The Open University’s Course A305 and the Future of Architecture Education

The Open University’s Course A305 and the Future of Architecture Education

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Good. Afternoon we're um we're, gonna try to get started, right away because, we have a very. Full program but, we also have faculty. And students, who have to, leave. Promptly. At, the end so, we'll get started, expect, some people to walk in late, and that's fine but. I'll go get started so, this is an event that. That. Comes out of an. Exhibition. At the Canadian, Centre for architecture on. The architectural. Pedagogy, of the, Open University which. Began in the 1970s. And then, the director of Mirko sardini put together a series of programs. As kind of followed, up to, take, the, exhibition. As a kind of grounding. Point and then, go to various, school you've been to various schools, to. To, look at it how the, legacy of Open University either. Intentionally. Or let's. Say genealogically. Can, be connected. In some ways to current. Education, and also, unless, our title the, future the future river of, Education, we, have some very, two very special guests. Visitors. Miracle. And I'm gonna be, very brief in my introductions. I'm gonna introduce everyone, so. That we can get on with the program Mirko. Sardini, is the, director. Of the Canadian Centre for architecture he's, been there since 2005. Trained. As an architect Mirko, is a very, long-standing friend, of the GSD, he was on our visiting, visiting. Committee he's actually made some very important, from. The visiting committee made some very important. Suggestions. Demands. May I say. For. For. And. Some things went, right this this, it's to his credit the. Other special guest is a person, who actually began. Or was, among the, founders. Of. Open. University of Tim Benton and we'll hear from him soon, tim has taught at many places including the in the state's Columbia, and Clark. Clark. Institute, at Williams College. But, as I said the, course, a 3:05, he, was one of the founders. And main, lectures, we. Have two other special, people from, inside Lisa, Hebert Thompson, is. Design, critic, and architecture, this year with, our core, program. She's, actually a PhD, student just. About to graduate. And. Is looking exploring. Relationships. Between law. Architecture. The idea of territory, and I would say bio politics.

And, So, so we looked she, Oh what, am I saying the one. Of the main reasons she see her since she and I did together, the. Harvard. X course are the architectural imagination. So, she's very involved. With issues. Of pedagogy. She's also with Meghan Panzano, one, of the coordinators. Of our undergraduate, program, and architecture, studies so. And. Then and then John May a founding. Partner along, with saying occur with him of the. Architecture, office millions, and also, director, of our, master. Of design studies, so again also, interested, in pedagogy, but in particular, John's, AIA idea, of the post, orthographic. Intelligence. That is now as we're moving forward into digital, post, perspectival. Post orthographic. Design. Education in particular and we'll try to hook some of these ideas back, to the. Open University like. Legacy, Mirko. So. Thank you Michael and thank you to just D for having taken, this provocation that. We. Made to some universities. We. Did this program. Research. Project, program exhibitions. Books, on, the open university for three, main reason, one is to. Analyze what is the role of. Education. And university today, if. You compare with that example for you the. Second is which, is the. Role. Of the tools in, shaping education. And the third. Is. Can. We make a comparison of a. History. Architectural. Course in 1970s. And a theory, and history you, already notice the difference, of. Today each. University, we, did that, mantra. Toronto, he, Michigan. Will. Do something for : with Columbia to each. University has given a different reputation, to this kind of provocation so that is that reason, we are here today but. I just want to go. A little bit deeper on one. Point. Why. Do we do that so I wanted to redo some. Title. Of, newspapers. About, university. Education that came out US. And, Europe in, the last years. Newer. Times. Graduate. Education is, the Detroit of higher learning. The. Italian. Post willfully. Mentor the University, the failure of University. Le. Monde la, reformed the University, and catastrophe, and. The. Telegraph bright. Britain's, University, must change to survive, so. I feel that behind, this, Open. University and. Behind. These. Massive. Open online courses. There. Is a bigger, question that. I think that, we, have to address and, just to mention a, very important, contribution, that, Marilyn. Robinson made. On New, York Review books. She. Was really addressing, the issues of the mandated universities. Questioning. The water she called that the fabian. Models, so the. Idea that university. Are, today. Here, to produce skill, elaborate, for, precarious. Every, spent in knowledge economy and. Questioning. That in, name of, university, that was able to produce a, critical. Much. More critical understanding of, the reality, we are part of, so. The. Open University, with. Is, political. And social mandate, is. A clear, example. That. We. Can confront the with if. We look at what, is the situation of a contemporary, education not only North America, but more, more all over the world and, I, just want to, remind, you that. 43%. Of, the, students were. Women. That. 15%. Were. Our wife. 3%, tradesmen. 2%. Of farming, mining, or. Manufacturing. Laborers. 11%. A clerical, and office. 4%. Were salesman and 2%. Really, is an unemployed person and, up, University, was also, followed by students, in the, British presence at. That time with. The tutors following. Them also in their condition so it's very I just give you these figures to remind. You of a, political. Social mandate that was behind this. Social. Democratic, project. That came out in, England, in the 70s. And. I. Think that the best way to continue, about that is to live the. War, to tim Banton, to, go deeper in the open university, discussion. Thank. You Mika thank, you Michael, for this invitation to, come to, come here and talk about the. University it makes me feel a bit guilty hearing, make up because and and, Michael as well because I'm not talking about the present this is the voice of the past this was a course that was made when most of you weren't born, so. And. The. Open University is, no longer like. It was then, that's, me at the age of 27, filming. The villa Sawa. To. Follow up on these now, how do I advance, right.

