V.O. Complete. The greatest answers about educations live in the questions, Sugata Mitra
Thank, you. Thank. You very much and, good morning I, noticed. That we, have, a. Lot. Of children here and. We. Also, have a lot of. Grown-up. People I. Want. To show. You something. Something. That is I think very. Important. So. What you have to do. Is. You. Have to clap. Together. You. Know in in, rhythm, can. You do that please. Thank. You so, I, have a very simple question. Who. Brought the claps together, I. Could. Ask anybody I could say did. You bring the claps together and she will say no no I didn't I was just clapping I. Could. Say, did. You bring the claps together and he'll say no I was just laughing so. Nobody. Brought the claps together. But. The claps came together. Who. Did who decided, the. Frequency. Well. Again if I ask anybody know. So. Nobody decided. The frequency. Who. Decided the volume. Nobody. Decided the volume. No. One here no. Human being. So. What shall we conclude. Shall. We say. That. There is something in this room, that. Is not human. Oh. We. Will leave that as a question. When. I finished my school, and. I. Went to college I, studied. Physics. And, then. I was. Looking for a job and. In. Those days long, long long long time ago okay, people. Who, learned. Physics were, the only people in the world who. Could write computer, programs. Okay. I never thought I would be a teacher when I became a teacher because I had to teach people how. To write computer, programs. So. That's, how I started, and I was working in New Delhi. In. A really big, nice, office. Teaching. People how, to write programs. Just. Outside, of my, office. In, New. Delhi. There. Was a big. Urban. Slum. And, in. The slum there were these hundreds, and hundreds of children and. They. Were doing nothing. You. Know they were playing football or, doing something like that they were not. Doing anything. So. I. Thought. This. Is strange, maybe. Some. Of those children could. Become really good computer programmers. So. Why are we not, teaching. Them and, the. Answer was very simple. How. Can you build a school inside Islam there is no place it's. Very dirty a teacher. Good. Teachers don't, want to go there. But. What would happen if. I took a computer and. I. Gave it to the children and. People. Said that's really stupid idea. Because. They, have not seen a computer before, they. Don't know what it is they. Don't know what the internet is and. In. India. Those. Computers, were all working in English, so. They said they don't know what a computer is they. Don't know what the internet is they. Can't read English, so. What's, the point, nothing, will happen. So. I did the experiment. The. First problem was if. You, want to put a computer in Islam, where. Do you put it my. Office. Had. A boundary wall and. The. Slum was on the other side so there's, the wall this. Side is the slum this, side is my office. So. What I did was I made a, hole, cut. A opening in the wall I. Put. A glass plate, against. The hole I took. The computer, it's monitor, and put, it against the glass. So. Now it is sticking out into. The slum and, then. I took a touchpad and I, also pushed it through, the wall and, it. Was about this high from, the ground. Now. If you put anything, about. That high from the ground and. The, people who come there are also that high. Okay. So. A, lot of children came there and. They. Looked. At the computer, it. Was just running Windows and it. Had an internet, connection nothing. Else no. Software nothing. So. They, looked. At it and. Nothing. Happened so my. Friend said see we told you nothing, is going to happen how, can they understand it's so complicated. Remember. This is 20, years ago ok. So. Then. I. Said. All, right I'll. Leave it there and. Then. After about 6, or 7 hours. One. Friend of mine came and said.
How. Did you how, did you teach them how to use the computer. So. I said I didn't teach them anything. Why. What are they doing they. Said oh they have their browsing and, they're. Teaching each other how to browse. So. I said what browsing, and. In. What language and, he. Said well, it looks like ink. So. I said English how. Do they don't know any English, so. He said that's why I'm asking you how did you teach them all this and. I. Said. I didn't, I didn't. Teach them anything and nobody. Believed me. They. Said you must have quietly taught them something and. I said no I wasn't there. So. Then I. Myself. Didn't, believe it, you. Know what I thought I thought, that. One of my students, must, have been walking but bust. Saw. These children and showed them okay this is how you use the mouse this is called a website this is how you so. I said yeah that's it that's how it happened. So. I must do it again in, a, place where none of my students nobody is there so I went far away from Delhi. Into. A small little village. Where. Nobody. Knew anything I mean, they were farmers and. I. Found. The wall and, I. Made another hole, in the wall and, pulled a computer there and. Then. Exactly the same thing happened again. So. I said now who. Is teaching them, there's. Nobody there and. Then. I saw them playing games on the computer. But. I had not put any game. So. I asked, them where, did you get this game, and. This, was. It inside, the computer and, they. Said no. So. I said no somebody. Gave you the game they. Said no. So. I said then and. They. Said we. Got the game. From. There I. Said. From where. They. Said from there I. Couldn't. Figure out this what are they talking about and then I realized, oh. They. Are sensing, the Internet. And they're. Calling the Internet there. Okay. So. How did these children manage to do all that I. Still. Didn't have an answer I left. The two computers, the. World Bank gave me a lot of money, so. I then built 22, of these all over India. Deserts. And villages, in near. The ocean, near, rivers. Up. In the mountains, in the Himalayas, everywhere, and. Everywhere. The. Same thing happened. Groups. Of children would come and within. One or two days they would start downloading, games and, playing all sorts of things and doing. So. And everybody would ask me who, is teaching them I still. Don't have the answer but I think I know they I know more, or less what the answer is you know what the answer is who is teaching them, it's. The same answer as who. Brought the claps together. You. Get it nobody. I. Gave. It a name I. Called. It, self-organized. Learning. Because. There's. No, teacher. So. Then I came, to England. In. 2006. That's. 12, years ago and in. England the school teacher said oh we, have read about your experiment, you must do this experiment in England, so.
