The path toward net zero energy supermarkets and data centers | Cooling United Live

The path toward net zero energy supermarkets and data centers | Cooling United Live

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Hi and welcome to this session on toward  net energy data centers and supermarkets.   I have a very exciting panel here with  me today who's gonna talk about why it's   important to reach a net zero energy data centers  in supermarkets and how we actually gonna do it.   First off we will have Kevin Lane who is the  policy analyst for the IEA, the international   energy agency, who will present their view on data  centers and supermarkets and why it's important   from also a policy perspective.  Then secondly we'll have Drew Turner   presenting how we reach a net energy zero data  centers from a Danfoss perspective. In particular   from oil free perspective and then lastly we will  have Hans Ole Matthiesen in presenting how we   reach the same on a supermarket level. And so with  that Kevin i'll just pass pass it over to you.

Thank you very much Jonas. Yeah and thank you very much for the invitation  as well it's great to be part of this really   interesting series presentation with some  great content to follow. Also i'd like to   take the opportunity to welcome our attendees  as well and just to say wish that they're well   in this time of um health and economic crisis.  But what i'm going to talk to you today is more   about our climate imperative to try and reduce  carbon emissions by using energy more wisely and   specifically with respect to data centers and  supermarkets. If we look at energy related CO2   emissions around the world at the moment they're  probably around 33 gigatonnes this year might be a   little bit low because of the covert pandemic but  we're still pretty much on an upward trend. With  

policies at the moment we might level that off and  still leave it about 33 gigatons. However what we   really need to do is decarbonize carbonized  quite substantially by 2050 and maybe a bit   beyond that get to almost net zero emissions. And  to do that we're going to have to use a range of   measures whether that's increased efficiency  renewables and maybe some other technologies   as well. And that's to realize our sustainable  development scenario which we have the IEA. And  

that is to try and put the world on a pathway  towards 1.5 degree raise in temperature by the end   of the century. But also to reach our sustainable  development goals which is to help society in the   developing economies to have clean cooking and  better access to electricity. So some of the end   use technologies or measures that will be needed  are listed down there on the right whether that's   more efficient buildings maybe more renewables and  fuel switching included in there. So at the IEA we   also track a lot of these technologies. We track  46 separate ones in our tracking clean energy   progress and one of those is data centers and  networks. And at the moment they're one of the few  

technologies or sectors that are really on target  to meet this sustainable development scenario. So   data centers are in a good place in that  respect. They also overlap with some of the other   technologies as well perhaps demand response smart  grids as we'll see during the next hour or so. Okay if we look at data energy centers and data  centers and energy use, at the moment we think   that they're using maybe 200 terawatt hours as  our best estimate. And surprisingly that hasn't  

increased dramatically over the last 10 years.  And most of that is because of the switch to   very large scale data centers which are a lot  more energy efficiency. So the efficiency of   these products has doubled maybe every two years  it's quite incredible the efficiency improvements   that these have made. So it means over the  last 10 years, we've almost seen a 10-fold   increase in the use of data centers internet  traffic and yet we've managed to stabilize   electricity consumption around the world.  Which is about maybe one percent could be a   bit higher than up to two percent say of global  electricity demand going into data centers.   So perhaps there's not a problem globally in terms  of the energy consumption. However if you drill  

down to certain countries so for example here we  see Ireland and then and consumption over the next   10 years so data centers is going to be about 30  percent larger just because of data centers. So   for Ireland there's some reasons why data centers  have been put there whether it's better fiscal   conditions, be closer to some of the markets  but Ireland's one of the countries where you   will see a big rise. Denmark will also see maybe  a 15 increase in electricity due to data centers. So if we look at data centers there actually can  be very large now these hyper-scale data centers   which are run by a company like Google Facebook,  they've are very large requiring maybe 100-200   megawatts of power to run them and they're  consuming huge amounts of electricity. So there's   been quite a move to improve the efficiency and  there are some standard ways of improving them.   That's mainly around improving the cooling of them  and we'll hear a good presentation later on that.  

However there's other things that can be done.  One of them is that the these data centers they   actually very good at having adjustable load so  they can fit in very well with renewable energy   especially variable renewable energy. So we  see that a lot of these very large data centers   are purchasing a lot of renewable electricity. So  purchasing power agreements so you can see these  

big ICT companies like Facebook, Amazon,  Google, they buying significant amount of   renewable energy and they can manage that on  their sites. They can also be installing a lot   of renewable energy as well. As well as doing a  little bit of storage to try and manage that grid.   So they have got some opportunities um to  do that. However another really interesting   part of this is there's still quite a lot of i  guess waste heat coming from these data center.   And i think it's interesting to see how can we  use that to energy locally maybe combine it with   other sectors as well to make best use of of this  energy that we're putting into these data centers.