To Follow up on these brief remarks I've been given 20 minutes so I need to try to stick to that and that's why I'm going to read I hate reading but, otherwise if I start anecdote. Iing it'll we'll be here all day I urge. You to read Joe Kim's book, which is what we saw on the image. Before or any, of the. Histories. Of the Open University like, that one that I can give you show you there a. Three. Or five history. Of architecture and design 1890. To 1939, was. An Open University of, third level undergraduate, course and. Like most undergraduate teaching, that takes place behind closed doors open. University, courses sometimes had a public life that escaped, their original intentions, and ambitions. It, was discussed in the British, and European, media. Yes. French. And German. By. A strange twist of fate. The. Course was also exhibited, at the Venice Biennale in, 1976. In. The the CAF Oscar II and by, an even stranger twist of fate appeared. Is one of a series of turkin representations. In, a more recent Biennale. As part of Beatrice kala Minas radical. Pedagogy's, exhibit, in. 2014. Not. Particularly, radical in its content, the course, was part of the radical not to say, revolutionary. Especially, at the time educational. Adventure but. Was and is the Open University in, Great Britain, so. In this brief. Intervention, I will. Try to explain first-year University, then. A 305, and finally, fought their worth my, views of the value of the moving image in teaching, architectural, history, the theme of today's discussion. The. Open University emerged. From, a particular moment in British labour politics, in, 1969. When. The traditional, Left merged. With a managerial, political, elite convinced. That the modern technologies, available to capitalism, could, deliver benefits to the working classes, Jenny. Lee on the right widow. Of the Labour firebrand, nie Bevan was, the stimulus and Prime, Minister Harold Wilson next. To her the enabler. The. Open University is, a university. Like any other in Britain as, I say we have a Royal Charter giving. Us independent. Authority, to award degrees that. Undergraduate. And postgraduate, level, we. Are open to people places. Methods. And, ideas there. Are no entrance examinations. Students. Register, themselves. Although. It suited both the government and popular. Journalism, to, describe the area as the University of the air it. Has always been primarily a correspondence, university, teaching. With texts, that we write and either, print ourselves, or, Co publish for. Example almost all the art history courses since, the 1990s, have, been published, by Yale University, Press and, you can buy the books in a bookshop or, consult, them in the library. This. Is some of the. Right. This it this is the. This. Is some of the used. Current, good news propaganda. The. Oh you began with five faculties, science, technology, education, arts, and social sciences our courses. Are arranged in levels, as. 2nd and 3rd corresponding. To levels of difficulty, equivalent. To the three years of a conventional, degree. Originally. One. Foundation caused by faculty to interdisciplinary. Cultural studies early, modern and enlightenment followed. By third level specialist courses of. Which a 305 was the first in, the department of art history, but. Students who have widely different backgrounds, are, generally free to choose which courses they take and in. Which order. Do. You covers, England Wales Scotland, and. Northern Ireland. Which is actually a problem, nowadays because these are considered. Nation, dependencies. We. Also have around 7,000, students in Europe and around the world and in. 2010. When I retired, the, university as a whole had. 250,000. Students, with I far the biggest university in Britain. Up. Until 2010. Students, paid around 800. Pounds to take a credit a credit. Is a year's work part-time, so you can consider it a semester, of full-time, teaching. You. Needed six of these for a degree but you could get credit exemption. If you had post-school academic, qualifications, from, a nursing certificate to, a full degree and 40%, of our students, by, the. 2000. Or so were. Studying who already had a full degree or, coming back to to. Lifelong, learning. Every. Student was. Sorry, Adam every. Student was a member of a, student group of. Up to 25, who knew that tutors, who had tutors and knew them on first-name. Terms if. They, lived in the town they would meet their tutor more or less regularly, for seminars or day schools but.

The Essential teaching contact, was, through assessment. Students. Rate and, still write monthly, TMA's, tutor. Marked assignments, which. The tutors grade and comment, on, there's. Also a three-hour examination, at the end of some, courses held, in traditional, in ventilated, conditions. Successive. Labour and government and conservative, governments have undermined higher, education, in general preferring. To pay off the national debt rather. Than invest in its people and, this has hit the EU hard because, ours is a capital, intensive business, since. I retired the university has had to raise its fees from around 800 pounds to, nearly three thousand pounds and if you think of a domestic, budget, 800. Pounds is something you can save for three, thousand pounds is the family holiday or preparing. To buy the next car. So. The, as a result the student numbers have plummeted have. Gone down by a third since, then. This. Is hit do you heart because ours is a capital intensive business I said we. Had a contract, with the BBC. Which. Paid them to produce a certain number of TV, and radio programs per year and the, resources were allocated by, a broadcasting. And audio-visual subcommittee. Which, I actually sat on for nearly 20. Years. According. To bids the individual. Departments division individual, course teams submitted, you, can see here some of the programs. Allocated. To, different courses in 1975. Including. A 305, the one I've grade we had twenty full of television programmes which, are transmitted, on BBC two, twice a week anybody. Could see them and we, had 32 radio, programs which were also transmitted. Twice a week anybody, could listen to them and, you see, I mean the foundation, courses had the best education foundation. Courses in the arts faculty had, between, 6,000 and 9,000, students. The. Official view in the was the broadcasting, material, was per ephemeral, and therefore. Could not be considered essential. We. That is a 305. Course team pioneered. The use of broadcast. Notes. Preparing. Students to watch or listen and providing, notes of key information as, well as exercises, for. Revision, this. Is an example of the exercises, we have a series of questions and then. Usually. Some some discussion, afterwards. Whatever. Students, did with these. Surveys. Show that they will appreciated. The broadcast notes and, was, especially used in preparing their tutor, marked assignments, and the examination. We. Also. Those. Of us who who examined, the end-of-year, examinations. And looked at the TMA's realized. That, a long. Before the widespread ownership. Of video recorders, students. Typically, selected, topics vividly. Described, in, the media in TV, or radio programmes even, six months later so, it's not true and. My. Course is actually one of the ones that actually helped, to change the university's, views. On this it's not true that the meet. Ephemeral. If they're done well and if you're providing good preliminary. And backup material, they. Will leave their mark and actually be any very important, part of teaching. We. Later had a messy divorce, from the BBC and our, role unfortunately, now is to subsidize programs, they want to make with, little contribution from us for, the general audience the University believes that just having a small credit at the end of, a BBC programme is worth about. 10 million pounds a year we. No longer teach through the BBC but we still make audio and moving image programs, transmitted. In various ways with, the usual panoply of social media connections, before. I retired, I made an entirely online short course on heritage studies in the university, has been making online courses for some time, the. Course was quite well appreciated, the only thing the students didn't like about it was that he was online and they couldn't study paper documents, and they, were printing, out screen. Grabs, so. They, could study on the bus and study. At home and and scribble. On things and use their and tried, and tested, methods. It's. Great that universities, offer teaching material by their experienced, and talented staff to, a wider audience, the. öyou does is - with it's opened loan program with, 50 million visitors and it's, iTunes, contributions.

