URBAN INTERMEDIA: City, Archive, Narrative
I know, there's there's, a lot of fabulous things too. Through tonight and I'm just gonna be really very brief. Even, Bobby will make the proper, introductions, but. I really wanted to welcome you back. All. Those. Students. Who are back and all the new. Students the GST, is really wonderful to be. Able to welcome you to the very first event. Of. This. Academic. Year, as. You know tonight we're here because we, are. Celebrating. In, many ways the. Finale, of at least this, stage. Of, an. Incredible, body of research and work, that. Has been going on for a number of years. And. Of course is the subject, of the exhibition. Outside. That. Has been. Curated. By, by. Eve Blau and Bobby P Atrisco and. Really, with. Tamborelli. The whole team. Wonderful. Exhibition design, by. Eric. Hunter and his practice which is which is fantastic and. Involves. I think a lot of faculty from across, the university. And I'm, sure Eve and, Bobby will recognize, those people I just want to let, you know that this is the kind of project that actually started a few years ago it's very much part. Of a collaborative. Collective. Kind, of initiative, that was. That. Involved, the. Faculty. Of Arts and Sciences. Dean. Deana Sorensen who. Used. To be the Dean, of Arts. And, Humanities. Wonderful. Collaborator, with us is actually here tonight. In. The audience the, Mahindra Center Radcliffe. Institute and. Really, bringing multiple. Themes. From from, various, parts of the university, together, under. The rubric of the Mellon, fan of a mellon Foundation, grant, that is looking. Investigated. Four different cities and any. Of I'm sure and, Bobby. Will. Touch on those. Of. Course it's also great that we have a wonderful, panel here, and. It. Would be really exciting, from, my perspective just knowing a little bit about tonight I think. One. Of the issues that we are always struggling. With is really the relationship between. The, subject, matter that we're studying and and, its. Connection, to culture. Native, modes of representation what. Is that what what are the kind of reciprocity is between representation. And, what. We are what we are looking at and how, can representation. Itself enhance, our. Understanding our. Knowledge of. The. Subject matter and and, it's, very exciting to know that this would be one of the main. Themes because, whether. We are discussing architecture. Or urban design, or planning, always. Like what is the way in which you, really investigate. The, topic and I feel sometimes we don't spend, enough time talking, about the. Question of method, and modes of, thought. Or modes of, representation. So, I'm happy that this, would be this the subject matter as, I said. The. Curators, of the exhibition and tonight's. Hosts. In a way for. This event are professor, Eve Blau and professor. Bobby P Atrisco Eve. As you know teachers, in the department of urban planning and design she. Teaches history and theory of urban form and is. The, co-principal. Investigator. Of the, Harvard Mellon urban. Initiative. Eve. Has written extensively on, modern, architecture, and urbanism and she's, also curated many.
Many Exhibitions. Recently. She. Published. She's worked. On a significant. Book on on Baku. Which. Was also the topic of a seminar, here at the GSD for a number of years. Subtitle. Of which is oil and urbanism. And then. Project Zagreb transition, as conditioned, strategy, and practice, which came, out about 10 years ago it, just seems like yesterday actually. Bobby. Peters Co is. A recently, minted associate, professor, we are so proud of him and in. The Department of landscape architecture, where. His teaching and research focuses, on geospatial, representation. Simulation. Narrative, and critical cartography, and spatial. Taxonomy. Bobby. Was as, also the the co-founder. Of the. Meta lab at Harvard where, he developed rich. Data. Rich tools and environments for, the communication, of scholarly work his design work has been exhibited at, MoMA. At SF MoMA the. Fondation cartier. The. Venice architectural, Biennale, and many, other places and of course his work has also been published in, multiple. Journals and, he's. Done a number of residences, in. Different, parts of the world so, very. Broad something, that you might not know about Bobby is that he started his, life as a musician and. Did. Did, a degree in. In. Music, and in music synthesis. From, the Berklee College not, very far from here and a master's in, in. Science. Of in, electrical, engineering so, he has like a very, interesting background before, he decided to come. To the GSD and. Get, an A mark with distinction, and, then, you, know like, that, was the beginning of something very different, so. So. So. Without any further delay will, you please welcome Eve. And, Bobby who will introduce tonight's, event. Thank. You Mohsen thank. You very much that's a. Wonderful. Introduction and it's a great pleasure. To. Have. The exhibition, here I want, to first. Extend. My thanks to mosun and also to, Pat. Roberts. Both. Of whom have been really, unstinting. In their support of the project, and. The exhibition and. Of, course I also want to thank the, mellon. Foundation in. Particular Marriott, Westerman who's the executive, vice. President for, programs and research who. Oversaw. This. Project, and actually, encouraged. Us invited, us to. Make. A proposal for, the project, in. 2012-2013. And. Of course I also great. Thanks, to Bobby patru schoo co-curator. And. Collaborator. We've been working, together for for, quite a while, and, also all of the faculty, directors, who, worked on the research and, directed, the research in the different on, the different cities, Rahul. Mehrotra Sibel, Baz Dhawan. Nished. Does Doug. Usama I'm sorry Steven. Gray and Alex, Krieger, and also. The, exhibition. Designer. Erik. Heller and, his hya. Team, who designed, the. Ingenious and beautiful system that was able to actually, travel around, the world to, the three previous venues, for this exhibition also. Dan Borelli and his team who are amazing, and scott, smith who did, the art production. For. The narratives, and worked on every aspect of, the installation, in all four venues, there. Are lots teams. More of people. Who collaborated. On different aspects, of the project. Who. Are cited on, the credits walls in the exhibition, and so forth and, I also want to thank, minoan. Co-pi Julie buckler, for. Four years of plaid raishin. Developing. And directing, the initiative. So. The. Exhibition, itself. Has. Been traveling, actually since, the beginning of the year since the beginning of 2018. To. The cities that have, been read, been researching, in the context, of the, melon initiative. It opened in Berlin as you see in January, went to Istanbul, and then to Mumbai and, in each city we had a public event, with. Local, interlocutors. That, focused, on issues which were raised by each. Site, so. The Boston, and.
