I don't know how to do vacuum cylinder calculations, but would a 3m diameter vacuum tube, 9.4m or 370 inches in circumference even be feasible? Multiplied by 1 atm gives you a 5402psi around the tube's diameter alone. So assuming I did the math correctly, how thick would the tube have to be to withstand that force? Is that even practical to conciser?

I honestly don't get why so many folks either worship Musk or want to burn him in effigy, so I'll just bypass that... which doesn't leave much to reply to. We have routinely created pressure differentials of a lot more than a hundred atmospheres, and really long tubes under pressure of as much as a hundred too... pretty much every natural gas pipeline, those range between about 15-110 atms. I keep wondering where this notion comes from that we can't make long pipe under pressure (or the reverse, like our supercolliders) as I seem to hear it a lot.

Isaac Arthur One more question, thank you for the reply by the way! What kind of career should I pursue to learn more about all of these incredible ideas?

dude you're smart as hell

As a scuba diver, I loved this episode! I've often wondered about the whole "gills for humans" angle, and the bottleneck is actually how much oxygen we "gas guzzling" warm blooded creatures need compared to most fish. We'd have to pass an obscene amount of water over those gills to extract enough oxygen for out needs!

​+Isaac ArthurLast thing. I've seen videos that show extreme forces by just 14.7 psi, or 1 atmosphere. So are they fake? Because if they are not, then there's no way a thing like the Hyperloop be accepted if there's the smallest chance of something like this happening.

You want to be calculating for buckling of a thin cylinder under external pressure, but yeah, that's doable. I'd *guess* a 1" steel pipe might be insufficient with a decent safety factor but I'd imagine they've run the numbers, his engineers know their jobs better than me in that regard. We've certainly built things under more buckling load than that. Don't over think this though, this is a pressure akin to dropping a sealed cylinder of air (say a bucket) to the bottom of a fairly deep pool, not trying to build a submarine. This isn't an engineering challenge finding a material that can handle it, it's an engineering challenge finding the cheapest thinnest material that can handle it with a decent safety margin and a minimum of joints. I'm not a material engineer, by default I'd be wanting a double-walled one, but again, not my area, this isn't a huge challenge though, except economically.

+Kennedy Jackson :) You got me on that one Kennedy, Aerospace Engineering maybe? We cover so many topics, most of them far in the future where any careers in them will be a long time coming.

I think I will take my chances remaining on land.

Isaac, I was pleasantly surprised when you mentioned Jules Verne's "20,000 Leagues Under the Sea." Being a Verne fan, I highly recommend the Naval Institute Press version as it restores 1/4 of the original French manuscript not included in most American publications. Most American versions are missing key aspects of the story and Nemo's character.

If you are looking to build or grow something from the ocean floor to the surface, then you could start at the surface and gradually sink it as you add sections at the top.

I hope we learn the value of restraint long before we have to build megastructures. I'd rather see humans, in the future, having fewer kids, and using some common sense about who should actually reproduce. Keep per-planet/moon populations down to non-virus levels and spread out into the stars if we need more room, rather than stripping everything we touch completely bare.

The undersea supermax mining prison

​+Lensflare Deviant Paypal founders Ken Howery Luke Nosek Max Levchin Peter Thiel and Elon Musk Info taken from the wiki. Musk was not a founder, it was a corporate merger of his online banking company, with Conformity (former name of paypal). I have no idea if the success of paypal was his involvement.. or just a chance factor. He is the chief executive officer (CEO), and chief technology officer (CTO).. of his company, so? Are his ideas about reusable rockets an original idea? Not really. Americans did it with the space shuttle. India did it with the RLV program. Russians copied the Americans with the Buran project. Better electronics, more refined techniques, more hype. Oh the HYPE! Had NASA mentioned "we need to test some reusable boosters, but we expect some to blow up before we figure it out", the media would go ape shit on them after the first fail. While Elon's fails are a testament to the enduring spirit of humanity, and other crap like that. And about the electric cars, why do you think those are so much better than the oil powered ones. The energy that charges them doesn't come out of thin air. Coal, and oil, and nuclear are still powering your Tesla. Only difference in that, there's now a loss in efficiency. Because the energy potential of lithium batteries is crap, next to the energy potential of burning fossil fuels. What really fuels the Tesla again? Hype. What will kill it? (it has started already) The Apple-like approach they take concerning repairing, and maintaining their cars. For crying out loud, he made a flame-lighter.. a light-thower.. a toy to create more hype. It's not hard to make a big lighter shaped like a gun, and it's just a waste of resources. Yet people love him for that, and ignore that the parent company that made that toy, does nothing boring atm (except making toys), and that his plans for underground highways, and batcaves under every house, are a total joke!

