Technology (Non-)Use as a Network in Emerging Tech and Internet of Things with Prof. Radhika Garg
Good afternoon and welcome to, the. First. Iteration. Of our spring, webinar, series here, at the School. Of Information studies at Syracuse University I'm. JD Ross I'm the communications director here, at the high school and I, am the host, for. This, webinar technology. Non-use. As a network, in emerging tech and the Internet of Things, featuring. Professor. Radhika garde a professor, Garg is new. To us here at the iSchool she joined in the fall semester she. Comes here, I have to earn her PhD in. Computer science from the University, of Zurich and her. Research interests, are, largely. Focused, around understanding user, behavior, and user, preferences, for emerging technology, like the Internet of Things and, cloud computing she. Teaches a corpse here at the high school on cloud computing and today. We're pleased to have her here with us to take a dive into some. Emerging technology, the inner things. So, without. Any more, ado I'm going to turn it over to Riddick. Here and let her get started welcome, we're digna Thank, You JT for that introduction and welcome, everybody thank you for joining us this afternoon. Today. So. If. We. Have our slides yes so my, topic has Sadie told you is technology nan use as a network, in emerging the. Internet of Things and. What. I like to focus today is why, do people, use or, not, use these, technologies and, what. Exactly, influences. These references, and decisions, that they make and also. I would like, to give you a brief overview of what exactly is Internet of Things that, we hear all the time, so. That brings me to the point of discussions, today that. We, vilify as Internet, of Things so that you have some background, we. Will look everything, in this presentation, from the lens of active network theory which is a social here and. I would introduce. That theory to you. What. Is this network, and what, is this network in Internet, of Things and, then. Eventually why, people, use are not using, data thanks today. So this is part of my work that. I did last semester which, was my first semester at high school and, some. Exploratory work on why and how these preferences shape. Up is what. I'm going to talk today. Okay. So. Let's define infinitive things and say okay what is the school in this presentation, and just, for the scope of this work so Internet. Of Things was, first coined by, Kevin, Ashton in 1999. His. Basic. And, primary. Focus, was that he, said okay RFID, is, the, essential, and prerequisite, thing that is needed for, something. To be called Internet, of Things. Intention. Intention. Was, to have all, the devices being. Monitored. And, collected. As form. Of database, so you can have these small, little chips in any object, any physical, object and then computer, can, basically form, an inventory out, of it and monitor. What is happening with this object that. Was back in 1999. And since then. Things, changed, dramatically. Especially. 2004. In onwards where. People started to say the. Devices that automatically, sends data about. Users or, their environment and assist them in automating, their spaces, or activities, or getting knowledge about themselves, the. Most prominent. Trackers. That, you use or people, use daily. Are, activity. Trackers for example, that lets you monitor how, many steps you take whatever your heart beats how. Much did he walk how, much calorie, did you burn or consume. So. Basically it's, Jay. As it stands is a three year broadly, speaking approach, saying, okay, we have devices which. Forms, the foundation, of. Internet. Of Things which. Has internet connectivity, which, comes as a second, layer on top of it and then. The topmost layer, is the, users the intelligent, users now who use these connected. Devices to. Sense the environment be, connected, to their peers.
Or. Just sense the activities, and collect, and monitor data about these activities so this, sounds all interesting, and there, has been a huge, boost, in the market in the terms of the, data it, collects, the devices, that are on market. The devices, that have been purchased, but. A recent NPD, report of. 2017. Showed that. Even, though by. These devices, they, are not necessarily, using them even. If they are using them they are not using them for long the. Even stated, the starts, off as much, as 40 percent of, these activity, tracker owners, stopped using the elements for six months of ownership and that, means that these devices, are not necessarily, becoming, part of their daily fabric, of daily routine so. It's. Happening and why even, though it provides such, functionality. To, users, and it has been up, in the market for so long people. Actually don't even use it for long enough to. Understand. That I want. You to think about the, following way, that I'm gonna introduce turbo, and that's. A genetic, theory which. Came, into being. Long. Back in 1991. Followed. With lot of researchers. Working with, it and defining it the, three names here are micro :. Molitor. And John Locke who, defined, what, a genetic, theory is. As. The word has, three, words I'm gonna, explain, three words to you so. It's a theoretical and methodological approach. To social theory where, everything, social. And natural, world exists in constantly, shifting. At words of relationships. The. First word actor, is. Somebody. Who's done action, in, this, relationships. Which, exists between multiple. Actions the. Network, itself, are these relationships. That form, between. These actors, and by. The way this actor net worth free doesn't talk about why. And how these, relationships and, networks are formed but, rather it, talks about the relation. How. These relationships are. Constantly. Evolving and reshaping. And redefining, the. Network, in which these actors, exist. One. Thing why the word network, is important, to be understood is, there. Is no hierarchy between, these actors so nobody, has the higher power, than, somebody, else but. All are in, space. Working. Towards the same goal, and are, constantly, being related. To each other through this relationship. In.