I Found a way I. Took. The hole in the wall inside. The school. You. Know how to do it inside the school it's simple. You. Can do it inside a classroom I. Know. Many of you know, what I'm talking about just, take a few computers, take, lots and lots of children. Turn. The computers, on. Take. The children inside. Close. The door and go. Away. Okay. Why. Do you go away because. You, want to see. See. What if. The claps come together or not. We. Called it a. Self-organized. Learning. Environment. S o le, I, thought. At that time and many people thought that if you give every, child one, computer. It. Will work better, it. Doesn't you. Have to have the groups you have done souls you know that if you don't have your friends with you it, doesn't work if. You are alone you. Can make a mistake and there's. Nobody to tell you that you're making a mistake. So. I, learned something very important, that. Groups. Of children. Given. Free. Access to the Internet. With. A big screen why. Big screen because if there, are five of you you have to read the same screen so, it has to be a big screen, groups. Of children given, independent, access to the internet with, big screens, can. Learn, anything. By themselves. Self-organized. Learning environments. Started, to spread out inside. England. I. Got. Invited to give a lecture in Australia, in Melbourne, to. 3,500. School principals. Can. You imagine how scared I was. 3,500. School principal one, is bad enough. So. I spoke, to them I explained. To them my story and, everything and. Guess. What three, thousand, four hundred and ninety eight of them didn't try it had. Two of them tried, but. The moment they tried it they. Started writing back to me on the email saying yeah it works like you said, but. Who is teaching them. Esker. I don't know. So. It spread throughout, Australia. And. Then, I. Got. Invited to. Argentina. Brianna. Cyrus and I. Did a demonstration in, Argentina, I, had. A, Spanish. Interpreter. With me, who. So. I went, to you, know work with the children and the children didn't know any English I didn't know in Spanish so, I had an interpreter. So. The children said who. Is she so. I said oh she is going to translate. For. Me and, then. I said shall we try an experiment. Shall. We ask her to go away, so. We sent the interpreter, away and. Then. I said to the children well. Now. And they. Were quite little the children they, said no problem. Google. Translate. Google. Translate we, did the whole soul using Google Translate it. Was brilliant, ok. It. Started spreading out through Argentina. Roubaix Chile, Mexico. And. Of. Course into. Portugal, and Spain. So. That's, how it went all over the world, the. Hole-in-the-wall. Experiment. Became. The. Soul and. Eventually. Became what is called the school in the cloud, school. In the cloud is not a website it's, an idea. Cristina. Prefer Salado college her público, de Madrid, Mario. Benedetti decía. Que cuando. Tenía Mostar la respuesta NOS. Cambio en las preguntas, yo. Creo que la sociedad so IND Abba demasiado de prisa entonces. Usted, que. Piensa qualies la funtion de las preguntas en, el aprendizaje de, los ninos. That's. That's, itself a big question. But. Huh, but. I have to tell you, something. About the. First part of what you said that you. Know the things change very, quickly now everybody, knows that. The. Experiments, that I did over all these years. They. Are not like. Science. Experiments. You. Know why because, when. You do an experiment in science. Like. For example. Galileo. Found. Out how pendulums. Work, if. You, take a pendulum it still moves the same way. Because. The world doesn't change the. World the physical world doesn't, change. But. When. You are doing experiments, with the Internet. The. World is changing at the same time. So. What is the conclusion ten, years ago. May. Not work today at all. Okay. It's, very difficult to to, work under those circumstances so. Two. Teachers what I say is. What. Can you do in this situation. Where. There. Could be questions, to which you. Don't know, the answer. There. Could be questions that you have not even thought about. The. Only thing you can say to. The, children is you. Find. Out. Isn't. It what else can we do, it's. Like if, there. Were a group of children and if there was a forest, an, unknown. Forest, that you don't know anything about and the children want to go there what. Will you say to them. My. Advice to teachers would be to, say you, go. There I'll. Come, with you. That's. Very important. You're. Not going to say go there I'm going to stand here and have my coffee. You. Say, you go there and I'll come with you you show, me.
