Liebherr Mega Cranes | The EPIC Story of Awesome Machines | Full Documentary

Liebherr Mega Cranes | The EPIC Story of  Awesome Machines | Full Documentary

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The crane has been a tool of humanity for  centuries. They’re vital for the construction of   everything from bridges spanning colossal rivers,  to skyscrapers that reach into the clouds. Modern   structures would be impossible without them,  and the same has applied throughout history.   Archeological evidence suggests that the ancient  Greeks invented cranes to help construct temples;   it’s believed a crane was used to  build the temple of Artemis in 530 BC.   Obviously, they’ve evolved plenty since then. 

However, prior to World War II, cranes were far  less practical to use for a majority of projects.   At the time, construction cranes were more akin  to ship cranes, and could only be used on large   construction sites. They were fitted into concrete  foundations, a process that normally took several   days to complete, and were difficult to remove. Then, with Germany in need of mass repair after   the war, a master builder, Hans Liebherr,  decided he needed to build a new type of   crane that could be moved, used, and then easily  moved again. In 1949, Liebherr invented the first  

mobile tower crane, the TK10, which took two  to three hours to assemble on the job site.   This was a groundbreaking innovation in  both the worlds of cranes and construction,   that not only accelerated  the rebuilding of Germany,   but laid the foundations for what is  the Liebherr Group as it is known today.  We welcome you to this special  documentary from Lord Gizmo,   where today we’ll cover the many impressive  details of Liebherr’s mobile cranes.  

Make sure to turn on captions if you want  to see both metric and imperial units! The LTM 1300 is a 6-axle crane with  a 78 m (256 ft) telescopic boom   that can be equipped with an extra lattice  extension, providing a maximum hoist height   of 188 m (617 ft). The crane can handle 300  tonnes (330 US ton) of load within a radius of   136 m (446 ft). What sets this crane apart from  traditional mobile cranes is its power train,   which draws power from the same engine  that is used to power the crane’s boom.

Generally, a standard mobile crane  is powered by two separate engines:   one to propel the drivetrain and  the other to operate the crane.   However, mobile cranes from Liebherr come standard  with one engine used for both traveling and   hoisting. The singular engine is connected with  a distributor gearbox that runs the undercarriage   when traveling, and powers the pump-drive when  hoisting. This concept offers numerous benefits,   including reduced vehicle weight and  increased space in the superstructure.   It also improves balance, allowing for an  increased load capacity, or for a longer mount.  

Along with all that, having one less engine  lowers overall cost, simplifies emissions-systems   compliance and, most importantly,  reduces maintenance complexity and costs.  To make their mobile cranes more efficient,  modern Liebherr machines come with an Eco   Mode. This system incorporates new technology that  automatically senses when the crane is not in use   and lowers fuel consumption. If the operator  doesn't interact with the machine within a set   time, the Eco Mode automatically initiates  ‘idle’ standby mode, by disengaging the   mechanical shaft from the pump drive. The pump  drive is automatically reengaged whenever the   operator decides to make an adjustment. The  average crane idles more than 60% of the time   during its operation, so this simple system  is able to save a significant amount of fuel.

If there is anything that is absolutely vital  for any mobile crane, it is its stability.   During crane operations, a mobile crane supports  itself on an extendable steel base, consisting   of outriggers. The position of the outriggers  determines how far the crane boom can be tilted.   In tight spaces, however, the outriggers  can't always be extended to their full length.   Liebherr gets around this by using  their VarioBase system, which allows   the outriggers to be extended individually. Liebherr demonstrated the benefits of VarioBase by   using two mobile cranes; one with and one without  their system. The provided constricted space   only allowed for a support width of 4.4 m (173  in), meaning each crane was only able to open its  

outriggers to half of their limit. However, the  crane with VarioBase extended its outriggers by 0%   on one side and 100% on the other. Consequently  it was able to attain a functional radius of   32 meters (104 ft), 4.5 meters (15 ft) greater  than with only 50% extension on all outriggers.   In tight spaces, it's 12 m (39  ft) longer than a standard crane. There are other ways to improve  the stability of a crane.  

Liebherr developed a system known as  VarioBallast that, as the name would imply,   shifts the ballast of a crane. Using a simple  adjustment, the ballast radius can be changed   quickly and easily, essentially moving it towards  or away from the center of mass. In constrained   working spaces, a narrow radius can prove to be  most useful. On the other hand, a larger radius   enables the crane to carry the same load to  greater distances, or a heavier load outright. The G-BKF (Geschutztes Bergekranfahrzeug) is  an armored mobile crane designed by Liebherr   for the German army. It is certainly a great  tool, but its use isn’t what we’re focusing on.   It features the same advanced steering system  that Liebherr uses across all of their modern   wheeled mobile cranes. It is designed to  be used in 5 different modes. For instance,  

different modes can be selected for taking  sharper turns, turning the front or back end,   or moving diagonally without turning. Every wheel  is equipped with adjustable-height hydropneumatic   suspension, which allows the operator to adjust  for: driving on slopes, reduced clearance height,   or for increased ground clearance. The rear axles  are actively steered by an electro-hydraulic   system, while the front axles are steered  mechanically directly from the steering wheel.

The boom of any crane is, obviously,  essential for it to perform its functions.   Most mobile cranes come  standard with a telescopic boom,   which can be extended or retracted as needed. The  boom’s design determines its telescoping speed,   load capacity, and lateral stability. Liebherr  generally employs one of two basic types of boom   for their mobile cranes. These are either  a rope boom with a hydro-mechanical system,  

or a Telematik boom with a single-cylinder  system. