Broadband internet | Wikipedia audio article

Broadband internet | Wikipedia audio article

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Internet, access is the ability of individuals, and organizations to. Connect to the internet using computer. Terminals, computers. And other devices and, to access services such, as email and the World Wide Web, various. Technologies. At a wide range of speeds have been used by Internet, Service, Providers, ISPs. To provide this service. Internet. Access was, once rare but has grown rapidly in. 1995. Only zero point oh four percent, of the world's population, had access with well over half of those living in the United, States and consumer. Use was through dial-up, by. The first decade of the 21st century. Many consumers. In developed, nations used faster, broadband, technology. And by 2014. 41%, of the world's population. Had access, road, band was almost ubiquitous worldwide. And global, average connection, speeds exceeded. One megabit, per second. Topic. History. The, internet, developed, from the ARPA, ne T which was funded by the US government to support, projects, within the government, and at universities. And research, laboratories in. The US but grew over time to include most of the world's large universities. And the research arms. Of many technology. Companies. Used. By a wider audience only came in 1995. When restrictions, on the use of the Internet, to carry commercial, traffic were lifted in the early to mid 1980s, most internet, access, was from personal, computers, and workstations, directly. Connected, to local, area networks, or from dial-up connections, using modems, and analog telephone, lines. Lands. Typically, operated, at 10 megabits, per second, while modem, data rates grew from 1,200. Bit/s in, the early 1980s. To 56. Kilobits, per second, by the late 1990s. Initially. Dial-up, connections. Were made from terminals, or computers, running, terminal, emulation, software to, terminal, servers on lands, these. Dial-up, connections. Did not support end-to-end use of the Internet protocols, and only provided, terminal, to host connections. The. Introduction. Of network access, servers, supporting, the serial line Internet, Protocol, slip and later the point-to-point, protocol. PPP. Extended. The internet protocols, and made the full range of Internet services, available to dial-up, users, although slower, due to the lower data rates available using dial-up. Broadband. Internet, access often. Shortened. To just broadband. Is simply, defined as internet. Access, that is always on and faster. Than the traditional dial-up. Access and. So. Covers a wide range of, technologies. Broadband. Connections. Are typically made using, a computer's, built-in Ethernet. Networking, capabilities. Or by using a NIC expansion, card. Most. Broadband, services. Provide, a continuous. Always-on. Connection, there. Is no dial in process, required, and it does not interfere with voice use of phone lines. Broadband. Provide, it's improved access to Internet, services, such as. Faster. Worldwide, web browsing. Faster. Downloading, of documents. Photographs, videos. And other large files. Telephony. Radio, television, and, video conferencing. Virtual. Private Networks, and remote system, administration. Online. Gaming especially. Massively, multiplayer, online, role-playing games. Which are interaction, intensive, a in the 1990s. The national, information, infrastructure. Initiative. In the u.s. made broadband, internet, access a, public policy issue in. 2000. Most internet, access, to homes was provided, using dial-up, while many businesses, and schools, were using broadband, connections.

In. 2000. There were just under 150. Million, dial-up, subscriptions. In the 34, OECD countries. And fewer than 20 million broadband, subscriptions. By. 2004. Broadband. Had grown and dial-up had declined, so that the number of subscriptions, were roughly equal at 130. Million each in. 2010. In the OECD, countries over. 90%. Of the internet access, subscriptions. Used broadband, broadband. Had grown to more than 300. Million subscriptions, and dial-up, subscriptions. Had declined, to fewer than 30 million, the broadband, technologies. In widest, user, a DSL. And cable internet. Access. Newer. Technologies. Include, VDSL, and optical, fiber extended. Closer to the subscriber, in both telephone, and cable plants. Fiber-optic. Communication. While only recently, being used in premises, and to the curb schemes has played a crucial role in enabling broadband. Internet, access by. Making, transmission. Of information at very high data, rates over longer distances much. More cost-effective, than copper, wire technology. In. Areas, not served by a DSL. Or cable some. Community. Organizations. And local governments, are installing, Wi-Fi, networks. Wireless. And satellite internet. Are often used in rural undeveloped. Or, the hard to serve areas where wired Internet is not readily available. Newer. Technologies. Being deployed, for fixed stationary, and mobile broadband. Access include. WiMAX, LTE, and fixed, wireless eg. Motorola. Canopy. Starting. In roughly, 2006. Mobile, broadband, access is, increasingly, available, at the consumer, level using, 3G. And 4G. Technologies. Such as HSPA. Ev-do. HSPA+. And LTE. Topic. Availability. In, addition, to access, from home school, and the workplace internet, access, may be available, from public, places such, as libraries, and internet cafes, where computers, with internet connections, are available, some. Libraries, provide, stations. For physically, connecting, users laptops. To local area networks, lands. Wireless. Internet, access points. Are available in, public places such as Airport halls in some cases just for brief use while standing. Some. Access, points may also provide, coin-operated. Computers. Various. Terms are used such, as public. Internet, kiosk. Public. Access, terminal, and, web. Pay phone, many. Hotels, also, have public terminals. Usually, fee based. Coffee. Shops, shopping, malls and other venues increasingly. Offer wireless, access to computer, networks referred. To as hotspots, for users, who bring their own wireless enabled, devices such, as a laptop or, PDA. These. Services, may be free to all free, to customers, only or fee based a, Wi-Fi. Hotspot need, not be limited to a confined, location. Since multiple, ones combined, can cover a whole campus. Or park or even an entire city can be enabled. Additionally. Mobile, broadband, access allows. Smartphones. And other digital devices to. Connect to the internet from, any location, from, which a mobile phone call can be made subject to the capabilities. Of that mobile network. Topic. Speed. The, bit rates for dial-up modems, range from as little as 110. Bit s in the late 1950s. To a maximum, of from 33. To 64, kilobits, per second, V point 9 O and V point 9 2 in the late 1990s. Dial-up. Connections. Generally, require the dedicated, use of a telephone line, data. Compression, can, boost the effective, bit rate for a dial-up, modem connection. - from, 220. V point for two bits to, 320. V point for for kilobit, per second, however. The, effectiveness, of data compression is quite variable, depending, on the type of data being sent the condition, of the telephone line and a number of other factors, in. Reality. The overall data rate rarely, exceeds, 150. Kilobits. Per second, broadband, technologies. Supply, considerably. Higher bit rates than dial-up generally, without disrupting, regular. Telephone, use. Various. Minimum, data rates and maximum, latencies, have been used in definitions. Of broadband, ranging, from 64. Kilobits, per second, up to 4.0. Megabits, per second, in. 1988. The ccitt. Standards. Body defined. Broadband. Service. As requiring. Transmission. Channels, capable, of supporting bit, rates greater than the primary rate which ranged, from about 1.5. To 2 megabits, per second, a. 2006. Organisation. For Economic Cooperation, and. Development OECD. Report.

