How did Dubai get so rich? | Nitish Rajput | Hindi
And after it, One such thing was executed, Which nobody expected! Her daughter Princess Latifa flew away from Dubai reached Goa via Oman And the Indian coast guard caught her as well. And to solve this, Dubai added one more thing in their tourism. Yes! There is a way that foreigners may get citizenship of Dubai.
An Emirati citizen becomes a millionaire just after taking birth. Also, there was no such helpline number, where one could complain about all this. Today where Dubai is built, At one time it used to be called a village of fishermen. Every flight used to fly through Pakistan. And that's why Pakistan International Airline became huge. In 1990, A completely barren place, Dusty soil, Overheated, Even no water, There was desert all around At present, It has become a place, that has left behind cities all over the world.
Where there was no water. At present, 128 billion imperial gallons of water per year is easily provided at that place. Huge fountains and canals are getting constructed in full swing. Where there was sand, today there are world-class roads, Biggest Buildings, Biggest Malls, Biggest Hotels, Tallest Restaurants, Tallest Elevators. It is said that it is almost impossible to build a normal building in the sand. They built the world's largest building on the sand itself.
Here, Police drive in supercars like Lamborghini and Ferrari. You must have realized by now I am talking about Dubai, City of the richest people in the world. You must be thinking that they have oil, that's why they were able to do all this.
But it is not so that only 1% of their GDP comes from oil. Now the biggest question is, how did all this happen? And why did other countries are not able to do this. There is an interesting story behind this, Before discussing it, Let's see where is Dubai located.
When you to the west from India, You will see UAE. United Arab Emirates Actually, 7 different kings from different kingdoms decided together That they will create a country, Which got called UAE later. These are the 7 kingdoms seen, Sometimes there is confusion between cities and kingdoms. Because the names of these Kingdoms and Cities are the same. For example, the Dubai Kingdom is called the Emirate of Dubai.
And there is a city inside this Emirate of Dubai, Dubai City. Similarly, the City of Abu Dhabi is in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi Just like every country has a President and a Prime Minister so does the UAE. But who will be the president and prime minister This is decided differently. These 7 kingdoms decided together, The King of Abu Dhabi will always be the President.
And The King of Dubai will always be the Prime Minister. That's why, you see that the power in UAE remains concentrated in Abu Dhabi and Dubai. This is why UAE is a country, Where on one side, you see such pictures And on the other side, you see such pictures in the same country. See, What are the reasons that Dubai has reached such a distinct position. To understand this, We have to dig past a bit.
If we talk about the year 1820, There was nothing in this area, Various kings i.e. Sheikhs used to rule their respective areas And this area used to be called Sheikhdom, And the area where Dubai is, It used to be called a village of a fisherman. Which came under Abu Dhabi Sultanate, In 1833, Sheikh Maktoum Bin separated it from Abu Dhabi, Made a separate state, He is also called the founder of Dubai. Those who are still ruling Dubai are from this family.
Now after some time, in 1853, Britishers who were ruling the whole world, They were using this area to go to Bombay from London. But there used to be loot in this area with Britishers. So Britishers, in this Sheikhdom area which included Dubai and Abu Dhabi They spoke to them and signed a truce agreement. Where they agreed on security so they don't have to face any problems further. The name of this area got changed to Trucial state after that. Later Dubai was also counted as part of Trucial State.
Later, Russia and France began to involve in this area, then these Trucial States were protected by the British army. And the entire foreign affair of these States was looked after by the British, But the Britishers did not develop anything here. Because Trucial State was just a crossing point for the British.
Also. there was desert all around. That's why they did not have any profits here. At that time, The area of Dubai It used to be popular for pearl business more than fishing. But Dubai was still known as a village. But the fate of Dubai changed in 1958, When Sheikh Rashid Bin Saeed became the ruler of Dubai, He turned Dubai from a village into a shining city.
He went to Europe in 1959. And he was quite impressed with the infrastructure there. He decided this as soon as he came from there He would make Dubai a trading, transport, and finance hub that must be famous all over the world.
Dubai is in the Persian Gulf. between Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Qatar. Also, this route also connects Asia, Africa, and Europe.