So. That's. How I would treat the questions which, are about, the unknown. You. Have to look at each subject, and. Ask. Yourself. What. Are the big unknowns, in it. For. Example to give you an example. Earthquakes. Okay. We. All know about earthquakes, we know they are terrible they, are there in the school curriculum, teachers. Have to teach about earthquakes. So. When you teach about earthquakes, you, teach everything, you know about earthquakes and you tell the children and the. Children sit there yawning. And okay okay and writing, it down. You. Don't have to do it that way you know that in, a Seoul you would just say wait, you tell me you. Find out about earthquakes. And you tell me. But. There. Is a big important. Question about earthquakes. We. Can't predict, when. An earthquake will happen. Can. Anybody calculate, and tell me when. Will the next earthquake happen, and where no nobody can, so. The big question would, be why. Is it. After. So many thousands, of years of science, we. Can't predict where an earthquake will be. That. If you do in a soul even. The internet doesn't, know. Okay. So. The. Big questions, according, to me should be the questions, to, which no. One knows the answer and, I. Like those questions I think you like those questions also wouldn't, you like a question to which no one like knows, the answer rather, than a question to which the teacher knows the answer and is not telling you. Kristef. K, sona's grandes preguntas, en el duque Chien o India. Okay. So the big questions, in education. You're. Not going to like them I can. Tell you this okay. Let me tell you let me put it this way. Would. You agree, both. Children and grown-ups would you agree that the purpose, of school. Is. To produce. Happy. Healthy. And useful. People I, don't. Think anybody will disagree with that right happy, healthy useful. So. Let's take take. The three things one by one happy. Does. Anybody know what. Happy means. Or. How to measure it. No. So. Then how. Are we going to produce happy people if we don't know how what it is and how to measure it a second. Point, healthy. So. Now you'll say ok this one is easy we, know what is healthy, you. Must have the right body temperature, you must have the right blood pressure you must have the right amount of sugar in your blood you must have this you must have that. But. If you have all of those does. It necessarily mean, that you are healthy. You. Know. The. Answer actually. Unfortunately. Is. No. Doctors. Don't really know. Why. Some. People are healthy and some. People are not, in. Spite of all these numbers. So. We don't know healthy. And. The third one useful. So. You are a teacher you are going to make the children useful. When. What. Twenty years from now when, they are in their jobs.
Do. We know anything about the world 20 years from now. Nothing. Like. You said we don't even know we. Don't know what's going to happen next year forget about 20, years so. How are we going to make them useful after 20, years we. Don't know. Now. This is very depressing isn't it happy. Healthy useful, we can't, define any of those we. Know this is what school is supposed to do but we don't know how to measure them. So. What do we measure instead. We. Measure things, like we ask questions like a steel. Ball of mass one kilogram is dropped from a height of three meters at what, force. Will it hit the ground, but. So what if you don't know, does. It matter if. You, had your smart phone it will tell you in two seconds. Okay. So. We, end up measuring the wrong things so, what are the big questions in education, I think, there's one huge. Question. What. Shall, we measure. What. Is assessment. Although. All the students here know about exams. Do. You like exams. No. Exactly. I don't, like exams either. Why. Don't we like exams, because. You. Know I'll. Tell, you what one one child told me in the Brittany, quite. Recently a, young. Boy I think about 1415 years old. He, showed me a GCSE. You know that's a big exam in England they showed me a GCSE, question some. Long complicated, question he said this is an exam question and. He's. Looking, at me and saying, but. Why do they why are they asking me this question. First. And, secondly. Why. Have they taken away my phone. Okay. Don't. You feel that way then. Okay you have to ask me a question. And then give me my phone back. Okay. Every. Grown up person in this room as soon, as this program, is over and they go out if they have a question in their minds they'll pull out their phone so. Why do they take it away during an exam. We. Are measuring the wrong thing. We. Are measuring something from two or three hundred years ago when they didn't have any technology so. It was important, to find out can you do. You remember everything it's. No longer very important. We. Are measuring the wrong thing and we. Don't know what, the right measures, are. So, we we're. Actually in real bad shape that, way. Another. Important, question in education. How. Much, do. You need to. Know I. Guess. Many. Of the children and all of the adults in this room know or have been have. Learned had learned. How. To solve an