On a similar track i just want to show you  one side in supermarkets. If you look at   supermarkets they're probably consuming about  two percent of all electricity in Europe maybe   a bit higher. Could even be three four percent  across all industrialized countries. Unlike data   centers that there's they not a huge amount in  terms of megawatts consumption. However there   are just lots and lots of them. And typically for  an efficient um supermarket it might be using say  

400 kilowatt hours per meter squared and that  would be the case in say Denmark. It might be   higher in a country where there's more heating or  cooling. Or maybe where the hours opening hours   are a lot longer so say U.S.A or Canada. When we  look at the energy consumption maybe half of that   could be due to refrigeration equipment and then  there's all other ancillary equipment and heating,   cooling around the building as well that could be  needed and we'll see more detail on that later. In   terms of the broad opportunities for improving  efficiency well as all the components which are   relatively straightforward to do from a  policy perspective. We have good regulations   in terms of eco design, better information perhaps  incentives to try encourage more efficient uptake.  

But i think some of the interesting part is  how we try to optimize uh the system as a as   a whole. How do you better manage heating and  cooling and map that out better. But also even   integrating the demand of the grid as well i  think that's for both sets of applications. So in   addition to that then i guess that's how we manage  some of this waste heat. Can we again use it   nearby are there any other sectors we can use it  for. So i'd like to conclude basically by saying   yeah we have got a very large climate imperative  to substantially reduce our carbon emissions and   making our supermarkets and data centers more  efficient and smarter. We can is is definitely   one of the key things that we need to do.  For data centers i think we have they're  

pretty much on track. And we have got a good  idea of how to improve the efficiency. How to   match their demand with renewable electricity  maybe some storage and i think we started to   get some ideas of how to use way seat. Similarly  for supermarkets i think good opportunities exist   for both of those. I think the two presentations  that follow will give some a lot more detail and   some rather exciting ways of managing these. So  with this i'd like to hand back to you Jonas. Thank you thank you very much Kevin.  I thought it was very interesting to   to hear about the opportunities that you that you  see even though that you know you mentioned two to   four percent of total energy for supermarkets  and one and maybe a bit more of energy   in relation to data centers. It sounds like  there's still opportunities and maybe even  

opportunities going beyond the energy  efficiency side. And how to make these   two energy consumers an active part in the local  communities. I also noticed that there are some   specific opportunities. You mentioned Ireland and  Denmark and it really depends on local conditions.   And i think you also mentioned that this about the  large or the hyper data centers. And i know that's   something that our next speaker Drew Turner, he  will touch upon. So with that i'll leave it to to   Drew and just to say Drew is the global marketing  manager for oil-free solutions at Danfoss and   he has more than 20 years of experience within  this field. And so Drew i think yes perfectly.  

So i'll leave it to you Drew. Okay thank you  Jonas. Yeah thanks for the opportunity as well. So   and and thank you Kevin for really setting up  the presentation as well. So as Jonas mentioned   i'm from Danfoss oil free solutions and i'm  gonna be talking about getting to net zero data   centers with specifically with Danfoss oil-free  systems and the turbo core compressor technology.  

What we see in terms of design transfer data  centers is a combination of moving towards   free cooling or increasing the cooling temperature  and or reducing the heat rejection temperature.   And then also getting closer to the CPU. So it's  a combination of related factors that we see.   How they get lower in the heat rejection  temperature is a combination of factors also.   And it depends on the the solution  that's utilized. But what we see   is that especially when the data center. And  i'll get to this in terms of the segmentation  

of the market of data centers. But we see that  the market especially with the larger enterprise   as Kevin talked about. They have the geographic  location flexibility to put these data centers in   areas where they can reduce the heat rejection  temperature. But i'll talk a little bit more about  

that later. And then the cooling temperature  what we see is that as you have come to the   realization that or that has them as the market  and the application have come to the realization   that you're not cooling people here you're cooling  the equipment. That in turn means that you can go   higher temperature and also get closer to that  heat generation equipment. And so we see that   significantly impacting the design. And the  operating temperatures and then decreasing  