With, 78, million hits but. University, education does not stop. Short at, teaching it, requires learning, learning. Does not take place until students, have digested, and mastered. The material, learning. Involves framing, questions, discovering, selecting. And, organizing, information, assembly. Of this information, in the service of a coherent and persuasive. Argument that, includes a discursive element weighing, up alternative propositions, in, conventional, University, students have libraries and specialist book shops sometimes. To, consult the. öyou promises that you can pass our course courses. With what we give you I'll. Try to demonstrate how this works in, a, 3:05. For, a 3:05, well, remember this is a seminar, one. Semester. It's. Worth of teaching Fulton phrase. We arrived there were twelve booklets, here they are of. One hundred and twenty pages each each. Serving, of for tonight's work, the. CCA. In. The exhibition but, together this is the first mailing, that the students received including. Teaching, for the first eight. Weeks so. The first four. Fortnightly. Books but, there's also the radio vision booklet I'll come back to that documents. Images and, the broadcasting, supplements, which, I'll which. I've already explained the broadcasting supplements, but I'll come to the others later. Our. Texts provide the teaching material, and, we to track we try to make it discursive, with exercises. And discussions, and you can see them there the, questions in bold and the discussions, in. Rome, and afterwards. Whatever. Students, do with these is up to them but, we're, persuaded, that they are valuable, especially. For revision and writing, TMA's but, the key element is supportive. Student learning by far the most expensive element, of it in university courses is, live tuitions. Are. To. To the university, or in, those days Polytechnic. Lecturers and Polytechnic so will be made universities. But in those days they proposed technics who, teach for us part-time, and many, of them incorporate the course materials, into their own teaching. The. Introduction. Laid. Out the. Introduction of the course the first two units laid. Out the course aims and. Discuss various methodological, issues. But. Let's be honest a 305. Was not cutting edge in, terms of theoretical speculation I, began. Work on the course from a standing start I've, been working on eighteenth-century drawings, up until that point in, 1972. At the age of 27, but. This is before opposition's. Before, tough worries modern architecture, before, Frampton's, tech textbook, the. Starting point was Bannen was theory and design in the first machine age and, Banham was a consultant, author, for. The course and first. Examiner, along. With Joseph Rickford the. Set books which the students had to buy and read with. Persons, pioneers, used, primarily as the whipping boy along. With Hitchcock and Johnson's international, style used. For similar reasons, we. Set Hitchcock's. Textbook. Architecture. 19th and 20th centuries primarily. For the American material and the, caboose years towards the new architecture as a primary, source and the students had to buy these books. In. Fact there was very quickly a lively, exchange, of second-hand books the students bought from each other but. We had a price, limit that we could set and I think in those days it was 30 pounds. The. Course was written sorry. Okay. Sure. Kim Moreno. Who, write the book assembled. A kind of bookshelf of, the state of scholarship. Roughly speaking according, to Joachim but it's roughly right at, that time in, 1975. Okay. That's the kind of things that, we. Had on our bookshelves in those days. The. Course is there for a period piece although. I doubt that many architecture, students today have. A thorough introduction. To the history of interwar modernism, as a 3:05 but I would say there, wouldn't I the. Course was written by myself, Charlotte, Benton, and three others but, unfortunately, not at once. Santa, Milliken on the Left was replaced by Jeffrey, Baker on the, bottom these are all pictures taken, from TV. Programs that's me on the right on the bottom there. On. Jeffrey. Was on a two-year release from Newcastle, University and Stephen, Bailey the young man on the right there who, had joined the Oh you in the last months of production. We. Place a lot of weight on primary.

Sources, So. This book form and function which in America, was marketed. Under the name of the course history of architecture and design was. An anthology of, texts. Two-thirds. Of which were translated never. Previously translated texts. Which. We provided students. With and, it. Still survives. In. Discerning. Quarters and on. The left is a supplement, to that which 120, pages of other, texts, that we thought. Were too closely. Linked, the themes of the course to be of value, in further general readership. We. Also produced. A book, called images. Which. Reproduced. Three. Books, one. Was the expressionist, roof from barn. The. Other was gropius's, international, architecture, actually. This was Berta Louboutins copy. And. A, sort. Of a. Collection. Of images from mental, since two books America, and Russell, and Europe and America and. We. Encourage students to use these primary sources in their essays and to, try to use them in their work. The. TV programs were two kinds, films. In color shot on 16 millimeter film, shot. On location, in the States Germany Austria, France and Britain, there. Were roughly, 12 of these I was, trying to add it up but I didn't, get at the end of it but roughly 12. The. Other 12 was shot using what were in the jargon called below. The line assets. That's to say there. Was a studio. With. Fully, staffed with cameraman, and the gallery and editors. And everything. Shooting. 1-inch. Ampex black and white tape. And we, had a free day at, the studio so. This which is a program about the Einstein tower. We. Made a model in, polystyrene, and. There. Were drawings and things like that but it was all done in the studio with. Photographs, blown. Up and sometimes people standing in front of them and talking and so forth and this was had a zero budget, so. That's how we could finish the programs. Most. Of the TV, programs were made by faculty. And you can stream all of them from, the CCA site I hope Nick is going to keep them going for a while but. I have. To say that the the copies that's. Kind of third generation copies. So that I'm going to show you a little bit of one of them in a moment two minutes after. 32 radio programs. 16. Were radio vision that. Is they were accompanied, by illustrations. Printed on six pages of a booklet. And. Speakers. On the radio on public, radio refer. To these illustrations by. Numbers, okay. Illustration. One illustration to this, for example is a reservation, program, I did on Guardi so, you had first page second. Spread third. Spread and final, page these. The illustrations, for that radio program, they're very useful because they're like, TV. Programs. In. The sense they focused, on this particular thing and allowed. Us to cover things in. A graphic way which, we couldn't, do in the text. Many. Of these programs were, may, be used consultants, on a lot of them for example. Francine. Hebert did the hectare Jima, one. And. Of. The remaining, 16, radio, programs, radio only about. Half of them were from. Primary. Source participants. People, who had, played a role in the 30s. Hitchcock, personna, Julius, Posner, Amyas, Connell Belleville Ward Umberto Lubeck in English. Architects of the thirties Summerson.