The strategic location for Dubai was very good Keeping this in mind, Sheikh Rashid Who already natural Dubai creek under him. In which small boats could fit, but big ones could not. Sheikh Rashid got it deeper and wider. So the big ships can also come here and it is not limited to small boats only. For this, he invested all the money. And he had also taken a loan, which was a huge risk.
And Sheikh Rashid had to face a lot of criticism for it. No one was able to understand his plan. But it turned out to be a huge success, Because of this big ships started arriving in Dubai. Due to this, the market near Dubai, It started doing pretty well. Sheikh Rashid didn't stop here, He built an airport in this area. He spent a lot of money on the infrastructure.
Whatever money was coming in, he was putting it into all these things. For which he was ridiculed everywhere. Because the money seemed too much for this project. And this was a struggle for him as well. Now In 1966, Oil gets found in Dubai, But it turned out to be very less, compared to neighboring countries. Sheikh Rashid believed that if this found oil would not last long.
That's why the money earned from oil, was also invested in infra. He said one line at that time, which is famous even today. My grandfather and father both used to ride a camel, I drive Mercedes, My son will drive a Land Rover, His son will also drive a Land Rover, but his future son will ride again on a camel. That is why he wants to make Dubai such a city that does not depend on oil.
When Sheikh Rashid was building infrastructure in Dubai At the same time, many other things were also happening in Dubai simultaneously. Such as Dubai got independence from the British. The Britishers left Dubai because, They had to spend a lot of money on this area to maintain their security, So the British left Dubai in 1968.
And in December 1971, All the kingdoms became one. Ras Al Khaimah kingdom joins them after a year later. These 7 kingdoms together make a country, Now Dubai was a kingdom in itself but it represented UAE as a country. See, whenever ships go from one place to another, They need ports for refueling, loading and unloading, And the location of Dubai was such that many ships had to pass from here. And Sheikh Rashid understood importance of this thing at that time.
And he made Port Rashid. Because of this port, Ships started halting there. And when a ship halts, there are always commercial activities on a very large level.
You can consider it as, A highway passes through a village, And villagers make everything available in that village. then the commercial activity of that village will increase a lot. Similar thing happened with the ports.
Port Rashid was Built-in 1972. And seeing its success, another Port Jebel Ali was built in 1979. Even though it was built at that time but Even today it was the largest port in the entire Middle East. While all the construction of all these things was going on, Dubai Dry-docks was constructed for repairing ships along with that. And here, The Emirate of Dubai started shining from here.
When the rest of the countries were making big palaces with the money of oil. At that time Sheikh Rashid's thinking was completely different. After that, one such thing was done, which no one expected When all the ports were ready in Dubai, and many ships were coming. instead of increasing the taxation on the ports, Sheikh Rashid announced that Dubai's port will be Jabil Ali Commercial Free Zone It meant the ships, passing through this area They won't have to pay the tax and whole area was declared tax free zone With which import duty, export duty, manufacturing tax all were waived. This move by Sheikh Rashid was a game changer.
Now due to so many reasons, This route became everyone's favorite. And almost 24% of Dubai's GDP started coming from this. Now Dubai had started changing rapidly towards becoming a big city For which, full credit goes to Sheikh Rashid and his bold decisions The thought process he had at that time, Even today, there are many leaders Who will think 10 times before taking such bold decisions. To develop Dubai, Many skilled foreigners were called there. Because they knew, Growth of the country is only possible when the countrymen are skilled.
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Do check out SCALER! The link is in the description let's come back to the topic! Another important event took place in that period. Karachi airport used to be big and busy airport in Pakistan at. Because Pakistan's location was ideal. Everything used to pass via Pakistan, from America to British Airways, Due to this Pakistan International Airline had become very big. Sheikh Rashid wants to route this thing through Dubai. because Dubai's location was also ideal.
He tried a lot for this and many runways were built. And this runway building had one benefit that All the airlines, Such as Singapore Airlines, Air India, Malaysian Airlines, For flights between Malaysia to Europe This became a refuelling point. But this didn't stop there. Because Sheikh wanted to divert this entire business to Dubai. In 1985, They started an airline. They named it AIR EMIRATES.
