5G 快了, 但体验退步了: 硬核演变史, 解释为何5G会走到今天这一步
When Caixin interviewed the former finance minister recently, he talked about the current predicament of 5G. He mentioned that 5G has cost a lot of money, but he can't digest it. So how did 5G go from the much-anticipated crusade to the current crusade? So today's video From the perspective of technology and business, we will sort out the mobile technology routes in China and the world since 2G. The goal is to clarify why 4G and 5G will go to where it is today, and where is the way out in the future? He is a TV child born in the 1990s, and basically he has a deep impression on the advertisement of Ge You. There is no doubt that the "Global Connect", "Shenzhou Xing" and "M-Zone" products of Mobile have pushed Mobile to the throne of 2G No. 1 Mobile Behind its success is the GSM technology dominated by Europe . At that time, the king of fixed line and broadband, that is, China Telecom, used the PHS (PHS) network technology that only supports telephones.
However, many people may ask, China Unicom also uses GSM technology, why is the 2G market still occupied by China Mobile? At the beginning, China Unicom deployed GSM only a year later than China Mobile. At that time, mobile phones were still a rarity, so it could not be said to be backward. However , due to the reason that "the military is not allowed to do business", the commercialization of CDMA became a condition for joining the WTO.
The CDMA network jointly built by the telecommunications and the military was handed over to the Under the operation of China Unicom, China Unicom got two cards that looked good at the time. Here, by the way, the early telecommunications business was very strong, covering mobile GSM, China Unicom's call machine, as well as Northern Netcom's fixed line and ADSL at that time. In the end , the network was split step by step due to various factors, and it was reduced to the point of using PHS as a facade. Looking back at the competition between China Unicom and China Mobile at that time, although China Unicom also got the GSM card , the frequency allocated in the GSM900 frequency band was relatively low. The bandwidth is far less than that of China Mobile, which makes Unicom's GSM deployment more difficult, falling behind China Mobile. Then China Unicom's second card, CDMA, was packaged as "Unicom New Space" . High quality, strong confidentiality, and not easy to drop calls. More importantly, at that time, CDMA 1x had the possibility of developing to 3G standard-EVDO. In
addition, CDMA technology was easier to achieve coverage, so the layout of GSM network was relatively ignored. I believe The 2007 iPhone launch left an unforgettable impression on many people. Jobs demonstrated multi-touch, Safari browser, mail, and Google Maps at the iPhone OG. However, many people did not know that the demo iPhone was full of With tons of problems ranging from system software crashes and memory crashes, to Wi-Fi and There are serious defects in the quality design of the cellular antenna, so the cooperative operator was directly brought in to deploy the base station, and the Wi-FI also used the Japanese frequency band that cannot be used in the United States to reduce interference.
Even so, the signal still could not maintain full quality, so the legendary UI was used. Optimizing Dafa Fortunately , everything went well in the final demonstration, and the world was amazed at it. Even though there was no third-party App at that time, the EDGE 2.75G network was slow in web browsing and mail loading, which became the number one experience pain point for the original iPhone . Fortunately, the partner operator of the iPhone was selected by AT&T. The acquisition became the highest-grossing contract phone at the time, and AT&T also (at one point) became the No. 1 carrier in the U.S. in the following years. The iPhone OG is considered the invention of the year, and I also believe in a widely held view that "this is what changed the mobile phone forever." '' mobile phone" we're going to the next goal , what are these next challenges, first 3G network, faster network [excited applause from audience] On the iPhone's first birthday, we're going to take it to the next stage, and today we're launching a brand new The iPhone 3G was highly praised by the media in the first year of the original iPhone's release. The
iPhone 's built-in browser, e-mail and map functions were highly praised . It has become the most important feature of the new iPhone. The reason why 3G is so necessary is mainly because the interaction and content expression of the iPhone far surpassed that of the smartphone at that time. It is a pity that 3G was only the basic UMTS network at that time, which is still very slow today. At the same time, a huge change is taking place in the land of Shenzhou. We mentioned earlier that China Telecom has become the most distressed company in the 2G era. However, in 2008, earth-shaking changes have taken place
. The network was sold to China Telecom , and the remaining GSM network was used to acquire China Netcom, which has fixed and broadband services. China Mobile also acquired Tietong, which also acquired fixed-line and broadband services . Today, the three major operators are formed. It has its own cellular data network, telephone network and broadband network. However , the result of 3G licensing will largely determine the future of operators in the next few years. China Unicom has obtained the best W-CDMA, and also introduced the iPhone 3G logically. As the only contractor at that time , it is reasonable to say that this China Unicom, which is well-matched with the iPhone, should get a script similar to ATT's and become the first in the industry. However , as many people have said, China Unicom played a good hand . , so that China Unicom needs to spend a lot of money to rebuild the 2G GSM and 3G WCDMA networks.
