Weapons engineering | Wikipedia audio article
Military. Technology. Is the application, of technology, for use in warfare it comprises, the kinds of technology, that are distinctly, military, in nature and not civilian, in application. Usually because, they lack useful, or legal civilian, applications. Or are dangerous, to use without appropriate military, training. The. Line is porous military. Inventions have been brought into civilian, use throughout history with, sometimes, minor modification. If any and civilian, innovations, have similarly, been put to military, use. Military. Technology. Is often researched, and developed by scientists, and engineers specifically. For use in battle by the Armed Forces, many. New technologies, came, as a result of the military funding, of science. Weapons. Engineering, is the design development, testing. And lifecycle management, of military, weapons and systems it. Draws on the knowledge of several traditional, engineering disciplines, including, mechanical, engineering, Electrical, Engineering, mechatronics. Electro-optics. Aerospace. Engineering, materials. Engineering, and chemical, engineering. Topic. History. This, section, is divided into the broad cultural, developments, that affected, military, technology. Topic. Ancient. Technology. The, first use of stone tools may have begun during the Paleolithic, period the. Earliest, stone tools are from the site of Loma qui Turkana. Dating from three point three million years ago, stone. Tools diversified. Through the Pleistocene, period which, ended approximately. 12,000. Years ago, the. Earliest evidence of warfare between two groups is recorded, at the site of nattara kin tear Cana Kenya, where human skeletons, with major traumatic injuries, to the head neck ribs, knees and hands including, an embedded obsidian, blade laid on a skull are evidence, of intergroup conflict, between groups, of nomadic hunter-gatherers. 10,000 years ago humans. Entered the Bronze Age as they learned to smelt copper into, an alloy with tin to make weapons in. Asia, where, copper, tin ores are rare this development, was delayed until trading, in bronze began, in the third millennium BCE. In the. Middle East and southern European, regions the Bronze Age follows, the Neolithic, period but, in other parts of the world the Copper Age is a transition, from Neolithic to, the Bronze Age, although. The Iron Age generally, follows the Bronze Age in some areas the Iron Age intrudes, directly, on the Neolithic, from outside the region with, the exception, of sub-saharan. Africa, where it was developed independently the, first large-scale, use of iron weapons began, in Asia Minor around, the 14th, century BCE, and in Central Europe around, the 11th century BCE. Followed, by the Middle East about 1,000, BCE and India, and China the, Assyrians, are credited, with the introduction, of horse cavalry, in warfare, and the extensive, use of iron weapons by 1100. BCE. Assyrians. Were also the first to use iron tipped arrows. Topic. Post-classical. Technology. The, Wu Jing Zhang Yao essentials. Of the military, arts written by some gang Liang ding do and others at the order of Emperor Ren Zhong around 10 43, during the Song Dynasty illustrate. The eras focus on advancing, intellectual. Issues in military, technology due, to the significance, of warfare, between the song and the Liao Jin, and you on to their north the. Book covers topics of military, strategy, training and the production and employment of advanced, weaponry. Advances. In military technology, aided. The Song Dynasty in, its defense against, hostile neighbors to the north, the. Flamethrower found, its origins, in Byzantine era Greece employing, Greek fire a chemically, complex highly. Flammable, petrol fluid in a device with a siphon, hose by the seventh century the. Earliest reference, to Greek fire in China was made in 917.
