World in 1950 - Cold War Documentary
1950 was an eventful year in World History. It was characterized by technological advancement, shifting and solidifying borders, contentious capitals, the threat of war, and outright war! It is a year that saw a Superpower directly engage in large-scale combat for the first time since the end of the Second World War but war in a restrained fashion. It was also a war that showcased the reality that the new Cold War was a truly global affair, and not just a European-focused struggle. I’m your host David and 1950 was a fascinating year of the Cold War so let’s talk about it! This is...The Cold War. That’s One Small step for Man, one giant leap for mankind”. This 1969 quote by the one and
only Neil Armstrong marked one of the concluding steps in the American goal of landing a human on the moon. This fascinating chapter of the Cold War is brilliantly explained in the two-part series, “Battle For the Moon” from the sponsor of this episode MagellanTV. The series looks at not just the technological achievements involved but also the passionate saga of the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs! And one of the best things about the video? It is completely ad-free, just like every video on MagellanTV, including the new 4K content that is being added every week. And Cold War viewers will get a one-month free trial by clicking on the link in the description; make sure to start your free trial of MagellanTV so you can join us in watching “Battle for the Moon”. So, we are going to start our coverage in Turkey. 1950 was the year that Turkey really began its
democratic transition. Up until the Second World War, Turkey had been governed by the secular, revolutionary and authoritarian Kemalist regime, established after the breakup of the Ottoman Empire. After Ataturk’s death, leadership had passed to another war hero, Ismet Inonu. After the end of the Second World War, Turkey found itself aligning itself to the Western powers, against the Soviet Union, helped along by Marshall Plan dollars. Of course, there was a quiet expectation from the United States that Turkey would begin a transition to democratic governance, something the Kemalists had flirted with but never followed through on. The single party in the country, Inonu’s CHP, saw a split occur, and a new party was formed, the Democrat Party, headed by Adnan Menderes and Celal Beyar. Elections held in 1946 were won by the CHP but the DP secured a substantial victory in the 1950 elections. And when we say substantial,
we mean it. The DP won 408 seats compared to only 69 seats for the CHP. Nice. The transition of power to the DP happened smoothly, with Inonu choosing not to lean into the influence he had with the military in order to maintain his own power. This peaceful transition in 1950, coupled with Turkey’s participation in the Korean War, allowed Turkey to join NATO, firmly placing the strategically vital nation inside the Western Alliance. Moving away from Turkey but remaining in the region, 1950 was the year the Treaty of Joint Defence and Economic Cooperation of the League of Arab States was signed. Following the defeat of the Arab countries in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the Arab countries were in shock. The Israeli
state, carved from land in Palestine, had received international recognition and over 400,000 Palestinians had fled as refugees to other states in the region. Despite this, Arab leaders saw this as a setback, and a temporary one at that. With some time and better preparation, success would be assured in the next, inevitable war with Israel. The Arab League, formed in 1945,
served as the mechanism for this integration and cooperation. The signing of the Treaty on the 18th of June, 1950 led to the establishment of two of the main institutions of the Arab League, The Joint Defence Council and The Economic Council. So what did these two things do? Well, the Joint Defence Council as the name implies, allowed the Arab world to coordinate actions for that future war. It was, however, just a coordination tool; it did NOT create a united armed forces for the Arab League. The Economic Council, as its name would imply, was to establish the grounds and framework
for deepened economic and social integration of the Arab countries. OK, so the treaty was signed, but why is it important? Well, it helped to refocus Arab attention towards a common enemy in Israel, ensuring that regional politics in the Middle East would remain extremely tense. Interestingly, although the Joint Defence council was designed to improve military coordination between members, it failed to do so, meaning that while the Arab states would approach affairs with Israel with the confidence of a large coordinated military behind them, they never really took advantage of the opportunity to actually coordinate, with the result that their inevitable victory failed to materialize. Now, speaking of Israel, 1950 was the year that
the nascent Jewish state proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital. The Israeli government had spent its time since its victory in the first Arab-Israeli War consolidating its control over the recognized territory that made up the state. But the issue of where the capital of both Israel and Palestine would be located remained a sensitive and contentious topic. For those who may be unaware, although I’m not sure who that would be, Jerusalem is a Holy City for all three Abrahamic religions and who could claim control of the city was considered vital. In late 1949, the Israeli government began preparation of a resolution which would proclaim Jerusalem as its capital. It took until the 23rd of January 1950 for the Knesset to vote on the resolution, which passed with 60 votes in favour, 2 votes against, and several abstentions. The two votes
against were from Communist representatives who were in favour of placing Jerusalem under the trusteeship of the United Nations. The abstentions came from representatives of the right-wing Herut Party, who rejected the proposal entirely as they favoured the adoption of a different resolution in the Knesset which would have proclaimed the entirety of Jersusalem as that capital, including the portion that had been captured by Transjordan and which was to be a part of the future Palestinian state. Given the contentious nature, widespread recognition in the international community of Jerusalem as the Israeli capital did not follow and even to the present day, a majority of nations still do not recognize Jerusalem as the Israeli capital Shifting our attention from the Mediterranean to the Baltic, April 8 1950 saw a not-altogether uncommon Cold War occurrence. On that day, Soviet Lavochkin La-11 fighters attacked and shot down a US Navy PB4Y-2 Privateer which was operating off the coast of the Latvian town of Liepaja.
