Theories of technology | Wikipedia audio article
Theories. Of Technology. Attempt, to explain, the factors, that shape, technological. Innovation, as well as the impact of technology on, society. And culture. Most. Contemporary. Theories, of Technology, reject, to previous, views, the linear model of technological. Innovation. And technological, determinism. To. Challenge the linear model today's, theories, of technology, point to the historical. Evidence that technological, innovation. Often gives rise to new scientific. Fields, and emphasizes. The important, role that social networks, and cultural, values, play in shaping, technological. Artifacts. To. Challenge, technological. Determinism. Today's, theories, of technology, emphasize, the scope of technical, choice which, is greater than most laypeople, realize, as Science, and Technology, scholars, like to say it, could, have been different. For. This reason, theorists. Who take these positions, typically, argue, for greater public involvement. In technological. Decision-making. Topic. Social. Theories. Social. Theories, focus, on how humans, and technology, affect each other. Some. Theories, focus, on how decisions, are made with humans, and technology. Humans. And technology, equal, in the decision, humans, drive technology and, vice versa, the. Interactions. Used in a majority. Of the theories, on this page look, at individual, humans, interactions. With technology. But there is a subgroup, for a group of people interacting. With technology. The. Theories, described. A purposefully. Vague and, ambiguous since. The circumstances. For the theories, changes, human culture, and technology. Innovations. Change. Topic. Descriptive. Approaches. Social. Construction. Of Technology. Scot argues, that technology. Does not determine, human, action, but that human action shapes, technology. Key. Concepts. Include. Interpretive. Flexibility. Technological. Artifacts. Are culturally. Constructed, and, interpreted. By, this we, mean not only that, there is flexibility. In how people think, of or interpret. Artifacts. But also that, there is flexibility. In how artifacts. Are designed. Relevant. Social, group shares, a particular, set of meanings about an artifact. Closure. And stabilization. When. The relevant, social group, has reached a consensus. Wider. Context. The, socio, cultural and. Political situation. Of, a social, group shapes, its norms, and values which. In turn influence, the meaning, given to an artifact.
Key. Authors include, McKenzie, and Watchmen. 1985. Actor, Network theory, and posits. A heterogeneous, network. Of humans, and nonhumans as. Equal interrelated. Actors. It. Strives, for impartiality in. The description, of human and non-human actors. And the reintegration. Of the natural, and social, worlds. For. Example, Latour. 1992. Argues, that instead, of worrying whether we are anthropomorphizing. Technology. We should embrace it as inherently. Anthropomorphic. Technology. Is made by humans. Substitutes. For the actions, of humans and shapes, human action. What. Is important. Is the chain and gradients, of actors actions, and competences. And the degree to which we choose to have figurative. Representations. Key. Concepts. Include, the inscription, of beliefs practices. Relations. Into technology. Which is then said to embody them, key. Authors include, Latour. 1997. And Callen. 1999. Structuration. Theory, defines, structures. As rules and resources, organized, as properties, of social, systems. The. Theory employs, a recursive. Notion, of actions, constrained. And enabled, by structures. Which are produced, and reproduced by, that action. Consequently. In this theory, technology. Is not rendered, as an artifact, but instead, examines. How people, as they interact with the technology, in their ongoing practices. Enact, structures. Which shape their emergent, and situated. Use of that technology. Key. Authors include, De Sanctis and, Poole. 1990. And all akov ste. 1992. Systems. Theory considers. The historical. Development, of technology. In media, with an emphasis on, inertia and heterogeneity. Stressing. The connections, between the artifact, being built and the social, economic, political, and, cultural factors. Surrounding it, key. Concepts. Include reverse salience, when elements, of a system lag, in development. With respect to, others. Differentiation. Operational. Closure and autopoietic. Autonomy. Key. Authors include, Thomas P Hughes. 1992. And lumen, 2000. Activity. Theory, considers, an entire, work activity. System including. Teams. Organizations. Etc beyond. Just one actor, or user, it. Accounts, for environment. History, of the person, culture. Role of the artifact. Motivations. And complexity. Of real-life, activity. One. Of the strengths, of it is that it bridges the gap between the individual.