equation a. Quadratic. Equation you. Know x squared, plus. 3x, is, equal to this much remember. We. Were all we. All learned how to solve a quadratic equation. Have. You ever solved. A quadratic equation after. School I. Don't. Think you've ever solved what okay. So why were we taught how to solve a quadratic equation, and why were we examined, whether we can solve a quadratic equation. Was. Because. Maybe. One, day. You. Will face a quadratic, equation a, dangerous-looking quadratic. Equation, and you, must be able to solve it but. You know you're never going to face that. Why. Were we taught. Trigonometry. Because. You. Could be on a ship. Lost. And. With. A compass, by, pointing at the Stars and doing a little trigonometry. You. Can figure out where, you are. Do. You need that today. You. Have a phone, you. Just have to say where am i okay. So, do, you need to know trigonometry. If. I could go on and on we. Need to relook at the entire, list. Of things that. We think we need to know and we. Have to figure out do we really need to know those things, or. Are. There other things which we need to know. But. We, don't learn them I. Can. Give you an example, I'm. Sure. Almost. Everybody, in this room uses whatsapp, right. Or something. Similar messenger, whatsapp, okay. Does. Anyone know how, whatsapp. Works. Where. What, happens when you type where does it go. How. Does it move at what speed does it go how, does it reach the other phone. We. Don't know. But. Almost everybody in this room knows, how. A steam engine works. Isn't. It true, steam. Pressure piston, cylinder boom, boom boom we. All know, that. What. Sense does that make. Are. You ever going to meet, a steam engine. What. You are meeting whatsapp, every minute and you. Don't know how it works. Why. Can't you put whatsapp, into. Your school curriculum. The. Answer, because. There is no teacher who can teach it. By. The time the teacher gets trained to, teach whatsapp, whatsapp. Would have disappeared and something else would have come. It. Can't be taught, but, it can be learnt. So. What. Would you do you go. There I'll. Come with you I. Think. It would be for. Teachers very important, to be able to say you, figure out how whatsapp, works if you tell me. Ok, and then we need to assess that I don't. Know how. So. Big. Questions, in education. Why. Are we teaching what, we are teaching what is, a curriculum. Why. Are we assessing the wrong things. You. Know, it's it, is very seldom. That, such. Fundamental, questions. Arise in a subject. It. This, won't happen in physics or chemistry or mathematics nobody. Will ever say why. Do we have mathematics. We, are in a strange place, where.
We Are raising this question why do we have schools for. What I. Know. There are many school students, here and I. Can see some of them smiling and others, looking very serious. Why. Do we have schools. You. Know I have a very simple answer to that, you. Go to school to. Meet. Your friends, right. Everything. Else follows after that. Ok, another. Question again. I hesitate. To say, this in the in front of school. Children but. To, the grown-ups. Think. Back at your, school days on your school days when you were let's say 10. 11, 12 years old. Can. You remember a. Single. Lecture. You. Would find it very very, hard. You. Will remember all the fights you had. You. Remember, all the other things which happened outside class you'll, remember the picnics. But. You won't remember the lectures. What. Does that tell us I'll, leave that thought with you. So. I wish I could tell you that the big, questions in education, as one or two simple things they are not the very complex questions, they. Are at the fundamentals, of the, whole system. Removal. Is perilous examinees. Yeah. Yes. They I've, been saying, that now for three, or four years that. The. Internet. Should. Be. Allowed during exams. Unfortunately. No one has listened, so far. Because. People. Think that. If they give you the Internet during the exam, then. You'll be able to answer anything. But. What is the point of asking you questions, which. You could have answered if you had the Internet, then. Take away the Internet and then. Say now give me the answer, does. That make any sense. It's. Like asking someone, to. Tell. The time. Without. Looking at their watch. What. Is the point. So. If. You, did allow the Internet, you. Know what would happen. The. Questions, that you ask in the exam will. Have to change completely. They. Will have to be. Questions. To which there is no single. Answer. Where. You have to think, where. You have to write what. You think rather, than what. The answer is. The. Problem is how. Do you evaluate such, an answer. We. Don't know yet but. The answer to your question, the, should. The internet be available, during an exam I would say yes it must, be I. Can. Tell you another funny story about this, in. India you. Know there is a very big population. So. When. There is a big government, exam I don't know if you have those here well, in. The big government exam there, are 300. Million children. Who. Sit, for the exam. Now. They are not allowed to bring their phones.