The Privateer, a Second World War-era patrol aircraft was on a signals-intelligence gathering mission, collecting Soviet radio and radar data. When the Privateer, and its crew of 10 was reported missing, a search of the area was begun, led by the Soviet Union, but only a few pieces of wreckage were ever found. Not long after the shootdown, the Soviet Union recognized that it had shot down an American aircraft. The Soviet statement was that the Privateer was flying inside Soviet airspace and had ignored calls for it to land so therefore was deemed hostile and was shot down. The Soviet statement also confirmed that no survivors had been found.
Archival documents from the incident indicate that 45 Soviet vessels spent three weeks searching for the remains of the crew but with no success. Now, the US government disagreed with the Soviet claim that the UN Navy aircraft was in Soviet airspace, insisting that the flight was an unarmed training flight over international waters. However, in the absence of any real data whatsoever, aside from the only surviving eyewitnesses, the pilots of the La-11 fighters, no dispute could be made. Persistent rumours continued however, that the Soviets had captured some or all of the crew, who were being held in Soviet Labour camps. These rumours prompted a 1956 inquiry but no concrete evidence of survivors was to be had. Some of you may be wondering why the Soviets would risk shooting down a US plane in international airspace, if that was the case. They knew it was
an ELINT aircraft and the opportunity to salvage its equipment and even possibly the crew would have been very tempting. The US response was also not unusual...this incident was one of dozens of shootdowns that occurred during the Cold War. Intelligence gathering was a job with known risks and dangers and nobody was going to risk World War III without a pretty solid case. Now, speaking of downed aircraft, 1950 was significant as it marked the first ever Broken Arrow incident of the Cold War. For those of you who may not be familiar with the expression, a
Broken Arrow is “an accidental event that involves nuclear weapons, warheads or components that does not create a risk of nuclear war”. For the pedants out there, and I know you are out there since I do read the comments. For the pedants, Louis Slotin’s death in 1946 while showing off with the so-called demon core was certainly an accident involving nuclear components but it isn’t usually counted as a Broken Arrow incident. But back to 1950, in the early hours of 14 February a USAF B-36 Peacemaker, flying a regular training mission from Eilson Air Force Base in Alaska, suffered multiple engine failures and was forced to jettison the Mark-4 nuclear bomb it was carrying somewhere over the Pacific ocean, near the coast of British Columbia. The bomb, which contained Uranium and conventional explosives but lacked the plutonium core required for a nuclear detonation, exploded above the water and the crew of 17 bailed out of the B-36. 12 of the men survived with the other five, who were never found, likely dying of exposure in the North Pacific water.