Defined, Broadband, as having download, data transfer, rates equal to or faster, than, 256. Kilobits, per second, and in. 2015. The US Federal, Communications, Commission. FCC, defined. Basic. Broadband, as. Data transmission. Speeds of at least 25, megabits, per second, downstream. From the internet to the users computer and 3 megabits, per second, upstream, from the users computer to the Internet the. Trend is to raise the threshold of the broadband, definition. As higher data rate services, become available the higher data rate dial-up, modems. Many broadband, services, are, asymmetric. Supporting. Much higher data rates for download, toward, the user than for upload toward, the Internet. Data. Rates including. Those given, in this article are usually, defined, and advertised, in terms of the maximum, or peak download, rate in. Practice. These maximum. Data rates are not always reliably. Available to the customer. Actual. End-to-end, data rates can be lower due to a number of factors, in. Late June 2016. Internet, connection speeds averaged, about 6 megabits, per second, globally. Physical. Link quality can, vary with, distance and, for wireless, access with, terrain weather building, construction. Antenna, placement and interference. From other radio, sources. Network. Bottlenecks, may exist at points anywhere on the path from the end-user to the remote server or service, being used and not just on the first or last link providing, internet access to. The end-user. Topic. Network. Congestion. Users. May share access over. A common network infrastructure. Since. Most users, do not use the full connection, capacity all, of the time this aggregation, strategy, known as contended, service, usually, works well and users converse, to their full data rate at least for brief periods. However. Peer-to-peer, p2p. File-sharing. And, high quality streaming. Video can require high data rates for extended, periods, which violates, these assumptions. And can cause a service, to become oversubscribed. Resulting, in congestion, and poor performance, the. TCP, protocol, includes, flow control, mechanisms. That automatically. Throttle, back on the bandwidth, being used during periods, of network congestion. This. Is fair in the sense that all users that experience, congestion. Receive less bandwidth, but it can be frustrating, for customers. And a major problem for ISPs. In. Some cases the amount of bandwidth, actually, available may fall below the threshold required. To support a particular service. Such as video, conferencing. Or streaming, live video effectively. Making the service unavailable. When. Traffic is particularly, heavy, an ISP, can deliberately, throttle, back the bandwidth, available, to classes, of users or, for particular services. This. Is known as traffic, shaping and careful, use can ensure a better quality of service, for time-critical services. Even on extremely, busy networks. However. Overuse. Can lead to concerns, about fairness, and network neutrality or. Even charges, of censorship, when some types of traffic are severely or completely, blocked. Topic. Outages. An internet, blackout, or outage, can be caused by local signaling, interruptions. Disruptions. Of submarine, communications. Cables, may cause blackouts, or slowdowns, to large areas such, as in the 2008. Submarine, cable, disruption. Less. Developed, countries, are more vulnerable due. To a small number of high-capacity links. Land. Cables, are also vulnerable. As in 2011. When a woman, digging for scrap metal severed. Most connectivity. For the nation of Armenia. Internet. Blackouts affecting. Almost entire countries, can be achieved by governments. As a form of Internet censorship as, in the blockage of the Internet in Egypt whereby approximately. 93%, of, networks, were without access, in 2011. In an attempt to stop mobilization. For anti-government, protests. On April, 25th. 1997. Due to a combination of, human error and software, bug an incorrect, routing table, at my network service. A Virginia, Internet service, provider, propagated.

Across Backbone, rooters and caused, major disruption. To Internet traffic for, a few hours. Topic. Technologies, when the Internet is accessed, using a modem digital, data is converted to analog for, transmission. Over analog, networks, such as the telephone, and cable networks a, computer. Or other device, accessing. The Internet would either be connected, directly to a modem that communicates. With an Internet service provider, ISP, or the modems, internet, connection, would be shared via a local, area network LAN. Which provides, access in, a limited area such, as a home school. Computer. Laboratory, or office, building, although. A connection. To a LAN may provide very high data rates within the LAN actual, internet, access, speed is limited by the upstream link, to the ISP. Lands. May be wired, or wireless, ethernet. Over twisted pair, cabling, and Wi-Fi, are the two most common technologies. Used to build LANs today, but a RCN ET token, ring localtalk, FDDI. And other technologies. Were used in the past. Ethernet. Is the name of the I Triple E, 802.3. Standard for. Physical, land communication. And Wi-Fi, is a trade name for a wireless local area network, WLAN. That uses, one of the I Triple E 800, and 2.11, standards. Ethernet. Cables, are interconnected, via, switches, and rooters Wi-Fi. Networks, are built using one, or more wireless, antenna, called access, points, many. Modems, provide, the additional functionality, to, host a land so most internet, access today is through a LAN often, a very small land with just one or two devices. Attached, and while. Lands, are an important, form of internet access this raises, the question, of how and at what data rate the LAN itself, is connected, to the rest of the global Internet, the. Technologies, described, below used, to make these connections. Topic. Hardwired. Broadband. Access. The. Term broadband, includes, a broad range of technologies, all of which provide higher data rate access, to the Internet, the. Following technologies. Use wires or cables in, contrast, to wireless, broadband, described, later. Topic. Dial-up. Access. Dial-up. Internet access uses. A modem, and a phone call placed over the public switched telephone network. PSTN to, connect to a pool of modems operated. By an ISP the. Modem converts, a computer's, digital, signal, into an analog signal that, travels, over a phone lines local, loop until it reaches, a telephone, company's switching, facilities, or central, office Co where, it is switched to another phone line that connects, to another modem.

At The remote end of the connection operating. On a single, channel a dial-up, connection, monopolizes. The phone line and is one of the slowest methods, of accessing the Internet. Dial-up. Is often the only form of internet access, available in, rural areas, as it requires no new infrastructure. Beyond the already existing telephone. Network, to connect to the Internet, typically. Dial-up. Connections. Do not exceed a speed, of 56, kilobits, per second, as they are primarily, made using modems that operate, at a maximum, data rate of 56, kilobits, per second, downstream. Towards, the end user and 34. Or 48, kilobits, per second, upstream, toward, the global Internet. Topic. Multi-link. Dial-up. Multi-link. Dial-up, provides, increased, bandwidth, by channel, bonding multiple. Dial-up, connections. And accessing, them as a single data channel, it. Requires, two or more modems, phone lines and dial-up, accounts, as well as an isp that supports, multi, linking and of course any line and data charges, are also doubled, this. Inverse, multiplexing, option. Was briefly popular, with some high-end users, before ISDN. DSL, and other technologies. Became, available. Diamond. And other vendors, created, special, modems to support, multi, linking. Topic. Integrated. Services. Digital. Network. Integrated. Services, Digital, Network ISDN. Is a switched, telephone, service, capable, of transporting, voice, and digital data, as well as one of the oldest internet access methods. ISDN. Has been used for voice video conferencing. And broadband, data applications. ISDN. Was very popular in Europe but, less common in, North America, its. Use peaked in the late 1990s. Before the availability, of DSL, and cable modem. Technologies, basic, rate is DN, known as ISDN. Bri has, to, 64, kilobits, per second, bearer all. B. Channels. These, channels, can be used separately, for, voice or data calls, or bonded, together to provide a 128. Kilobits, per second, service, multiple. ISDN. Bri lines. Can, be bonded together to provide data rates above. 128. Kilobits, per second. Primary. Rate is DN known as ISDN. Pre as 23. Bearer channels, 64. Kilobits, per second, each for a combined, data rate of 1.5. Megabits, per second, u.s. standard, an, ISDN. E1, European, Standard Line has 30 bearer channels and, a combined, data rate of 1.9, megabits, per second. Topic. Leased, lines. Leased. Lines are dedicated, lines used, primarily by ISPs. Business. And other large enterprises, to connect lands, and campus networks, to the internet using the existing infrastructure. Of the public telephone network or, other providers. Delivered. Using wire optical.