Who Described the finding of the, Mars group and so forth. We. Tried to integrate different, elements in the course in discussion with William Curtis here present. Who. Wrote the unit's on Luca Brasi a and on, English, architecture, and there's the cover the units the, back cover of the units was actually a learning a teaching, aid for a radio vision program that, I did on the preliminary drawings, for the villa Saab were so, that's the the, the first project, for the villa so we're on October 1928, and that's the house. More, or less has built and this. Was a sheet. Here. It is. Which. Has, a. Set, of drawings from three of the selected projects, which. I discussed. Okay. And. I did the because, a William, it had gone I think you were in you were here in Harvard that's. Right. So, I did the TV program on the Villa Savoye which won a prize incidentally. At. Architecture. Conference. So. I'm just going to play you how, do we do it just do I just press. Write. This, I promise you is only two minutes out of the lucubra sobriety, deeper in the waste space was apportioned in ocean liners. The. Tiny cabin with its built-in cupboards air conditioning, and washing, facilities, saves. Space which, is used for large dining, rooms ballrooms. And endless. Promenade. Decks. Structural. Freedom, and the resulting, planning, freedom meant. Freedom to create grand, spatial, effects, and this. Was the phrase promenade. A she tech trial which, Lockerbie she used to, describe the way we should respond to great architecture. He. Wanted to create a controlled, succession. Of vistas and spatial experiences, for, us to discover, as we move through his architecture. His. Promenade our she took the route begins in, the case of the villa Safra as, you have first driven up in your motorcar, this. Is the most formal, facade with. A crisp apparently. Solid surface, which belies the recessed velocity which supported the. Car. Runs right in under, the first floor slab, inside. The outer road Pilate. And. The ground floor wall dissolves. Into the curving, sexy. Drones the car follows round. I. Wanted. To show you this because it these things are period pieces you have to have, your Tang in the cheek a little bit. As. Well as the spiral staircase there's, the ramp which, is the ceremonial, route to the first floor. The. Ramp continues, the fluid movement, without, a break upwards. Through the house, light. Comes in from windows on the left which, also give glimpses of the terrace. This. Is the center of the first floor the, diagonal, ramp almost, touches the vertical staircase which. Continues, upwards, to the roof. From. Here we have access to the main living rooms of the house. From. The terrace the ramp continues, its flow upwards, in the open air. As. We. Reach the flat roof the, enclosing, walls fall away except. For the curving, concrete, screen of, the solarium. Ok. Architecture. Is. The master, of the register, and magnificent. Play of masses brought together in, light, that's. It thank you. That. Program was, done in three days, a BBC. Day begins, and ends in Ealing so. That was a day that started at 6:00 in the morning in Ealing London. Drive. Down to the coast catch 3rd if the ferry arrived. Tired and annoyed at, 1:38. Fussy, filming. The afternoon, fairing one whole day and leaving at lunchtime on the third day that that, was the filming conditions we used we, had a shot, ratio.

Of 1.2, that's, to say we used virtually, all the shots. There's. Even one shot with a fly walking, across it that they that we used, ok. We. Also used, we also had, summer schools so, a. Three. If I've had a summer school at Sussex University there's. A dazzle Spence's. Sussex University where, students came in for a week and studied. Directly, with, tutors, that we had and with us and that, was very important, for us because that's where they actually met the students and. Also. For them a fantastic experience to have, intensive. Characteristic. Undergraduate. Teaching. Just. As music, students, need. To learn to read music architecture, historians. Must learn to read plans to. This end I wrote a guide to reading plans in the introductory unit and weary drew weary, drew all the, plans published, in the course to the same standard. Students. Were given a plan reading guide on, the left and, on. The back some, notes. Which they could use when confronting. Any, building. Any new building, and this, width was, a separate card that we thought they could use as a kind of page, mark in, the, in the course. We. Also had a woops, that's. Their Sonny's gone wrong them sorry about that behind, behind there, is the, the list of all the course contents, has published in the in the presentation of the course at the Biennale so it's one in Italian we. Also had a project for eight weeks the. Students, have, no direct teaching material and they, had to discover, a building obviously in England, and Britain. Explore. It describe. It with plans with, drawings, with photographs, tell. Its history using, primary sources and then, related to the history of the course and this, produced a series of projects, about 2,000, projects in the eight years the course ran many. Of which are now in the our IBA collection. Are an important, collection, of. Studies. Done, by undergraduates. Some. Of them good some of them not so good of, buildings, in Britain many. Of which have, been substantially. Altered since then it's they've been used by many, people for. That big again we wrote a project, guide. And we did a certain amount of teaching directly, to help them prepare. For their project for example this is the other side. Which. Is. 66. Frog mill is a house bike on wooden Lukas in Hampstead. And I. Did one radio program which consisted, simply of, walking. Through the house and asking questions and, no answers and. They're just taking these pictures which I took the. House was empty and, I was able to have the run of the place we. Did the second program we. We gave them. Material. The original plans. Articles. About the house a material. About the case there was a legal case about the house and.

We Interviewed, both the architect, Conan Lucas and, the client and so, we provided the answers to the questions we put posed to the beginning so this is a case study if, you like of how to do a project, so. Finally. This is the end this. Is the ruins of Alexandra, Palace which is where we had our studio, at the time. Which. Is where we did the, film for Micah's. Exhibition. What. Do I think about, working. With. Media. People TV. Professionals. Working. With professional camera crew is not easy neither. The cameraman nor the editors like architecture. The. Camera run like some human activity to follow and so do editors it's, much easier to create a sequence, when, you can follow somebody but, we were absolutely, against the typical Archy tourism format where, you follow some person age around if see mostly their back while, they just stick you latent point to things you can't see properly it. Was almost impossible to give the camera moving also in tracking shots that's one of the reasons I showed the villa subway element it's very very rare can. Really like to put the, camera in, those days this is all this is all technology. Of a, long, time ago. There. Was a film about the Berlin seed London where, we had some wonderful tracking, shots but that's because it rained, and the crew were very happy to film from inside the car but. Normally, is extremely, difficult to get them to to. Produce. The. Arrow, blessin of architectures look abused EA called it of moving through a building you, have to struggle to get cameraman, to get the ground in can't. Really like to get ready close and point to point the camera up and and you don't get any sense of feeling. So. The great challenge for me for me for film or, moving, image in any kind, is to recreate, the suspense, and sense of discovery of, a first visit to a building which, is why I like to begin by, asking only, questions, I did a film, about the maison LaRoche by Lucroy BCA where, again the first 10, minutes of the film nearly half the film is just moving through the building asking, questions and then, I offer three answers, to. Those questions afterwards. So. What are the benefits of teaching architectural.