But. How do you check. So. About three years ago, they. Said we will bring the army, the. Indian army will check if you, are carrying your phone, 300. Million children's, with it. Then. Two years ago they said, you. Are not allowed to bring your phone and you. Are not allowed to bring a SmartWatch. So. Now you have to give them the phone if you give them the watch. Last. Year they said you. Are not allowed to bring your phone, you, are not allowed to bring your SmartWatch you. Not allowed to bring any, Bluetooth. Earbuds. So. Now they'll check everybody's, ears oh. So. What's. Going to happen next year. They're. Going to say everyone, has to go through an MRI body, scanner before. You can go to me you, know it's absurd. So. I'm not I'm. Not worried about whether. The internet will come to into the exam or not it's. Only a question of when it will do so and. That will happen any time actually, a. Month. Early ok so I know a lot of saguaros, the. Granny cloud. It. Has a it. Has a interesting, history. Remember, I was, saying. That when I was doing the old experiments. I, was. Trying to find out, is. There something. So. Complicated, that, children. Can't learn it by themselves. So. I was asking more and more difficult, things. So. In, a village in, the. South of India. For. Little, children children, of about 12 years old. In. Their computer, they, had a computer in the wall like I had described I put. In. Material. On. Biotechnology. You. Know which is taught in universities, is. Not meant for children and. It was all in English, so. I put that in the computer so the children came there and so what's this is. It a game so. I said no it's not a game it's, something. Very difficult but. Very interesting and. I. Left it there and. I. Tested them, when. I tested, them for, whether. They knew any biotechnology. They, all got a zero naturally. So. Then I went away I came back after some time and I. Tested them again and, they. Got, 30%. So, I said Wow. 30%. In, such. A complicated, subject. But. Can. I make that 30%, bigger. So. People said well you can't you need a teacher. So. I said no but I don't have a teacher here. So. I found a, young woman in the village who. Was a friend of the children okay. It she used to play with them. So. I called, her and I said can you teach them more biotechnology. And. She. Said no no no III didn't do any science in school I don't know anything about this. So. I said no, use. The method of the grandmother. So. She said what's that. So. Well. I mean everybody. Has grandmothers, and grandfathers so, you know, grandparents. Are different from parents, or teachers. Parents. And teachers use, discipline, they. Will tell you your, math is not good you must practice more math. Your. Spanish is not very, good you must practice more Spanish etc. But. The. Stereotypical. The, grandmother. You know I mean I'm just saying grandmother, as an, example. Would. Say oh. What. Are you doing with that phone oh how. Did you do that I can't. Do that can you show me something more and the childhood so this is very simple I show you something more so, she uses, admiration. And not. Discipline. So. In that Indian village I told this girl you, use the method of the grandmother you, stand behind them and whenever, they do something you say who explained that to me what is that how did you figure it out you're so clever, and she. Did that for two or three months and the. Score went up from 30% to 50%. So. Then I. Came. Back to England and I wrote a article. In a English. Newspaper. Saying. If you have an internet connection and, if you have a web camera, can. You give me one hour of your time every week for free if. You, are interested, in children. And, I. Caught hundreds and hundreds of them and. I. Told them I will. Connect you with children in, very. Faraway places. But. Don't teach them anything, just. Ask them questions, and have. A conversation with them and admire, what they're doing I have, fun tell them stories. Use. The method of the grandmother. So. That group of people they, still exist today they, are called the granny cloud. They're. Not grannies okay but. They're all called grannies. The. Youngest one granny. That I have is is. A boy and he, is 16. Years old, but. He's still called a granny, ok, so. That's, the history of the granny cloud. Basically. If you remember the problem that, I started, this whole session, with how. Do I get a school inside the slum, because. Nobody wants to go there it's, very unsafe, well. Now I know how to do it you. Don't have to go there I'll be me over. Skype I can. Reach anywhere. That's. What the granny cloud does also. Here, in Osteria, can you suspicous a coma, from holocaust a day no Meena Revathy, own mini momentum, Bathsheba he como estai ovando historic oven ashes colas. Back. When in, the year, 2000. Or 2001, when I was doing those experiments, in India a local. Very, famous, heart. Surgeon in. Delhi. Contacted. Me and said, you.
Know I do these open. Heart operations. If. There was a way to record, that. Using. A computer, rather than using a camera. Then. I could, pause, it and ask questions, and do that sort of thing and it would be a very good teaching, method. So. I, I worked, it out for him and I said yes you can do it and this is how you should do it and. He. Said okay come and do it so he, took me to, see a heart. Surgery. And he, said today I am not going to make a cut I'm. Going. To make just a small hole and. Through. The hole I will, put in this, camera and. Instruments. You know how they do it be this it's. Called, minimally. Invasive. Surgery. And. I. I. Recorded. It and everything and after that we were having a cup of coffee after everything was over and this. Doctor asked me, so. What are you doing so. I said you know I'm in the middle of a very interesting experiment, I'm making. A small hole inside. A wall and putting. A computer, in so, that it sticks out into, the, slum and the. Doctor looked at me and said and smiled. And said so, you're doing minimally, invasive education. So. That's how she made him came okay how. Does it work, it's. A self-organizing. System. Let. Me try and explain it with an example, from nature, I don't. Know how many of you have seen it here in Spain but, it's very common in India. When. It rains. If. There's a piece of food on the ground you, know a small piece of bread or something you. Get a lot of ants, around it, right. You must be having them here as well you get a lot of ants and they. Take the food it, seems to move by itself and they. Take it into their nest right. And it's. Fascinating, to look this is moving like that. Now. I can ask you a question. Out. Of all those hundreds of ants. How. Does any particular, ant know. Whether. To push or to. Pull and in. What direction. Is. There. A manager. There. Is no manager there's. No manager, and saying go, this way I go that way ok. What. Is there then, how. Are they doing it. But. They're only doing it, because. They have one common, purpose. To, take the food to the nest and. Everything. Else seems to be happening by itself. That's. A self-organizing. System, you get the idea. It's. It's not managed, it. Happens by itself. So. If the question in. A soul is. Interesting. Enough so, that the children really want, the answer, then. Like those ants, they. Will get there and. You. May often see, if. You take an individual. Child and ask him a question he may, not know anything much, but. As a group, they. Can answer anything. So. It, still, isn't the complete answer to your question I still don't have the full answer but this is what I suspect, that this. Is a self-organizing. System, and it. Produces. Spontaneous. Order. Okay. Order which comes out of nowhere so those handclaps. That. Was an example of spontaneous. Order. From. Nowhere. -. Alfonso d'Este. Los. Profesores yeah, no somos tan necesarios. Vamos. A jugar en el futuro and lado Cassandra Rodney knows I. Definitely. Will not say that teachers. Are not necessary. Teachers, are definitely, required, very. Much so but. They're required for a purpose, which is changing. The. Earlier purpose, was that the teacher knows things, and she. Will tell you those things that she knows and then, you will also know them. That. Purpose is no longer valid and perhaps. No longer even possible, because as we saw from our question there, are, situations. Where the teacher doesn't. Even know and cannot know, but. The teacher can. Enable. You to. Get. There. It's. A hard thing to to, explain, but. Okay. My clapping, experiment, again. Was. I required. Well. If, it was the army they, would not have said please clap together, they would have said, clap. Like this 1. 2 3 4. And then, he would have said am i required and he.