The B-36 itself was then lost, only to be found 3 years later, 350 miles north of the bail-out site, crashed on the side of Mount Kologet. The British Columbia B-36 crash marked the beginning of numerous safety and security incidents involving nuclear weapons or components, some of which, only through luck and fortune only narrowly avoided any actual nuclear explosions. And from bombers and bombs, after 5 years of relative global peace, 1950 saw large-scale war return to the international headlines. On the 25th of June, North Korean troops crossed the 38th Parallel, starting the Korean War, one of the bloodiest civil wars in history. Korea had been divided into two zones of occupation following the defeat of Japan in 1945; the North occupied by the Soviet Union and the Americans occupying the South. By 1948,
the South had declared itself the independent Republic of Korea, led by President Syngman Rhee, while the Democratic People Republic of Korea was established in the North led by Kim Il Sung. Seen as a relative backwater in terms of global affairs, both the Soviet Union and the United States had withdrawn their occupation forces by 1949. This was despite numerous bloody border skirmishes which had left thousands dead and an active communist movement in the South attempting to overthrow the Rhee government. The full-scale invasion, supported by the Soviet Union, would result in 3 years of hard fighting, with both sides seen as likely victors at different points of the war. The result was a stalemate and armistice reestablishing a border that was remarkably similar to the prewar border. The Korean War marked the full-scale rearmament process of the United States, the involvement of the new People’s Republic of China for the first time, and a severe deepening of the Cold War divisions between East and West. The Korean War also served as the first serious test of
America’s desire, or lack thereof, to engage in a possible nuclear exchange. Korea resulted in the deaths of between 2 and 4 million people, the first major regional war of the Cold War, establishing a trend of how fighting between the Superpowers would be carried out. OK, so speaking of nuclear weapons, 1950 saw the arrest, trial, and sentencing of one of the more famous of the so-called nuclear spies, Klaus Fuchs. Fuchs was a German-born physicist who had fled Germany in 1933 and settled in Britain, where he completed his PhD at the University of Bristol and then a Doctorate of Science at the University of Edinburgh. Now, despite his leftist leanings, of which the British government was aware, Fuchs was still invited to participate in the British atomic bomb project, Alloy Tubes. This was about the same time that Fuchs was contacted by Soviet agents of the GRU looking to collect information and data on the project. Fuchs, sympathetic to
the Soviet Union, agreed. In late 1943, Fuchs was transferred to the United States to help with the Manhattan Project, and he was transferred to an NKVD handler once he had arrived. He remained in the US until 1946, witnessing the Trinity Test as well as helping to theorize on the possibility of thermonuclear weapons and then assisting in the Crossroads testing after which he moved back to the United Kingdom to continue working on the British bomb project.
Throughout all of this, he continued to pass along to the Soviet Union highly influential secret information regarding both the US and the British nuclear programs. But, by late 1949, both the American and British intelligence services had pinpointed Fuchs as a spy and after several interrogations, he confessed to MI5 that he was indeed a spy. He was arrested and his trial, which lasted only an impressive 90 minutes, saw him sentenced to 14 years in prison. Fuchs’ testimony was key in implicating Harry Gold, whose testimony was in turn used against David Greenglass and Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. Fuchs was released from prison in 1959, with a third of his sentence reduced as a result of good behaviour, a practice in line with British procedure at the time. Once out of prison, he left Britain, emigrating to East Germany where he lived until his death in 1988.
The arrest and trial of men like Fuchs added fuel to an already volatile atmosphere in the United States where even a hint of progressive leftist reform was met with accusations of communism and the overthrow of American Democracy. This of course wasn’t the first time this type of hysterical rhetoric had been employed nor was it the last...FDRs New Deal had been criticised for this as was Obama’s Affordable Care Act and even Big Bird getting a vaccine. Almost as if some of
the critics didn’t understand what Communism was. But back to 1950, the anti-communist atmosphere was at an all-time high in America, with genuine domestic concern over the potential for a Communist subversion of the country. Enter the junior senator for Wisconsin, the republican Joseph McCarthy. On February 9, he gave an address to the Women’s Republican Club in West Virginia,
talking to the struggle between Christianity and Communism, stating that the reason America was losing the Cold War was because of traitors in government. He claimed that he knew of 205 Communist Party members and Soviet spies that were working at the State Department. IN the weeks following that address, McCarthy continued to repeat his claims of communist spies in government but the number of those known to him fluctuated...57 in one speech, 81 in another, and as low as 10 in yet another. The term “McCarthyism” was first coined at this time by the way. McCarthy, by the way, never produced any solid evidence of a single communist in the
State Department, but that was irrelevant. The Second Red Scare was in full effect with baseless accusations enough to discredit anyone suspected of disloyalty. McCarthyism had a deep impact on America, one that lasts to this day. Now, I had made mention a few minutes ago about Klaus Fuchs being involved in the theoretical discussions surrounding the development of thermonuclear weapons. Well, 1950 happens to be the year that Harry Truman gave his support to the US development of such a weapon. The 1949 RDS-1 test in the Soviet Union, their first atomic bomb,
took the United States by surprise. While it was fully expected that the Soviets would produce an atomic bomb, it was also expected to take significantly longer than it actually did. The strategic advantages afforded the United States as the sole nuclear power suddenly evaporated. So, naturally, the discussions turned to how to build a bigger more powerful bomb, the hydrogen bomb. January 31, 1950 saw Presidential support given to the project. There was of course opposition to the development of thermonuclear weapons, notably from Albert Einstein. Despite having
been in favour of the development of atomic weapons to offset the Nazi pursuit of them, he opposed thermonuclear technology as he was aware of its highly destructive potential. Surprisingly, the US government paid no attention to this opposition and proceeded with development. The fruits of that labour was the November 1952 Ivy Mike test at Enewetak Atoll in the Pacific, a detonation 450 times more powerful than the Fat Man detonation used against Nagasaki.