GSD. Presentation. Is. Both, a homecoming. And. It's also an opportunity to raise new issues, and for, the Boston, venue, as. You may have seen, outside. We. Added a section. On. Race. And space, in Boston, archives, that was coordinated, by Steven, gray and, Steven. Invited curators, of Boston. Archives to highlight, materials, in the collections. Relating. To space and race, and space in Boston and during, the exhibition we will have a series, of public events around. That. Subject, and the materials, that are on display and. The curators from the archives, will come and talk about the collection, and the, objects, they selected, and why, they selected them the, table, and, the wall behind it. The. Boston table. As we call it is. Or. Are, available. For informal. Discussions, as well for pinups, for. Project. Presentations. Their. Plug-in possibilities. There. And. So, and the wall can be used for projections, as well and we. Hope that you will also make, use of Eric, howlers hangout, space, at. The end the far end of the Boston table and. It. Seems that stools, will be arriving. So you can sit at the table and. Also, sit. In front of the the. The. Exhibitions. And watch some of the videos so. Tonight. We're. Going to focus though as Morrison, said on methods, and media and practices. Of urban. Research, and. In, particular methods. That. Bring together scholarship. Design. In different forms, of media practice. And we've developed, invited. A very distinguished, panel of. Speakers, whose work and whose practices, actually. Combine, scholarship. Design and Media, practice and, theory, and. We've, asked, them to explore, range of questions related. To the use of archival, materials, and. Time-based, media and. Also, the methods that, we employ in the project, but. Before the panel I want to say a few words about, the, exhibition and about the Harvard mellon urban initiative. Of. Which, it's apart so just, to give. You a sense of the order of events after.
The Introduction, we'll turn to the panel the. Speakers will each give. Short presentations. Then, there'll be discussion, amongst the panelists, and that, discussion will open up to, the audience so. First, about the Mellon initiative. Like. The exhibition, itself the, the Mellon, initiative, is a pilot, project and, it's, also an, experiment. As. Moissan said it's a multi-year. Cross harvard research. And teaching initiative, funded by the mellon foundation. That. Is directed, specifically, towards, exploring. New methods for studying urban, environments. Societies. And cultures, across. The design, disciplines, and the humanities, as well, as other disciplines, that. Study the city and, here's. An. Organic. Ram that kind of shows you Mellon. Harvard, and so on the main parts of the university, that have been involved in this project over the last five years so. The, project. Itself, the initiative is organized, around four city based research, proud. In Berlin. Boston Istanbul, and Mumbai, and I. We. Are listing. Or cycling the cities in alphabetical. Order that, is the only reason that they are in the order they are. That. These, cities form the core of the project along. With related coursework, and fieldwork we, had workshops and, public programming, and so on and this. Shows the. Research. Portals, as we've called them the city, based. Research portals, and the affiliated. Centers. At Harvard and, here. Are. Some of the some of the public programming, that we had in the fourth year of the initiative, these are little. Posters, so. There, are three guiding ideas. Or, sort of operative, principles. That directed. The work on the initiative. And the. First I think it's worth reiterating. Because. They are very important, for the direction that the project has taken the, first is that no discipline, owns the city that. Each discipline, produces, its own forms, of knowledge but. It also has, its own blind, spots and. Over. Time interestingly. Those. Blind, spots became, the focus of the, research and, of the exhibition, itself and, we'll talk about that later too, the, second guiding, idea is that if we want to understand, the dynamics, and complexity. Of contemporary. Urban conditions, and environments, our, research, needs to be specific. And site based but, it also needs, to be comparative. Across geographies. And cultures, so that is another I'm not going, to go into any of these just, stating them, the, third guiding, idea is that. Are in our research we need to engage directly with, the relationship, between the tools and the objects, of urban research. In. Particular, actually. And this is the subject of tonight's conversation. How media technologies. Are changing, both. The ways in which we do research and the kinds of knowledge that, our research, produces. And, as, I say we will discuss. That more there's, more information on, the initiative. On the. Melon website. Now. To the exhibition. Urban, intermedia. Here. It is is. The capstone, project has Morrison said of the initial, phase of the melon, initiative, and it presents the findings, of the research that, we've.
Been Doing in the four cities but, it's also an independent project, in fact it's actually three projects, rolled into one it's. A multimedia research, project, it's a methodological experiment. And it's, an exhibition actually, that, presents that, experiment. The. Organizing. Conceptual. Structure, of, the exhibition, is the four cities. These. Research, projects, and each one has its own particular research. Focus, and these are explained. Elaborated. In the wall text, in the exhibition. But. The cities are also tied. Together. By. Three cross, city. Themes. And these themes there they are the planned and the unplanned, migration. And mobility and migration. Of mobility something, went wrong their. Nature. Of Technology actually is the third one and. These, themes emerged. Over. The course of the research in, different, in. The different cities and also, through discussions, that we were having with the amongst. The research groups and the. Idea is that they provide a kind of comparative, ground. Between. The cities and the issues they raise and, they're. Basically questions, about, processes. And practices that, shape urban environments. Across. Geographies, and cultures. So. You, know how informal. And formal. Practices. Work together to shape the city, how. Infrastructures. Material, resources. And so on work. Together in, creating the urban ecology x' and then, also with migration, of mobility, which is really important which is why we're emphasizing it, here, is. How different, groups, make. Claims, on space and imprint. The. City, so. And. Here, are research. Groups so you could see that, it was a lot of people who were working on the exhibition, and. The research faculty, and students, so. In the remaining few minutes I, want. To focus on the, methods and and, media. The. Methods, for presenting the research evolved. Out of the, complexity. Of the task that we'd set ourselves those. Guiding, principles, but also a. Whole, range of other things and we working, for about a year. We. Gradually, developed. The. Discursive, format, for want of a better word of the. Project, and the exhibition, and that discursive. Format is a series, of animated, visual, narratives, for. Three. For each of the cities and here I'm going to show you that. This will run while I'm talking that explore, the themes they're. Composed, of the research materials. That we gathered, and produced, through. Archival, and, fieldwork and in. The exhibition, we, have attempted, to bring, these materials, together in. Ways that are only possible with digital, technologies. That. Allow, us to bring together physical. And digital media, Maps, documents. Photographs film, video, and so on and bring, them into dialogue and, registration. With each other and this. Is, taken. From the Berlin. Narrative. Which is looking at the the. One. Of the Berlin narratives, the. Theme of the Berlin research. Is experimental. Ground and it's about the founding, and. Origins. Of this experimental, ground, so, we're mixing media, we show the development the growth of the city here. We show the character, of the sea. And, then, we are. The. Sight, emerges. With a plan and we recode it so that with blue means, that it's a project and here, we see the plan for it but the swampy. Marshy. Swamp area on which it was sighted that, had to be prepared, it had to be made suitable. For culture nature had to be made suitable for, culture is. The. Way and so it had to be dredged. And. We are layering these materials, and we layer them actually, with an intentional, transparency. So, that you see what is underneath. And that the the transitions, are. Continual. We, show. The dredging, the technical, part of the preparation, of the ground, and. Then, here, there's a social, dimension and, a political dimension there was. Riots. Of workers, who were protesting. Against. The. Machinery. That was used in replacing, their jobs they. Were fired on by the police so, that there are a whole range of, this. This sort of layering of, media. Is a. Way to create. Diverse. Entryways. Into, a range of issues and, questions, and, lines, of research and that the site itself, becomes. Multiplied. Layered and has multiple. Meanings. So. This, method, of. Hybridizing. Media. Led. To another. Important. Feature of the. The, narratives, and. As you may have seen for those of you who looked at the exhibition the.