Subject, And the social, reality it. Studies, both through the mediating, activity. The. Unit of analysis in, it is the concept, of object-oriented. Collective. And culturally. Mediated. Human, activity, or activity. System. Topic. Critical. Approaches. Critical. Theory goes, beyond, a descriptive, account of how things are to examine, why they have come to be that way and how they might otherwise be. Critical. Theory, asks, whose interests, are being served by, the status, quo and assesses, the potential, of future alternatives. To better serve social, justice. According. To juices, definition. A critical, theory, then is a reflective. Theory which gives agents, a kind of knowledge inherently. Productive. Of enlightenment. And emancipation. 1964. Marquez, argued, that whilst matters, of technology, design are often presented as neutral, technical, choices in, fact they manifest, political. Or moral values. Critical. Theory, is a form, of archaeology. That attempt, to get beneath common, sense understandings. In order to reveal the power relationships. And interests, determining. Particular technological. Configuration. And use. Perhaps. The most developed, contemporary. Critical, theory, of technology. Is contained, in the works of Andrew, Fein Berg including. Transforming. Technology. 2002. Values. In design asks. How do we ensure a place, for values alongside, technical. Standards, such as speed, efficiency, and, reliability as. Criteria. By which we, judge the quality and acceptability. Of information. Systems, and new media. How. Do value such as privacy, autonomy. Democracy. And social. Justice become. Integral, to conception. Design, and development, not, merely retrofitted. After completion. Key. Thinkers, include, Helen Nissenbaum. 2001. Topic. Group theories, there are also a number of technology. Related theories. That address how media, technology. Affects group processes. Broadly. These theories, are concerned, with the social effects of communication. Media. Some. Eg, media, richness, are concerned, with questions of media. Ie, when, to use what medium, effectively. Other. Theories. Social. Presence side. Media. Naturalness, are concerned, with the consequences of those media, choices ie, what are the social effects, of using particular, communication. Media. Social. Presence, theory, short al. 1976. Is a seminal. Theory, of the social, effects, of communication. Technology. Its. Main concern, is with telephony. And telephone, conferencing. The research was sponsored, by the British, post office, now British, Telecom. It. Argues, that the social, impact, of a communication. Medium depend. On the social, presence it allows, communicators. To have. Social. Presence, is defined, as a property, of the medium itself, the degree of acoustic, visual, and physical contact. That it allows the. Theory. Assumes that more contact, will increase, the key components. Of presence, greater, intimacy. Immediacy. Warmth. And interpersonal, rapport. As a. Consequence. Of social, presence social, influence. Is expected, to increase in. The. Case of communication. Technology. The assumption, is that more text, based forms, of interaction email. Instant. Messaging, are less social, and therefore, less conducive, to social, influence. Media. Richness theory, daft, and L'Engle, 1986. Shares, some characteristics. With social, presence theory, it. Posits. That the amount of information, communicated. Differs, with respect, to a mediums, richness. The. Theory, assumes that resolving, ambiguity. And reducing, uncertainty are. The main goals of communication. Because. Communication, media. Differ in the rate of understanding. They can achieve in a specific time, with rich media carrying.
More Information. They are not all capable of resolving, uncertainty. And ambiguity well. The. More restricted. The mediums, capacity. The less uncertainty. And quiver callate, it is able to manage, it. Follows, that the richness of the media should be matched to the task so as to prevent. Oversimplification. Or complication. Media. Naturalness, Theory, Kok. 2001. 2004. Builds, on human, evolution ideas. And has been proposed, as an alternative to, media, richness theory. Media. Naturalness, theory, argues, that since, our Stone Age hominid, ancestors have, communicated. Primarily, face-to-face. Evolutionary. Pressures, have led to the development of, a brain that is consequently. Designed, for that form of communication. Other. Forms. Of communication. Are too recent and, unlikely to have posed evolutionary. Pressures, that could have shaped our brain in their direction. Using. Communication. Media, that suppress key elements, found in face-to-face. Communication. As many electronic. Communication. Media, do thus, ends up posing, cognitive, obstacles. To communication. This. Is particularly. The case in the context. Of complex, tasks. Eg, business process. Redesign, new. Product, development online, learning, because, such tasks, seem to require more intense, communication. Over extended, periods of time than, simple, tasks. Media. Synchronicity. Theory MST. Dennis, and Vala such. 1999. Redirects. Richness, theory, towards, the synchronicity. Of the communication. The. Social, identity. Model of deindividuation. Effects. Side, post, mise spears, in lis 1999. Riker, Spears. And post meas. 1995. Spears. And lis 1994. Was developed, as a response, to the idea that anonymity, and reduced, presence, made communication. Technology. Socially, impoverished. Or D individuated. It. Provided. An alternative explanation. For. These deindividuation. Effects. Based on theories, of social identity, eg. Turner. Al. 1987. The. Side model, distinguishes. Cognitive. And strategic. Effects, of a communication. Technology. Cognitive. Effects, occur when communication. Technologies. Make, salient. Particular. Aspects. Of personal, or social identity. For. Example, certain, technologies. Such as email, may disguise.