The test then sparked a new race among several nations, to first weaponize the technology and then to build bigger and more efficient versions of the hydrogen bomb. But 1950 was about more than just bombs and bullets, spies and allies. 1950 saw the founding of one of the most well-known Christian Charities of the 20th Century, The Missionaries of Charity, founded by Mother Mary Theresa Bojaxhiu in the Indian city of Calcutta, now Kolkatta. An ethnic Albanian born in the Ottoman Empire in 1910, Bojaxhiu knew from a young age that she wanted to dedicate her life to Christianity, joining the Sisters of Loreto in Ireland in 1918 in order to learn English so she could then take on missionary work in India. Moving to India in 1929, she became increasingly concerned about the poverty surrounding her, especially after moving to Calcutta. This was magnified by both the Bengal Famine of 1943 and the intra-communal violence that accompanied Independence and Partition. To help the poor,
in 1950 she founded the Missionaries of Charity, following permission from the Vatican to provide the charity with status as a Catholic organization. The aim of the Missionaries of Charity was to provide free support to the poorest and most vulnerable people. Starting with only 12 members, the organization Mother Theresa founded has grown to employ over 5,000 people with branches all over the world. While the organization has, since it was founded, provided
tremendous amounts of support and charity to those in need, it has not been without criticism including poor treatment of those tenants of the charity. She has been accused of wanting the sick to suffer as it brought those people closer to Christ. Despite this criticism, Mother Theresa remains a revered figure for many and she was Canonized by the Catholic Church in 2016. The Nobel Peace Prize was first awarded in 1901 and most years since "to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses". In 1950, the winner of the Peace Prize was Ralph Bunche, becoming the first black person to receive the award. Bunche was a pioneer for the black community in the United States, being one of the first to make his way into the higher echelons of the political hierarchy.
A political scientist and diplomat, Bunche had worked for the Office of Strategic Services during the Second World War as a specialist on colonial affairs. He later joined the State Department, working under Alger Hiss. With Hiss, Bunche became one of the prominent figures at the Institute of Pacific Relations, an NGO dedicated to discussion on problems and challenges between the countries of the Pacific Rim. Bunche was also heavily involved in the preparation of the
Dumbarton Oaks Conference, the San Francisco Conference and the Charter Conference as well as the drafting and adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This was clearly a man who helped shape the postwar order. By 1947, Bunche was involved in the resolution of the Arab-Israeli conflict as an assistant to the UN Special Committee on Palestine. He was also an aide to the Swedish mediator Folke Bernadotte, visiting the region together in 1948. When Bernadotte was assassinated in September, Bunche took over as the chief negotiator. In that
role, he took on the titanic task of arranging separate armistice agreements between Israel and Egypt, Israel and Iraq, Israel and Jordan, Israel and Syria and Israel and Lebanon. It was for this work that he was awarded the 1950 Nobel Peace Prize. Bunche would continue his work as a mediator for the United Nations and also became a prominent figure in the US Civil Rights Movement. From a Nobel Peace Prize winner, we are now going to shift our attention to one of the most famous robberies in US history, the Great Brinks Robbery. On January 17, 1950 a group of people entered the Brinks building in Boston Mass and stole 2.775 million dollars in cash, cheques,
and money orders. That is the equivalent to about 30 million US dollars today. As the investigation into the robbery began, tremendous challenges were faced. All of the perpetrators wore Navy-type peacoats, gloves and chauffeur’s caps, similar to what Brink’s employees wore except each of them also had their faces completely concealed by Halloween masks and they were wearing gloves. In order to mask their footsteps, they also wore crepe-soled or rubber soled shoes and none of the men did much talking. It was obviously a carefully planned and executed, professional heist. So, law enforcement including both local police as well as the FBI launched a massive investigation, turning up the heat so to speak on the world of the criminal underground. A $100,000 reward for information leading to the arrest and conviction of those responsible was posted.
The case quickly captured the attention, and imagination, of the American people. Thousands of well-intentioned people across the country began submitting theories and “tips”, hoping to help solve the case, and get that sweet cash reward. These tips, however well intentioned, were not what eventually broke the case. Two of the members of the group that had robbed the Brinks building were arrested in connection with OTHER criminal activities. Once arrested however,
the police and the FBI began to put the pieces together, locating the other nine members of the group. Of the 11 men who carried out the robbery, 8 received the maximum sentence of life in prison starting in 1956. The Great Brinks Robbery would remain the largest robbery in US history until 1984 and has sparked the creation of at least 4 movies. OK, now I don’t know about you, but I rarely carry cash. In fact, most of the people I know
rarely carry cash anymore. We’ve got other, more convenient ways to pay for most items these days, whether it is a bank card, Apple or Google Pay, Venmo, or, of course, a credit card. But, none of these things existed in 1950. Cash was king. And then, a businessman named Frank McNamara was out for dinner with his wife and some business clients. McNamara realized he
had forgotten his wallet, and in a true 1950s horror-show, his wife had to pay for the meal. It was at this point that McNamara shared an idea; being able to pay for services not with cash, but instead by using a card with his signature on it. In February of 1950, McNamara and his attorney, Ralph Schneider, founded Diners Club. The idea was to produce cards which holders could use to pay for meals while dining out in New York City. By the end of the year, over 20,000 people held Diners Club cards and the idea began to spread, as well as where it could be used. Hotels, car
rentals, and general retail all became interested in accepting Diners Club. By 1953, the card was being accepted at locations across the United States and was even moving into international markets. In 1958, Diners Club became a sponsor of the New York Giants and by 1959, the Club boasted over one million members. Diners Club continues to exist, and although it has been eclipsed in popularity by companies such as MasterCard and VISA, there is no denying that the invention of the credit card in 1950 transformed how financial transactions are conducted in the modern age.
1950 was also a key and vital year for the couch potato. This was the year that technology took a giant leap forward and introduced the tool of the lazy...the television remote control. No longer was it necessary to get up and walk ALL the way to the TV to turn it on or off and to change channels. Mind you, remote control wasn’t new technology; it had been proposed,
and patented, by inventor Nikola Tesla in 1893. Germany had employed remote control motorboats during the First World War and by the 1940s, remote control devices were making their way into non-military commercial products, like garage door openers. So when Zenith Radio Corp introduced the TV remote in 1950, it should probably be looked at as a natural product evolution. Zenith, seeming to know its market, called the remote Lazy Bones. It could turn the TV on and off and change channels; what you would expect, really. But, don’t think this was a wireless remote. This was very much a wired remote. The Lazy Bones was connected to the TV by a long and bulky cable.
This cable was unpopular with consumers as it was unsightly and even posed a trip hazard. The dislike of the wired remote was instrumental to the invention of the wireless TV remote, introduced in 1956 and still in use today. In the world of books and literature, 1950 was the year a collection of short stories and essays by the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov was published under the title “I, Robot”. The book took the stories originally published in the Super Science Stories and Astounding Science Fiction magazines during the 1940s and reframed them together, linked by the common theme of human interaction with robots in the 21st century. The December 1950 publication was an immediate critical success, being praised for its writing, its humour and its insights on human morality as well as the future of humanity.