Due to the small 2G bandwidth and the poor coverage, the entry market cannot beat the mobile 3G, but the tariff is expensive, and the poor signal annoys many recharge players Coupled with the fact that number porting is almost non-existent, corporate information leaks are rampant, and traffic and call billing are very regional, which led to the demand for dual-card dual-standby in the market at that time. Obviously , the iPhone at that time could not take care of these localization needs. At the same time, China Unicom's contract The phone package really makes people feel tasteless , not to mention that the price of the pre-store + mobile phone model is exactly the same as the full price . The fixed phone and traffic ratio in the package does not meet the needs of the market, not to mention the tasteless MMS and the problems that are unacceptable now: Cutting off Wi-Fi is completely "eunuch's money" . Plus, the Hong Kong version of the iPhone was launched earlier, and the price in Hong Kong dollars was lower than the price in RMB. The mainland can still use the purchase certificate for warranty, and you can also take your own expense or AC+ until the iPhone 4 " Changed everything once again.” At the same time, Wi-Fi and WAPI were added to the mainstream in the form of WLAN, resulting in an extremely exaggerated increase in the price of scalpers for iPhone 4 for a long time . Coupled with the digging of corners by competitors, the contract phone finally shined. Unicom immediately launched the mandatory binding policy of machine card, and operators began to tear up their faces and ridicule each other. All this seems to have nothing to do with telecommunications, so we have to talk about CDMA. There is a problem. I just mentioned that CDMA was operated from the original IS-95 standard, and later it was upgraded to the same script as CDMA2000 in the hands of China Unicom. Finally, the title was changed to "E-surfing 3G"
due to the coverage advantages of CDMA and the fact that China Unicom had The foundation and the strong execution force of Telecom have obtained a large number of users by ordering broadband free 3G mobile phones and packages. However, the problem of Qualcomm charging CDMA royalties to terminals has emerged, resulting in fewer choices of CDMA mobile phones and higher prices on the market. Expensive As a result, the impression of "the telecommunication is as deep as the sea, and it is difficult to buy mobile phones from now on" is formed. However, there are not many operators in the world that use CDMA. For example, Verizon/AU/Docomo can see that in the 2G era, in addition to Europe being dominated by pure GSM North America is mixed deployment, South America is dominated by CDMA. Japan entered the 3G era. SoftBank, the main WCDMA company, has also received huge dividends.
Obviously, the old CDMA operators such as AU and DOCOMO cannot sit idly by. So it appeared in the iPhone 4 era. The first batch of so-called C-version/V-version iPhones are actually compatible with both systems at the same time, which is convenient for roaming in other countries. In
theory , they can be used in the mainland by finding a relationship and writing five codes. The price of the machine is also cheaper, but the telecom does not Accepting this number-burning scheme , Telecom broke the monopoly of Unicom's contract machines in the iPhone 4S era . However, although the Hong Kong version at that time was the same model as the one sold by Telecom, it did not support the insertion of a telecom card. This problem evolved into a card-drawing mode in the Xs era. , until 1 1 Just like Macau, it fully supports telecommunications. However, at this time, telecommunications discovered a problem. Although the speed of CDMA can compete with UMTS, the iPhone 4S began to support faster HSPA, which was far behind the EVDO at that time and even the so-called at that time . A lot of WiMax 4G has been pulled down
. What's worse is that Apple has directly added 4G to the iPhone 5. By the way, it supports HSPA+ and DC-HSDPA of 3G+. In addition to the problem of patent fees, Telecom directly gave up the EVDO Rev B plan. The reason why the master said They came to the wrong place because China Mobile obtained a letter of appointment for "using its own 3G technology". From the perspective of technology and commercial support, TD-SCDMA was destined to be a dangerous road. From the perspective of technical indicators, TD-SCDMA was one of the three technologies at that time. The worst, especially the uplink level is basically only 2G level . At that time, domestic manufacturers such as ZTE, Datang and Huawei who were willing to invest in this technology were mainly domestic manufacturers such as ZTE, Datang and Huawei. Although TD-SCDMA on PPT used much more advanced technology, the actual performance was still the same. Not satisfactory