Would Have said yes sir. What. I didn't have to do that I. Simply. Had to say please will. You clap together. But. I did if I had not said that he. Would not have kept together the. Whole process would not have started. So. The teacher. Enables. You. Know. You. She. Opens. The door. She. Shows. You where. The forest is. She. Points to you what. The big unknowns, are. But. She no longer has the answers. Professor. Mitra, and plaster. Connoisseur lay you. Medium o Markos ye, news. Sooner. Just in any way a news. Llamo. A momento. En el que estamos intentando, you gar lesson in casa, con conscious, two years entonces su. Propio. Esta su CBS my impression muy interesante Sparrow, como. Además de el colegio podemos, los padres rutila's, are. SME. TOA Lohia in casa para you are less conscious estudios. You. Know being a parent, in. Today's, society is, actually, quite. A challenge. Because. The, children are growing up in two, worlds, I, think. The, children you. Might be able to see what, I mean that there, is the world of the Internet and your. Phones and your friends. And your Facebook. And. There's. The world of the, school of the. Exam and. All. The associated things. The. Two worlds are not. Joined. Remember. I was, trying to say bring, the Internet in bring the Internet in so that the two worlds can get joined together but. They are not joined. So. Your daughters. Will. Grow up in in, that divided, world. What. Can you do as a parent, well. First you can explain to them that there are two worlds. This. World the, world of the exam, the world of the lecture, is. From. Hundreds, of years ago, it's, from the past. But. It hasn't gone away. You. Have to learn how a, steam engine works. As. A. Parent, you have to be able to say I can't. Change that, so. You have to live with it don't. Let me down you. Have to memorize you. Have to do all those horrible things and sit in that exam, and then pass it I can't. Help it. But. On the other hand, give. Them the Internet I, think. It's a big question that parents ask, all the time shall we give our children the internet, etc etc etc. Well. There. Are also countries. We'd. Say, children. Will no longer be allowed to have a smartphone. Okay. They, will not even be allowed to have one. There. Is a confusion, there. Between. The device and. The. Internet. So. When you say I will not give my child a smartphone. Are. You also, saying I will, not allow my child to access, the Internet. If. You are saying that, then. You're doing a lot of damage. Okay. Your, child will not be able to fit into the future if you take away the Internet but. The device I have, lots to say about the device. Look. At the hole in the wall, why. Did it produce results, like, that. Because. The screen was big. The. Internet, was public. Children. Were in groups. All. Those, were factors, because, of which the hole-in-the-wall succeeded. If. I go to a village in India today and give. One child one smartphone. And ask, him a big question and not. Allow him to talk to anybody else it's, unlikely. That he will be able to do anything. So. Should. You allow. The, internet in, your house in your exam in your school for your children yes, from. What age. Whatever. To, one. How. Should you allow it well. My suggestion, is I. Mean. Just, a suggestion a. Big. Screen. Next. To your television in the living room. With. High bandwidth. Internet. High-definition. 4k display. The. Works. But. Not those little things. Those. Are damaging, and they. Can be harmful, because. When. You and your phone are together, you. Are alone. Remember. My forest when I said to the teachers you. Go there I'll come with you. Would. You go into a forest alone or. Would you rather go with your friends you. Think and you. Realize why I'm saying that, that screen should be big. If. You if we can get used to that culturally. Then. We, I think would be a lot better off. Just. To conclude and I will say over and over again, large. Public. Safe. Internet, displays. For. Children in groups. If. It's in the home along, with the family. You. Have no problem you will, only get all, the good stuff from the internet then.