Narratives. Include, what. We call an. Archival, register, actually what we called a media, dashboard, as we were working on it because that was sort of easier, for us to conceptualize. Which. Runs at the bottom of each, screen, and. In. That. Register. Each document, and, piece. Of media that is used in the narrative, is identified. When it first appears, in the. Along, with its source the. Idea, here is that each drawing, photograph. Piece of film, and. So on retains. Its historical. And material. Integrity. As. An, object and here you. Can see in. One of the Istanbul. Narratives. Just a few seconds, of how that works when. New. Objects. And new images pieces of media are introduced, and. This. Is not, it's. Zoomed in well. Take. My word for it let's. Move, on in that case. So. Anyhow. So each narrative. Actually. Not. Only identifies. The sources because we've created this hybrid, media, but, also at, the end of each narrative. It. Generates, its own archive. And so that's an interesting one and I think that that's something is sort of like visual footnotes, that. That. The, material, itself is is, available for reuse. There's. Another feature of the narratives, and that is as, you'll notice too that they tell their stories without written, or verbal. Narration. Except, for this kind of occasional, inter title and, this, is a technique, that we borrowed from silent. Films and, we, did this because, we wanted the materials, and the media of the research, to. Carry the stories, through. Their, own languages, and through the spatial, and temporal relationships. That are generated, in, the animations. And, this. Leads to the. Third Point. Which. Is the importance, of design, in, telling, the stories. The. Narratives, are constructed. Through, a process, of assembly. And layering. And, that, is a very. Different process of telling stories from the, process, of exploitation. Of explanation. Because. Assembly. And this is what we were we're looking for here leaves. The analytical. Process, of. Explanation. To, the viewers and, it. Opens, the stories, to, multiple, readings that way and also, to the generation, of counter, narratives, and, that. Is something that we were looking at here with a layering, of different temporalities. Different. Specialities. Each segment, has its own story, but. They also and, in each one of those stories can be recontextualized. So. This. Open-ended and. This is Mumbai. Aspect. Of the project is key to what the whole project is, about. This. Shows. Infrastructure. In Mumbai, and layering and, how it layers connects. And divides and the, multiple ways of, understanding any, one particular. Condition. So. That this open endedness is is. The. Narratives are open-ended in two senses first. Sense is that the, meaning of any particular story, is, purposefully. Not fixed, the, viewer is actively engaged as, I said so that the narrative. Itself the story is constantly, being reinterpreted, and, re narrated, and, it's, also open in that involves. Continuously. Going back and forth and this is implicit in the title between, the city the archive, and the narrative, and, ideally. Through that process. Produces. New knowledge. About urban. Environments. Final. Point about. The intermediate, project, is that it's an experimental, project about, method, and about, practice, it's not a tool it's. Not an app it's, not a platform. It. Brings together media, and materials. Of multiple research disciplines, to tell stories, and construct. Arguments, that can speak across, the disciplines. Through. A kind, of shared media. Language. And we see this project as. Part of an ongoing exploration. And discussion, like tonight of. New kinds, of collaborative. Practices. And. Projects. Around the, study of cities that bring, together scholarship. Design. And media. Thank, You Bobby. So I have. The benefit of introducing, our speakers for tonight. And, I'm. Gonna do slightly, longer. Introductions. That sort of connect some of their research to the ideas, we were hoping to explore, in. The urban intermediate, projects, we. Have them as respondents. What. I would characterize is three of the most important, thinkers on the various relationships, between media, and design, Laura. Kurgan Lev Manovich and, Jeffrey Schnapp, through. Their writing and project-based methods. Of research they, have been a persistent, influence on the work that was developed over the last two years and. That we seen the exhibition outside. I, was. Warned by them that I'm, going to introduce them in reverse order and that would be terribly confusing so, fair warning I'm still getting I'm still going to introduce them in reverse order we.
Will Hear from Lev last, but, we're going to start with love's introduction, first. Anyway. So we're, very pleased, to have Lev with us tonight he's one of the leading theorists. Of digital, culture worldwide and a pioneer, in the use of data science, for the analysis, of contemporary, culture Lev. Is coming to us from the CUNY Graduate Center where he's a professor of computer science and the director of the cultural analytics, lab Lebs. Pioneering, research, has covered numerous topics, just to name a few film, studies artificial. Intelligence data, visualization. And software. Studies a term, that left him self coined in, his 2001. Book the language of new media thus. Helping to establish a novel field of inquiry for many media and design theorists. More. Recently, levas, been conducting, research in the field of cultural analytics, again a field that he helped establish, and. With this work Lev has, employed advanced. Techniques of data science, to visualize massive, cultural, datasets, his. Visual earth project is just one example and this is a project from 2017. With. This work lebanese team have used over 270. Million geo, tagged images shared. On twitter between 2011, and 2014, and, with, them they're comparing, multiple urban, areas worldwide, through. The city's culture of image, sharing along. Other economic. And demographic indicators. In. Addition, to lems project, based research, he has authored or edited thirteen, books including. The forthcoming AI aesthetics, software. Takes command from 2013. And the aforementioned language, of new media which has been described, as quote the most suggestive and, broad, ranging media history since Marshall McLuhan. Through. Lems work we have come to understand, the primary and mediating. Role played, by software, in contemporary, culture, software. He writes has, become our interface to the world to others to our memory and our imagination. A universal. Language through, which the world speaks and a universal, engine on which the world runs, levs. Mention of both our memory and our imagination, highlights the important role that software, already plays in historical, and speculative, research especially, within the design disciplines. Software. And motion graphics in particular, provide, us an, agility in combining, multiple forms, of media or, in loves words quote, linguistic. Kinetic, spatial. Iconic. Diagrammatic. And temporal, intelligence, can now work together to. Express what we already knew but could not communicate, as. Well as generate, new messages, and experiences, whose meanings, we have yet to discover, and what this description is easy to imagine that love is actually describing urbanism, itself not just its representation. Also. With us tonight is Laura Kurgan a designer, an educator, a writer and an artist who is coming to, us from the Graduate School of Architecture planning, and preservation at Columbia, University, where. Laura is the director of both the visual studies curriculum and the center for spatial research where, her projects, have ranged from the satellite based analysis. Of damaged cultural sites in Aleppo to, the visualization, of the dense connectivity, inside the human brain. Large. Body of work over the last 20 years has critically, engaged the political, use of mapping technologies. Of surveillance and changes. In contemporary, visual culture, this. Combination, of interest is distilled, in her book close up at a distance, mapping, technology, and politics, published. By zone books in 2013, which. Has been rightly celebrated for its combination of our artist monograph, and theoretical. Essays. The. Specific. Articulation of these two an, artistic, practice on one hand usually within the gallery context.