They gave extra money to Pakistan and started buying Airplanes. And gradually they diverted Pakistan's entire business to Dubai. And Dubai Airlines beat the rest of all the airlines. From Dubai Government, Dubai Emirates gave financial assistance by the government.
Taxes were completely removed from Air Emirates. So that it remains at the forefront of the competition. Their government used to collect taxes from them. and He had to pay all the expenses from his own pocket.
Air Emirates left everyone behind there. And later, it left behind all the airlines around the globe. If you have been to Dubai, you must have noticed, Dubai is normally considered to be a country of highly religious people. Even after that, there are not many restrictions for foreigners. Dubai is created in such a way that Anybody from any country can visit here without any hesitation. And when they come, They must want to come again and again.
And Dubai can make as much money as possible with this. This thought process that we see And Sheikh Rashid laid the foundation of this thinking. When ships from around the world were coming to Dubai They knew, People will come here as well.
It is very important for visitors to feel comfortable. In comparison with neighboring countries, Dubai has very open rules and regulations. And his son is taking ahead his thinking legacy further. Soon people from all around started coming here due to ports and trade. By this, Sheikh Rashid thought, I should give more facilities to these people So they could stay more in Dubai. And from here, begins the journey to make Dubai, a tourist destination.
Things that began with ports, Those were going towards tourist destination. Now by building big buildings and hotels in Dubai The task of making Dubai a tourist destination started. Many luxurious hotels were constructed in Dubai in that period.
And Dubai Hotel sector started booming rapidly with this. Till now Dubai was earning only through people who were coming by ship. But in 1990, Sheikh Rashid tried that People around the globe must come to Dubai for tourism. So that Dubai can progress more.
But people were not coming to Dubai, even after hotels and all other facilities. To solve this, Dubai added another thing in their tourism, That is Glamour. All those things which were famous or popular in the world.
Those were taken to a bigger scale and brought to Dubai. Burj Al Arab hotel was made in Dubai in 1999. It was the tallest hotel in the world at that time. It was constructed on an artificial island. But before this hotel could run properly, Sheikh Rashid died in the same year.
And his song Sheikh Muhammad Bin Rashid becomes the king. Sheikh Muhammad was also like his father. He chased his father's dream with even more speed. And the opening of Hotel Burj Al Arab was taken place on December 1999. This hotel was one of the most luxurious and the most expensive hotel at that time. It was the one and only 7-star hotel of the world at that time.
This hotel had a private beach for the guests, They had their own separate helipad. Dubai attracted the entire world's focus with such buildings. King Sheikh Mohammad was very inspired by Daniel Burnham.
Daniel was an American architect, He designed modern Chicago. He believed if any city wants the world to be in awe, Then mediocre projects won't help this cause. Because nobody will ask about that city for such projects. No one will notice the city and also there can't be any growth. That's why if any city wants to keep itself at the forefront, Then they would have to move ahead with giant projects.
And with this thinking, Everything in Dubai started getting constructed on a larger scale. On the sand, where even making a room is close to impossible, All the best architects were called there and numerous buildings were constructed on sand. The whole city was built inside the sea by filling it with soil. It could only have been imagined in dreams, But Dubai constructed multiple islands in the desert. Where the construction was going on for all this, There was always a huge requirement for water as well. Such water management system was brought into shape for this, Which could make seawater drinkable.
And the water problem got resolved as well. They already had tax-free ports, Along with this, They made the whole country tax-free. Individuals and businessmen don't have to pay any tax in Dubai. Instead of taking taxes from common-man and businessmen, They used money earned from oil exports, tourism, and trade. Because of this, all the rich men around the globe, They shifted their businesses and headquarters to Dubai.
Now due to tourism and business, Many people have come to Dubai, Around 35 lac people live in Dubai. Out of which, Emirati permanent citizens are only 3 lacs. Even though more foreigners live in Dubai, But Dubai doesn't provide citizenship to foreigners. Dubai citizens can only be Arabians. Which had settled before 1925. Or whose parents are Emirati.
Emirati means a citizen of the UAE. And according to their rule, You won't get citizenship by just marrying an Emirati, Only females can get it through this way. Only after 7 years of marriage and having 1 kid. In case you don't have a kid, Then only after 10 years of marriage, you will get citizenship.