as i mentioned decreasing the heat rejection  temperature based on a combination of solutions   as well. The whole goal with cooling and  so for data centers the main goal is to   generate cooling first of all to cool, to reject  the heat from the it equipment itself, and how   they measure the efficiency of the data center  ties to that. How they measure the efficiency of   the data centers is what's called PUE or power  usage efficiency. And that in turn is driven by   the total facility power consumption annually  divided by the I.T equipment power consumption   annually. And what you see with data centers is  that they measure this in terms of both the design   as well as the real-time operation. Also resulting  in of course the annual as shown here. And as they  

measure that and they've come to the realization  that okay anything that's not you being used to   directly run or power the it equipment is waste.  And so the goal is to completely get rid of that   as much as possible or to lower it down. And  the result is as shown here you decrease the PUE   levels. And so specifically what's shown  here is an in or a decrease from around 1.4   to 1.3 to 1.25. But the critical side note is  the air cooled cooling resource as you see with   the power usage efficiency decreases. And the  progression of that. You see a corresponding  

decrease in the usage of the energy specifically  for the cooling equipment. Which in turn of course   means higher efficiency and the trends that i  talked about earlier and i'll detail more later.   But the main factor here and tying this back  to what i was mentioning on the first slide,   is the progression of technology that's utilized  for cooling of IT equipment or data centers.   So what we see is when data centers first came  into came into being roughly 25 to 30 years ago,   they were designing them basically the way that  you were designing a comfort cooling system.   And so with those comfort cooling system you have  an operating temperature that's driven by both the   sensible load of mechanical equipment or people  loads as well. But it's especially a sensible   load but then also the latent load. And latent  load is driven also by people as well as the  

ventilation error but especially the ventilation  error. If you only have sensible load which is   what an IT facility is or what a data center is,  then you can change that operation. And so that's   driven kind of driven the progression that we've  seen. So when room based cooling was first been   created for data centers, it was mainly DX. That  has evolved to of course the chilled water cooling   which is basically at maturity. And then row-based  cooling, getting the cooling closer to the IT   equipment and specifically the CPU that generates,  or central processing unit, that generates the   heat. Then as that progression moves on to  rack-based cooling and then all the ultimate  

solution here. But before that, that's getting  closer to the equipment and higher temperature.   Based on that sensible load. This one is based  on our free/Adiabatic Cooling is on the heat   rejection side. So lowering down the heat  rejection temperature to also increase the   efficiency. And what we see is that on the air  side that this is becoming much more prevalent.   Also on the mechanical or refrigeration side  as well with indirect adiabatic cooling or   evaporative cooling. The ultimate direction  that we see is that as you get closer and as  

you get higher temperature as you get closer  to the CPU and as you get higher temperature,   the ultimate goal is to potentially do direct  on CPU cooling either through liquid immersion   or a cold plate on the CPU or something  like that. But potentially without based   on that higher operating temperature without  mechanical cooling on the refrigeration side.   So that basically summarize or this basically  summarizes what i've been talking about. Getting  

to more efficient cooling and therefore better  PUE. That's the main focus of data center so far.   And on that specifically with the oil technology.  So this is where i transitioned to talking about   the Danfoss technology and specifically the  Turbocor® compressors for it and how it fits   with the both trends. So as you increase  the cooling temperature and as you decrease  

the heat projection temperature the result is  lower lift or lower differential temperature.   If you have equipment that  can operate at those minimal   differential temperatures, then  you have more efficient equipment.   The thing about oil-free systems whether  or not they're Danfoss-based systems or   systems based on other people's technology. But  if they're oil-free systems, they can in general  

operate at those lower lift or lower differential  temperatures and lower resulting pressure ratios.   And this is highlighting that. What you see on  the right hand side here is the operating map   with the suction temperature or the evaporator  coming into the compressor on the low side and   then the discharge temperature or the condensing  side on the high side on the vertical axis. And   the combination of those drives the pressure ratio  which is the dotted line here. And what you see is   that with screw compressors or other positive  displacement compressors where you have oil and   you have oil moving through the system and you  have to return that oil back to the compressor.   It is that differential pressure that drives  that return of the oil back to the compressor.  

If you have no oil with an oil-free system  with Turbocor® technology then you have no   oil to return and therefore you can theoretically  turn down further in terms of the pressure ratio   resulting in more efficient operation. That's why  you see whether it's again with our technology   or those of others. That oil-free technology  has become so prevalent in data centers today   because they are lowering down that heat  rejection temperature and they are increasing that   that cooling temperature and therefore  operating at the lower differential.   And therefore this technology is a perfect  fit to optimize the efficiency for it. And this just showing examples of our  compressor technology for those applications.  

The main point here and this is only true for  Danfoss today is that we have compressors that   are optimized to those specific conditions that  they will operate at. So we have a broad portfolio   whether it's for standard or medium lift or high  lift applications where you're in turn going to   higher differential temperatures and pressure  ratio. And our optimization to the standard lift   applications including work water coolers and  air evaporative cooled chillers or adiabatical   chillers, is this portfolio here optimized for  these lower lift designs. Well what we also see   is the medium lift utilized depending on the  heat rejection temperature. So if they can't   drive down the heat rejection temperature  and i'll come back to that in a minute,   then it's going to be more of a fit with the  medium lift operating temperature compressors. With the data centers and i talked  about this a little bit earlier   we see really two distinct directions. And  this is really driven by the segmentation  

of the data center market itself. What we  see is that with the co-location facilities   and and this is an oversimplification of  the market. But basically what we said is   there's two main business models with data centers  and they really fit with the design trend for them   as well both the cooling side as well as the data  center site itself. And with the first category,  

we categorize it as co-location. And  the co-location are the ones that are   managing data for others. And that as opposed to  that you have more the enterprise and cloud data   centers which are managing our in general managing  our own data. There's a lot of cross over here and  

it misses of course the other big trend that we  see around edge data centers which fit with both.   But it's a good segmentation relative to  what we're trying to get across here today.   And so with the co-location data centers  they're much more focused on increasing the   cooling temperature. And the reason for that is  because they have to be in the locations of their   customers. And that includes Phoenix, Arizona or  Rome or Guangzhou where you're or Singapore where   you're going to have a limited capability  to drive down the condensing temperature.  

And so they're focused much more on increasing  the cooling temperature to in turn drive better   efficiency and lower differential temperatures. As  opposed to that is the enterprise. And and Kevin   touched on this earlier, but the the enterprise  are getting bigger, bigger bigger, and bigger. And   this is true somewhat with the co-location as well  that they're getting bigger. But we see this much  

more the case with the enterprise data centers.  The other thing that's happening though as they   get bigger to these mega data centers are also  trying to locate them in the northern geographic   climates where they can drive down that condensing  temperature and get the efficiency that way.   They're also trying to increase the cooling  temperature much the same as co-location   but it's more critical and more possible to  drive down that condensing temperature. And   so that's why you see these data centers  being built in in Denmark and in Sweden   where they can drive down that condensing  temperature. So in terms of bringing it all   together. They're trying to data centers are  trying to push up the cooling temperature,  

drive down the condensing temperature, and  there's a difference in what we see with the   enterprise data centers versus the co-location  data centers in their main focus on doing that. What's really been missing from this discussion  and what's missing entirely from a PUE measurement   is the rest of the story of how you get to a net  zero data center. And that's where we come in.   And that's where we're advocating a change to  how they did the systems. And you already see   this happening also in some of these new data  centers that are being created in Denmark and   Sweden for example. And what they're doing  or what we see as the biggest opportunity   is to capture the heat rejection. And Kevin  touched on this briefly a little bit earlier.   But when you're capturing that heat rejection  it's much better to tie it to a district energy   system so that you can fully utilize that  heat that becomes available. Because that's  

higher than the capacity than the cooling system  itself and i'll come back on that. But if you   integrate into a district energy system, it also  provides a much better solution for the overall   heating and cooling market. With a natural  progression of electrification of heating,   what we see is that the realization is  coming about also that for both cooling   and for heating all you're doing is moving heat.  And so when you realize that symbiosis aspect   that you're just moving heat from the cooling  side to the heating side then you integrate in   those systems. And when you integrate in those  systems, then you drive the both the cooling   as well as the heat recovery based on the  full capacity of what's possible with that.  