. Qualcomm and other foreign manufacturers are also unwilling to join the support of terminal baseband. In the end, China Mobile spent 200 billion yuan and never achieved good 3G wide coverage. However , at this stage, China Mobile pays more attention to how to tap the corner of telecom, for example, it has made a lot of low-cost broadband packages. One is to use the power cat to access broadband. Considering that the traffic was generally more expensive at that time, 2G was not only a little slow, but it was not impossible to chat on WeChat . At that time, more people still considered saving traffic fees even in public hotspots, which could be considered to bypass the speed problem. Let’s introduce the technological evolution of 4G . Qualcomm originally planned to develop its own UMB technology to counter the LTE technology of European 3GPP, but at that time, neither operators nor terminal manufacturers recognized Qualcomm’s patent licensing fee model, so Qualcomm still turned to LTE . As we just said, the actual rate performance of the WiMax series technology that is also quasi-4G is not ideal, and there is only support from Intel. The theoretical 3.1M EVDO Rev.A, the actual performance is also comparable to HSPA 7.2
At this time, LTE has started abroad. For a trial deployment, a self-proclaimed 3G phone, like the Nexus 4, can use Band 4 LTE networks outside the U.S. At the same time, AT&T reaps the benefits of WCDMA and arrogantly optimizes the HSPA+ signal bar to 4G, for the In the future, the popularization of LTE lays the groundwork . In 2013, Apple launched the iPhone 5S. At that time, in addition to iOS7, "local gold" and TouchID, the most important change was that it played the role of 4G popularization . 4G is one step ahead, but there are as many as 6 versions of 5S in the early days of 4G popularization, and the middle is full of commercial computing Mobile The layout of TD-LTE has been started since 10 years, and it is crazy to suggest that TD-LTE is the evolution of the independent technology of TD-SCDMA , which makes the evaluation of TD-LTE two-level to a certain extent. Two sets of technologies People who value technology and business are not optimistic about mobile TD-LTE, and those who like "autonomy" choose to blow up . When the high-frequency resources were relatively easy to capture, commercialization was carried out earlier. This reminds me of Gu Ailing. Although he trained in the United States, he won a medal for China in the Winter Olympics. , but the peak came soon.
The result is very obvious. Mobile has achieved leapfrog development from 2G to 4G. Because telecommunications technically rely on CDMA to achieve calls, and LTE terminals are more expensive, they choose to popularize low-end 3G first, and wait until FDD is issued. The most tragic, China Unicom misjudged the situation, even after the FDD was issued, it was the slowest start, and I thought I was the right match for the iPhone, but I didn’t know that its 3G pricing had no advantage over mobile 4G. At the same time, there was another revolution. In the United States, T-Mobile, the operator, stopped the game of subsidizing contract machines. For users, his family's package monthly fee is lower . At the same time, there are a bunch of derivative virtual operators (MNVO) using TMO infrastructure. Later, TMO After catching up with the industry's third-largest Sprint and acquiring Sprint, it became the third largest operator that has the ability to compete with Verizon and ATT. Comparing the subscriber ratios in 12 and 20 years, it can be said that the contract phone program is a bad civilization.
At the same time, China also has a In the past 15 years , far-reaching changes have begun to promote the reform of "speeding up and lowering fees". Telecom and China Unicom have launched a large number of free-flow and daily-rent cards that cooperate with Internet companies. Subsequently , the distinction between various provincial and national data flows has been cancelled . The implementation of "switching to the Internet" and "allowing users to freely change the plan" has gone from worrying that too much traffic will lead to bankruptcy, to all-you-can-eat at affordable prices. The 4G network has promoted a lot of business under the sharing economy, and it has become an indispensable part of our life today. However , the main goal of China Mobile at that time was to accelerate the vacancy of 3G, and at the same time to build the IPv6 network of VoLTE Because with the popularization of mobile phone functions, criminals are eyeing the defects of GSM network Since China Unicom Mobile adopts CSFB fallback Mode, SMS and calls under GSM are not protected by any [effective] encryption With the help of fake base stations, criminals can easily sniff out information, and can also send a lot of spam and scam text messages Even if you are connected to 4G, you can be blocked by jammers During the two years when 2G was the most rampant of fake base stations, the victims had no deposits at all times, and all kinds of credits were also maxed out.