History With a moving image first click context, seeing. What is left out with a few pictures you and only allowed in a text or a presentation, secondly. A sense of scale, cameraman, usually avoid the wide-angle lens is used by photographers, but by moving the camera by Mumtaj you, can get a better more natural, view in some ways of the space but you need real talent, to, do, it with, cameraman typically, are using a much, more. Narrow focal, length lens than, architectural. Photographers, who get everything in with wide lens. And. Montage. Montage is, the most effective, way of creating. A visual argument and a, good. Film. About architecture, has the argument embedded, in the images it, doesn't rely on the text to, produce the argument and finally. Process. I did a film about tubular steel furniture, where we saw, tubular. Steel Funyun chairs. Being made and you, can see what nonsense it is to imagine that this was an industrial, process is completely, handcrafted. Process. And, you can see the hundreds of hours that went into finishing, these, things that's. It thank you. So. Let me just. Let. Me just tell you where we're going because there are some time, constraints, so. Lisa and I will try to present this very quickly then. John May will present but John has to leave it one, for. Another meeting. Sorry you know but then but, then we. The rest of us will try to go to the table. Then, and. Have a panel discussion and, we'll try to bring in the audience, very quickly so so let let Lisa and I. Begin. So. Lisa, and I did, the first. Online course, for the Graduate School of Design and just, quickly it started, with very, modest, ambitions, we accept. Students, who, into, the 'mark one program, who, actually sometimes. Have very very good design, skills and even technical, you, know sort of structural constructional, skills but who haven't had enough, history, and so this was actually first. Proposed, to be a kind. Of remedial course, for. Our own, students, to be taken in the summer. Heart. Because, we're Harvard and because there's this institution. Called Harvard X they. Demanded, to at, some point sort of take over control, of the course because I wanted to control. All the online.

Material. Of the university, they. Liked the course so, much as. It, went along as it, as it, it. Wasn't even finished but as it went along that. They pushed. Us to make it into a so-called MOOC, robot, I mean what a MOOC is a massive. Massive. Massive. Open. Online. Course. Tim. It's amazing, to see this. Admittedly. Not knowing, of Open University of course but not knowing, well your, project. How much we, repeated. There were many, many things. Sort. Of everything is, the same but, everything is different, the. For, example. 7,000. Students at Open University which, was a he. Number I suspect in the 70s, we, have hundreds, of thousands, of students now, and it increases, every. Day. The. Other thing that I want to talk about a little bit this is transmitted. Using, move. It moving. Images using the combination, of. Broadcast. Material, and, supplementary. Hard, material. That's mailed out we, did the same thing, except. Our, course of course can't you can watch it at any time any, anywhere. And in, pieces and, we, actually maybe Lisa will talk a little bit about the we, can actually see who rewinds. And we're right. The, other thing I want to come back to the miracles beginning, is in the. Difference. In a history course and now we call it theory in history, the, course we, call that the architectural, imagination. Was. Not a history course it was a course that, tried. To. Convey. The tools the, procedures, the techniques, one needs to. Read, architecture. We, have a reading plan, exercise. Exactly the same but, we really were trying to. Let's. See this read architect, to see, architecture, learn to. Understand. Architecture, by, reading it and it's, very much a theory, in history course one. Of the big problems we, had because, of we were working in a way under Harvard xtm that I think you avoided. There. Was a constant. Push. To, we. Called it dumb it dumb it down and. We had, to push back and and we think it maybe Lisa can talk about this too that we. Think part of its success is that we didn't, dumb it down. For. Example, we do start with two presentations. Admittedly, difficult on, Kant's, theory of the imagination, which is where we get the title and then Hegel's critique and in, a section, called form, versus, history. Lisa. Can I turn turn this over over, to you and then we'll we're just gonna add lib a bit. Well. I want to first of all say thank you so much for presenting and, I think part of why, that was such a good frame for talking about this is that I see your. Course in the Open University is both. A precedent. A model, for what we were trying to do I think, especially because we're really thinking about this as its, own medium and it's I think that that's what your course. Was doing it's taking advantage of the mediums, not. Just of architecture, as its medium, of communication but the way that it's presented and represented, and. For us that was really one of the most. Exciting challenges, of producing this online course and that. I think made it different from other types and maybe this is a conversation that we can have in the panel but, that makes architectural.

Education May be different, from other things that might be taught, I. Wander. It just really quickly because I have we're gonna I'm gonna be, really fast cuz of John's time we, wanted to talk about the three types. Of things that we were thinking about, in. Terms of their capacities. And in the. Media one was the lectures actual lectures it was perhaps the equivalent, of your broadcasts. The, second was the audience who we expected, to take this course and, the, third was the assessments. And, maybe the, equivalent of how we can tell if students are learning or how we can help students actually learn instead, of talking at them and. For each of these we were really trying to take advantage of all, the sort of mediums at our disposal. For. The lectures, and medium. I wish. We could have got done site visits to all of our projects, we, were not actually able to given, budget and time constraints but, we did the best that we could with a. Compilation. Of different things so. This. Is the trailer that we had put together where, we actually are showing. The types of representations that we're using so, both animations. And tropes, like this slide, carousels, where we're talking specifically, about architectural. Pedagogy through. The trope of the slide. We. Sort. Of there was an effort a little bit too deep familiarize, or or bare the device that, we are showing you images, of, buildings. Not buildings. We. Wanted to make it clear that the images, of buildings that we were presenting, was, itself a form of representation. And, that was sort of a theme throughout the course as we were developing it that, we, were showing an image of the building not to say that this is what the building is but that you are now going to see a particular, way. To read the building as we'll present and our, hope was that that encouraged, students to develop their own readings, of buildings once they know that this, was perhaps our interpretation, maybe not knowing that then they could go on and develop their own of other things that they hadn't been shown we. Use historic, footage so for example this is Reagan at. Bit Borg Cemetery. Which. Provoked, a controversy, that led to the. Memorial. In Berlin. By. Eisenman, this, was and then we did use some footage. When. We're able to so this is footage of the Berlin memorial, that, we. Had a really talented architectural. Photographer, and videographer shoot, the footage for, us. After. We had done the script so, she had the script and sort of visiting, the site knowing. What to represent, in a sense and. We also relied heavily on animation, so we weren't actually able to visit so I'm delighted, that you showed those clips because. We weren't able to visit so this is sort of the, best that we could do but, I think was quite effective in terms of. Sort. Of developing, how to read a plan or developing how to read motion, when, wasn't. Able to actually visit the building and we often especially in the case of Corbusier tried to use sort. Of, original. Material, but was sort of sourced material like complete, just, to give him a sense of the texture of. So. That's sort of the types, of mediums that we're using and we're thinking really deliberately, about each of those choices as we went through the project music, -, well. Yeah I'm just, mostly.