Britain, By Wu Ren chin in his spring and autumn annals of the ten kingdoms in. 919. The siphon, projector, pump was used to spread the fierce fire oil that could not be doused with water as recorded, by Lin Yue in his ouya a bay she hence, the first credible, Chinese reference, to the flamethrower, employing the chemical, solution of Greek fire see, also pen hoooo chi lin. You mentioned, also that the fierce fire oil derived, ultimately from one of China's maritime, contacts. In that southern seas Arabia, dashi Guo in the. Battle of Liang Shan jiong in 919. The naval fleet of the when mu Qing from Wu Yu Wei defeated, a wine an army from the Wu state when, mu success, was facilitated. By the use of fire oil qu, to burn their fleet signifying. The first Chinese, use of gunpowder in a battle the Chinese. Applied the use of double piston bellows to pump petrol out of a single cylinder with an upstroke and down stroke lit at the end by a slow burning gunpowder, match to fire a continuous. Stream of flame this. Device was featured in description, and illustration, of the Wu Jing Zhang Yao military, manuscript. Of 1044. In the. Suppression of the southern tank state by, 976. Early, song naval, forces confronted. Them on the Yangtze, River in, 975. Southern. Tank forces attempted, to use flamethrowers, against the song Navy but were accidentally. Consumed, by their own fire when violent, winds swept in their direction. Although. The destructive, effects of gunpowder were described, in the earlier Tang Dynasty, by a Taoist alchemist the earliest developments, of the gun barrel and the projectile, fire cannon, were found in late song China the. First art depiction, of the Chinese fire Lance a combination. Of a temporary, fire flamethrower. And gun was from a Buddhist mural painting of dun Wong dated, circa, 950. These fire lances, were widespread in use by the early, 12th century featuring. Hollowed bamboo poles as tubes to fire sand particles, to blind and choke lead, pellets bits, of sharp metal and pottery shards and finally, large gunpowder, propelled, arrows and rocket weaponry. Eventually. Perishable. Bamboo was replaced with hollow tubes of cast iron and so too did the terminology. Of this new weapon change, from, fire spear, hoooo Chang to fire tube hoooo Tong this. Ancestor, to the gun was complemented. By the ancestor. To the cannon what the Chinese referred to since the 13th, century is that multiple, bullets magazine, Eruptor by Zhu Li and zu pal a tube of bronze or cast iron that was filled with about 100, lead balls the earliest known depiction of, a gun as a sculpture, from a cave in Sichuan, dating, to 11:28, that portrays, a figure, carrying a vase shaped bombard, firing, flames in a cannonball. However. The oldest, existent, archaeological, discovery, of a metal barrel handgun, is from the Chinese Heilongjiang, excavation. Dated, to 1288, the. Chinese also discovered, the explosive, potential of packing hollowed cannonball, shells with gunpowder. Britain. Later by Jo in his hoooo lounging mid 14th, century, this manuscript recorded. An earlier song era cast iron cannon known as the Flying Cloud thunderclap, erupt er Fei Yan pylyp al the. Manuscript, stated, that as, noted. Before the, change in terminology for, these new weapons during the song period, were gradual, the. Early song cannons, were at first termed the same way as the Chinese trebuchet, catapult, a later. Ming Dynasty, scholar known, as Mao une would explain this use of terminology and, true origins, of the cannon in his text of the wub, EIG, written, in 1628. The. 14th, century hua Long Jing was also one of the first Chinese texts, to carefully, describe, to the use of explosive. Landmines, which had been used by the late song Chinese against the Mongols in, 1277. And employed, by the Yuan Dynasty afterwards. The. Innovation, of the detonated, landmine, was accredited to one Luo GaN Xie in the campaign, of defense, against, the Mongol invasion by Kublai, Khan later Chinese text, revealed that the Chinese landmine, employed either a ripcord, or a motion booby, trap of a pin releasing, falling weights that rotated, a steel Flint wheel which in turn created sparks, that ignited the Train of fuses, for the land mines. Furthermore. The song employed, the earliest, known gunpowder, propelled, rockets in warfare, during the late 13th, century its, earliest, form being, the archaic, fire arrow, when. The northern song capital, of Chi Fung fell to the Jurchens, in 11:26. It was written by Shah Xiao Jiang that 20,000. Fire arrows, were handed over to the Jerkins in their conquest and even.