At the same time, GSM technology The technology is really backward, VoLTE can bring clearer call performance. Although telecom CDMA does not have these loopholes, and after 16 years, all Netcom began to popularize, but considering that the grandson of Qualcomm is too difficult to serve, and SvLTE increases standby power consumption . There was also the ancestral network disconnection problem, so we followed up with VoLTE support. However , when China Mobile came back to its senses, it was discovered that China Unicom Telecom’s slowdown and fee reduction had grabbed the incremental users back . At this time, mobile users are still enjoying There is a very important reason for the immortal pricing of 5 yuan and 30M, and there is a very important reason why mobile is in violation of yang and yin in this area, that is, in order to speed up the deployment of TDD, the efficiency of deployment had to be sacrificed.
Mobile chose b39 for main coverage, and b40 for indoor b41 because it was too much . High, so it is only used for very few hotspot coverage. Therefore , at this time, mobile can't talk about autonomy, and hurry up to re-cultivate the frequencies of GSM 900/1900 and TD 3G for 4G B3 B8. Naturally, TDD technology is used. Among them, B8 also took some NB, and kept GSM compatible with some old IoT devices because some old bicycle locks used GSM, and later changed to NB and ordinary Bluetooth, and then changed to BLE broadcast and some local police services The general use is still GSM, so it will not be refunded immediately . When it comes to 5G, it will be discussed in depth, because everyone's understanding of the Internet of Everything is generally problematic. For example, the GSM-R of the railway company is still serving vehicle interval scheduling and supplementary ticket checking. Not all technologies require 5G or cellular network technical support. As mentioned earlier, low-frequency coverage has advantages, so this is also a battleground for the three major operators. Many
low- frequency bands are used for radio and television. Analog and digital signal coverage, so this part of the resources is mainly concentrated on the radio and television hand, and the mobile has been talked about for many years. However, the radio and television itself is not a whole, there are many younger brothers, so it was only last year that it was clear Therefore , the co-construction plan was given to 5G. I just mentioned that TMO occupied a lot of market share. However, in the early years, the signal of TMO was always at the bottom of the top four. This is why Verizon was so expensive and unfriendly to iPhone Many users in the central United States have no choice.
From the distribution of various frequencies/operators in 2018, the proportion of 700Mhz in the V family is the highest. Of course, even Verizon has no coverage, which is why Ma Yilong's Starlink business The reason why it can be done is that the poor signal needs to be solved. TMO's first solution is to implement Wi-Fi calls through VoIP , so that there is no need to worry about the problem of signal failure in the building, but it is only a part of the solution, and then the target is set. I turned to the analog UHF TV signals that had been phased out at that time. I believe that friends in the Pearl River Delta region know what I am talking about. There are such TV signals all over the world. In this way, new frequency band resources are generated due to the elimination of analog signal ground waves, which are collectively referred to as "digital dividends" . Among them, the 16-year 600Mhz auction in the United States was won by TMO, which made TMO's 4G signal coverage in the United States a qualitative leap.
Beginning in 2018, sales in North America Almost all mobile phones started to support B71 . In a blink of an eye, the long-term evolution of 4G has basically reached the multi-carrier aggregation of LTE-A. This is where the new air interface, new core network, and new spectrum have become the next goals of operators. Due to the huge social changes brought about by 3G and 4G, we can't help but have more imaginations about 5G. Some scenarios are a piece of cake for 5G, while others are just a piece of cake. For example, the ability of the Internet of Everything is really 5G. What does this cellular network technology need to do?
Obviously, people who are open to the Internet of Everything may not know about low-power network technologies like LoRA/Zigbee that support mesh, not to mention that LoRA supports transmission distances of thousands of meters. It is much lower than NB-IoT, but this technology operator can't make a dime, let alone telemedicine, which is a scene of shouting from 3G to 4G. By June 2019, the first video burst at station B The popularity of this video, which can be called the "5G Bible", has spread across the entire network. At that time, 5G was still only in the experimental hotspot coverage stage. I believe that people in their right minds will not agree with the views of this video. For example, The OPPO Reno 5G mobile phone video used in He’s video was released in June, but it didn’t get access to the Internet until July of that year, and I didn’t find any indication that this mobile phone was released in China because it is an 855+X50 The single-mode 5G mobile phone of 5G cannot be used normally when the NSA is basically shut down.