And The, development, of a theoretical position, is, a crucial, contribution to of her work more broadly and is certainly influential, on the work that we are hoping to do with, the Mellon exhibition. Laura. Has repeatedly, highlighted, the, importance, of research conducted, through practice, on, which she writes quote, the, propositions. And claims that she makes in her book however, theoretical. They are only, emerged through the process, of experimenting, with the technologies, themselves working. With and through them to create images, Laura's. Continual, focus on the design or artistic project. As the, open-ended process through which new theoretical, positions, can be developed, is an, important precedent for, those of us engaged in methods of design research so. Either as an approach for understanding, the various lives of digital images as is the, case in her book or for, the politics, of representation and space as we see in her work more generally, or as, a method, of producing further lines of exploration. As yet to be determined in whatever project, she's developing, currently. Laura's. Project, based and process, based methods of research are instrumental, for understanding, the ambitions, of the urban intermediate, project, and, then. Lastly. In terms of introduction, but beginning, our discussion, is Jeffrey. Schnapp, Jeffrey's. The faculty, director of, medal AB at Harvard and co-director. Of the Berkman, Center for Internet Society, here. At Harvard University, where, Jeffrey also holds the car last, excuse. Me Carl a pesco. Cielito how did I do okay. Pesco. Cielito chair in Romance languages, and literature's and the, and. Comparative. Literature. Jeffrey's. Research is. Difficult, to summarize, to. Say the least, given, its breadth and transdisciplinarity. He, engages in an ambitious, form of design research spanning, exhibition, design, interactive. Installations, and websites, documentary. Filmmaking, and recently the development, of a mobile robot prototype. In collaboration, with the piaggio group. And this. List is by no means comprehensive, in. Addition, to his work Jeffrey, has published numerous books on articles, and articles on topics ranging. From Dante, Marshall McLuhan urban, mobility and, the future of the library, with, these projects, and writings Jeffrey, has helped shape the nascent field of the digital humanities and, in, his collaboratively. Written book on the topic published, by the MIT press in 2012, Jeffery, describes how digital tools create, the conditions, through which we may perpetually, remix, archival. Media and circulate. Them within new venues and to new audiences he. Writes the, ease with which content. Can be repurposed, in digital form extends, the capacities, of the medium to function, as a meta medium and elsewhere. He writes that this digital environment quote, allows. Content, to be migrated, from platform to platform to. Be used in a variety of outputs and for a range of readers and forums. Alongside. His interest, in the potential of these digital tools for representation, Jeffrey. Has also imagined, an emerging, ethos of experimental. Humanities, research one. That is iterative, projective. And collaborative. Amongst, people with complementary, skill sets and interests, and that, is sort of the spirit, that we are trying to establish with, the urban intermedia project you could see that sort of broad list of collaborators. On the team. Using. The idea of the project as, a. New basic unit of exploration, he states a project. Is a kind of scholarship, that requires design, management. Negotiation. And collaboration. It, is also scholarship. That projects, in the, sense of Futurity, as something. Which is not yet this. Sentiment is certainly resonant, with many of us in the design disciplines and specifically. Relevant, to the exhibition outside. Through. The idea of the project jeffrey. Asks us to privilege the how over, the what of our research in a, spirit of in experimentation. And risk-taking, it is, here he writes that the core values of the humanities, and the generative, potential, of the digital come together in the poesis of world making please. Join me in welcoming Jeffrey, Laura and Lev.
Thank. You for that extraordinarily, generous. Introduction. And. All. Of us I think are gonna start with a, frame. A slide, from, the, exhibition, and then, spin. Out some some thinking about some of the topics that have already been so richly evoked in Eve's, presentation, and Bobby's. Presentation. And so in, my case I'd like to start with a. Single, frame from one of the many clips that make up the Berlin chapter, of, urban, intermedia, and, if. You spend any time out there in the. Drucker, design. Gallery you, might recognize that it belongs to, the, section, that late in chapter, 2 of the reconstruction. Of the, Germans capitols history, tracks how the Berlin walls. Construction. In 1961. Temporarily, disrupted. The, dream of a greater blend a gloss bound in as you can see documented, here in one of the. In. Sets forged. In the early decades of the 20th century and later reprised, after. The fall of the wall in. 1989. Now. The frame shows the precise moment when the, cities prior integrated. Approach to city, landscape planning, what. Was known as shot. Lunch shaft. Begins. To undergo disruption. Thanks to the walls sundering of century-old. Transit. Water and sewage connections, among many connections. Now. Of course this frame is but a single frame within a sequence involving many other frames, each. Of which is composed, of a dense palimpsest. Of materials, and more. Than a video. Described. It as an archival, animation, because each of those frames, is like, an archaeological. Site composed. Of layer upon layer of historical. Documents, and materials. The. Elegant slippage of materials, rotational. Lateral, moving you saw, many of the. The kinds, of effects that are central to the these, sequencing. X' and. Of course the studied use of transparencies, is you've mentioned. Create. A sense of how every new layer is somehow, inhabited. By its predecessors. In other words the timeline is reversible, as well as forward, leading, so, there's no guarantee, and in a sense the this constructional. Method is this method of assembly. Demonstrates. There's no guarantee than any wall or any any interruption, any major event of a city's history. History. Or its effective, topography, no matter how devastating.