The. World of Internet, of Things or, any technology. People. And. T's, are, constantly. In relationship, with one, another people. Are in, relationship. With the technology. From different perspectives, so somebody. As a user is using, the technology. Somebody. Is defining, what technology. Does somebody. Designs, it for you and somebody. As a regulatory. Body might, define the norms, the policies, around it. All. These, actions the. Humans. The organisations, the regulatory, bodies, are. In. Relationship. With the technology. However. Technology. Does, as much as somebody. Of human. Capacity does, so, human and Technology, have equal, agency, and they. Are all called, dance, which is one another point that AB genetic Theory brings about is it, gives. Agency, to humans, and technology, in equal, capacity. However. In, recent studies people. Talk about how. Do users. Use, a technology, what, are the design implications. We. Will not use. Technology. In what should be done to improve this, technology. However. As go ahead in 2005, pointed, out that, this is too narrow of an definition. Divorced, from all its implications the, environment, that the seamstress, uses, place them and therefore. Something. More, broader has to be brought in to understand. Why do people, use the technology, or not, use the technology, so, it's. Organizations. Who, are defining, the. Tech not just. Being used it's the users, who. Are under lot of influences. While. They are using the technology so it's just not a singular. Relationship. Between the device and the, user but. A multiple, relationships, that have constantly, been defined and. Evolved and are, constantly being have to be maintained, in, order to maintain. This relationship between. A user and the device of technology. So. Bringing, this concept in, the world, of Internet of Things. We. Should understand, how do we how. Are the Internet of Things been, connected, to each other what, are the different Acton's in this network or. Stakeholders. That are in this network and how, do they together. Ensure, that. These devices function, and then, we're gonna see towards. That is, off just. The user and what are the networks that involves there. So. This is how a typical Internet, of Things. Network. From the communication, technologies. Perspective, looks like so. On the left-hand side if you see. There. Are these devices and applications or. Systems, which, might, be the traditional, ones like your computer, your, phone it. Can be a connected cars it, can be a simple device which can be actively chatter. There's, these. Devices. Which collects, your data. Forwards. It to the traditional, backbone, of Internet, the, network and, usually. Forwards, it to a cloud-based system. Where all your data is being stored analyzed. By. Somebody. Who owns the. Technology per, se or somebody. Who, is analyzing. The data. Once. That respond, once that request of analyzing, is, completed. The. Analyzed data is, again forwarded. To the traditional, backbone, of Internet and you, receive that. Nice data, back, on your device if.
You See here however they. Are not of Acton's, which. Is the word that aunty, worked in theory, introduced. Locke, pectins, being involved here, so the first acting is the user who. Generated, the request, of collecting. Personal data or the device itself, and made a good question collecting the data then. The other actin is somebody, who provides you, with, that Internet connectivity, and the third. Active, in this scenario are the cloud, technology. Providers. The storage providers, the analysis, service River. Which. Are all in the. Domain. Of Internet, of Things so, there are different, activity. May board now. Of. All, these actors. Who. Influences. Why, do we use and, not. The. Technology is it just. Me. Versus. My device, or are. There some scene in features which. Gets incorporated behind. The scenes from other stakeholders as well so. That's the question that we, want to analyze. Today. So. I did, our expert, energy. Study with some, of my students, here and try, to identify what. Are the reasons, that we, as users, think. Insurance, a, decision, of using, this, technology, so. One important, feature that, came, up in that study is network. Of community. Replication. Network. In the sense of EMT as how into defines it so, individuals, are social beings and, so us their decisions, specifically. Those are new. Emerging, technologies that. They have just heard, about but, not have used L don't know anything in detail about. They. Form a network of community replication, which, influences, their network of use, self. Fear our self, or peer pressure and motivation, so, if you want to have a device which nobody else has so that you can show off is one of the primary reasons, that, people. Buy and use these devices as long, as they can show off these devices, they, continually use them, they. Even said some, of our participants in, the, survey which we did even said it's fun to try a new technology. Even though if I don't use it for long enough so. That I'm more aware than anybody, else in my group and. People. Also mentioned. Stuff. Like when somebody, comes into my home show off my group at home or I can show off my leg saw that this is how it works they feel I'm rich so it's kind of community. Prepetition, from, the economic point of view just from the technology, point of view something. That tells them that they are better than other or they're. Competitive. In nature so. That's why that's one, reason of. Community. Reputation. That forces people or needs people to use these. Devices. What. Are the things that actually so. There are a couple of other reasons before. Going into the privacy, thing I want, to mention because this is something that is not published yet I'm just, explaining. Portion. Of my results, the. Other so. That's one part of the use the other part of use is non use which is equally important, and sometimes it's not studied, as deeply, so. Why do people switch. From being a user. To a non user, specifically. For something, that is or not as critical as having, a mobile pickax. Mobile, during the course of last two or three decades have. Become part of your daily fabric, people have. Mobile, on them. Daily day. In day out for as. Much hours they are away but, not least, it and it is you tend to forget them, and you can to not use them as soon as you find data, being, collected for, example not interesting. Or data that. Is inaccurate. Or it needs lot of maintenance for charging, and it goes out of routine. For you to use, the. Other important. Reason. Why, people stopped using their devices is the network of privacy, so. When people they, were participants, who were saying who, were not sure if it's a privacy concern or not but they pointed out it creeped me out that it was, so much of data for me it felt like it was monitoring, me so, this, brings.