Fiber And radio, leased lines are used to provide Internet access directly. As well as the building blocks from which several, other forms, of internet access, are created, t-carrier, technology. Dates to 1957. And provides, data rates that range from 56. And 64 kilobits. Per second, ds0. To 1.5. Megabits, per second, ds1. Or t1 to, 45, megabits, per second, ds3. Or t3 a, t1. Line carries. 24, voice or data channels, 24. DS zeros, so customers, may use some channels, for data and others for voice traffic, or use all 24, channels, for clear channel data a. Ds3. T3, line carries, 28, ds1. T1, channels. Fractional. T1 lines, are also available, in, multiples, of a ds0, to, provide data rates between, 56, and. 1500. Kilobits, per second, T. Carrier, lines require, special, termination. Equipment, that may be separate, from or integrated. Into a Reuter or switch and which may be purchased. Or leased from, an isp, in. Japan the equivalent, standard is j1, j3, in, europe, a slightly different standard. Ich area, provides, 32. User channels, 64. Kilobits, per second, on an e1 2.0. Megabits, per second, and 512. User, channels, or 16, e ones on an e3. 34.4. Megabits, per second. Synchronous. Optical networking. SONET. In the US and Canada and synchronous, digital hierarchy. SDH. In the rest of the world are the standard, multiplexing. Protocols, used, to carry high data rate digital bitstreams over optical fiber using, lay or highly coherent, light from light emitting. Diodes, LEDs. At. Lower transmission. Rates data, can also be transferred. Via an electrical, interface, the. Basic, unit of framing, is an oc-3 C, optical. Or STS, 3 C electrical. Which carries, 150. 5.5. 200 megabits, per second, the, sanno C 3 C will carry 3 OC 1, 51.84. Megabits. Per second, payloads, each of which has enough capacity to, include a full ds3. Higher. Data rates are delivered, in o C 3 C multiples, of for providing, OC, 12 C. 620. 2.0, 800 megabits, per second, OC, 48 C. 2.48. 8 gigabits, per second, OC. 192. C 9.95. 3, gigabits, per second, and OC. 768. C thirty nine point eight one three gigabits, per second, the. C. At. The end of the OC labels, stands, for, concatenated. And indicates. A single data stream rather, than several multiplex. Data streams, the 110, 40, and 100. Gigabit Ethernet GB. 10, GB, 41. Hundredths, GB I Tripoli, standards, 800, and 2.3. Allow, digital, data to be delivered over copper, wiring at distances, to 100, meters and over optical, fiber at distances, to 40 kilometers. Topic. Cable. Internet, access. Cable. Internet provides, access using. A cable modem on hybrid, fiber coaxial. Wiring, originally, developed to carry television. Signals, either. Fiber-optic. Or coaxial, copper cable, may connect a node to a customer's, location at, a connection, known as a cable drop, in. A cable modem termination, system. All nodes for cable subscribers. In a neighborhood, connect, to a cable company's, central, office known as the head, end the. Cable company, then connects, to the internet using, a variety of means usually, fiber, optic cable, or digital. Satellite and, microwave, transmissions. Like. DSL, broadband, cable provides, a continuous connection, with an isp. Downstream. The direction, toward the user bit rates can be as much as 400, megabits per second, for business connections, and, 320. Megabits, per second, for residential, service, in some countries. Upstream. Traffic, originating at, the user ranges. From, 384. Kilobits, per second, to more than 20 megabits per second. Broadband. Cable access tends to service fewer business, customers, because, existing television, cable, networks, tend to service residential. Buildings, and commercial, buildings, do not always, include, wiring, for coaxial, cable, networks, in. Addition, because broadband. Cable subscribers. Share the same local line communications. May be intercepted, by neighboring, subscribers. Cable. Networks, regularly. Provide, encryption, schemes for data traveling, to and from customers, but these schemes may be forted. Topic. Digital. Subscriber, line DSL. ADSL. S DSL. And VDSL. Digital. Subscriber, line DSL. Service, provides, a connection to the Internet through the telephone network, unlike. Dial-up, DSL can. Operate, using a single, phone line without, preventing, normal, use of the telephone line for voice phone calls.

DSL. Uses, the high frequencies. While the low audible, frequencies. Of the line are left free for regular, telephone communication. These. Frequency. Bands are subsequently. Separated. By filters, installed, at the customer's premises. DSL. Originally, stood for digital. Subscriber, loop, in. Telecommunications. Marketing, the term digital subscriber, line is, widely understood to, mean asymmetric. Digital subscriber line, a DSL, the most commonly, installed variety. Of DSL. The. Data throughput, of consumer, DSL, services, typically, ranges, from. 256. Kilobits, per second, to 20 megabits per second, in the direction, to the customer, downstream, depending. On DSL, technology. Line conditions. And service, level implementation, in. A DSL, the data throughput in the upstream direction ie. In the direction, to the service provider is, lower than that in the downstream, direction ie, to the customer, hence the designation of, asymmetric, with. A symmetric, digital subscriber, line s DSL, the downstream, and upstream data, rates are equal very, high bitrate digital. Subscriber, line B, DSL, or VHDs, l ITU. G, 993. Point 1 is a digital, subscriber, line DSL. Standard. Approved in 2001. That provides data rates up to 52, megabits. Per second, downstream, and 16, megabits, per second, upstream, over copper, wires and up to 85, megabits, per second, down and upstream, on coaxial, cable. VDSL. Is capable, of supporting applications. Such as high-definition, television, as well as telephone, services, voice-over-ip. And general, internet, access, over, a single physical connection. Vdsl2. Itu-t. G, 990. 3.2. Is a second-generation, version. And an enhancement, of VDSL. Approved. In February, 2006. It is able to provide data rates exceeding, 100. Megabits, per second, simultaneously. In both the upstream and downstream directions. However. The maximum data rate is achieved at a range of about 300. Meters and performance, degrades, as distance, and loop attenuation. Increases. Topic. DSL. Rings. DSL. Rings DSLR. Or bonded, DSL, rings is a ring topology that uses, DSL, technology. Over existing copper, telephone wires, to provide data rates of up to 400. Megabits per second. Topic. Fiber-to-the-home. Fiber-to-the-home. FTTH, is one member of the fiber to the XF TTX family, that includes fiber to the building, or basement, FTTP, fiber, to the premises, FTTP. Fiber, to the desk F T TD fiber, to the curb F TTC. And fibre, to the node f TT, n these. Methods, all bring data closer, to the end-user on optical, fibers, the. Differences, between the methods, have mostly to do with just how close to the end-user, the delivery, on fiber comes, all. Of these delivery, methods, are similar to hybrid, fiber coaxial. HFC, systems. Used to provide cable, internet access. The. Use of optical fiber, offers, much higher data rates over, relatively, longer distances. Most. High-capacity, internet. And cable television backbones. Already, use fiber optic, technology with data switched, to other technologies, DSL.