And when you do that it's best to tie into a  district energy system on the high side or on the   heating side. So they can make full use of that.  That district heating system also enables multiple   options for thermal storage which also become more  important and i'll talk about that in a minute.   And on-premise renewable production. So renewable  production becomes much more flexible in terms of  

where you can integrate it into the system. And  also with the oil-free solutions it also enables   the ability to utilize the lowest GWP refrigerants  available on the market. But with the district   energy grid a couple things i want to point out  here. And this is just showing an example of that.   With the red line of course showing the district  heating supply line or the high temperature and   then the yellow line or oranges yellow showing  the return line or the after the heat has been   utilized at the facility. But what we see is that  with the integration of more heat pumps into the  

district energy grid that there's much more of  a focus on the symbiosis aspect applications.   Where as opposed to a centralized heat pump system  you have the opportunity to generate the heat   based on heat recovery at a higher temperature  which in turn means a more efficient heat pump.   And also the another thing that i want on here is  because these renewables are only available when   they want to be the wind's only blowing when it  wants and the sun's only shining when it wants.   It becomes very critical on the demand  side to reconnect that supply and demand.   And how you do that is by a combination of storage  which i touched on a little bit earlier but also   creating demand response flexibility in terms of  critical facilities and operating their backup   power systems. And what you'll notice is that a  majority of these cooling systems whether it's   industrial process heat recovery, food retail heat  recovery, or hospital heat recovery, or as we're   talking about today data centers most of these  are critical facilities meaning that they have   on-site backup power generation anyway. Utilities  are already working with these guys to be able to  

incorporate them in their demand response  program such that they can run those backup   power systems when the winds not blowing or the  sun's not shining. Now if you integrate it in   with a district heating grid you also supply the  heating to the city based on that same backup.   So the summary or the theme here is instead  of what we see and this is showing the example   from back on the co-location data center instead  of moving to higher or just higher temperature   cooling and keeping the heat rejection at the  same temperature or lowering it down in the case   of the enterprise, you take that enterprise data  center and you increase the heating temperature   up to where this profile or the overall  differential temperature is roughly the same   as the first generation data centers and  generating cooling with an air cooled chiller   and cooling at the comfort cooling temperatures.  But now instead of just generating cooling   what you're doing is generating the heating as  well and capturing all that heat and supplying   it to the district heating system. And also  generating all the revenue associated with this.   So again as i was talking about with  data centers they're focused on PUE   to improve the efficiency of their systems to  improve the profitability of their business. And   they're very sensitive about sharing  that PUE information because it also   implies what they should be selling their data  services ar. And if you add in an additional  

revenue source to that it significantly  improves their business model as well.   So instead of just focusing on PUE and optimizing  that and their revenue source strictly based on   those data services, you can add to that the heat  recovery and the associated supply to the district   heating system selling it to the district heating  system. Or as an alternative business model and of   course i know data centers are sensitive to this  to letting anybody in but if the district energy   utility is allowed to, they can come in and  operate that system to deliver cooling to the data   center and then recover the heat to the district  heating system. That being the primary business.   And for that higher lift application of  course we have a portfolio of compressors   optimized to those as well. And that's the  other thing that we want to highlight is:  

with these optimizations it's not only the  low lift and it's not only the medium lift   that i talked about earlier it's also the high  lift. And what we see for these heat recovery   applications and for a specific industrial  cooling example that we just worked on,   some combination of these compressors is  the optimal solution for any one of those   applications. So for that entire process which  is going to be very similar to a data center   at a little lower cooling temperature,  the optimal solution was medium pressure,   optimized compressor, optimized compressor  designs for the low stage of a series counter   flow arrangement of those chillers and heat  pumps. And then the high lift compressors   designed for the high stage, optimized for that  and the operation or the generation of heat   on the high stage. The other thing or the  final thing that i want to highlight is: i've  

talked a lot about compressors. We have a broad  portfolio and expanding portfolio of compressors   optimized to these applications whether it's  cooling only or cooling in heat recovery.   The other thing that we like to highlight is that  we design all of the components in the Danfoss   portfolio specific to these applications.  So whether it's our liquid level sensors or   solenoid valves, check valves, heat exchangers  etc. They're designed to operate the most   reliably and efficiently for the applications  that they're designed that they're targeting.   That means that we test all of those components  in the specific refrigerant environment,   an oil-free environment, and the applications  that they're going to end up being utilized   in. That's as opposed to competition which  generally tests all those components in dry air,  