This Is just Michael talking so I've muted Michael. We. Actually for that for the, Pompidou. Center, we. Were able to use rolling stone street a three fighting-man because it mentions Paris in London in. The 60s, so we're actually permission. To use there one. Of the challenges, that we had when we were developing this course when it went from the internal, course to the massive, online course is that, we went from a presumed audience, of about 20, students that we knew were familiar with architecture, and also we're invested, in the study of architecture -. Totally. Open we have no idea who might, be watching and what, their backgrounds were and so, for us this was I think, it's a little bit like you know an issue vlog getting sold at the airport bookstore and how. Do you make that transition. So. We had to, make. Some decisions and I think Michael briefly, mentioned that we were really adamant that we not tone. It down in a sense that we really wanted them to tackle. Architectural. Theory and history in, a way that we might expect an advanced graduate student to and. For. Us this was important, not only because it. We, needed the course for our own students, in people to stand by it but we felt that this was the. Best way to sort, of open. Open. It up actually more broadly is to say you know here is what we do as architectural. Historians, and theorists we. Think that this is a an important, way of looking at the world and so for us I think this was as much of a political statement, in. A sense to say this, shouldn't be relegated. To the university it's, difficult, but it should, be and anyone, can do it also so it's both difficult but also available. To anyone people, took it on the challenge we have a lot of emails saying, thank you for challenging. And not yeah so. It's it's really asking, people to, to. Think and for us that was really important, that's even, when it's getting thrown out into the world that we maintain, that position towards, thinking about architecture. Andrew. I don't know if I'm allowed to show this we, have our harvardx, person so Andrew in the back was our sort of point for Senate at Harvard X he was amazing. So we had a really good working relationship, with him I know. I'm realizing, I don't know if I'm allowed to show some of this. So. Just to say so. What. I can. Okay thank. You so just some of the demographics. A. Wide spread of learners, really, across the globe. Someone. Famous tweeted, about it someone. Famous right so, someone famous tweeted, twittered. Twittered. About edx. The. Day before our course launch or something some famous, Brazilian tweet, twittered. About our. EDX the day before we launched so. And. Then, finally, one. Of the biggest challenges, that we had was thinking about assessments. How students, are gonna be judged. On their work so we didn't have the, ability to. Personally. Interact with each of these students so with thousands of students we don't even have. The. What. Were they called the tutors which. Would, have been amazing because for us we really had to think about how to assess. Students without that our. Solution. And typically these online courses rely, on peer, assessments, so other students enrolled in the course. Coe assess each other we, didn't, like that idea for a number of reasons we didn't know who it's kind of like a crapshoot about who you'll get to assess you but, then also. We. Just wanted to make sure that the kinds of questions that were being asked, were as rigorous, as if a tutor or someone, like us was actually asking them so. We actually we developed questions. Maybe a little bit like the questions I had been developed. For. The Open University courses. But then we developed a series of innocence. Answers to, the question so we asked the students questions but, then developed, a second series of questions, that ask the students to question their own responses, to the original questions. Right. So. So. For example on this one their first exercise, they have to draw a plan of their place, where they live and, after they submit their drawing they're asked certain things like -. Have you shown the windows how, have you been thinking about scale. What special types of annotations, have have you used so, our goal with this without the sort, of being able to rely on assessments. Of someone. Who could, answer, may. Be more authoritative Lee we were sort of given them a way of reading their own work that, for us was kind of like a working method and figuring out okay. And with that I think I really I am. Yeah. I'm sorry to compress, the time so much I'm supposed, to lead a faculty meeting in like three minutes so.

I'll. Go fast I. Was. Thinking back on this one when Michael, asked, I mean first Tim Mirko thank you for raising. This issue I think the the, material, is coming out the exhibition is really provocative. And amazing. So. I was thinking back there was a couple year it was actually now almost five or six years ago and I, was thinking I was in this very room that. I tried to outline, an argument, in. Which I. That. Tied the, emergence, of a new pedagogical, instrument. To. A new way of thinking and making in architecture, and that new, pedagogical instrument, was the open jury system which really is a phenomena, of post-war architectural, education I mean it feels like a very normal. And natural fact, in our architectural, education today but it's actually not very old prior. To the open jury evaluation. We had what was called as quote the closed jury evaluation, that, was the Bozarth model in which drawings and sometimes, models but usually drawings were collected, they were removed, behind, closed doors and evaluated. By faculty and in, that evaluation process the. The project was evaluated, on the communicative. Basis, of architectural. Ortho graphics, that is to say what, was communicated, by the linework, itself so, there was no spoken. Discourse at, that time other than perhaps, the faculties speaking, to one another in. Their evaluations. Introduced. The open jury system immediately after mmediately during the post-war era which also spread, quite rapidly, such that by 1960. Most schools were operating, under that model and in. That, outline in the argument that I outlined that day I not, only talked about how this. Really. I thought catalyzed, a rearrangement between. Thinking, speaking. And making among, architectural. Students, but, and this is where the room got really uncomfortable for a minute if you remember Michael I also, tried, to posit. That that had something to do with the emergence, of what we call post-war, architectural, theory in. Particular, the theory of 1968. And after which. Is to say that there was something about a, that. Passed through this new pedagogical instrument. In they were the first to be. Asked to speak alongside, their. Objects and to think about what they were going to say as they, presented, those objects, that on my, view that had something to do with this incredibly. Intense, period. Of productivity that we think of as post-war architectural, theory and I think in its best form we can say that, what maybe began, as a kind, of attitude towards. Satisfying, or a jury or defending. One's, project, in front of one's faculty, actually once. It was unleashed, outside, the Academy became a really important way for architects, to think about the connection between architectural. Production and the, world around them so, I it's, in that context, that I would I'll, just, put a few really simple remarks, on the table and then I'll actually leave.