Cable, Pots, for final delivery to, customers Australia. Began rolling out its National, Broadband, Network across. The country, using fibre optic, cables, to 93%, of Australian, homes schools. And businesses the. Project. Was abandoned, by the subsequent, LNP. Government, in favour of a hybrid ften, design, which turned out to be more expensive and, introduced, delays. Similar. Efforts are underway in Italy Canada India and, many other countries see. Fibre to the premises by. Country. Topic. Power, line Internet. Power, line internet, also, known as broadband, over power lines BPL. Carries, Internet data on a conductor, that is also used for electric, power transmission. Because. Of the extensive, power line infrastructure. Already in place this, technology. Can provide people in rural and low population. Areas access, to the Internet with little cost in terms of new transmission. Equipment cables. Or wires. Data. Rates are asymmetric. And generally, range from. 256. Kilobits, per second, to 2.7. Megabits, per second, because these systems, use parts, of the radio spectrum allocated. To other over-the-air, communication. Services, interference. Between the services, is a limiting, factor in, the introduction, of powerline, internet, systems, the. I Triple, E P 1 901 standard. Specifies. That all powerline, protocols. Must detect existing. Usage, and avoid interfering. With it powerline, Internet has developed, faster in Europe than in the u.s. due to a historical, difference, in power system, design philosophies. Data. Signals, cannot, pass through the step-down, transformers. Used and sir a repeater, must be installed on, each transformer, in. The u.s. a transformer. Serves a small cluster, of from 1 to a few houses in, Europe. It is more common for a somewhat larger, transformer. To service larger, clusters, of from 10 to 100 houses. Thus. A typical u.s. city requires, an order of magnitude more repeaters, than in a comparable, European, city. Topic. ATM. And frame relay. Asynchronous. Transfer, mode ATM. And frame relay a wide area networking. Standards. That can be used to provide Internet, access directly. Or as building, blocks of other access, technologies. For. Example, many DSL, implementations. Use an ATM layer over, the low-level bitstream, layer to enable a number of different, technologies, over the same link, customer. Lands, are typically connected, to an ATM switch, or a frame relay node using leased lines at a wide range of data rates while still widely used with, the advent of Ethernet over optical. Fiber MPLS. VPNs. And broadband, services such. As cable modem, and DSL, ATM, and frame relay no longer, play the prominent, role they once did. Topic. Wireless. Broadband. Access. Wireless. Broadband, is used to provide both fixed and mobile internet. Access with the following technologies. Topic. Satellite, broadband, satellite, internet, access, provides, fixed, portable, and mobile internet, access. Data. Rates range from 2 kilobits, per second, to 1 gigabit per second downstream, and from 2 kilobits, per second, to 10 megabits, per second, upstream, in. The northern hemisphere satellite. Antenna, dishes require. A clear, line of sight to the southern sky due to the equatorial, position, of all geostationary. Satellites, in. The southern, hemisphere this, situation. Is reversed and dishes, are pointed north. Service. Can be adversely affected, by moisture rain, and snow known as rain fade the. System, requires, a carefully, aimed directional. Antenna, satellites. In geostationary. Earth orbit, geo operate, in a fixed position. 35,000. 786. Kilometres, 20, mm. 236. Miles above, the earth's equator, at. The speed of light about. 300,000. Km/s. Or. 186,000. Miles per second, it takes a quarter of a second, for a radio signal to travel, from the earth to the satellite and back when. Other switching, and routing delays, are added and the delays are doubled to allow for a full round-trip, transmission. The total delay can be, 0.75. To 1.25. Seconds. This. Latency, is large when compared, to other forms of internet access, with typical, Layton sees that range from zero point zero one five to zero point, two seconds, long.