which is not reflect and guarantee reliable and  efficient operation in an oil-free application   and with the refrigerants we utilize.  And with that i'll take it back to Jonas. Thank you, thank you very much Drew. I think it's  very interesting to hear the latest trends that   you're seeing in the market for data center moving  closer to the to the CPU and thereby increasing   the the efficiency due to the temperature  difference in the CPU that you're seeing. And   it's also quite interesting to hear you know that  the oil-free solution is actually a quite good fit   for data centers. And it's very  important to optimize them specifically   for both the the local needs as we heard a bit for  that Kevin mentioned but also for the so meaning   you know the city or or wherever it's placed. But  also for the for the data center and the size and  

and that specific data center. And i think it's  also quite interesting to hear about how you can   optimize you could say the general effectiveness  of the full system. So integrate it into the   district heating system and thereby creating new  business models for data center owners. And on  

that note i would like to to pass pass it on to  Hans Ole Matthiesen who will then talk more about   this new business model and how we see it from a  supermarket perspective. But also talking about   how we actually today going to net zero energy  for the supermarkets. So Hans Ole over to you. Hans Ole, i think you have to turn your mic on.   Ah there we go thank you, thank you Jonas.  Yes so supermarkets of course are also   extremely important as you mentioned  and as Kevin pointed out they   are accounting for between two and four percent  of global electrical electricity consumption.  

So what can we do about supermarkets, and is  it possible to get to net zero on supermarkets?   So we of course have been looking into these  questions and we found that it should be possible.   But let's look at this example here. So  we found some steps to get to net zero.   When we talk about net zero we talk about  net zero billable energy consumption.   And that's both the thermal and the  electrical side that we combine there.   And the steps that we use first  basically you need to reduce consumption,   then reuse whatever you can by recovering  the heat from the refrigeration system.   We need to create, so to generate some energy  on the premises so through renewable generation.  

We can then also flex. So that means that we  can use the the energy in the most flexible way   with the demand side management as well. And  then finally to make the equation go to zero,   then we need to export excess heat. So for this  to make the case we're looking at a discounter.  

This discounter is located in northern Europe.  It's a 1200 square meter store. And the energy,   the average power of the store, the average  consumption is shown on the right here.   Over the year it of course it varies from winter  to summer and day and night but on average it's   pulling about 38 kilowatts in the store. So a  large part of that going to the refrigeration,   a greater part even going to the heating, and then  lighting and miscellaneous loads. Miscellaneous   loads could be everything from bake off cash  registers and trash compactors for example.   So the first thing that we need to do or the  let's say what we call the fruit on the ground   is basically to reduce the energy consumption.  And there are many ways to do that. The chart  

on the left here is basically a study  done by the German association of   mechanical engineers. And what they've done  here they plotted hundreds of stores the energy   consumption of hundreds of stores against each  other. And they've also plotted them based on   the year that they were built. And what we can see  here is that the average of all the stores is the   top red line. And the baseline or the average of  stores built in 2017 is the middle dotted line.  

And what we've done in this example is t draw  from one of our test sites. Where we plotted the   energy consumption of that store using our  new CO2 adaptive liquid management system.   And basically what we do here is similar to what  Drew was mentioning. We're trying to raise the  

suction temperature and lower the condensing or  gas cooling temperature of the system and thereby   using less energy. And what we found there was  that we could actually reduce the consumption by   25 on the baseline of 2017. 50 percent reduction  on the market average on the refrigeration side.   So quite a reduction actually. But it's not just  about refrigeration. We also need to look at   other sources of energy. And where we can save  and certainly lighting in the scenario. Many   retailers have already switched to LED  lighting. That's absolutely necessary  

and LED lighting is not just LED lighting, there  are also different different types of lighting.   But going to high efficiency lighting, you can  reduce the consumption by 40 over fluorescent.   In terms of heating, of course it's  important to insulate the store well. But   what is also interesting is that if we can reuse   the energy from the refrigeration system so reuse  the condensing side of the refrigeration system,   then we can, the best way to do that is  we have if you have a low temperature   heating system. So floor heating or even a  ventilation fan coil where you basically make   sure that you have a low return temperature on  the hot water going back to the recovery system.  

And this is really a precondition to  have efficient heat recovery in a store.   The last bit here is about  the auxiliary equipment.   And of course it's important to have an energy  management system in the store. And here you know   monitoring the system for example with the  Danfoss Alsense services, that you can basically   you know turn off the lights, turn off those  loads if they're still running. It could be   bake off equipment where you have ovens that  are not being turned off by the people in the   store. Here we have the ability to go in and do  something. And based on our experience there is  

the opportunity here to save about 30 percent  additionally on the other loads in the store.   So just by reducing energy we're taking, we're  shaving off the first eight kilowatts from these   38 kilowatts. And by the way Kevin mentioned  something interesting and that was an efficient   store it uses about 400 kilowatt hours per square  meter per year. And that's pretty much where we at   on the baseline store that we're talking  about here. So it's very very close. So the next point here is to basically reuse or  to recover the heat from the refrigeration system.  