To The concept, of network of privacy, that privacy. As a user can. Be perceived, as somebody, I don't. Want my camera. Or my video. To be collected all the time I don't, want my personal information, to be collected all the time but in such a network there, are influences of other actives as well, the. Same actions that I showed you in the network, of Internet of Things, so, one. Importance. And let me pinioned my cursor here so, one important, stakeholder, is the IOT data collector, so, the device the systems and application, the device itself for, example your favorite as long. As soon as you are wearing it its collection of get down without you actually, saying, please. Collect my data so, that becomes enact. --nt who, functions, to collect your data and. Then. There are cloud and cloud services which, was towards the right side of that diagram who. Basically. Collects, the data stores. It and analyzes. It for you and sends, back those. Are the responsibilities. Of those two. Different bifurcations. However. What's, with. The privacy, issue that is, somebody. Who is collecting your data is, responsible. For telling. The user this. Is what I am collecting this. Is the purpose, and collect for. And this, is how. It will be analyzed, so basically providing, transparency to, the users. What. Are the implications of, this, being provided or not provided, to the user if. These. Regulations. Of these policies, are not transparent to the user people, feel like, what's written on top of it people feel that I'm not sure what is happening but I feel I'm constantly, monitored. And watched, so, I don't want to use this device anymore, so. Now if you see the, action, and responsibility. Monix the actions of I achieve, has implication, this on the way the devices, are being used by the users, the. Same is true for the activity of cloud and cloud services. If I'm, if somebody, third, party is touring my data in, cloud. Which I have no idea, where it exists. Analyzing. It and maybe sharing with a third party me. As a user would like to know what is happening with my data, sometimes. These policies, are stated, with the privacy, policies, but, let's be honest here how many of us read each and every statement which is written, in privacy policies. Specifically. Because these privacy, policies, are not as transparent, as they should be we. As a users, feel. Reluctant about, what, is happening with these devices, and in. Let's. Know. That 10 years of before, we, used to open a computer and that's the only time we. Will be monitored for example, but now you have devices which. Are constantly collecting, data about you and if, you are not aware what is happening, behind the scenes, it. Affects legal usage, patterns. You it affects your decision, to use a device and. If at all and. The. Same is true for some, process. In my data right so, it's not just about collecting my data doing. Something for me with, that data and showing, me my weekly. Patterns, of consumption, of calories, right it's, also there. Can be a hidden or latent knowledge. Discovery based, on that which, is very. Important. Is they are for advertising, advertising. So if you are some person, who does particular, sort of activities, you, might get advertisement. Waste just based on your activities. Does. That affect your usage patterns apparently, yes so people who, have. Who. I party who recruited, in my survey said okay so I all. Of a sudden started get to this advertisements, based on my patterns, of activities, and my gmail inbox and I, do not know why but, as soon as I stopped using this particular device, those. Advertisements. Faded. Away and so. That's important, as well so if you see. The. Data processor, the data collector. And somebody. Who just stores analyzing, the data for me, mutually. Influence. Are you using for how long do I use my data or. My device so. Another. Point is why do you want to study non use at all people, use it sometimes, people might abandon, the device for some time why, is it important, to study non, use so, let's look at couple of statistics, here so. This is the, image, taken, from World. Economic Forum, which, says they are around four billion on users, of Internet today and what's the current population of, the world around seven point six billion and that. Should raise some concerns and, why. Is that happening because, around. 50% of the people around the globe have, no electricity, that. Means they. Don't have access to Internet. 31%, of the people live outside of the Teja coverage, and as, we, began the. Discussion in the, beginning is all. These devices need, internet connectivity, so, if somebody, in the world so. We, might be living in a area, or in a country which has high, internet availability think, of the regions in the world who, don't have internet connectivity. Those. People you don't even have access to those devices. The. Other portion is 31, / 13 person of the people live below the International. Poverty line which is they, can't even afford these devices.