And males don't have this option to get citizenship through marriage. But there is one way through which foreigners can get citizenship. If any artist, scientist, or doctor is not from Dubai, Who had at least 10 years of experience, Who had got any reputated award, Or you are a reputed investor, Which doesn't have any criminal record, Dubai grants citizenship to foreigners in that case. But they don't get voting rights even after that. There are so many benefits of Dubai citizenship. Free education, Free health care, Housing allowance, cost of living allowance, All such facilities are provided.
It's kind of a monthly income. And if you work in any private sector, Then you also get top up of 1,50,000 INR. If you don't have a land then you can request the government, That you want land, then you can also get land. Dubai citizens get many job preferences and subsidies.
An Emirati citizen becomes a millionaire as they take birth without doing anything. All these facilities are given because they want Dubai citizens to be happy. Because if the citizens are not happy, Then people start asking about democracy. There were protests in the entire middle east during 2011. But there was no protest in Dubai at all. Because the citizens of Dubai don't want this system to change at all.
See! Dubai is an autocratic Islamic state. Where their citizens are very happy. But the journey of Dubai is not happy for everyone.
Very few workers were involved in making Dubai in such a short time. And all these workers are not citizens of Dubai, Rather they are from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and the Philippines. Their working conditions are not pretty good. The pay is less. And in many cases, employers misuse their situation. When foreign workers come to work in Dubai and other gulf countries, They can't come to work directly.
They come through a system, which is called the Kafala system. Through this system, Government permits employers of Dubai, That they can bring workers from other countries. After this permission, employers ask foreign workers by paying money for their tickets.
They also give them shelter and a salary. This Kafala system through which foreign workers come to DUBAI, Their employment and the staying Visa is linked. So in a way, instead of the government, The legal status of foreign workers is in the hands of a private individual.
Which means it goes in the hands of their employer. And it is a huge problem in this system. Because the employer, which brings workers after sponsoring tickets and other things, If their worker wants to leave work, Then it requires permission from the employer. For a foreign worker, leaving a job without permission is a crime, For this, he/she can be punished as well. Kafala System is depicted as Modern slavery in western media.
In this system, Sometimes employers keep passports, visa and phones of the workers. These workers live in overcrowded domes. In some cases, Contracts get signed by them through illegal ways. Because they don't understand their local language.
In some cases, their passports were sold to other employers. There was a report of Human rights watch in 2014. Which showcased the real situation of females, who faced abuse. The report says females were abused by their employers. They were not given wages. They were not allowed to talk to their family members.
They were forced to work 20 hours in a day. They were not allowed to sleep for more than 4 hours. They were not given holidays as well.
Also, there was no helpline no. where they could complain about all this. When there was so much criticism about this, UAE brought new workers protection law in 2017. Which improved things a lot. But when 'The Guardian' report came in 2022 It told us about Dubai's exposure, The foreign workers came there, their passports were snatched from them. And labor laws were not followed as well. Then questions started raising again.
See, Rules for male citizens are good here. But rules for female citizens are still very strict. In 2018, The daughter of Dubai's ruler, Sheikh Muhammad Bin Rashid Al Her princess Latifa ran away from Dubai and reached Goa through Oman.
And the Indian coast guard caught her as well. There she told, she came here after running away from her father. And she wants political asylum. But Indian special forces sent her back to Dubai by private jet. Later in 2021, She made a video secretly, Where she recorded it and said that her father has kept her under custody in Dubai. And her life is in danger.
Similarly in 2019, Princess Haya Bint al-Hussain, Wife of the ruler of Dubai Flew to England with her two kids. She was given asylum there. Similarly, Shamsa, Sister of Princess Latifa, disappeared during a vacation in July 2000.
She started living in London. But then she was kidnapped and brought to Dubai by private jet. And in June 2020, the UK court said her kidnapping was done by her own father. So Dubai appears like a modern city.
But still, there is conservative and authoritative rule. Dubai has progressed on many fronts. And many fronts are still lagging behind. But converting a desert land into a metropolis, is not less than a miracle.
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