Latencies, Negatively. Affect some applications. That require real-time. Response, particularly. Online games voice, over, IP and, remote, control devices. TCP. Tuning, and TCP, acceleration techniques. Can mitigate some, of these problems. Geo. Satellites do. Not cover the Earth's polar regions, HughesNet. Exid a AT&T. And Dish Network have, geo systems, satellites. In low earth 'but leo below, 2,000, kilometers, or. 1243. Miles and medium, Earth orbit Mayo between. 2030. Five thousand, seven hundred and eighty-six kilometers. Or. 1243. And twenty-two, thousand, two hundred and, thirty six miles a less common operate, at lower altitudes. And are not fixed in their position, above the earth lower. Altitudes. Allow, lower latencies. And make real-time interactive, internet, applications, more feasible, leo. Systems. Include, global star, and iridium the. O3b, satellite. Constellation. Is a proposed, Maio system, with a latency, of, 125. Meuse. Constellation. Is a Leo system, scheduled, for launch in 2015. That is expected to have a latency, of just seven moose. Topic. Mobile. Broadband. Mobile. Broadband, is the marketing, term for wireless internet, access delivered. Through mobile phone towers, to computers, mobile, phones called. Cell, phones, in. North America, and South Africa, and hand. Phones, in. Asia and other digital devices using. Portable, modems, some. Mobile services. Allow, more than one device to be connected, to the Internet using a single, cellular connection. Using, a process called tethering. The. Modem may be built into laptop, computers, tablets. Mobile, phones and, other devices added. To some devices using, PC, cards, USB, modems, and USB, sticks or dongles, or separate, wireless modems, can be used new mobile, phone technology and. Infrastructure, is introduced. Periodically. And generally, involves, a change in the fundamental, nature of the service, non backwards, compatible, transmission. Technology. Higher peak data rates new frequency. Bands, wider channel, frequency, bandwidth, in Hertz becomes. Available, these. Transitions. Are referred to as generations, the. First mobile data, services became. Available during. The second generation 2g. The. Download, to the user and upload, to the Internet data rates given above a peak or maximum, rates and end users will typically experience. Lower data rates. WiMAX. Was originally, developed to deliver fixed, wireless service. With wireless mobility, added, in 2005. CDP, D CDMA. 2000. Ev-do, and mbw. A are no longer being actively developed, in. 2011. 90%. Of the world's population, lived in areas with 2g, coverage, while 45%, lived. In areas with 2g, and 3G, coverage. Topic. Ymax. Worldwide. Interoperability, for. Microwave access, WiMAX. Is a set, of interoperable, implementations of. The I Triple E 800, and 2.16. Family, of wireless network, standards, certified, by the WiMAX, forum. WiMAX. Enables, the, delivery, of last-mile, wireless, broadband, access as, an alternative. To cable and DSL. The. Original, I Triple, E 800 and 2.16. Standard, now called fixed. WiMAX, was. Published, in 2001. And, provided, 30 to 40 megabit, per second, data rates. Mobility. Support was, added in, 2005. A 2011. Update provides, data rates up to 1 gigabit per, second, for fixed stations. WiMAX. Offers, a metropolitan. Area network, with a signal, radius, of about 50, kilometers, 30 miles far, surpassing. The 30 meter 100. Foot wireless, range of a conventional, Wi-Fi, local, area network LAN. WiMAX. Signals, also, penetrate building. Walls much more effectively, than Wi-Fi. Topic. Wireless, ISP wireless. Internet, Service Providers wisps. Operate, independently. Of mobile, phone operators. Wisps. Typically, employ low-cost, I Triple E 802, point 1 1 Wi-Fi, radio, systems, to link-up remote locations. Over great distances, long-range. Wi-Fi, but may use other higher power radio, communication, systems, as well. Traditional. 802. Point 1 1 a/b per gram n AC is, an unlicensed. Omnidirectional, service. Designed, to span between 100. And 150. Meters, 300. To 500, feet by. Focusing, the radio signal, using a directional, antenna, where allowed by regulations. 802. Point 1 1 can operate, reliably over, a distance of many kilometer, miles, although the technology's, line-of-sight. Requirements. Hamper connectivity. In areas with hilly or heavily, foliated, terrain. In, addition, compared, to hardwired connectivity. There are security, risks, and less robust, security, protocols. Are enabled, data rates are usually slower, to 250, times slower and the network can be less stable due, to interference from, other wireless, devices and, networks, whether an line-of-sight. Problems, with the increasing, popularity, of unrelated consumer. Devices operating. On the same 2.4. Gigahertz band, many providers have, migrated, to the 5 gigahertz ISM, band if. The, service provider, holds, the necessary, spectrum, license, it could also reconfigure. Various, brands, of off-the-shelf, Wi-Fi, hardware, to operate on its own band instead, of the crowded unlicensed, ones, using.

Higher Frequencies. Carries, various, advantages, usually. Regulatory. Bodies allow, for more power and using, better directional. Antenna, there exists, much more bandwidth, to share allowing. Both better throughput, and improved coexistence. There are less consumer, devices, that operate over 5 gigahertz than, on 2.4. Gigahertz hence, less interferers. Are present the shorter wavelengths, propagate, much worse through walls and other structure, so much less interference leaks, outside, of the homes of consumers, proprietary. Technologies. Like Motorola canopy, and expedience, can be used by a whisk to offer wireless access, to rural and other markets, that are hard to reach using Wi-Fi or WiMAX. There. Are a number of companies, that provide, this service. Topic. Local. Multi-point. Distribution. Service. Local, multi-point distribution. Service, LMDS, is a broadband. Wireless access, technology. That uses microwave, signals, operating. Between 26. Gigahertz and, 29, gigahertz. Originally. Designed for digital, television transmission. DTV, it is conceived, as a fixed, wireless point-to-multipoint. Technology. For utilization in, the last mile, data. Rates range from 64. Kilobits, per second, to, 155. Megabits per, second. Distance. Is typically, limited, to about 1.5. Miles, 2.4. Kilometers but. Links of up to 5 miles 8 kilometers, from the base station are, possible, in some circumstances. Lmds, has been surpassed, in both technological. And commercial, potential by the LTE, and WiMAX standards. Topic. Hybrid. Access, networks. In some, regions notably, in rural areas, the length of the copper lines makes, it difficult for network, operators, to provide, high bandwidth, services, an. Alternative. Is to combine a fixed, access network, typically, xDSL. With a wireless network typically. LTE, the, broadband. Forum, has standardized. An architecture. For such hybrid, access, networks. Topic. Non-commercial. Alternatives. For using, internet services. You. Topic. Grass-roots. Wireless. Networking, movements. Deploying. Multiple. Adjacent Wi-Fi, access points. Is sometimes, used to create citywide. Wireless, networks, it. Is usually, ordered by the local, municipality from. Commercial, whisks. Grassroots. Efforts have also led to wireless, community, networks, widely, deployed at numerous countries, both developing. And developed ones. Rural. Wireless, ISP, installations. Are typically not commercial, in nature and, are instead a patchwork of systems, built up by hobbyists, mounting, antennas, on radio, masts, and towers agricultural. Storage, silos, very tall trees or whatever other tall objects, are available. Where. Radio, spectrum regulation. Is not community, friendly, the channels, are crowded, or when equipment, cannot be afforded by local, residents, freespace, optical communication. Can also be deployed in a similar manner for point-to-point transmission, in, air rather than in fiber-optic, cable. Topic. Packet. Radio. Packet. Radio connects, computers. Or whole networks, operated. By radio, amateurs, with the option to access the, Internet, note. That as per the regulatory, rules outlined, in the ham license, internet, access and email should be strictly, related to the activities, of Hardware amateurs. Topic. Sneakernet. The. Term a tongue-in-cheek, play, on network, as in Internet or Ethernet, refers, to the wearing of sneakers, as the transport, mechanism for, the data. For. Those who do not have access to or cannot afford broadband.