So. That to. Me to the network of affordability. People. Who can't afford at all are, actually. Outside the scope of, even. Being considered while, we design these technologies, because they don't own. These slices. So we cannot take their opinions. 50%. Of the adults are considered, ill, illiterate and women on up to 50% less likely to be connected. So. That brings to the scale and awareness, and the cultural acceptance. The. Total, number of 4 billion non-users, actually. She has, concerns, about how, do we calculate, those. Users, in the way we design and market, these technologies. And. It goes even further so, people, who actually can, own these devices. Might not actually use it right as we saw. In the beginning of the presentation. So. Are we sitting on another wave of digital, divide, right. After, even an Internet boom some. People might have the capacity, of owning, the devices, they might know what we are talking about but. Some people don't even care it will have an activity tracker because today we don't have internet or they just can't afford it, a recent. Study by Dutton in 2014. Said I hope, team will be more prominent in the alienation, of the world that. Do with the people with high income and that. Brings me again to the point of say these. Devices, are not yet part of our daily fabric, this is not something, that people, can qualify, to. Be. Something. That they need day, in and day out as opposed, to what happened with mobile devices. For. Example low-income, people cannot. Pay additional broadband charges, if even, if they have connectivity, they, might not have access, to smart sensors, because they just don't have supporting. Infrastructure. But. That's for. The people who. Cannot. Afford the infrastructure, what about the people who can afford the infrastructure, in terms of electricity broadband, connectivity, and are, even above the poverty line so. One. Of the questions that we ask participants, is. Why. Did you stop, using these devices and they said okay I broke it broke and I never bought another one I. Couldn't. Afford it or, it. Needed, lot, of charging I had to replace my battery, again, needed some money so I couldn't afford it that. Reminds. Us of it's, not necessarily, to be bought again so, those people are off the radar and on, non-users. What. Are the implications of, being part of this non, affordability. Think. About, this. Scenario so, if. You. Walk in and. Three. Of you are being picked up because you have a device or you don't have a device if that's a, factor. Of differentiation. You. Are thinking of something very, serious here so if you walk in, coffee shop and just, because you have a device, which. Collects. Your patterns, of preferences, you, might offer a coffee you might get offered a coffee or you might they might offer our. Order. A coffee for you but, if you don't have a device you. Might be in, Wayne, right, so, that's not even, digital. Divide that's cuter discrimination. Which, is even more serious issue and that's. Why cons studying. Preferences, of use. And also. Studying.
Factors, Which lead to non-use are equally. Important, so that that thing can be kept in mind as, we design our future technologies. Another. Important, things that, had to be kept in mind as, we move forward, with Internet of Things for, next decade is. Everything. As. Far. As the use of these emerging, technologies are. Concerned, are, motivated. By not really interpersonal, and social but. Also instant institutional. Concerns, and. Ephesus. So, there, are all these power relations that, aren't working between. All these actors, from, somebody, who, owns the device to somebody who designs the device to. Somebody, who regulates. This. Market, of, manufacturing. And rolling out devices. And all. These motivations. Actually. Influence, the, usage and the non usage, patterns, of the, people, so. With that I am the, end of the presentation. And I'm very open to questions thank you everybody for listening. Thank. You Radhika and we are gonna open it to, questions right, now if anybody has anything, the, chat window is located. On the, lower right, hand corner, of your screen you'll, see a little purple air well if you click that it should expand, a little menu where. You can type any questions into the chat and. I just, got one as I've been sitting here listening. To, you and, you. Brought up an interesting point about nobody. Reads, those, long and, user license agreements, right but. As. To. Vote you know and those come from you know the early days of software, development women. Weren't. Really. Having, any of your personal data collected, by any of these devices so. To. What extent do you think that we, need to come at this from a policy standpoint. When. It comes to being. More. Here. And less legalese. About, the types of data that's. Collected and how it would be used yes. That's a very good question actually and that's something, that has. Seen. An ongoing research. And. It's. Not about, take. Me it, apparent, to users, just making it apparent, to users that what is being collected but, actually defining what is allowed to be collected, as well so, P if you walk into a room full of sensors, what, sort of data can, be collected and it, brings to the point, of even privacy, and personalization, ferredoxin. You might always find people who are ready to give up some privacy, just because they get some location-based. Services, are customizable. Services, and then. That's where the regulatory bodies, come in that. They have to define okay innovativeness. Versus. Doing. It the right way and everything, else has to play accordingly. So. We've got a question from. From. One of our listeners. Out there is there any freeware. To. Observe, user data. Dena. Statistics, in terms of so, I have a follow-up question on that data statistics, in terms of these devices activity, tracker, you, mean some of them. Because. If that's what you mean. I'm not sure if I'm aware of such three. Words that are aware that, are there but I know of, applications. That, you can download and, pair. It up with your apps or with your devices, to see how.
Technology, Bandwagon, there and. Keep. An eye on your email he's, sending out information about the, day of that, webinar. All. Right thank. You all very much and we're gonna say goodbye here from Syracuse.