On. A soy kinase, a professor. Mitra cuáles, son los a professor. Is most important, area. Most premier todo knows Mina sillas escuela, you. Know there. Was a time when. The. Answer, to this question would. Have been a list. Of things. It. Would have been you, should know a, language. You, should know mathematics. Etc. Etc but. As. I. Said, before. You. Can question each one of those you, can now say but, why should I know mathematics. I. Could. Even say, why. Should I know, why should I learn Spanish, why can't I use translated. Another. Few years time I think. You'll, be able to speak to me in Spanish and I will have something in my ear which will automatically. Translate it into English. My. Interpreters, are listening to this but, anyway the. That. List is no longer very easy to. Make. My. One-line answer, if it makes any sense to you my one-line answer, is you. Should know how to figure things out by yourself. That's. The best that school can do today. That. Given a problem. You, should know how to solve it. Earlier. We used to say, we. Would ask you a question, and say what, is the answer, I think. Instead we should now change it to here. Is the question how. Will you find the answer. If. You know that then. Whatever in your future, you face which, we don't know I can't help you there you. Will be able to figure it out because. You are used to doing that, so. The ability to solve, problems, quickly. Using. Whatever is, the fastest, method and. The. Most accurate method, the. Ability, to search, the Internet accurately. And quickly. To figure out which websites, are right which, websites, are not not right. The. Ability, to read, and. Understand. Quickly. You. Know, reading. Comprehension which, is a lot of people can read but. They don't actually understand, what they're reading. We. Need very, quick readers, who can comprehend, so, internet. Searching. Reading. Comprehension in English. Or Spanish or any any language any one language. And. The ability to, figure things out. Would. Be three. Very important, things that schools, need. To integrate inside. Their curriculum. You. Also need to know. About. The Internet itself. What. Is it how does it work because, it's going to affect your life completely. How. Do those little devices, work. Who. Owns the Internet does anybody own it what. Is the economics, of the Internet. Schools. Need to bring that. Into their curriculum. And. Then. There. Is another part. You. Know I just told you I was making fun of equations. And saying. Why do you need to learn how to solve, an equation because, will you ever need to solve it, well. I can I. Can. Make an argument against my own argument I. Could. Ask you what. Is the point of teaching people what the solar system, is. If. You, go through life without knowing, what the solar system is does. It matter and. Then I would think but that's awful, what. Do you mean you won't know about the Sun and the planets, and the moons and you won't know any of that and you, will say but it's your argument, I can go through life without knowing that nothing, will happen so. Then I thought no so. There is one part of knowledge which you need for your, life in. Your case it will be dominated. By the Internet. By. Self-organizing. Systems, with that sort of thing and there. Is another part this. Part is, that, there are things that we, know. Because. We. Like to know them, we. Want to know them. Ever. Since, human, beings, became. Human beings we. Have looked up at the stars and said what are those, it.
May Not affect your life in, any way, but. We need we. Like to know those things so. Things that we must know for our lives and, the. Things that we like to know, just. Like that I think. A combination of the two is what will form the, curriculum, of the. Future. We. All need to sit together and make it actually, teachers. Students. Everybody. All. Of Sarek one-acre, una pregunta a less. Couture official. A technology, alistair de comunicaciones, nursery. School arrest an obsolete 'as a parte. De la pregunta syria-related. Con. Esto e como, de variants el entonces que, las que. Para estos Nino's que tenemos sake. Strictly. Speaking. The. Word obsolete. Is. Wrong in this case I used the wrong word I. Should. Have said outdated. Outdated. Means that it, used, to work fine. But. It doesn't, it's not required in its old form, anymore, and. Obsolete. It would mean that, we don't need it at all, which. Is not what I'm saying so. What I'm trying to say is that we need to upgrade the, school, to. A new kind. Of institution. And I. Think we've been speaking a lot about the, role of the teacher the role of the curriculum, the big questions, in education, if, you put all of that together it. Is possible, to make a new kind of school, but. What. Is stopping us what. Is stopping us is the, assessment system, the exam at the end as long, as that exam doesn't change, we. Teachers, have no. Choice our hands are tied you, have to teach in a particular, way. Students. Have no choice but to memorize. So. I will, come, back to this that, so. Schools, are not. Obsolete they're outdated, they, need to be updated, and in. Order for that updation. To happen the, assessment, system has to change I see. It as this, sequence. Ela. Preguntar, Tama so menos en tiempos timid okay Chris Kelly in the various turn friend Donna Ponte yacon Internet. The. I I don't, think you can measure it in terms of hours it's like asking for. How. Long should I read a book, well. For as long as you're interested, you go, on reading it but. Obviously. As. With books if you if you read for 10, hours or 12 hours then. You find sometimes you're taking off your glasses and you're rubbing your eyes and it means your your, body is saying enough don't. No more you. Go on doing whatever you like for as long as you like but when, that little part of your mind says enough, then. You'd have to stop it cannot happen because your mother is saying this and your father is saying this you. Have to develop that control from. From. Inside the. Other thing is for, how how. Many more years will. We have to look at screens at all. You. See, maybe. One. Day you will not have a screen, you. Just close your eyes and, a. Website will appear. Okay. It's, not too far away that sort of a situation. One. Day you. Will think of a question and the. Answer will come into your year. That. Day is not very far away either and. As. You might imagine it will destroy the examination, system completely, when. That happens, professor. Meter, so it's rider oriented, or in, Colegio like. A Diablo you enter a circle. Resultados. De, les pedimental hole-in-the-wall. Who. Stay creek for. On coins. Even cos they'll contest, Oh existing. Evidence er's, kahan. Que, esta manera de aprender una, forma de. Aprendizaje. Universal. I. Think. Now 20. Years later. There. Is enough evidence to say that it. Happens everywhere. At, the, time when I was doing it this question used to be asked that is, it just accidental. Is it only trial and error now. Of course we know and one, of the Australian school principals, pointed, out once, to, me something very interesting, that. A Seoul. Session. Such, as the ones that you conduct, looks. Absolutely, identical. No. Matter where you do it, you. Know so, apart. From being able to tell that the children are Chinese or whatever but, there is no difference, at all in a soul being conducted in one continent, and the soul being conducted in another one so, that I think is a fairly, good. Pointer. To. The fact that we've got a universal. Learning mechanism, working.
