Telecommunications engineering | Wikipedia audio article
Telecommunications. Engineering, is an engineering, discipline, centered on Electrical and Computer Engineering which, seeks to support, and enhance, telecommunication. Systems, the. Work ranges, from basic, circuit, design to strategic, mass developments. A, telecommunication. Engineer, is responsible for designing, and overseeing, the installation of, telecommunications. Equipment and, facilities, such, as complex, electronic, switching, systems, and other plain old telephone service facilities. Optical, fiber cabling, IP networks. And microwave, transmission. Systems. Telecommunication. Engineering also. Overlaps, with broadcast, engineering. Telecommunication. Is a diverse, field of Engineering, connected, to electronic, civil and systems engineering they, help find the cost of money for different types of computers, and technological. Objects. Ultimately. Telecom, engineers, are responsible, for providing high-speed, data transmission. Services. They. Use a variety of equipment and transport, media to design the telecom, network infrastructure, the most common media used by wide, telecommunications. Today a twisted, pair coaxial. Cables, and optical, fibers. Telecommunications. Engineers, also provide, solutions, revolving, around wireless, modes of communication and, information transfer. Such as wireless telephony services. Radio, and satellite communications. And internet, and broadband, technologies. Topic. History. Telecommunication. Systems, are generally designed by telecommunication. Engineers, which sprang from technological, improvements. In the Telegraph, industry in, the late 19th, century and, the radio in the telephone, industries, in the early 20th, century, today. Telecommunication. Is widespread, and devices, that assist the process such as the television radio, and telephone, are common in many parts of the world there. Are also many, networks, that connect these devices, including, computer, networks public, switched telephone network. PSTN radio. Networks, and television. Networks. Computer. Communication. Across the Internet is one of many examples of. Telecommunication. Telecommunication. Plays a vital role in the world economy and the telecommunication. Industry's, revenue has been placed at just under 3% of the gross world product. Topic. Telegraph. And telephone. Samuel. Morse independently. Developed, a version of the electrical, Telegraph that he unsuccessfully, demonstrated. On the 2nd of September. 1837. Soon. After he was joined by Alfred, Vale who developed, the register, a telegraph. Terminal, that integrated, a logging device for recording messages, to paper tape, this. Was demonstrated, successfully, over three miles five kilometres on the 6th of January, 1838. And eventually, over 40 miles 64, kilometres. Between Washington, DC and, Baltimore on the 24th, of May 1844. The. Patented, invention proved. Lucrative, and by 1851. Telegraph. Lines in the United States, spanned over 20,000. Miles, 32,000. Kilometers the, first successful, transatlantic, Telegraph. Cable was, completed, on the 27th. Of July 1866. Allowing, transatlantic. Telecommunication. For the first time earlier. Transatlantic. Cables. Installed, in 1857. And 1858. Only, operated, for a few days or weeks before they failed the.
International, Use of the Telegraph, has sometimes been dubbed the Victorian. Internet the, first commercial, telephone, services, were set up in 1878. In 1879. On, both sides of the Atlantic, in the cities of New Haven and London. Alexander. Graham Bell held the master patent, for the telephone that, was needed for such services, in both countries the. Technology. Grew quickly from this point with intercity, lines being built in telephone, exchanges, in every major city of the United States, by the mid 1880s. Despite. This transatlantic, voice, communication. Remained impossible, for customers, until January, 7 1927, when. A connection, was established using radio, however. No cable, connection, existed, until tap, 1 was inaugurated on, September, 25th. 1956. Providing, 36, telephone, circuits in 1880, Bell, and co-inventor. Charles Sumner Tainter, conducted, the world's first wireless telephone. Call via modulated, light beams projected, by photo phones, the. Scientific. Principles, of their invention, would not be utilized for several, decades when they were first deployed in military, and fiber-optic. In occasions. Topic. Radio, and television. Over, several years starting. In 1894. The Italian, inventor guglielmo. Marconi built. The first complete, commercially. Successful wireless. Telegraphy, system, based on airborne electromagnetic. Waves radio, transmission. In, December. 1901, he would go on to establish wireless. Communication. Between Britain and Newfoundland, earning him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909. Which he shared with Karl Braun in. 1900. Reginald, Fessenden was able to wirelessly transmit a human, voice on, March. 25th, 1925. Scottish. Inventor John Logie Baird publicly, demonstrated, the transmission, of moving silhouette, pictures, at the London department, store Selfridges. In. October, 1925. Baird, was successful, in obtaining moving. Pictures, with halftone, shades which were by most accounts the first true television, pictures, this. Led to a public, demonstration of, the improved device on the 26th. Of January, 1926. Again at Selfridges. Baird's. First device is relied upon the NIP cow disk and thus became known as the mechanical, television, it. Formed, the basis of semi experimental. Broadcasts done. By the British, Broadcasting Corporation, beginning. September, 30th, 1929. Topics. Satellite the first u.s. satellite, to relay communications was.