In other words, it will be listed on this single-mode shame column . Some people say that 5G SA is more advanced than NSA, such as lower latency, No need for 4G standby, so it saves more power. However , the description in the iOS system is: if SA is not popular, the connection quality will be unstable. Even if most of the current NSA base stations are converted to SA base stations, they only achieve large-scale coverage and the distance meets indoor and outdoor. There is still an essential hurdle for SA to pass, and that is to introduce low-frequency coverage and enhanced indoor coverage, just like the popularization of VoLTE in the past. The
reason why China can complete the deployment of 5G network in a short time is because of the 5G N78 frequency band The corresponding C-band satellite TV is not popular in China. In addition , fewer and fewer people watch TV in recent years. Many so-called "black pot" receivers have been hit again and again, but it does not mean that no one uses satellite receivers. It has been reported in many places. The n78 interferes with satellite TV signals, not to mention that the diffraction ability of the 2.6G/3.5G frequency is very poor, and the attenuation is very fast. At the same time, the 700Mhz frequency band has only just started this year . At the beginning, I could receive it, and it was still owned by mobile and radio and television
. At this time, "we" thought that the United States had spent a lot of money to buy frequency bands before the construction of mid-band 5G. Millimeter wave is the wrong bet. However, as student He said, "speed is the most boring application of 5G." Ironically, classmate He's video blew a wave of high speed, but the current 5G gives me the feeling of "bending" It 's just like He said that the 5G game experience is good because the game downloads data packets quickly. I think most people know that the sensitivity of online games to delay and packet loss is the key to the network experience. It has been updated under Fi. In fact, all brands of mobile phones have 5G disconnection problems.
This was not so obvious when 3G was upgraded to 4G, not to mention the problem of increased power consumption of 5G. When I opened 5G SA before, I often I just sat down to eat in a restaurant , swiped the QR code, and suddenly 5G was gone. Therefore, the day when SA is turned off is a good day . Such a problem is obviously caused by the insufficient depth of medium and high frequency coverage. However, N28 is only mobile exclusive, And it must be paired with new models such as iPhone 13. Typical far water cannot stop near thirst . Let's look at TMO's 5G roadmap, and we can see that they are not in a hurry to emphasize the SA networking solution, but to implement the N71 that can cover a wide range. , even if the capacity is not large, but ensure that you have a signal and establish a super-capacity and ultra-fast millimeter-wave 5G, so that you can have a fast speed in the city.
Just like the 5G millimeter-wave support introduced by the iPhone 12, the fastest can reach 4G The speed is four times that of He's 5G, and the capacity it can provide is huge, ensuring that no matter where you are, you can still have a fast speed . Common such as gymnasiums, concerts, airports, and landmarks, campuses, parks and shopping malls Just like when I went to the coffee festival in Shanghai’s Lujiazui Central Park before, even if 5G was used, the on-site network card couldn’t even swipe WeChat text. Even though 5G is everywhere now, many high-rise hotels can only receive 4G, and the ones that run out are still The speed is slower than 3G. In a dense urban area such as Hong Kong's Central, if you want to have an ideal speed, you need a local high-end calling card. In essence, it is still a problem of insufficient capacity. I think the millimeter wave in this kind of place can play a big role. Useful, as Verizon promised, there is really a mmWave deployment at the site of the US Super Bowl that just held these two days. In
contrast, our mmWave stadium... I think my 5G experience description and related technologies just now Popular science, basically explained the current embarrassment of 5G. The speed of 5G is not a decisive advantage, just like I know that no matter how fast 5G is, it will not replace the gigabit broadband Wi-Fi and 10 Gigabit switching in my home, even if someone blows the game fast and cloud games , I also suggest thinking about how many new games are available today and we all know that AR/VR is In the future, please be down-to-earth and distinguish between what can be done now and what can't be done, so as to find the gap between the ideal and the reality , instead of thinking about the "Internet of Everything" and "winning the United States again", they all say the Super Bowl It's an American Spring Festival Gala, so ask yourself, have you watched the CCTV Spring Festival Gala? Not to mention that offline tickets are so expensive that people don't spit out dirty words at the ticket office, but at least you can buy tickets. In the
end , you have to watch what supports 5G. Content If you have studied information theory, you know that a movie with more than ten gigabytes cannot be compressed into ten megabytes , but if the same content can be overwhelmed by 5G, it can only be said that there is a problem with your compression coding algorithm , not to mention watching it on a mobile phone. 2K is almost clear enough, unless you are using a large tablet, otherwise 4K is a waste. If you really want to go out with AR glasses, you have to watch Apple perform One More Thing. That's it for this video, the content It's very long. If you have any questions, you can leave a message in the comment area. Don't forget to give Sanlian when you see it here. See you in the next issue