The Room. Yes. The best way to is the best way to make a provocation. I'll. Have no idea if any of you agree or disagree I. Just want to make some really simple sort, of media technical, comments about these these, two so on the right of course we have the Open University a, 305. And just. As a technical, media object, it's important to remember that this was an analog television, broadcast, which, is to say that it was open to certain forms of. Broadcasting. And certain forms of manipulation. That is to say if there was a high degree of noise in the signal the signal could. Be modified color, variations, could be modified but ultimately, analog. Media are continuous. Signals, and so, the level of intervention that a technician, has into that is relatively limited when, compared, to the, image on the left the, image on the left is obviously from Michael, and lisas course which, is a digital signal which means it's discretized, and that means that, it. Is composed, not only of a series of digital images, that are proceeding. At a pace, so rapid that we see it as video but, that the images themselves are, comprised, of discrete electrical, signals that are moving at a speed and a rate. That's far below our perception. But. That can be easily manipulated. With a computational. Interface, so. All of that is to say that probably, is part of this discussion what, we ought to think about is if we are moving into an. Age of quote unquote online. Which we probably already. Have, to some extent and will continue to that, we should think about this. In the broader scope, of what it means for pedagogical, instruments. To be related to not just ideas but to sort of entire, systems, of thought entire modes of consciousness, because, as I said earlier I think in its best form the. The architect, the open jury stimulated. A way of thinking about architecture, and a way of thinking about architectures, connection, to the world which is so well anthologized, in Michaels, work and many other people's, work. I rather, than see MOOCs as necessarily. Destructive. Instruments, we might begin to see them as possibly, productive, and how, how would we see, them that way and I think two. Questions, have to go on the table one would have to be a recognition, that, the. Two images, I showed earlier belong to two completely, different, regimes, of Management, and, the. MOOCs now belong to a level of statistical management, which was completely, unforeseen so Tim when you were giving some. Stats about or, maybe was Mirko or it was giving stats about the number of people and and their demographics. And their income, group those, statistics, are so. Crude compared, to what we're able to collect today and not, only that but the our.

Ability, To manipulate, the data that, is coming out of MOOCs is also crucial. To understand, this is by the way this is a Python. Programming, a chatroom and obviously chat rooms are going, to be and are already incredibly, important instruments, in in. The evaluation, of online learning and so, the second piece of that would be to ask would be to start to ask what would it mean to have something, like, statistical. Literacy among. A population. Of students who, are going to be increasingly, immersed, in these kinds of instruments because, it's only by asking that pedagogically. I think that we can stimulate. Certain, kinds of critical thinking within interfaces. Like this and maybe even forms, of like, statistical, disobedience, in a, certain way because. I think there was something slightly disobedient. About architectural, theory as it emerged, out of the open jury system as a, rhetoric. And convincing, and argumentation, and debate which. I think, MOOCs, have the possibility, to catalyze. That and I have, you. Know that's a massive project that would take, much longer than this short, talk to sort. Of you know elaborate, but anyway I'll just I'll literally. Leave you with. My. Intention is to open it to the to. The floor very very quickly but first maybe if we could just as. Panelists and I'm I was. Everything, was moving so fast I didn't have time to prepare. My questions, but I. Do. Think the, the. Kind of implied genealogy. From. Open University to, MOOCs is. An, interesting, one that the that, so much hasn't, changed, I mean a lot of things have not changed and even though John is insisting on two, different regimes, of knowledge which I understand, and I think we should try to play that out. But. One of the things that that I'd like to maybe. Start with the question, to Tim but. Also miracle, your experience, from having now you've gone through about three schools with this right, also. From that, Lisa. And I found that. Thinking. About, teaching. Architecture. Raised. Issues. That that technology. And the. Moving Image certainly, helped. Us address. That. In Andrew you can can, jump in at any time to from, Harvard X that. Other other. Disciplines. Didn't. Seem to have even thought, about that a lot of the disciplines, imagine a MOOC on on English. Poetry, or or a MOOC, on you. Know Greek classical. Philosophy. The. Moving image isn't the thing, that immediately suggests. Itself, and and. Lisa and I found that that we were I, think. This is true, Andrew that we were opening some doors that, Harvard, X had not, had.

Had, Not opened yet. We. Would have like how do you how. Do you apply alt tag texts, to some of these images, how, do you begin to provide descriptive. Accommodations. For these things, so. Yes it's definitely, true, in this course but. Tim talked about some of the the issues. That came up the some of the decisions, of what. To show you, know how to use the moving image and when when there are in both cases actually, despite. The. Fact that we were at Harvard there, there were limited, resources, for us we couldn't, we, couldn't afford, to travel to. To. The site so. Yes. Just a little. Thing about classics, incidentally, and, classics. We. Had a very. Brilliant a classics Department which. Became the biggest supplier, of classic. Education, teaching. Intermediate. Greek and Latin at. A time when schools of. Classics. And archaeology and. Everything were withdrawing. The requirement, just to have Latin Greek and so. We were providing, 80%, of all intermediate, study, of, Latin and Greek in Britain. For. Historians for classical studies okay the other thing is that the they we. Had a very brilliant lecturer. In the Classical Studies who worked, on reception, so, she actually did use film you. Know she did, programs on African, what he was he was before Spartacus, but that sort of things so she worked with media, sources. To. Uncover, the way the, tradition, of classics is good, and yeah so it's it's possible it can be done okay. Yeah. I mean basically, it's. Incredibly. Grungy. And empirical. How we. Handled. Resources, you know that we bid. Fraudulently. For. Resources by saying that everything we because, the, people we have to bid to believe, the buildings didn't move, so. We. Had to say that, we were going to do it entirely of that process, so we. We we cooked up all sorts of program ideas which is to do with process. In, the end we what. We did was we decided that our films were going to be case studies and this is entirely, practical. If you have a three day shooting. Window, you. Have to stick around you can't do big comparative, programs which show lots of things those. Went on to the radio vision programs so. Basically. Our TV. The. Film. 16. Millimeter color film. Shoots. Abroad. And in Britain were. Typically. Case studies of one building intense. Studies of one building all, the time trying. To teach, students. How, to approach, a building and and. It was much. Simpler than what you're, doing it was basically, going in the front door or going in through a window and exploring. The, building with. The, implanting. Of questions. And. Context, of course and as. We did with the bit of suppose I should I showed them so. It's, extremely.