Project Score in 1958. Which used a tape recorder, to store-and-forward voice. Messages, it. Was used to send a Christmas greeting, to the world from u.s. President Dwight D Eisenhower, in. 1960. NASA launched, an echo satellite, the 100, foot 30 meters aluminized. PET film balloon, served as a passive, reflector, for radio communications. Korea. One be built, by Philco also, launched in 1960. Was the world's, first active, repeater satellite. Satellites. These days are used for many applications such. As uses, in GPS, television. Internet, and telephone users. Telstar. Was the first active, direct, relay commercial, communication. Satellite, belonging. To AT&T, as part of a multinational agreement. Between AT&T, Bell, Telephone laboratories, NASA. The British general post office and the French National PTT, post office to develop satellite. Communications. It was launched by NASA from, Cape Canaveral on July 10th, 1962. The first privately. Sponsored space, launch, relay. 1 was launched on December 13. 1962. And became the first satellite, to broadcast across, the Pacific, on November, 22nd. 1963, the. First and historically, most important, application. For communication. Satellites, was in intercontinental. Long distance telephony, the fixed. Public switched telephone network. Relays, telephone, calls from landline, telephones, to an earth station where, they then transmitted, a receiving, satellite, dish via a geostationary. Satellite, in Earth orbit. Improvements. In submarine, communications. Cables, through the use of fiber optics, caused some decline in the use of satellites, for fixed telephony in, the late 20th, century but, they still exclusively. Service remote islands, such as Ascension, Island santolina. Diego, Garcia, and Easter Island where no submarine, cables, are in service, there. Are also some continents, in some regions of countries, where landline, telecommunications. Are rare to non-existent for. Example, Antarctica. Plus large regions, of Australia South. America, Africa northern, Canada, China Russia, Greenland, after. Commercial, long-distance, telephone service. Was established via, communication. Satellites, a host of other commercial, telecommunications were. Also adapted, to similar satellites starting, in 1979. Including. Mobile satellite phones, satellite. Radio satellite, television and satellite, internet, access, the. Earliest adaption, for most such services, occurred in the 1990s as the pricing, for commercial, satellite, transponder. Channels continued, to drop significantly. Topic. Computer. Networks, in the Internet. On the, 11th of September, 1940. George stibitz was able to transmit, problems, using teleprinter, to his complex, number calculator, in New York and receive the computed, results, back at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire this. Configuration, of a centralized, computer, or mainframe, computer, with remote dumb, terminals. Remained. Popular throughout, the 1950s, and into the 1960s. However. It was not until the 1960s. That, researchers, started to investigate, packet, switching, a technology. That allows chunks, of data to be sent between different, computers without first passing through, a centralized, mainframe, a four. Node network emerged, on the 5th of December, 1969. This. Network soon became the ARPA, ne T which by 1981. Would, consist of 213. Nodes ARPA. Ne T's development. Centered around the request for comment process and on the 7th of April 1969. RFC. 1 was published, this. Process, is important, because ARPA. Ne T would eventually merge with other networks to form the internet and many of the communication. Protocols, that the internet relies upon today, was specified through, the request for comment process in. September. 1981. RFC. 791. Introduced. The Internet Protocol, version 4 ipv4, and. RFC. 793. Introduced, the transmission, control protocol, TCP, thus. Creating, the tcp/ip. Protocol.