Will, Not itself be interrupted, and fall to ruin exposing. A new layers. That. Lie dormant that, are simply awaiting a moment of awakening, that. Lurked beneath in other words. So. What's suggestive, about, the design strategy, developed. In urban intermedia, in the, urban an intermediate exhibition, is that we as viewers, travel. In time up and down through. These stratified, layers as. Of. Course we also travel, in time, sequentially. From beginning, to end through, the clip as well as, between cities. And. There. Are about forty eight such archival, animations, documenting, three facets, of the urban design of. Berlin alone and add, to those of course those. From, Mumbai Istanbul. And Boston plus, an entire walls worth of, documents, that support a suite of research, endeavors, and. You have an exhibition that takes the form of an, animated archive, shaped. Into a steer a series of story lines but, open to multiple entry, points it's. Not unlike going, on a stroll through a, physical cityscape. Perhaps. You follow a straight, or, a narrow, path and ayambil about aimlessly, and others are on their way to work or study or to fulfill an obligation, but. For all the differences in the, chosen paths, we. Share a common landscape, of experience. And knowledge the. City is archived the archive a city. Storytelling. Forms, like animated, archives or the database documentary. Have been of longstanding interest to me as a cultural, historian curator. And designer because. They figure, I believe among the defining narrative, forms of the present age and I'm. Interested in them not just as screen based experiences. And, maybe, a few, people in the audience tonight we'll remember the premiere and here in Piper auditorium. A few. Years ago of cold storage a database. Documentary. Developed, by metal lab that reworks, the allaha. A 1956. Documentary. Homage, to the, tribute to the National Library of France to, drum a mall diamond but in the form of a filmic narrative, that, serves as a navigational. System, for an archive, documenting. The history and the structure, of a much later library, the Harvard depository. And. Perhaps others of you will, have had occasion, to visit the, lightbox gallery on, the top floor of the, Harvard Art Museum where. The. 1803. Objects. On display on, the five floors below. Once. Came alive not as a mirror, not as mere surrogates, but instead as digital objects, entangled, in a network of relations, that could be explored, by. An air mouse operated. By the visitor, when. The visitor to the lightbox surfaced. An object, the entire data record. Floated, into the foreground as you see in the slide and when clicking on one of the fields, that's part. Of the architecture, of the data the, projection, system on the opposing wall launched. A visualization. Showing exactly, where, the object being spotlighted. Stood with, respect, to date provenance, location. Medium. Size the, x number of times it's been clicked on through. A flaw offsite. Access color. Balance, and the, like and, it's, the latter spatialized. Experiences. Whether of digital and/or. Analog, collections, that interest me whether, in a gallery like the Drucker design gallery here in gondhal, or.
In. A landscape like, that of the northern Italian city of Trento where, I had the privilege of direct, a project. Known as legality, or that, tenant of tunnels a 6000. Square meter pair of highway tunnels, repurposed. As a Regional, History Museum, where. A series of experiments. With bringing archival, holdings to, life and adopting. Distributed. Even, massively distributed, large-scale. Approaches, to curation, were, carried out between. 2008. And, 2011. Of, the space is still open by the way you can visit it infinite though and, it remains an experimental, History Museum, a. Former. Superhighway, tunnel, is no place for paper originals. As you can see, the. Inaugural, exhibition devoted. To. A bottom-up, reconstruction. Of how World War one was lived. By ordinary citizens, relied. Exclusively upon. Mediated. Materials. Recorded. Versions, of historical, documents, and projections, all, in the service of one define one of the defining media genres, of the 19th century the phantasmagoria. This. Immersive. Phantasmagoric. March, through, the years of the Great War which was the beginning of the exhibition was. Supported, by a scholarly, apparatus, where. You could find out what you had been immersed in all the objects, that made up this immersive experience, built. In a virtual world which you could visit off-site in other words and paired. As you, can see here in the floor plan.the the, ground plan. With. A more conventional white, tunnel where the post-war, construction. Of institutions, of memory was documented, in stations, but, these stations were actually curated, by the institutions, themselves in, other words this, was a an, exhibition, that staged. All of these exhibited, all these different, collections, archives, and resources, in sequence. According, to their year, of foundation. Human. Beings are exceptionally. Talented hoarders. And, in. The wake of the. Triumph during. The, 19th. And 20th centuries, of those great collecting, institutions. That are archives. Museums and, libraries. We've. Become even. More brilliant ever more brilliant, masters of vast corpora, of work record, data, documents. And remains, from the past. But. We aren't as a species, always quite so skilled, when it comes to knowing how to make these accumulations, matter or, how to transform, them into objects, of experience, or cumbers. Of conversation. Or knowledge, this. Is what I like to call knowledge design, but one could easily call, this endeavor many by many other names experimental, scholarship, curatorial. Innovation. Experience, design etc but. I think the key word for me at least remains, designed, especially, in that kind of etymological. Italian sense of drawing, shaping. Composing. Now. It's perhaps inevitable. That the vast majority of, the human record is in, perpetual deep, storage, whether buried, in the soil or in chests, in in attics, or in the vaults of institutions, of memory. Collecting. Preserving. And documenting, not to mention digitizing. Is a fine first step but. It can amount to little more than burial, without, strategies, for activating, the, resources, so preserved, in the present and this, necessarily, involves, design, the, crafting, of macro. Mezzo, and micro, narratives, the shaping of meanings, representational. Strategies, tools and techniques. But. On. What scale, there. Lies the cognitive, as well as the design challenge, that a project, like urban intermedia, I think as you've just explained to us really are in a very eloquent way that, it tackles as it mobilizes, a wildly, heterogeneous, array, of source materials, to. Explore 12 facets, of four of the world's greatest urban, centres but we see these kinds, of challenges being, tackled in all kinds of domains this is a visualization of the structure the field of philosophy done by a French, graduate, student drawing on. The. Basically. A taxonomy, provided. By fill papers, for example. And. It's just one example of many. As. Any skilled storyteller, or historian. Knows one cannot tell every, story at once a, few. Key threads have to be pulled from every tangled, skein of stories, granted.