Practical. And and. Difficult. In terms of the you, mentioned I was. Very interested this question of dumbing down mm-hm. In 40 years of working for the Open University every, I made about 40 programs on different subjects mostly the Renaissance, every. Single time we would have an argument in the cutting room in, which the editor would say you're, doing this for an audience of 50,000, people perhaps if we're lucky a million people if we get a good transmission. Slot and I would say we're doing this for our students, and this, course will have to be assessed, by the course team and by the external examiner and that, would that pressure happened, in every single program we did and I need it occurred at the basic level of terminology. You. Know for. Example, articulation. I was. Never allowed to use the word articulation. People. Are constantly telling, me to use the word decoration. Instead. Of articulation, you, know that makes you fibers. In. The modernist, that's hard that's tough and. Suppose so it. Wasn't easy it's a public private. If you like interface. Right. In the middle of the work place which is very difficult to manage yeah. So. One of the things I least. Help me play this out you Mon agree I was actually thinking long. I knew what John roughly. Would would, are would. Provoke and I was thinking if. I could make an. Analogy. That the Open. University in. Pre. Pre-digital, of, course in the land of still. Analog. Tape, and. And. And. And you must have thought, constantly. After comparison, to TV programming, and remember, TV programming in the 70s is I guess half an hour or an hour at best for. A single, show, and think about the way, you would, think about organizing. A story, and. Maybe even, even. By analogy organizing. A course or a lecture, in. At a time of TV. Where it there, was an hour or at maximum, two hours and an. Hours. Was at the time of the limited. Series. So-called, or, the miniseries, which became with, Game of Thrones with. Breaking. Bad it became, this idea, of a twelve. Hours. Of. Time. To, make very, you, know multiple. Plot, arcs. With. With sometimes. Divergent. Themes but, the point is it all even. A limited series has. To come to a conclusion. And one. Of the things that I found in our course, was that we. Were constantly, aware that the. The layers, of complex, themes that we had to lay out because it did have a historical. Component we were also talking about issues, of representation issues, of Technology, issues of. Urban. Architecture. And, the urban so. There was ease with these multiple arcs, but, we were always making, an argument, I think our. Course. Has a thesis behind it and it, has something to do with architecture. In its its engagement, with. Society. And culture through. Technology, through all. The architectural. Things but it does have an art that's, why I feel like it's more akin to the open I mean so that's where I mean I think that the digital as John, was arguing, has, less to do with the, broadcast. Or what our equivalent, of the broadcasts were because I think we're old-timey, in the sense that we. Wanted, could and part of the thing is that they EDX was constantly wanting us to make them shorter, like, this channel so to me if we had made. Two minute clips on Hegel, that, that would have been sort, of the digital moment in the day for. Something that looked more like historical. Argument. So. For me I actually, say much more similarities. I think than John might, even. To, the extent that we were also, dealing, with limited I mean we're shooting video but, we, also had a date to shoot I mean, so a lot of our decisions were similarly based, on those. Kinds of nuts and bolts constraints, of you know what you can buy on eBay and, then, and, then film as your artifact and which. One. That one of the difficulties, was, resistance. Within the. Faculty. I. Mean. One of the things that I. I. Was very keen to try to do in the.

Course Of my career at the University was to change the paradigm for teaching instead, of making. Images. Illustrations. Of an argument try. To provide. A situation. We begin, with images, so. For example there's a course that we produced in three different versions over over, 40, years on the Enlightenment and, that course had very good. I think principle that it each block. Interdisciplinary. So it's not, survey history literature art, histories each one had a set book and. You will you started, with a set text it might be the marriage of figaro Don Giovanni or something with might, be you, know whatever book. And. You started, by reading that book or listening, to the work and after. That you you arrived at the teaching I wanted. To do this with, architectural, history so. Can. You hear me better now okay. So. I did a I did, a piece on stone and I, did, a. Cd-rom. Which. Was a virtual real a visit, to the CERN museum 42. Panoramas. You go in through the front door you, go into each space you go from one place to the other by clicking on the space there, were 600, hotspots in a database with with content, on, them. So that you know you could click onto individual, things what, I wanted to do was to say first. Thing. Explore. The house, then. We start giving a little bit of information and, then we'll have exercises, that say not. Just comment. On this passage. Of text and how we've Illustrated it, with various different things whether it's film or whatever but, rather do. An exercise. Find. Examples, of. Gothic. Objects. In. The, Seoul Museum and. Explain. How, they're positioned, in. The house and, how. That reflects. Sones. Attitude, to for example antiquity, and history. So. I did this. The. Faculty, wouldn't wouldn't, accept it, because. It was considered too difficult for the students it's too visual and so forth so I, mean. We we, did the cd-rom the students presented but, I had. To do the teaching in a traditional, way with, a biography, and ideas, and so forth and several servers about how some fitted. Into the, you. Know the history of the turn-of-the-century and so forth and if, you can believe it we. Made a video. 20. Minute video of me, standing in front of the screen while. I took the students through the house on my, cd-rom. Can. I ask a question because, it seems to me one of the advantages. Of giving, that to a student is that so, they'll know maybe, someone, that's not familiar with architecture they'll know because they've been giving this object that. It's important, because why else would you so. They're already looking for things to look at, yeah, but, as one of the goals than to say you, may look at other objects, and discover. Them on your own or is that one, of the reasons - the. Goal was really to make inquiry, with, the central, good heart. So that they could go to other buildings. And we're not the same use IAM for example and then say now. That I know how to look at buildings I can maybe look, to see. Yes. I mean that my. CD room was just about the same the. Idea. Is yes that yeah, if you explode one building you can explain yeah. I. Really. Sorry. I. Really. Like this discussion, about the. Tools, but. The, tools are never. Neutral. So. One. Things. That I really liked in. The discussion, was the shift from the, idea of the. Video. Recording. From. Open University to, the idea of the Enola jam of, images. As. A codification. Of something. But, I feel that this conversation, could be much more interesting, in, the sense that both, of, these. In spite of a lot of other component, in the two courses, you're. Always. Relating. The idea of, these. To. The idea of representation, of buildings and. In. Reality. Architecture. Is more than buildings, mm-hmm. So. The. Tools. That we, have now. Available. Good they, one. Introduced. A different experience, of the building so. It's not only visual, but. Is much richer, than that. Second. Could. This. Idea, not.

Only Buildings. Be expanded. And not saying that you are dealing with a choice but you are mentioning that your society. Or process, of timing. Couldn't. These. Introduce. A different perspective you, can reconstruct the process, of Bill of a building cause Russia and you could. Reconstruct. The social context, that you could you. Know, so. I see. Incredible. Potential. In, these. Tools two questions, a very. Traditional. Assumption. That, what. You were speaking about is. At. The, end a. Fixed. Or, removable image. Of. A building, that. Is. One. Of, the. Problem. That I, have. The, second problem is that in spite of you, team saying that the, course was not particularly. How. Can I say. Original. That most of the things the. Big story. O graphical, changes happen after. You. Mentioned, the floor you measure all these kind of things the historiography a was. Part of the debate, at the moment a, lot. There. Were some. Very. Interesting points. Coming out from, your. You. Know Open Univers

2018-09-27 13:16

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