At Home downloading. Large files and, disseminating. Information is. Done by transmission, through workplace. Or library, networks, taken, home and shared with neighbors by sneakernet, there. Are various, decentralized. Delay tolerant peer-to-peer, applications, which. Aim to fully automate, this using, any available interface, including. Both wireless, Bluetooth. Wi-Fi, mesh, p2p. Or hotspots and physically, connected, ones USB, storage Ethernet. Etc. Sneaker. Nets may also be used in tandem with computer. Network data transfer. To increase, data security. Or overall throughput, for, big data use cases. Innovation. Continues, in the area to this day for example AWS. Has recently announced snowball. And bulk data processing. Is also done in a similar fashion by many research institutes. And government, agencies. Topic. Pricing. And spending. Internet. Access is limited by, the relation, between pricing. And available, resources to spend. Regarding. The latter it is estimated that 40% of, the world's population, has less, than $20.00 per year available, to spend on information. And communications. Technology. ICT. In. Mexico. The poorest 30 percent, of the society, counts, with an estimated. $35. Per year $3.00, per month and in Brazil the, poorest twenty two percent of the population counts. With merely 9 dollars per year to spend on ICT, seventy-five. Cents per month, from. Latin America, it is known that the borderline between ICT. As a necessity, good, and ICT, as a luxury, good is roughly around the magical, number of $10, per person per month or, 120. Dollars per year this. Is the amount of ICT, spending, people, esteemed to be a basic, necessity. Current. Internet access prices, exceed, the available resources. By, large in many countries. Dial-up. Users, pay the costs for making local or long-distance phone. Calls usually pay a monthly, subscription, fee and may be subject to additional per, minute or traffic, based charges, and connect, time limits by the ISP. Though. Less common, today than in the past some dial-up, access is, offered for free, in. Return, for watching, banner ads as part of the dial-up, service. NetZero. Blue light junot free net and zed and free nets are examples, of services, providing, free access. Some. Wireless, community, networks, continue the tradition, of providing, free internet, access. Fixed. Broadband, internet, access is often sold under an unlimited. Or, fad. Rate pricing, model with price determined. By the maximum data, rate chosen. By the customer rather, than a per minute or traffic, based charge, per. Minute and traffic, based charges. And traffic caps are common for mobile broadband, internet, access. Internet, services, like Facebook Wikipedia, and, Google have built special, programs, to partner with mobile, network, operators, mno2, introduced. Zero-rating, the cost for the data volumes, as a means to provide the service, more broadly into, developing, markets, with increased, consumer, demand for streaming content such, as video, on demand and peer-to-peer file-sharing. Demand. For bandwidth, has increased, rapidly and, for some ISPs, the flat rate pricing model may become unsustainable. However. With fixed costs estimated, to represent 80, to 90% of, the cost of providing broadband. Service, the marginal, cost to carry additional traffic is low most. ISPs. Do not disclose their costs, but the cost to transmit, a gigabyte, of data in, 2011. Was estimated. To be about 3 cents some ISPs, estimate. That a small number of their users consumer. Disproportionate. Portion, of the total bandwidth, in. Response. Some ISPs, are considering. Or experimenting. With or have implemented combinations. Of traffic, based pricing time, of day or peak, and off-peak. Pricing. And bandwidth, or traffic, caps others. Claim that because the marginal, cost of extra, bandwidth is very small, with 80 to 90% of, the costs fixed regardless of, usage level that such steps are unnecessary. Or motivated. By concerns, other than the cost of delivering bandwidth. To the end-user in canada rogers high speed internet and bell canada have, imposed bandwidth, caps in. 2008. Time warner began experimenting, with. Usage-based pricing in, beaumont texas, in. 2009. An effort by Time Warner to, expand, usage-based, pricing, into. The Rochester, New York area met with public resistance however, and was abandoned, on. August. 1st 2012, in Nashville, Tennessean on October, 1st 2012, in Tucson, Arizona Comcast. Began, tests, that impose data caps on area residents, in.

Nashville, Exceeding, the 300, G bike cap mandates, a temporary purchase, of 50 gee bites of additional, data. Topic. Digital. Divide. Despite. Its tremendous growth internet, access, is not distributed equally, within or between countries. The. Digital, divide refers. To the, gap between people with effective, access to information and, communications. Technology. ICT and. Those with very limited or no access, the. Gap between people with, internet, access and those without is one of many aspects, of the digital divide, whether. Someone, has access, to the Internet can depend, greatly on financial. Status, geographical. Location, as well as government policies. Low-income. Rural, and minority. Populations have. Received, special scrutiny as the technological. Have-nots. Government. Policies, play a tremendous role in, bringing Internet, access to, or limiting, access for underserved, groups regions. And countries. For. Example in, Pakistan. Which is pursuing, an aggressive IT, policy, aimed, at boosting its, drive for economic, modernization, the, number of Internet, users grew. From, 133. Thousand, nine hundred, 0.1%. Of, the population in, 2000. To 31, million. 17.6%, of, the population, in 2011. In. North Korea, there is relatively, little access, to the Internet, due to the government's, fear of political instability, that, might accompany the, benefits, of access, to the global Internet the. US trade embargo is. A barrier, limiting, internet, access, in Cuba access, to computers, is a dominant, factor in determining the level of internet access, in. 2011. In developing. Countries, 25, percent of households. Had a computer, and 20 percent had, internet access while, in developed, countries, the figures were 74, percent of households, had a computer, and 71. Percent, had internet access, the. Majority of people in developing countries do, not have internet access one, about 4 billion people do not have internet access to when buying computers, was legalized, in Cuba in 2007. The private, ownership of computers, soared, there were six hundred and thirty thousand, computers, available on the island in 2008. A 23, percent increase over. 2007. Internet, access has changed, the way in which many people think and, has become an integral part of people's, economic, political and, social lives, the. United, Nations has recognized, that providing, internet access to more people in the world will allow them to take advantage of, the political social. Economic. Educational. And career opportunities, available, over. The Internet. Several. Of the 67. Principles, adopted at, the World Summit on the information society. Convened. By the United, Nations in Geneva in. 2003. Directly. Addressed the digital divide, to. Promote economic development and. A reduction of the digital, divide national. Broadband, plans have, been and are being developed to increase the availability of, affordable high-speed, Internet, access throughout, the world. Topic. Growth, in number of users. Access, to the internet grew from an estimated 10 million people in, 1993. To almost 40 million in 1995. To, 670. Million in 2002. And to 2.7. Billion in 2013. With. Market, saturation growth. In the number of Internet users is, slowing, in industrialized. Countries but, continues, in Asia Africa. Latin, America the, Caribbean and, the Middle East, there. Were roughly zero, point six billion fixed, broadband, subscribers, and, almost 1.2. Billion mobile, broadband, subscribers, in, 2011. In. Developed, countries, people, frequently, use both fixed and mobile broadband. Networks, in. Developing. Countries, mobile, broadband, is often the only access. Method, available. Topic. Bandwidths. Divided. Traditionally. The divide has been measured in terms of the existing numbers of subscriptions. And digital, devices have. And have-not of subscriptions. Recent. Studies have measured, the digital, divide not, in terms of technological. Devices but in terms of the existing bandwidth. Per individual, in kilobit, per second, per capita, as shown. In the figure on the side the digital, divide in kilobit, per second, is not monotonically. Decreasing but. Reopens, up with each new innovation. For. Example, the, massive, diffusion. Of narrowband. Internet, and mobile phones, during, the late 1990s. Increased. Digital, inequality as well as the, initial, introduction, of broadband, DSL. And cable modems. During. 2003. 2004. Increased. Levels, of inequality. This. Is because a new kind of connectivity, is, never introduced. Instantaneously. And uniformly, to society, as a whole at once but, diffuses, slowly, through social, networks, as shown. By the figure, during the mid-2000s. Communication. Capacity was, more unequally, distributed than. During the late 1980s. When only fixed line phones existed. The. Most recent, increase, in digital, equality, stems, from the massive diffusion, of the latest digital innovations.

Ie Fixed, and mobile broadband. Infrastructure. X' eg, 3G, and fiber optics, FTTH, as, shown. In the figure internet, access in terms of bandwidth is more unequally, distributed in. 2014. As it was in the mid-1990s. Topic. In the, United, States. In, the United States billions of dollars have been invested in. Efforts to narrow the digital, divide and bring internet, access to. More people in low-income and rural areas of the United, States. Internet. Availability, varies, widely state-by-state, in, the u.s. in 2011, for, example, eighty seven, point one percent of all New Hampshire, residents, lived in a household, where internet, was available ranking. First in the nation. Meanwhile. Sixty, one point four percent of, all Mississippi. Residents lived in a household, where internet was available ranking. Last in the nation, the. Obama, administration. Continued, this commitment to narrowing the digital, divide through, the use of stimulus. Funding, the. National Center, for Education. Statistics reported. That 98 percent of, all US classroom, computers, had internet, access in 2008. With roughly one computer, with internet access, available. For every three students, the. Percentage and, ratio of students, to computers, was the same for rural schools 98, percent and one computer, for every 2.9, students. Topic. Rural access, one of the great challenges, for internet, access in, general and for broadband, access in, particular is to provide service, to potential, customers in areas of low population. Density, such as to farmers, ranchers and small towns, in. Cities, where the population, density is high it is easier for a service, provider to, recover equipment, costs, but each rural customer, may require, expensive, equipment, to get connected, while. Sixty-six, percent of Americans had an internet connection in 2010, that figure, was only 50 percent in rural areas, according, to the Pew Internet and, American Life, Project Virgin. Media advertised. Over, 100, towns across, the United, Kingdom, from calm bran to Clydebank that, have access, to their 100, megabits per second, service, wireless, Internet Service Providers risks. Are rapidly, becoming a popular broadband. Option, for rural areas the. Technologies, line-of-sight. Requirements. May hamper connectivity. In some areas, with hilly and heavily foliated, terrain. However. The tiegler project, a successful. Pilot in remote scotland, demonstrates. That wireless, can be a viable option the broadband, for rural Nova Scotia, initiative. Is the first program in North America, to guarantee access to 100%. Of, civic addresses, in a region, it. Is based on Motorola, canopy technology, as of, November, 2011 under, 1,000. Households, have reported, access, problems. Deployment. Of a new cell network, by one canopy, provider Eastlink, was expected, to provide the alternative of, 3G, 4G, service. Possibly. At a special, unmetered rate for areas harder, to serve by canopy, in New Zealand a fund has been formed, by the government, to improve rural broadband, and mobile phone. Coverage. Current. Proposals, include, extending. Fibre coverage, and upgrading, copper to support VDSL, be focusing. On improving the coverage, of cell phone technology or, see, regional, Wireless several, countries, have started, to hybrid access networks, to provide faster. Internet services, in rural areas, by enabling network, operators, to efficiently, combine, their X DSL, and LTE networks. Topic. Access. As a civil, or human, right the. Actions, statements. Opinions, and recommendations outlined. Below, have led to the suggestion, that internet, access itself, is or should become a civil, or perhaps a human right several, countries, have adopted laws requiring, the state to work to ensure that Internet, access is broadly, available and, all preventing, the state from unreasonably. Restricting. An individual's, access, to information and, the Internet. Costa. Rica of a 30th, of July 2010. Ruling by the Supreme, Court of Costa, Rica stated. Without, fear, of equivocation, it, can be said that these technologies. Information. Technology. And communication. Have impacted, the way humans, communicate. Facilitating. The connection, between people, and institutions worldwide. And, eliminating. Barriers of, space and time at. This time access, to these technologies. Becomes. A basic, tool to facilitate the, exercise, of fundamental, rights and democratic participation. A, democracy. And citizen. Control, education. Freedom of thought and expression, access. To information and, public services. Online, the right to communicate, with government, electronically.

And Administrative. Transparency. Among others, this. Includes, the fundamental. Right of access to these technologies in. Particular the, right of access to the Internet or, worldwide web. Estonia. In 2000. The Parliament, launched, a massive programme, to expand, access to the countryside, the. Internet the government argues. Is essential. For life in, the 21st century. Finland. By July 2010. Every person, in Finland, was to have access, to a one megabit, per second, broadband, connection, according, to the Ministry of Transport and communications. And by. 2015. Access, to a 100, megabits, per second, connection. France. In June 2009. The, Constitutional. Council Frances. Highest court declared, access, to the Internet to be a basic, human right in, a strongly warded, decision, that struck down portions of the H ad OPI, law a law that would have tracked abuses, and without judicial, review automatically. Cut off network, access to those who continued, to download, illicit material, after two warnings. Greased. Article, 5a of the Constitution. Of Greece states that all persons, has a right to participate in the information, society and. That the state has an obligation to, facilitate. The production exchange. Diffusion. And access, to electronically. Transmitted. Information. Spain. Starting. In 2011. Telefonica the former state monopoly, that holds, the country's. Universal. Service. Contract. Has to guarantee to offer, reasonably. Priced. Broadband, of at least one megabyte, per second, throughout Spain in December. 2003. The World Summit on the information society. Wsis, was convened, under the auspice, of the United, Nations. After. Lengthy negotiations, between. Governments. Businesses. And civil society. Representatives the. WSIS. Declaration. Of Principles was. Adopted, reaffirming, the importance, of the information society to. Maintaining, and strengthening human. Rights, one. We. The representatives of. The peoples of the world assembled. In Geneva from 10 to 12 December. 2003. For, the first phase of the World Summit on the information society. Declare. Our common, desire and commitment to, build a people centered, inclusive. And development, oriented, information, society where. Everyone can create access. Utilize. And share information, and knowledge enabling. Individuals, communities. And people's to achieve their full potential, in promoting the sustainable development. And improving the quality of life premise, taun the purposes, and principles of. The charter of, the United, Nations and. Respecting, fully and upholding, the Universal, Declaration of, Human Rights point, 3. We reaffirm, the universality. Indivisibility. Interdependence. And interrelation. Of all human, rights and, fundamental freedoms, including, the, right to development, as enshrined, in the Vienna declaration. We. Also reaffirm, that democracy. Sustainable. Development, and respect, for human rights and, fundamental freedoms, as. Well as good governance at all levels, are interdependent. And mutually reinforcing.