And we can do that. We can cover the  heating demand. We can even do more.   Without even raising the discharge pressure or  changing any settings on the refrigeration system   per se. We should be able to cover about 30  to 50 percent of the heating demand. Of course   this depends on where you are in the world. The  more northern latitudes, you will have a higher   heating demand. And southern latitudes lower  heating demand. So there is a range of course.   But our experience shows that basically  wherever we are if we can tweak the system   a little bit then we can also cover the full  demand. And for example in this case we could   raise the discharge pressure by about 10 bar  and by doing so increase the useful energy   by 50 percent. And this is roughly 15 percent 20  percent increase in the rack energy consumption.

But this is very low compared to the amount of  heat that we get out. So by increasing the energy   consumption of the compressors by 1.2 kilowatt  we're getting about 30 kilowatt extra heat   out useful energy. So at a higher temperature  level basically. And by regulating the discharge   pressure you know we can thereby meet the  heating demand and to do that we've also   created a standard unit. So something that's  simple for the retailers to to install something   that is basically recovering the heat when it's  available. And buffering it in these stratified   tanks, buffering tanks. So it's actually an energy  storage system that we're installing here and a  

heat central. This actually won the solar impulse  efficient solution in 2018. And it's able to   provide hot hydronic hot water for the store. It  has also the pump shunt. It's able to integrate   to district heating systems. It's able to  provide heating to neighboring buildings.   And it's also integrating to the refrigeration  system. So basically this is a standard product  

that the retailers can install both in new stores  or in retrofit stores. And you can see here we're   saving 15 kilowatts of heating here. So now we've  really managed to reduce the consumption of this   store and just to illustrate this. You know we  have a lot of cases here in northern Europe where  

we have installations that are running well. I  asked the colleague of mine uh Preben Bertelsen to   go and to visit one of these sites just  to show you what it looks like. He was out   there yesterday morning. This is a store, Menu,  supermarket in northern Denmark. And here he is.   I'm standing in the north of Denmark.  And i'm standing in the front of   a pretty new supermarket. It's two  years old. It's from the chain Menu. And  

it's placed here in the north of Denmark.  It's a cold area close to the coast.   I'll try to go inside this shop and  see if i can find Christian West.   I know from research that this shop is something  like 1600 square meters. That it is equipped with   the refrigeration system. It's capable of moving  96 kilowatts on the empty. And 25 kilowatz on the   LT. And that's actually all i know. So let's  go and have a look. Now i'm inside the shop  

and i'll just show you how it looks like. It's  a pretty nice shop. Looks like a standard nicer   Danish supermarket with the delicacy department.  I'm standing here together with Christian West,   the owner of the shop. And i'm gonna ask him how's  the business. And what is his experience with this   installation with. We got the units two  years ago almost. And it's been going so   far it's been going really good. We have been  making all the heat for the store for sixteen  

hundred square meters all for ourselves.  And haven't bought anything plus we sold   in the summertime. We sold to the local heating  company. So we get a little payback from them.   We use it for hot water, air condition and floor  heat in our back rooms. So it's been really really   good for us. Okay that sounds good. Thank you  very much Christian. Yeah. It's been running well  

and without any problems for these this period  and he hasn't bought any heat from the district   heating system at all during these two years.  So he's a happy owner of this system. Yeah so   this was an interesting story just from standard  supermarket basically. And this chain Menu has   decided basically to install these units in all of  their new stores. And we also have retailers that   are installing them in all of their sites. So in  the retrofit stores as well. This is no issue. And interesting to see also that now they're not  only selling food but they're also selling heat   from the store. So really becoming an energy  prosumer in this case. The next item here is  

of course to to generate or to create  electricity and this of course can be   done in different ways. What we see is that the  photovoltaics is probably the best way to go.   As on supermarkets you have a very  large surface area that can be used so   placing photovoltaic panels on the roof is a good  idea. In the store that we should showed here   the total surface area was 1200 square meters  on the roof of the store. And in this case   we're installing a system that is able to cove the  load and not more than the peak load of the store.   So in this case it's an array that's about  half of this the roof area 600 square meters.   And on the average over the year it will  produce six kilowatt. That will be then  

the average reduction that we can get. The peak  production however would be around 100 kilowatt.   So in order to manage that of course we need  to combine that with a battery system. So that   at midday on the sunny midday summers, summer day,  that we can actually store that energy and use it.  