Primacy, And develop, at the expense of others this. Principle, applies, to the expanded, field of inquiry enabled, by open collections, data and digital, archives. Not to mention open, science data, but. Here the challenges, are all the greater because, representations. Of data aren't, self-evident. Objects of human experience, not to mention sources. Of emotion. On. The, contrary their, technical constructs. Abstractions. That have to be worked massaged. And crafted, into, a multitude of ways and by. Means of a multitude of tools and techniques in order to give rise to artifacts. That persuade, make, sense at value, to a given experience. Or astonish. This. Is not just, a technical task it's, a cultural, and critical task that, involves technology design. A sure-footed. Sense of how we reconnect, this world of cultural media and data big and small back. To that middle stratum, where, culture resides and where, human experience, finds, its natural, home thank. You. Okay. Okay. So. Thanks, everyone for coming and thanks Bobby for the for, the really. Generous introduction to and. It's funny that you, there. Was one particular quote, you started with because I'm starting with it as well because I had to go, bad for some reason this exhibit, made me go backwards, in, some ideas that that. Were in my book. So. You're gonna see this up there for a while, and. We we're actually a sister, Mellon, project. And. The. Mellon that we received, at Columbia was to create the Center for spatial. Research ten, years before that, had. The spatial, information, design. Lab and. Which has now morphed into. A, center and there's also a recent research, and teaching. Component. Of it so. At, the Center for spatial, research we think about and work with, constantly, evolving, technologies. Of location, visualization. Remote sensing, data collection. Mapping. And lately the algorithms. Hidden in and among all of this we. Understand, this work as a form of research conducted, through practice, because, the propositions, and claims we make however theoretical. Sorry only, emerge the process, of experimenting. With the technologies, themselves, working. With and through them to create images. Sometimes. New and sometimes, reframed, like you've seen, a lot of already, today. As. Designers. We make, spatial, things maps visualizations, websites. Permanent, installations, all of which involve various forms of spatial media. I'm. Thrilled to respond today to a like-minded set, of people and talk a little bit about what is similar in our work in particular in, relation to, our two, different mellon projects, so. The, enduring and constant. Question, in our work asks, what, technologies. Of spatial representation. Have to do with the spaces, they represent, beyond. Simply, representing. Them Maps. Actually, a construction. Of space physical. Propositional. Discursive. Political, archival. And memorial, spaces, for. Many of us maps. Now as omnipresent. As the more obvious utilities. Such as electricity, gas. Water and, the Internet and it, is in their omnipresence. Especially, on our phones, that. They blend many, forms, of media maps. Have become infrastructures. And systems, and we are located however. In securely within, them suspended. Between physical, and digital spaces. In. Our capacity, to understand, space as an information, system it. Should be broad and. An inclusive medium, for, many and diverse social. Political and, technological, networks. However. Treating. Space as information, results, in just the opposite effects, and we see this again and again today and. It was with caution therefore, that we proceed, with, each and every project we undertake, and I'll come back to to, this a little bit later. Ok. So in, the context, of the GSD, here we are, at. An architecture, school so, what, is actually, a design sorry many, different, architecture. Planning, design. Landscape. Etc. Right but, what. Is what is urban research, and what does it mean. For. The project. What. Is what does it mean for the project that's exhibited. Today and in, the lobby over there and what does it mean for us at the Center for spatial research so, architectural. Design, Education, Committee, commonly, addresses, urban research in a few different ways, so. One is the figure, ground and, we. Were taught this by way of callosity, to draw the city this way and I was definitely trained, in that in that mode drew, many many many cities. In. That way. But. More recently. Statistical. Analysis, stands in for research especially. As global, interdisciplinary. Research cities are not just objects, but economic, political fields. Right so urban age, Ricky Baudette REM, koolhaas they. Stand, in for this kind, of approach and it's. Very, has been very influential, to many, too many of us men to me too many students, etc right. The third thing architects. We. Teach. In, architecture, school a site visits, local.
And Global part, of our education, processes, the, image. Of an architect, as a traveler and ears at my school every. You, know every studio, goes. In. Advance, Studios, on. One-week trips in the middle of the semester, I, have, a very, interesting dialogue, with that program. But. In my opinion fieldwork. Where we learn from anthropology. Is a better version of this and there are many new forms of fieldwork that are possible, with new technologies. So. For. The exhibit outside and I think what, you've seen, here on the screen already, I. Would, say research is a much broader topic, archives, are made accessible by a digitization. And link, to other archives, of multiple media maths photographs, films I'm. Going to hesitate in using this, word now but I would say they're collage, to. Create narratives. About. The city you. Know and collage in itself is a practice, as as spatial, implications and. A history and it's something I'd like to address in. The conversation, later I know we've been talking a lot about layering and, you know perhaps we're talking more about compositing. Than collaging, but, I would say the fact that everything. Stays intact, that. You can still recognize each, object, that. There's a very strong aesthetic of collage in, all the work. Okay. So that's and oh sorry that was my image okay. So. At the Center for spatial. Research. Research. In some ways starts. And ends with data and its representation. We used it intentionally. To show it's under, unintentional. Consequences, of the data at hand and hence, to produce new narratives, about specific, urban of. And I'll go into this in a little bit more detail, when I show some projects. But. This brings me to a second. Component. And a very big implication, of the of the exhibit that we see outside. Because. What it's really doing is comparative. Urbanism, and we don't actually do this comparative, literature there's, all, kinds of prayer but there's no comparative, urbanism, and I think that, all. Of our mellon, projects, together I think might. Be. This. Might come out of it like what does it mean to say comparative. Urbanism. So I could, simply, repeat the same slides and talk about comparative, urbanism. And its. Limits, by some of the blunt tools used by architects, alone countless. Cities have been rendered in figure-ground and it's in fact even a bad leaflet, style I'm sure all the students know what leaflet, is created, by stamen design which, treats buildings and objects but ignores the public space component, of the original, noé map.
So. In terms of statistics, we have tools and measures for comparing, cities to one another population, size, growth, change, ground cover and more there. Are many many websites which, approach comparisons. In this way and it is not surprising because this is easy data to find, okay. So this is this is urban Observatory. Which is Richard Saul Wurman but. We see as soon as we get to India right they've been using population. Density. But the census, in India is badly counted, so there you'da right, and those. Kinds of inconsistencies, another, one the atlas of urban expansion. You. Know where you see. 2014. Versus, 2009. There's not much explanation, you're just supposed to use your eyes and numbers, numbers numbers right. This. Is this. Is very very. Common. So. So. What what counts. Not. Only numbers for sure and the. Videos. And that we've seen today and they exhibit outside, already gives us many many more. The formal versus the informal, City the plan versus the unplanned City the so-called natural versus, the technical, City the. Difference between race. And space and cities, maybe. A few more categories, are revealed with media and methods that cannot and perhaps should not be counted. There, are many things that we have ethical. II should not appear on maps and perhaps, just for the same reasons, ethically, we should add layers, to what is usually hidden onto a map to advocate, for its representation. The. Layers of the exhibit are very open-ended, and, ask more questions and. Provide answers for, what counts as urbanization. So. We've been we've. Begun to ask some of the similar, questions, in our own work at CSR, especially. When comparing, cities, from a humanities, perspective. We. Start asking, what. Defining, moments, are for example the plague in Mumbai, which. Resulted. In the Bombay city, Improvement. Trust in, 1898. Which, I understand. Persists. Until, this day in Johannesburg. This is a very crude math, but. In Johannesburg, gold mining, defines, the city we still know today and, its geographies, of injustice, that desire divided. The city into the so called suburbs, and the townships, or the part of the city which has many trees in the part of the city which, which. Has none. That. Yeah, and there are so many examples, closer, to home take, New York City for example what, drove change, in the city to, create the vasc and equities, that drive, that thrive, today the speculative, grid redlining. Zoning. Changes, post Jacob Riis mass, incarceration. We. Don't have any answers to that. So. In our again, in our Mellon Initiative. Centre. For spatial research involves, cities as well as eight as other, spatial concepts. Which, is to say methods, of research with maps data and fieldwork and for us particularly. Digital, forms of all three really. What we do with methods is teach critical. Data studies, with, live in the room it's, it, would be critical, software studies, to we. Teach about the inadvertent uses, of data of, data which does things like reclaims. Militarisation. For purposes of memory, but, increasingly. We are looking at the politics, of data today and, in recent history to show the relationships, that endure between, policies, like red lining, and mass incarceration today. So. These are some of the classes, that are part of our. Initiative. And, in terms of the research that, we're, doing it's, not so much particular, cities, but, this. Idea of conflict, urbanism, so. The focus of our Mellon initiative, is an. Urban research project, which has the concentration. Conflict, urbanism, examining. The role of conflicts. And of all sorts in the making, and remaking of, cities around the world conflict.