Earlier Chinese, texts of the Wu Jing Zhang Yao collection. Of the most important. Military techniques. Written. In 1044. By the song scholars, son Kong Liang and yang yd described. The use of three spring or triple bo RQ ballista, that fired arrow bolts, holding gun powder packets near, the head of the arrow, going. Back yet even farther, the woolly Xiao Shi 1630. Second, edition, 1664. A fang EG stated, that fire arrows, were presented, to Emperor Tai zu of song AR. 962. 976. In, 960. Topic. Modern. Technology. Topic. Armies. The, Islamic, gunpowder empires introduced. Numerous developed. Firearms, cannon and small arms during. The period of proto industrialization. Newly, invented weapons, were seen to be used in Mughal India. Rapid. Development, in military, technology had, a dramatic impact on armies and navies in the industrialized. World in, 1740. To 1914. For. Land warfare cavalry. Faded in importance, while infantry, became transformed, by the use of highly accurate more, rapidly loading, rifles, and the use of smokeless powder. Machine. Guns were developed, in the 1860s. In Europe rocket. Artillery and the Mysorean, rockets, both pioneered, by Indian, Muslim Tipu Sultan became more powerful as new high explosives. Based on nitroglycerin, arrived. During the anglo-mysore, wars, and the French introduced, much more accurate, rapid-fire field artillery. Logistics. And communications support. For land warfare dramatically. Improved with use of Railways and Telegraph's. Industrialization. Provided. A base of factories, that could be converted to produce munitions, as well as uniforms, tents, wagons, and essential, supplies. Medical. Facilities, were enlarged, and reorganized, based on improved hospitals, and the creation, of modern nursing typify. By Florence Nightingale in Britain during the Crimean War of 1854. To 56. Topic. Navel. Naval. Warfare was, transformed, by many innovations, most, notably, the coal based steam engine highly, accurate long-range, naval. Guns heavy, steel armor for battleships, mines and the introduction, of the torpedo, followed, by the torpedo, boat and the destroyer, coal. After 1900. Was eventually displaced. By more efficient, oil but meanwhile navies with an international, scope had to depend on a network of coaling stations, to refuel the British, Empire provided, them in abundance as did the French Empire to a lesser extent, war. Colleges, developed, as military, Theory became a specialty, cadets, and senior commanders, were taught the theories of jomini Clausewitz. And man and engaged, in tabletop war games, around. 1900. Entirely, new innovations. Such as submarines, and airplanes, appeared, and were quickly adapted, to warfare by 1914.
The. British HMS. Dreadnought. 1906. Incorporated. So much of the latest technology. In weapons propulsion, and armor that it at a stroke made all other battleships, obsolescent. Topic. Organization. And finance. New, financial, tools were developed to fund the rapidly increasing costs of warfare such as popular, bond sales and income taxes, and the funding of permanent, research centers, many. Nineteenth-century, innovations. Were largely invented and promoted, by loan individuals. With small teams of assistance, such as David, Bushnell, and the submarine, John Erickson and the battleship, Hiram, Maxim and, the machine gun Ernest, Swinton and the tank and Alfred, Nobel and high explosives. By. 1900. The military, began to realize that they needed to rely much more heavily on large-scale, research centers, which needed government, funding they. Brought in leaders of organized, innovations. Such as Thomas, Edison in the US and chemist Fritz Haber of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in, Germany. Topic. Postmodern. Technology. The, postmodern, stage of military, technology emerged. In the 1940s. And one with recognition, thanks, to the high priority, given during the war to scientific, and engineering research, and development, regarding, nuclear weapons, radar. Jet engines, proximity. Fuses, advanced, submarines, aircraft carriers. And other weapons, the. High priority, continues, into the 21st century, it involves. The military, application. Of advanced, scientific research, regarding, nuclear weapons. Jet engines, ballistic, and guided missiles radar, biological. Warfare and the use of electronics. Computers. And software. Topic. Space. During. The Cold War the world's two great superpowers, the. Soviet, Union and the United States of America, spent. Large proportions. Of their GDP on developing, military technologies. The. Drive to place objects, in orbit stimulated. Space research and started the space race in. 1957. The USSR launched. The first artificial, satellite Sputnik. 