And not to run out of space either on the battery.  So this is what we have also done. I'll introduce   another case where we have done this. Where we've  installed our inverter technology and also lithium   ion battery system photovoltaic array. There's  also electrical vehicle chargers in the store. And we're also using a refrigeration system a  CO2 refrigeration system with heat recovery.   This project and the work that we do here it's  also in part together with SMA. And also on the  

let's say the service side, we also  have have a cooperation with Microsoft.   For this example i want to to go to Germany,  northern Germany and Oldenburg where we have   installed a system in an active Irma store.  And so what have we done in Oldenburg. So   basically in this store we installed also  this 99 kilowatt peak system on the rooftop.  

And it produced i think last year 112 megawatt  hours of electricity. And as i mentioned it's   best that it can put it can consume most of  that itself. And it consumed 98 percent of   the electricity itself. And what it didn't consume  itself it was then sold back to the grid. So this   accounted for a savings of 14 000 euro in that  year. And then on top of that what we can do   is we can begin to play around with with the  battery. And we do that in this store where we   basically shave peak demand at midday. So when  you have the the warmest hours of the day,  

we can reduce the energy consumption of the  store. And of course the energy consumption   at the peak hours is is relatively more  expensive. So by shaving the peak hours by   flexing if you like, we've also provided savings  of an additional 3000 euros in this store.   And what else can we do? So going forward  basically we're starting to look at also   incorporating the cooling system. We're using our  Alsense system to, so monitoring and services,  

to basically monitor the store. We  monitor everything: all the electrical   consumption of the store, heat production,  portable heat take production and so on.   And by incorporating the refrigeration system in  we could also provide load shifting. And this will  

require some artificial intelligence, AI. Where we  can look at different patterns and then begin to   reduce the temperature for example of the frozen  foods at certain times of the day. And then let   it float up. We can also shift defrosts  and other things to really actively manage   the energy consumption of the store. So these  are some of the things that we'll be doing   going forward and that we're already  beginning to experiment with.

Finally, we can transform the store  into a power station. So the last   bit to get down to zero net we basically  use the refrigeration system to its full   potential. And in areas where you have  district heating or where you're placing   the store in an apartment building or offices  shopping centers you can actually use the heat from the refrigeration system. In fact the  refrigeration system it's a 60 kilowatt system   and on average it's only using maybe 20 or 30  percent of that capacity. And that's of course   because it's dimension for the warmest day of the  year. If you can imagine that you could put an   extra let's say air source heat load on external  to the building. Then you can actually run the  

refrigeration system as a heat pump. So you're  not sacrificing anything inside the store the   food quality is taken care of. But you're able  to actually actively provide heat to the grid   when it's needed. And if only 35 percent of the  capacity is used then we reach net zero energy.   So quite an interesting story in fact we would get  to yeah negative energy consumption. We would be   producing energy from this store net production.  So all in the end doing more with less.  

And these are technologies that are available  today. So there's really no reason not to do this.   It's you know it's getting to higher energy  efficiency on-site generation and storage.   And then basically there are things that we can  do even going further. So not only optimizing   the energy bill but we could also optimize in  terms of carbon intensity and other things. We  

can play around with a primary reserve capacity  providing fast frequency response to to provide   grid services peak load shifting and even  seasonal buffering. Could be a potential here.   So this is all helping to reduce carbon footprints  and energy bills. And with that back to you Jonas.   Thank you thank you very much Hans. I  think it was very interesting insight to   how we're working with supermarkets on  a daily from a holistic perspective.   I like the idea about reduce reuse and create  flexibility and at the end also the opportunity   to export. And i hope that the viewers  and the listeners here enjoy the  

behind the scenes sort of insight to what  is possible today and what we can do.   And also listening to how that there are there  are these synergies between data centers and   supermarkets. Even though it's not quite obvious  but something that they can learn from each other.   And those are the discussions that we would  like to to take with you further so i would   encourage everyone listening in to reach out  to either me or one of my colleagues. And if   not then i hope you get a very nice rest of the  conference. Thank you very much for participating. you

2021-01-05 09:30

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