Urbanism, Is a term that designates, not simply, that conflicts, take place in cities but. Also conflict, as a structuring, principle, of cities intrinsically. As a way of inhabiting, and creating, urban space the. Increasing, urbanization. Of warfare, and the policing, and surveillance, of everyday life our examples, of the term but, conflict, is not limited, to war and violence cities. Are not only destroyed, but also built through conflict they, have long been arenas, of friction, difference, and dissidents and the irreducibly. Conflictual. Character. Manifests. In everything, from neighborhood, borders to differences, of opinion, and status. To ordinary encounters. On the street our. Effort thus far. Has. Been divided, into into. Four sections. We've. Spent. A lot of time. Tracking. What, was going on in Aleppo, until. The, war over, there supposedly, ended, but the war in Syria continues. Transitional. Justice, as. Framed through Columbia. And. Language. In. In, Queens as a as. A as, a side of conflict, and. Infra, politics, in. Multiple, in. In. Multiple, cities and we're about to start, a large project on spatial inequalities. That constitute. Puerto Rico. Inequality. Is often, accompanied, by or, generates, friction. Sometimes. However it is quiet slow-moving, structural. Built in affecting. People of many generations, this. Type of inequality, can, be normalized, often. By blaming its victims, naturalized. Or simply, hidden behind apparently. Objective, representations. Sometimes, with maps data and algorithms. How, much time. Do. I still have just, five minutes okay so I'll just quickly run. Through you, know our. Project we did a lot of interactive. Maps as. Part of our as, part of the way that we made public, facing projects, we didn't so much focus on exhibits. But these these. Maps, and, particularly. In Aleppo it was one of the few places where you could go online and browse neighborhood, by neighborhood and. See what was happening over time against. Three. Different, satellite. Images, in the background we. Also figured. Out a way of spatial eyes in YouTube, video, without. Getting, students to pour over the actual, content, of the video we figured out a way of using the the metadata, there were some Arabic speaking, students, in the class because. We had made a neighborhood, map you. Could, locate. The, video to specific. Neighborhoods, and we now have three, complete, what. One. More minute okay. Okay. We have a very complete archive, okay. Okay. I wondered just one, I'll, end on one thing okay so. Because. The the new work that that we're doing is going to be about. Algorithms. And the histories of algorithms. And smart, city discourses, make louder and lidocaine's for calculable, futures. While. The problematic, histories, of the use of data for over an improvement seem, to fade further and further, from you view 21st. Century segregation. And exclusion happens. Algorithmically. The. Redlining maps of, the past have turned into predictive, policing ubiquitous. Data valence, and face recognition linked, to geo-located. Social media data, the. Social geography of our cities is being redrawn, often, automatically, with digital spatial, data we. Need to focus research now on the ways in which sites of inequality, often, produced by representations. Of the city through data in, order, to look at how alternative. Representations. Can enable empowered, new understandings. Of the city how, can we learn from these examples, and suggest, counter, choreographies, that, build different, narratives, for more equal cities thank, you. I'm. Sorry I didn't I didn't know you're not supposed to put your name since. I'm at Harvard. Design School you know I, want, to encourage you to use an expensive materials, so, this is like $10, in apply blood thin which had got in Tallinn Estonia and. This trend for plywood, bowties was just beginning. So don't, don't only design it from concrete you know. Okay. So so. You. Have to be very short so, why I represent, the city as opposed to analyze the city so. I'd like to suggest with. Today. In the next you know few. Years at least. Constructing. New representations. Is, actually, much more difficult in much me useful much more progressive when analyzing, why. Is that five. Years ago when. You encounter, students, who.
Would New of. Things. Like coding, big. The eighth a neural network he, was so happy today. You want to escape, it like, this things become. A bit suffocating, like, I'm talking to Bobby I'm talking to my friend like with architecture, school design school and talking to my friend who, is a visualization program, I said what do students do you know networks no that's what new networks, so. Well take home message don't do you know networks because everybody does right try. To think. So. The problem is that you know as capitation data analysis, right the way have become a new default will thinking, it. Can be very reductive you download some data or, you. Know sensors, and data you, clean it up you organize it right, into in, the features and, when you use, traditional descriptive. Statistics, hypothesis, testing, neural. Networks to do classification in, the case of supervised machine learning one. Supervised machine learning if you are mode ventures such. As cluster, analysis while. Dimension reduction maybe neural networks and you're done, so. What promised, I think five five, or ten or fifteen years ago. To. Revolutionize, humanity's, and. The study of culture society. And is more. Often the North now, looks really reductive, you, know because it's like this recipes, you follow and you think you're really smart so. I think what's more interesting perhaps and it's always be the effect is, try to construct, new representations. Of the city so. In representation, itself it's. A form of analysis, it, can encourage you help you to think or, problem, a phenomena, new ways, right. And perhaps suggest, new ways of analysis, which, don't depend on our, Python, or, Google sheets so. In, this very brief mini. Talk I will, talk about I can free among. Many others types. Of represented, presentation, with city maps. Instagrams. And hybrids. So. Maps I mean, there's lots of research about maps but when I say Maps I'm. Not really thinking about kind. Of, accidentally. Projection. Looking down right it's, not about geospatial. It's about a systematic. Representation, think, about how the satellite, scans. The earth think. About what happens when you your, user fled, that scanner right, so it's about very systematic, simply, reality. Capturing. All. Corners, and constructing, systematic, grid like representation. So. Think about sensor, networks things about grids things about scanning. So. So. There are many types of maps but. For my purposes because I'm trying to provide a bit or geology, of contemporary. Data error so. This is of course very common type a map, of physical, infrastructure, right streets. Boulevards. Buildings. The. Second type of map becomes. Popular, in the 19th century, it's so-called a topical, map, so, now maps marry statistics.