1, by. The end of the 1960s. Both countries regularly. Deployed satellites. Spy. Satellites, were used by militaries, to take accurate pictures, of their rivals military, installations. As time. Passed the resolution, and accuracy of orbital, reconnaissance, alarmed, both sides of the Iron Curtain both. The United, States and the Soviet Union began, to develop anti-satellite, weapons, to blind or destroy each other satellites. Laser. Weapons, kamikaze. Style, satellites, as well as orbital nuclear, explosion. Were researched, with varying levels of success. Spy. Satellites, were and continued to be used to monitor the dismantling, of military, assets in accordance, with arms control treaties, signed between the two superpowers. To. Use spy satellites, in such a manner as often referred to in treaties as national, technical means of verification. The, superpowers, developed, ballistic, missiles to enable them to use nuclear weaponry, across great distances as. Rocket. Science developed, the range of missiles increased, in intercontinental. Ballistic missiles. ICBM. Were created, which could strike virtually, any target, on earth in a timeframe measured, in minutes rather than hours or days in. Order, to cover large distances ballistic. Missiles are usually, launched into suborbital, spaceflight as. Soon. As intercontinental. Missiles were developed, military. Planners began, programs, and strategies to counter their effectiveness. Topic. Mobilization. A significant. Portion of military, technology, is about transportation, allowing. Troops and weaponry to be moved from their origins, to the front Land. Transport has, historically, been mainly, by foot land vehicles, have usually been used as well from chariots, to tanks. When. Conducting a battle over a body of water ships, are used there. Are historically, two main categories of ships those for transporting, troops and those for attacking other ships. Soon. After the invention of aeroplanes, military. Aviation. Became a significant. Component of warfare, though usually as a supplementary. Role the. Two main types of military, aircraft are bombers which attack land or sea based targets, and fighters, which attack other aircraft. Military. Vehicles, are land combat or transportation. Vehicles, excluding, rail-based which, are designed for or insignificant use, by military, forces. List. Of military vehicles. List. Of armored fighting vehicles. List. Of tanks military, aircraft, includes, any use of aircraft by, a country's, military including. Such areas, as transport. Training, disaster. Relief Border, Patrol, search-and-rescue. Surveillance. Surveying. Peacekeeping. And very, rarely aerial, warfare. List. Of aircraft. List. Of aircraft weapons, warships, are watercraft, for combat, and transportation. In an unseasoned. Oceans. Submarines. Complex. Masts ting and sails systems, found on warships, during the age of sail, list.
Of Historical, ship and boat types. List. Of aircraft carriers. List. Of submarine classes. Topic. Defense. Fortifications. Are military, constructions. And buildings designed for defense in warfare, they, range in size and, age from the Great Wall of China to, a sangar. List. Of fortifications. List. Of forts. Topic. Sensors. And communication. Sensors. And communication. Systems are used to detect enemy's coordinate. Movements, of Armed Forces and, guide weaponry, early. Systems included. Flag signaling, Telegraph. And heliographs. Laser, guidance. Missile. Guidance. Norden. Bombsight. Proximity. Fuze. Radar. Satellite. Guidance, and guidance weapons. Topic. Future. Technology. The, Defense Advanced, Research Projects. Agency as, an agency, of the United States Department of Defense responsible. For the development of new technologies. For use by the military, DARPA. Leads the development of military technology, in, the United States and today has dozens, of ongoing projects, everything. From humanoid, robots, to bullets that are able to change paths before reaching their target, China. Has a similar, agency. Topic. Emerging. Territory. Topic. Cyberspace. In 2011. The US Defense, Department declared. Cyberspace. A new domain of warfare since, then DARPA, has begun a research project known, as Project. X with. The goal of creating new technologies. That will enable the government to better understand, and map the cyber territory. Ultimately. Giving, the Department, of Defense the ability, to plan and manage large-scale. Cyber missions, across dynamic. Network environments. Topic. See, also. You. List, of military inventions. List. Of emerging, military, technologies. Bella. Fortis, late medieval, treatise on military, technology. Material.