But there are probably plenty of books from 1950 that were well received and touched on human morality. What makes I, Robot notable to be singled out here? Well, Asimov introduced a number of ideas into popular culture on robotics and human/robot relations that continue to resonate to this day, especially the Three Laws: First Law: A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. Second Law: A robot must obey the orders given to it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law. Third Law: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law. For most of us I am sure, we are at least passingly familiar with these from a multitude of TV shows, books, and movies which have absorbed Asimov’s ideas and incorporated them as a default into their own worlds. 1950 saw the return of the greatest tournament
on earth after a hiatus of 12 years. The World Cup had been cancelled in 1942 and 1946 as a result of the Second World War but was resumed in 1950 with Brazil assuming hosting duties. Qualifying for this World Cup however was not a straightforward affair as both politics and economics intervened. Potential favorites to win didn't participate, including Germany and Japan,
who were still forbidden from international competition while countries in the East Bloc, like the Soviet Union, Hungary and Czechoslovakia refused to participate on ideological grounds. 16 teams qualified, although due to the withdrawals in qualification, some teams qualified without playing all their matches, but even after qualification, several teams then withdrew, including Scotland, Turkey, and India who refused to comply with the FIFA regulation that their players could not play barefoot. The tournament itself, with 13 nations participating, began on June 24 and was set up in two stages. The winners of the first stage, Brazil, Uruguay, Sweden and Spain all played each other in a second group stage with the winner of the 2nd group stage becoming the tournament winner. This format, the only time the World Cup winner wasn’t decided in a one-match final, was used so that more games could be played, allowing the hosts to generate more ticket revenue to offset the high costs of hosting. The decisive game of the tournament saw Brazil hosting Uruguay at the iconic Maracana Stadium in Rio de Janeiro.
Brazil only needed a draw in the match to be declared the winner, but Uruguay who went down a goal early in the 2nd half, came back to win the match, hoist the Jules Rimet trophy and crush the dreams of rival Brazil, a loss which is STILL talked about there to this day. So as we wind down this Year in Review, I will once again remind everybody that this is not a comprehensive list of events, simply a snapshot of some of them. Other events of the year include the Chinese annexation of Tibet and Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, assuming the full temporal duties of the role. This was the year the Stasi was formed in East Germany and also the year that the United Kingdom recognized the People’s Republic of China, possibly through the urging of Cambridge Five member Guy Burgess. 1950 is also the year that the MiG-17 made its maiden flight while
in the skies over Korea, history's first ever jet-to-jet dogfight took place. In South Africa, the Suppression of Communism Act was passed, formally banning the Communist Party of South Africa while also forbidding any party or group subscribing to communism. The Defense Production Act of 1950 was passed in Washington in response to the Korean War, giving the US government wide ranging abilities over business, labour and property in the name of national defense. Probably an interesting topic for an independent episode, if you are interested? Let us know. 1950 also saw Harry Truman dispatch advisors to French Indochina, beginning a SouthEast Asian love affair that would continue for 25 years. And last to mention here was the Jayuyu Uprising, part of a Nationalist revolt in the US territory of Puerto Rico which required the deployment of the National Guard and the use of artillery, mortars, and even P-47 ground-attack aircraft to suppress.
Now for a quick wrap of sports and entertainment, and we can find out what is going to happen to the bell button this week! 1950 was the year Disney’s Cinderella was released while All the King’s Men won the Oscar for best film. Crusader Rabbit became the first animated show specifically produced for television and both Beetle Bailey and Charlie Brown via Peanuts were introduced to the daily comics. The number one song on the Billboard charts was Goodnight Irene, sung by the Weavers. In sports, the inaugural Formula One season was kicked off at Silverstone in the UK. The Browns beat the LA Rams to win the NFL Championship while the Lakers beat the Syracuse
Nets to win the NBA championship. In baseball, the Yankees swept Philadelphia to win the World Series while in Japan the Mainichi Orions beat the Shochiku Robins to be crowned kings. Portsmouth were declared League winners in England while Arsenal, the nomads from South London, beat the Liver Birds to win the FA Cup. Middleground won the Kentucky Derby, the Red Wings beat the New York Rangers to lift Lord Stanley’s Cup and Wales won the 5 Nations Championship in Rugby.
And that was 1950. We hope you’ve enjoyed today’s episode and to make sure you don’t miss all of our future episodes, please make sure you are subscribed to our channel and have safely stowed and secured the bell button so that in the event of the aircraft being shot down or crashing it will be recoverable so that it can still be pressed so you never miss a single episode. A huge thank you to all of our Patreon Patrons and if you aren’t already, please consider supporting us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/thecoldwar or through YouTube membership. We can be reached via email at firstname.lastname@example.org. This is the Cold War Channel and as we think about
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