+Jo Veteran And Paypal, you forgot that. I think you vilify based on deeply flawed logic. He was the chief designer at Spacex initially, which is hardly a non-contribution. He also took Tesla and put it on the map and suddenly everyone is catching up to build electric cars which was his stated goal with Tesla in the first place. Perhaps the boring company will fail, but that's 1 out of 4. He is still making profound changes and for the positive.

Lensflare Deviant I just don't see him doing anything. He starts projects like this, and the boring company, and goes nowhere with them. The only practical companies he founded, Tesla, and space x were based in research others made before him, he just did the advertisement that worked.

+Jo Veteran You're again looking at testing the thinnest possible materials. While I myself don't much think the hyerloop will ever come to be at least the guy is trying. They do the same kind of testing with over pressurizing tanks too. I think Musk has the ability and chance to achieve much even in failing.


Arthur. I hate to break it to you. But any nut determined enough can punch a hole in a vacuum train's tunnel. Be it termite, homemade explosive etc. The entire length of track taken out in one shot because of the shock waves. You should know what kind of damage that can do. I mean this can happen to any form of transport but I'd rather it not happen to one with people traveling at the speed of sound in it.

@5:55, why is the shadow not in synch with the dome movement?

Makes me think of Aquaman.

I love how you explain the difficulties of ocean building and them compared the pressure to someone walking on heals.

One thing I also like about these older Sci-Fis as mirrored in you staying away from FLT in the future is even with lesser technology and without many Sci-Fi technologies we can still accomplish great things.

That's the thing I love about this ocean talk on Earth. Even if you don't do it here, there are countless planets, many of which would for far better for this.

Love your channel Isaac. Don't remember if you have mentioned it in any video; but have you played Soma?

You mentioned going deep to escape the waves during bad weather. An aircraft carrier doesn't really feel the waves - 100mph winds only give a slight sway - so I imagine a city that size (or larger) wouldn't either.

“a whole new world” -pablo francisco

no, living underwater that deep is too technically challenging, I was thinking large man-made floating islands where thousands of people can live, move out of way of storms when needed, harness the waves for power, sunlight for power, use all that ocean surface space for living,

How long the one episode is created ?

Well now I want to watch 20,000 leagues under the sea.

Supermaxlantis A subaquatic supermax prison

It sounds like a _great_ place to live if we are existing there to live in a simulation of some sort :D

"I am Isaac Arthur, and I'm here to ask you a question. Are you not entitled to the sweat of your brow?"

"Rovelli said that it was his early experiences with LSD which sparked his scientific curiosity that eventually led to his theory on quantum gravity." Arthur, your content sparks genuine curiosity that is unparalleled for the next generation. I cannot thank your efforts enough. LSD got me interested in the natural world, before I could articulate my scientific views, and then there's channels like this, full of free knowledge, that help us all to refine ourselves. Thank you so much.

Have you considered the financial issue to alternative power? Oil, coal, gas, solar, and wind are so mind meltingly cheap when compared to the profit they generate that banks have no problem giving them loans. Nuclear, on the other hand, is horrifically expensive to build or upgrade even if cheaper to maintain and makes getting the money back from your loans a LOT harder. Fusion is so staggeringly costly that any banker worth their salt will laugh you out of the office and loan out that money to make several thousand wind farms they can get payment on within 10 years.

Behold... Rapture

There are also forms of bio- luminescence

You might have mentioned the strategic value of colonizing the oceans. Whether it is a secret submarine base, or an entire base that remains mobile and submerged to provide the capacity to sustain a conflict after a nuclear holocaust, or merely as undersea sonar/radar stations to detect and/or intercept weapons like Russia's rumored Triton nuclear torpedoes the strategic value cannot be ignored. Most submarines today and all submarines of size are owned by the world's navies. Undersea communications cables were both laid and monitored by those navies. And with the development of power, water, food, mining, computing, and tourist industries in the oceans, these undersea resources will acquire strategic value and their inhabitants will obtain political influence, both of which will make a military presence desirable. Government funding can be difficult to get and even harder to keep, but if your country is facing a threatening neighbor just about any expense can be justified for defense. The economic benefits of military bases can help leverage the success for ocean colonization ventures.