And. This. Learning mechanism, actually it brings us to a very interesting, point. Tina. Towards the end of our conversation is. It's. A learning mechanism, that depends, on the interconnections. Of people. Okay. To. Bring, you back to my hand-clapping experiment. If. I, had, asked. You or if it was possible for you to have plugged, your ears so that you couldn't hear anything and closed. Your eyes and. Then. If I had said clap together it. Doesn't work. So. You are actually connected, with your ears, your. Clap is affecting, everybody, else's clap and everybody. Else's clap is affecting, your clap and this. Goes back and forth back and forth, there. Is an English word for it well. Have. You seen little. Birds which. Called. Starlings, which, go up in the sky and make beautiful patterns, you. Know like waves, there's. A beautiful English word for it I hope it translates properly. Into Spanish it's called murmuration. On. The internet, there are a billion, people connected, to each other. When. You send a tweet, your. Tweet will affect. Hundreds. Of people. Their. Tweets will affect thousands. Millions. And all. Those changes will come back to you and your - it will change. Something. Will come together like, claps the. Whole human race is. Murmur, rating, for. The first time in our history. Where. Are we going. The. Starling doesn't know where it's going when it's Mohammed eating individual, starlings, don't only. We watching, from outside can tell that, they are mama eating. So. Sometimes, I if, I'm in a romantic mood I should say if, there was something watching from, the outside, it. Would see the pattern. Of. The human race and it's. Murmuration, so. Yes. It's a new mechanism, it has never been there before because it was not possible for it to be there before but, now it exists. Well. It looks like we are at the end of the of. Our time and I. Must tell you that I quite. Enjoyed myself I hope you did as well. Let. Me see if I can. If. I can put. Up full. A summary to this whole thing a. We. Are. Connected. To each other. We. Know that. When. Systems. Are massively connected, like this. Then. Under. The right circumstances. The. Claps come together you. Get spontaneous order, you. Saw it. If. The, Internet is such, a massive interconnected. System, then, surely. It. Will produce its own spontaneous. Order. In. What form. We. Don't know. Why. Don't we know. Because. While. The Internet, is us. Connected. To each other but. That whole, interconnection. Remember, I asked you where, is the Internet and you said there, and. Then. I said do you think there is something in this room that is not human and you. Laughed. Well. You know now I think there, is something in this room that's not human. It. Is. That. Interacting, connected. System. What. Will it do to us, we. Don't know it's alien. Into. That world. Schools. Have a. Humongous.
Challenge. Where. Do we take you. So. As I said to. Our young friend here the. Only thing we can tell you is, we. Will try to show you how to figure things out. When. You need them we. Can't give you the solutions, we can tell you how maybe maybe. We. Talked about where the children should have access to the Internet and I will repeat again yes, yes, to. The Internet. Don't. Mix, up between, the. Little phone and the, Internet the little phone is only a device to connect, to the internet you, might say that's not a nice device I'll change it to a tablet I'll change it to a computer, whatever. Should. Everybody have access to the Internet yes we have to because the internet dominates, our lives right, now, we. Decided, that the curriculum needs change and it. Needs to be upgraded to. Those things that matter to us and which, will matter more and more to the children who are sitting over here which. Is the network again. They. Need to learn about networks. They. Need to learn about the internet they need to learn about the devices etc. All. Of that has to change we decided, that the assessment, system the exams need to change unless. The exams change the. Whole system cannot, change. We. Went. Over that several, times through several, different questions. We. Decided, that the teachers are needed that, schools are needed, except. That both need, to upgrade. To, a different version. In. A way you could, say. It's. Difficult. But. There is another way to look at it I think. It's. Very seldom that, inside. Anyone's. Lifetime. You. See the necessity for such major. Complete. Change. So. As teachers perhaps, you will look back 20 years from now and say, that was the most exciting time, of our lives. So. That's it then thank you very much. You.