We. Further resolve, to strengthen, the rule of law in international as, in national, affairs the WSIS. Declaration. Of Principles makes. Specific reference to, the importance, of the right to freedom of expression, in the information. Society, in. Stating. For. We, reaffirm, as an essential, foundation of the information, society and, is outlined, in article 19. Of the Universal Declaration. Of, Human Rights that everyone, has the right to freedom of opinion and expression that, this right includes freedom to, hold opinions without, interference and. To seek receive. And impart information, and. Ideas through, any media, and regardless, of frontiers. Communication. Is a fundamental social. Process. A basic, human need and the foundation, of all social organization. It. Is central, to the information, society. Everyone. Everywhere, should have the opportunity, to participate and no one should be excluded, from the benefits of the information society, offers. A poll of twenty seven thousand, nine hundred and seventy, three adults, in 26, countries including. Fourteen thousand, three hundred and six Internet, users, conducted. For the BBC, World Service between. The 30th, of November, 2009. And the 7th of February 2010. Found that almost four in five Internet, users, and non-users around. The world felt, that access, to the Internet was, a fundamental, right, 50. Percent strongly agreed, 29, percent somewhat, agreed nine percent, somewhat, disagreed, six percent strongly, disagreed, and six percent gave no opinion, the 88 recommendations. Made by the Special, Rapporteur on, the promotion, and protection of, the right to freedom of opinion and, expression in. A May 2011, report. To the Human Rights Council of the United, Nations General Assembly include. Several, that bear on the question of the right to Internet access. 67. Unlike. Any other medium, the internet, enables individuals. To seek receive, and impart information, and. Ideas of, all kinds, instantaneously. And inexpensively. Across national borders. By. Vastly, expanding, the capacity of individuals, to enjoy their right to freedom of opinion and expression which. Is an enabler, of other human, rights the internet boosts, economic social. And political development. And contributes. To the progress of humankind, as a whole in. This regard the Special, Rapporteur encourages. Other special, procedures, mandate, holders to, engage on the issue of the Internet with respect, to their particular mandates. 0.78. While. Blocking and filtering measures. Deny users, access, to specific content. On the internet states have also taken measures, to cut off access to the internet entirely, the. Special, Rapporteur considers. Cutting off users, from internet access regardless of the justification. Provided, including, on the grounds, of violating. Intellectual. Property, rights law to be disproportionate. And thus a violation, of article 19 paragraph. 3 of the International. Covenant on, Civil and, Political Rights. 0.79. The. Special, Rapporteur calls. Upon, all states to ensure that internet access is maintained, at all times including. During times of political, unrest 0.85.

Given. That the Internet has become an indispensable tool, for, realizing, a range of human rights combating. Inequality and, accelerating. Development, and human progress ensuring. Universal access, to, the Internet, should be a priority for all states, each. State should thus develop, a concrete and effective, policy, in consultation. With individuals. From all sections, of society including. The private sector, and relevant, government, ministries, to make the internet widely, available accessible. And affordable to, all segments, of population. You. Topic. Network, neutrality. Network. Neutrality, also. Net neutrality, internet. Neutrality, or net equality, is the principle, that Internet service providers. And governments, should treat all data on the internet, equally, not discriminating. Or charging, differentially, by, User Content, site. Platform. Application. Type of attached equipment, or mode of communication. Advocates. Of net neutrality have. Raised concerns, about the ability of broadband, providers. To use their last mile infrastructure. To block internet applications and. Content eg websites. Services. And protocols, and even, to block out competitors. Opponents. Claimed net neutrality, regulations. Would deter investment, into improving, broadband, infrastructure. And tried to fix something that isn't broken, in. April, 2017. A recent, attempt to compromise net, neutrality in, the United, States is being considered, by the newly appointed FCC. Chairman adjured, ver adhiraj pi the. Vote on whether or not to abolish net, neutrality, was, passed on December, 14th, 2017. And ended, in a three-to-two, split, in favor of abolishing net, neutrality. Topic. Natural. Disasters. And access. Natural. Disasters. Disrupt, internet, access, in profound ways this. Is important, not. Only for, telecommunication. Companies, who own the networks and the businesses, who use them but for emergency, crew and displaced, citizens as well the. Situation is, worsened, when hospitals. Or other buildings, necessary. To disaster, response lose their connection. Knowledge. Gained from studying past internet, disruptions. By natural, disasters. Could be put to use in planning, or recovery. Additionally. Because of both natural, and man-made disasters. Studies. In network resiliency. Are now being conducted to, prevent large-scale outages. One way natural, disasters, impact internet, connection, is by damaging, n sub networks, subnets. Making, them unreachable a study. On local, networks, after, Hurricane, Katrina found. That 26%, of, subnets, within the storm coverage, were unreachable, at. Hurricane, Katrina's, peak intensity, almost. 35%. Of networks, in Mississippi, were without power while around 14%, of, Louisiana's. Networks, were disrupted, of. Those unreachable, subnets. 73%. Were disrupted. For four weeks or longer and 57%. Were, at Network edges, where important, emergency. Organizations. Such as hospitals. And government agencies. Are mostly located. Extensive. Infrastructure, damage and inaccessible, areas, were two explanations, for the long delay in returning service. The. Company cisco, has revealed, a network emergency, response, vehicle, nerve a truck that makes portable, communications. Possible, for emergency, responders, despite, traditional, networks being disrupted. A second, way natural, disasters. Destroy, Internet, connectivity, is, by severing, submarine, cables, fiber. Optic, cables, placed on the ocean floor that provide international, internet connection, a sequence. Of undersea, earthquakes, cut six out of seven international, cables. Connected, to that country, and caused a tsunami that wiped out one of its cable and landing stations. The. Impact slowed or disabled. Internet connection, for five days within the asia-pacific region, as, well as between the region, and the United States and Europe with the rise in popularity, of cloud computing concern. Has grown over access, to cloud hosted, data in the event of a natural disaster. Amazon. Web Services. AWS. Has been in the news for major, Network outages, in April 2011 and, June 2012. AWS. Like other major cloud hosting, companies, prepares, for typical outages, and large-scale, natural, disasters. With backup power as well as backup, data centers, in other locations. AWS. Divides, the globe into five regions, and then splits each region, into availability.

Zones A data. Center, in one availability. Zone should be backed up by a data center, in a different, availability, zone. Theoretically. A natural, disaster would, not affect more than one availability. Zone, this. Theory, plays out as long as human error is not added to the mix the. June 2012, major storm, only disabled, the primary, data center, but human error disabled. The secondary, and tertiary backups. Affecting, companies, such as Netflix, Pinterest. Reddit, and Instagram. Equals, equals, see also.

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