Waiting for the day that submarines will be able to travel as fast as airliners!

It's probably more difficult to live under the ocean than it is in space imo.

Just a correction: Around 1% of the USA population is in prison. - But that is the highest rate in the world.

Why can't I stop thinking about whale guns? Sorry Isaac.

Great video as always. Did I miss a mention of the use of ocean current energy? Or does it have any drawbacks compared to other energy sources disqualifying its use?

Thank you

Narrator can't pronounce R's Sounds like a 3 year old Better to get another person who has mastered the ability to speak correctly... Lololol sad

The presenter at around 1:00 is giving you a clue of what type of world YOU live in.

You are a super smart guy , your thought experiments are amazing

i like wortor

Barry Kripkey!!!

ok regarding the hyperloop, i would suggest you watch Thunderfoot's videos. naturally his concern is more recent than your ideas, but i think its great content. he disagreed with Elon's idea of Hyperloop with many reason. personally, the safety issues can be diminished if its deep underground, which is a great solution, and can be extremely good for trading networks. but short trips should not be preferable as a lot of safety check is needed.

Facts: Even The deepest ocean are far better than Mars

What kind of Accent is that? Sounds a bit like Abridged dartz....... :P

Rapture ?

In the last chapter of the last book of the Bible - Revelation 21 - written almost 2000 years ago: "Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and the sea no longer existed."

The only issue I have with this episode is the notion that Hyperloop popularised the idea of vacuum trains... I mean, seriously? Every time anybody talked about Maglev in 90's, it was mentioned too. It's rather the opposite situation - he took a business interest in it only because it ALREADY WAS popularised.

I chose... Rapture

Mj Espineli it’s not going to change, you’ll have to learn to tune it out

Is a man not entitled to the sweat of his brow? "No," says the man in Washington, "it belongs to the poor." "No," says the man in the Vatican, "it belongs to God." "No," says the man in Moscow, "it belongs to everyone." I rejected those answers; instead, I chose something different. I chose the impossible. I chose... Rapture.

This is what Hampture strives to accomplish.

Oh Audible is thru amazon which doesn't accept paypal, so I'm not wasting my time making an account for them ever. too bad.

Perhaps underwater chandelier cities on planets with thick ice sheets could be anchored into the ice sheet with cities on the surface. That would make transporting things from underwater to the surface and vice versa easy.

Isaac, i would like to remind you an important thing about the "anywhere on earth in 30 minutes or less" not gonna work unless you plan on making tunnels across the interior of the earth, because those accelerations anywhere on the surface or higher would destroy humans In the case of Elon Musk's idea for rockets being used like planes but cheaper, he forgot that nukes can go anywhere on the surface of the planet because they: -Don't need to worry about their payload dying from the +10G acceleration -Don't have to slow down before landing -Would still cause a small explosion (like a small crater) just from landing so hard even if it's payload wanst explosive Plus the facs that: -ROCKETS ARE PRETTY DAMN LOUD EVEN FROM MANY MILES AWAY -Rocket are fueled just before launch because if their fuel leaks and mixes they explode quite easily -Boats are really slow, it'd take hours just to get from the port to the launch pad -The more engines the higher chance that one will mess up and fail -The more engines the higher likelyhood that one will burst with a leak and explode -NO SERIOUSLY, THEY ARE LOUD AS HELL

Your the carl sagan of youtube. I love your videos

Namaste fellow Space Traveler✌I'm adding this to my *'Sleep Documentaries'* playlist. If you're like me and want to listen to similar stuff while you fall asleep, go to my page because I'm making a playlist for people like us. And if you have a video that I should add to the playlist send me a link and I'll check it out. Thanks, press play, and goodnight!

again - why not hire a competent narrator? your speech impediment is distracting and insufferable.

I'm currently off work with severe mental health problems but videos like this restore my hopes for the future of mankind, against all odds.

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