Characteristics. Of the sender, that individually. Differentiate. Them ie that, convey, aspects, of their personal, identity and, as a result, more attention, may be given, to the social, identity. The. Strategic, effects, are due to the possibilities. Afforded. By communication. Technology. To selectively, communicate. Or in that particular, aspects. Of identity, and disguise, others. Side. Therefore, sees, the social, and the technological. Is mutually, determining. And the behavior, associated. With particular, communication. Forms, as the product, or interaction. Of the to. Time. Interaction. And performance. Tip, McGraw. 1991. Theory, describes, work groups as time-based, multimodal. And multifunctional. Social. Systems. Groups. Interact, in one of the modes of Inception. Problem-solving. Conflict. Resolution. And execution. The. Three functions, of a group are production, towards a goal support. Effective, and well-being, norms, and roles. Topic. Other, stances. Additionally. Many authors, have posed technology. So as to critique, and/or, emphasize, aspects. Of Technology, is addressed, by the mainline, theories. For. Example Steve. Woolgar. 1991. Considers. Technology. As text, in order to critique, the sociology. Of scientific. Knowledge is applied to technology, and to distinguish. Between three responses, to that notion the instrumental. Response, interpretive. Flexibility. The, interpretivist. Response. Environmental. Organizational. Influences. The reflexive, response, a double, hermeneutic. Fathan. Berger, 1992. Treats, technology. As drama to argue, that a recursive. Structuring, of technological. Artifacts. And the social, structure, discursively. Regulate, the technological. Construction. Of political, power a. Technological. Drama is a discourse, of technological. Statements. And. Counter. Statements. Within. The processes, of technological. Regularization. Adjustment. And reconstitution. An. Important. Philosophical approach. To technology, has been taken, by bernhard Stiegler, whose work has been influenced. By other philosophers. And historians of. Technology. Including, gilbert, simondon and, andre Laroy göran. In. The, Schumpeterian. And neo Schumpeterian. Theories. Technologies. Are critical, factors of economic, growth Carlota. Perez. Topic. Analytic. Theories. Finally. There are theories, of Technology, which are not defined, or claimed by a proponent, but, are used by authors, in describing, existing. Literature in contrast. To their own or as a review, of the field. For. Example Marcus. And Robi, 1988. Proposed, a general, technology, theory. Consisting. Of the causal, structures, of agency. Technological. Organizational. Imperative. Emergent. Its structure. Variants, process. And the level. Micro/macro. Of analysis. All. Akatsuki. 1992. Notes, that previous. Conceptualizations. Of technology. Typically, differ over scope, is technology, more, than hardware. And role is it an external, objective force. The, interpreted. Human, action, or an impact moderated. By humans. And identifies. Three models. Technological. Imperative. Focuses. On organizational. Characteristics, which. Can be measured and permits, some level of contingency. Strategic. Choice focuses. On how technology is. Influenced, by the context. And strategies, of decision-makers. And users. Technology. Is a trigger of structural, change views, technology. Is a social, objective Sanctus. And pool. 1994. Similarly. Right of three views of technologies, effects. Decision-making. The view of engineer, is associated.
With Positivist. Rational. Systems. Rationalization. And deterministic. Approaches. Institutional. School technology, is an opportunity. For change, focuses. On social evolution. Social. Construction. Of meaning, interaction. And historical. Processes, interpretive. Flexibility. And an interplay, between technology. And power an. Integrated. Perspective social. Technology. Softline. Determinism. With joint social, and technological. Optimization. Structural. Symbolic, interaction. Theory bimba, 1998. Addresses. The determinacy. Of technology, effects, by distinguishing. Between the. Normative. An autonomous. Approach, where technology. Is an important, influence on, history only where society's, attached, cultural. And political meaning. To it eg, the, industrialization. Of society. Nomological. A, naturalistic. Approach where, in an inevitable, technological. Order arises, based on laws of nature, eg steam, mill had to follow the hand mill. Unintended. Consequences. A fuzzy, approach that is demonstrative. That technology. Is contingent. Eg, a car. Is faster, than a horse, but unbeknownst to its original creators. Become, a significant. Source of pollution.