So This is effect effect talking about comparative urbanism, that's a very first topical map produced, in France in 1829. Right. And it basically color, eise's different. Parts of friends, depending, on particular curve statistical. Measurement. Now, it touches you know crime rates or you, know education. Rates and so on right, so now so a first map represent. A space. The. Second map representing, city, and. When a third new, type of map, represents. North. With city not, with society, aggregated, prostituted represent individuals, right. It can be vehicles, it can be taxis it can be people it is of course some you know this. One of maps produced in a very famous, project. By Eric Fisher locals. And tourists, where. Eric. Mapped. Positions. Of, millions, of photographs. People. Shared, in Flickr of, particular, cities such as New York and, the photos of tourists and locals are colorized, in different ways so, New York emerges, here is emergent phenomena, but, there is no representation, of streets right, over river is basically. It, can interesting, may upright the very systematicity of a map its rube reality, breaks down because. Of course some parts of New York, I've been covered by photographs, much more densely in ours a much less. So. Let's like one away paradigm, so, now look, at the second part I'm which I'm going to call instagrams, Instagram. Why not photo because. Instagram, which to mr. Graham is better at capturing what. I want to convey think about, like. A flashlight so it's a kind of representation which, is subjective. It, doesn't capture whole phenomena, it's, like a flashlight, it. Captures, phenomenal, particular moment of time is locked, arbitrary, slice and, it's, a single thing right, so photographs, are just part of it so. This is for example probably, one we first modern paintings, or, modern metropolis you, know. Pissarro, French oppression, is the 1880s. And you know he's still kind of looking, at the front window, she doesn't realize but you can get very close to the objects let's. Get a pre-modern point, of view then, of course we have 1925. A revolution, in representation, first. Like a crime era we. Changes photography, because it allows people to get very, close in. The 50s, we, have emergence, in, Europe us of street photography, which is this is New York 1951. And, these photographs, right we're not trying to be sharp, we're, not try to worry about Walker, like like now right. About capturing the moment it's about confrontation.
It's, Actually seeing, north with city but seeing individual. Moments like a flashlight. Even. Of course that say maybe first step in the development of, still photography for, his Instagram, is Instagram proper. Which. Of course offers, us shoot, encyclopedia. Of all kinds of architectural. And, spatial, views so, this is just you, know selections, of instagrams, in response, to different hashtags and. We. Have me thousands, of thousands of different types representation. So now my, next fitness hybrids so. Hybrid, is what I think of as invention, in this case of party of new representations. And, it's kind of it's easier to divide new presentations, if you don't start, from scratch but if you take existing paradigms, in you can buy one right. So so, I'll show you a few examples and. I'm sorry I think I put my project is a bit arrogant in the same category, but, maybe I will run out of time which take with kind of two paradigms, right and kind of regular grid like mapping and. Subjective. For, the instagramming, flashlights and combine them so this is 1966. Just. Forgotten they were artists. Yeah. Drew share where. He basically put in. Anticipation, of Google you know Google Maps and Instagram, he, put his camera on a car if, you drove along. Sunset. Boulevard for, a few miles you can ablute these photographs, to deburr and, he made the book which is 25. Feet long and. What's, interesting right you have a singularity of mapping but, he doesn't map like a whole city he just maps part of a street in, him absurd not from above but he maps it through, a, kind, of Moloch human-like perspective, su-hyun, instagrams, meet, my map. The. Second thing is, very, original art form in, this case invented, by company, Google. Services. Of course Google Street View which. Was introduced in 2007. And. Today it maybe not all based but when they first introduced I couldn't, believe it because it looked totally like avant-garde art right. It was named afridi, no photography. Nor, Jes, it was, you type or presentation, right. Where you kind of you. Have this again, systematicity, of a map +. Submissive. Activity, and first point perspective of, Nevada, called instagrams, and, you know when you click this arrow and, it kind of blurs into. The next photograph and, sometimes like some of you disappear it's a complete trick essential at large right so--but companies can also do a one, guard art you know, yes.
I Don't discriminate in. A, couple, of our projects. Just to finish where. We kind of try to, understand. With Rockaway to maybe use, the same tactics, so, this was from our first Instagram, project, called photo trails to fastness 14 we, assembled, 2.6. Million Instagram images shared, in 13, global. Cities and, try to think about how we can represent. Something. About the cities through, his collective, instagrams. So, in this case we just took our 50,000 photographs shared. Constructively, or, a few days into, cities tapas. New York and Tokyo, is below and, they simply laid out right. In. Order, which were taking and, again I think you get something which is combines curve systematicity by, digital mapping but, what's being mapped here is a time right it's mapping time in cities, and, the time turns out to be not even right, because it's every. Day and every night when, a verb instagram has been shared is different, so, you can see like misspelling maybe you can see week you know vary with, maybe. You can see very clearly it was light and dark dark dark parts, which correspond, to a night of, course when night Instagram is not completely black right you. Can also think about you, know comparing nights on Instagram, you know and for whatever reason, so each day in each night have, a cap different duration right, so, this example again, with subjectivity, of a flashlight plus tablet if you map combined and. Then the, last thing is this project. On Broadway, which. I did in collaboration, of fantastic. Designers. Such as Maura Stefan ER so, we basically took. Aspiration. From Ed Ruscha, she's, every building on Sunset, Strip we, took Broadway. In. New York, and, we. Collected about 30 million data. Points. From. Different layers and when, we create it with interactive. Representation. Which, you'll see video in a second, and, my idea was again, to cut the follow whatever, she did but, now we have a datasheet right so the post is simply using photograph, we, can make the sandwich right from maybe 13. Or 12 different, types of data, right, some statistical, data. Such. As you know income which we took from census, all, right where names of neighborhoods, resistor, gram photos over, the facade colors with, Google Street View where, it's a lot of different things and. This. Is just. Little video which shows you how interact, with interface it was installed in your Public Library Shan. - tech should be gnarly many other places so, basically when you zoom in righ