That Much of the internet relies upon today. Topic. Optical. Fiber. Optical. Fiber can be used as a medium for telecommunication. And computer networking. Because, it is flexible, and can be bundled into cables. It, is, especially advantageous for, long-distance, communications. Because light propagates, through the fiber with little attenuation compared. To electrical, cables, this. Allows long distances, to be spanned with few repeaters, in. 1966. Charles k cow and george Hakan proposed optical, fibers at STC laboratories. Stl, at Harlow, England, when they showed that the losses of 1,000 decibels, per kilometer, in existing, blasts compared, to 5 to 10 decibels per kilometer, in coaxial, cable, was due to contaminants, which could potentially be, removed. Optical. Fiber was successfully, developed, in 1970. By Corning, Glass Works with. Attenuation. Low enough for communication. Purposes, about 20, decibels per kilometer, and at the same time gallium, 3 arsenide, gallium arsenide. Semiconductor. Lasers were developed, that were compact, and therefore suitable for transmitting, light through fiber optic cables, for long distances. After. A period of research starting, from 1975. The first commercial, fiber-optic. Communication, system, was developed which operated, at a wavelength around 0.8. Micrometers. And used gallium, free arsenide, semiconductor. Lasers, this. First generation system. Operated, at a bit rate of 45, megabits, per second, with repeater spacing of, up to 10 kilometers. Soon. On the 22nd. Of April, 1977. General, telephone and electronics, sent the first live telephone, traffic through fiber optics at a 6 megabits per second, throughput in Long Beach California. The. First wide, area network fiber-optic. Cable system in the world seems to have been installed, by reader fusion in Hastings, East Sussex UK. In 1978. The. Cables, were placed in ducting throughout the town and had over 1,000, subscribers. They. Were used at that time for the transmission, of television channels not, available, because of local reception. Problems. The. First transatlantic, telephone, cable to, use optical fiber was TAT 8 based, on the server optimized, laser AM Asian technology, it. Went into operation in, 1988. In. The late 1990s. Through 2000. Industry, promoters, and research, companies, such as KMI, and RHK. Predicted, massive increases in demand for communications. Bandwidth, due to increased, use of the internet and commercialization. Of various, bandwidth, intensive consumer. Services, such as video on-demand. Internet. Protocol, data traffic was increasing, exponentially. At a faster, rate than integrated. Circuit, complexity, had increased, under Moore's law. You. Topic. Concepts. You. Topic. Basic. Elements, of a telecommunication. System. Topic. Transmitter. Transmitter. Information. Source that takes information, and converts it to a signal, for transmission in. Electronics. And telecommunications. A transmitter, or radio, transmitter, is an electronic, device which, with the aid of an antenna produces. Radio waves in. Addition. To the use in broadcasting. Transmitters. And necessary, component, parts of many electronic, devices that communicate by radio such. As cell phones. Topic. Transmission. Medium. Transmission. Medium, over which the signal is transmitted. For, example, the transmission, medium for sounds is usually, air but solids and liquids may, also act as transmission, media for sound many. Transmission. Media are used as communications. Channel one, of the most common, physical media's, used in networking is copper wire, copper. Wire is used to carry signals to long distances, using relatively, low amounts, of power another. Example, of a physical medium is optical, fiber which has emerged as the most commonly, used transmission. Medium for long-distance, communications. Optical. Fiber is a thin strand of glass that guides light along its length the. Absence. Of a material, medium in vacuum, may also constitute. A transmission, medium for electromagnetic. Waves such as light and radio waves. Topic. Receiver. Reciever. Information. Sync that receives, and converts the signal back into required, information in, radio. Communications. A radio, receiver is, an electronic, device that receives radio waves, and converts the information, carried by them through a usable form it, is, used with an antenna the, information, produced by the receiver, may be in the form of sound and audio signal, images, a video signal or digital, data.
Topic. Wired. Communication. Wired, communications. Make use of underground communications, cables. Less often overhead, lines electronic. Signal amplifiers, repeaters. Inserted. Into connecting, cables, at specified points, and terminal, apparatus, of various types depending on the type of wild, communications. Used. Topic. Wireless. Communication. Wireless. Communication. Involves the transmission, of information over. A distance without help of wires cables, or any other forms of electrical, conductors. Wireless. Operations, permit services, such as long-range, communications. That are impossible, or impractical to implement, with the use of wires, the. Term is commonly used in the telecommunications. Industry to, refer to telecommunication. Systems, eg radio, transmitters. And receivers remote. Controls, etc which use some form of energy eg radio, waves acoustic. Energy etc to, transfer, information, without the use of wires. Information. Is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances. Topic. Rolls. You. Topic. Telecom. Equipment engineer. A telecom. Equipment engineer, is an electronics, engineer that, designs equipment, such as routers switches. Multiplexers. And other specialized, computer, electronics, equipment designed. To be used in the telecommunication. Network infrastructure. Topic. Network, engineer. A network. Engineer is a computer, engineer who. Is in charge of designing deploying, and maintaining, computer, networks in. Addition. They oversee, network operations. From a network operation, center designs. Backbone, infrastructure. Or supervises, interconnections, in a data center. Topic. Central. Office engineer. A central. Office engineer. Is responsible for, designing and overseeing, the implementation of, telecommunications. Equipment in, a central, office Co for short also, referred to as a wire center, or telephone, exchange, a co engineer, is responsible, for integrating, new technology, into the existing, network assigning. The equipment's location, in the wire center, and providing, power clocking, for digital equipment and alarm, monitoring, facilities. For the new equipment, the. Co engineer, is also responsible, for providing more, power bottling, and alarm, monitoring, facilities. If there are currently not enough available to support the new equipment, being installed. Finally. The co engineer, is responsible for, designing how the massive, amounts of cable, will be distributed. To various equipment. And wiring frames throughout, the wire center and overseeing, the installation and, turn-up of all new equipment. Topic. Sub, roles. As, structural, engineers, co engineers, are responsible, for the structural, design and placement of racking and base for the equipment to be installed, in as well as for the plant to be placed on as. Electrical. Engineers, co engineers, are responsible, for the resistance, capacitance. And inductance our, CL design, of all new part to ensure telephone. Service, is clear and crisp and data service is clean as well as reliable. Attenuation. Or gradual, loss in intensity, and loop loss calculations. Are required to determine cable, length and size required, to provide the service, called for in. Addition power, requirements. Have to be calculated. And provided, to power any electronic, equipment being, placed in the wire Center. Overall. Co engineers, have seen new challenges, emerging, in the co environment. With. The advent of data centers, Internet, Protocol, IP facilities. Cellular, radio sites and other emerging, technology, equipment environments. Within telecommunication. Networks it is important, that a consistent, set of established, practices, or requirements, be implemented. Installation. Suppliers, or the subcontractors. Are expected, to provide requirements. With the products, features, or services. These. Services might. Be associated with the installation. Of new or expanded equipment. As well as the removal of existing equipment. Several. Other factors must be considered such as. Regulations. And safety and installation. Removal. Of hazardous material. Commonly. Used tools to perform installation. And removal of equipment.
Topic. Outside. Plant engineer. Outside. Plant OSP. Engineers, are also often called field, engineers, because they frequently, spend much time in the field taking notes about the civil environment, aerial, above ground and below ground. OSP. Engineers, are responsible, for taking plant, copper fiber, etc. From a wire center, to a distribution point, or destination, point directly if a. Distribution point, design is used then across connect box is placed in a strategic, location to, feed a determined, distribution, area, the. Cross connect box also, known as a serving, area interface, is then installed to allow connections. To be made more easily from the wire Center to the destination, point and ties up fewer facilities by, not having dedication. Facilities, from the wire Center to every destination point. The. Plant is then taken, directly, to its destination point. Or to another small closure, called a terminal, where access, can also be gained to the plant if necessary, these. Access, points are, preferred as they allow faster repair times for customers, and save telephone, operating, companies, large amounts, of money, the. Plant facilities, can be delivered via underground facilities. Either direct, buried or through conduits or in some places laid under water via, aerial facilities, such as telephone, or power poles or via microwave, radio, signals, for long distances, where either of the other two methods is too costly. Topic. Sub, roles. As structural. Engineers, OSP. Engineers, are responsible, for the structural, design and placement of cellular, towers and telephone, poles as, well as calculating. Pole capabilities. Of existing, telephone, or power poles onto which new plant is being added. Structural. Calculations are, required when boring under heavy traffic areas, such as highways, or when attaching to other structures, such as bridges. Shoring, also has to be taken into consideration for, larger, trenches, or pits. Conduits. Structures, often include encasements, of slurry that needs to be designed to support the structure and withstand the environment, around it soil type high-traffic, areas, etc as. Electrical. Engineers, OSP. Engineers, are responsible for, the resistance, capacitance. And inductance, RCL. Design, of all new plant to insure telephone, service, is clear and crisp and data service, is clean as well as reliable. Attenuation. Or gradual, loss in intensity, in loop loss calculations. Are required to determine cable, length and size required, to provide the service call for in, addition, power, requirements. Have to be calculated. And provided, to power any electronic, equipment being, placed in the field, ground. Potential, has to be taken into consideration when. Placing equipment, facilities, and plant, in the field to account for lightning, strikes high voltage intercept, from improperly, grounded, or broken, power company, facilities and, from various sources of electromagnetic, interference, as. Civil. Engineers OSP. Engineers, are responsible, for drafting plans either by hand or using computer-aided, design, CAD, software for how telecom, plant facilities, will be placed, often. When working with municipalities trenching. Or boring permits, are required and, drawings must be made for these often, these. Drawings include, about 70%. Or so of the detailed, information required. To pave a road or add a turn lane to an existing, Street. Structural. Calculations, are required when boring under heavy traffic areas, such as highways, or when attaching to other structures, such as bridges as, civil. Engineers, telecom, engineers, provide the modern communications. Backbone, for all technological. Communications. Distribute. Throughout civilizations. Today. Unique. To telecom, engineering, is the use of air core cable, which requires, an extensive, network of air handling equipment such as compressors.
Manifolds. Regulators. And hundreds of miles of air pipe per system that connects to pressurized, splice cases, all designed to pressurize, this special, form of copper cable to keep moisture out and provide a clean signal to the customer, as. Political. And social ambassador. The OSP engineer. Is a telephone, operating, companies, face and voice to the local authorities, and other utilities. OSP. Engineers, often meet with municipalities. Construction. Companies, and other utility, companies, to address their concerns and educate them about how the telephone, utility, works and operates. Additionally. The OSP engineer. Has to secure, real estate to place outside facilities, on such as an easement to place a cross connect box on. Equals. Equals see also.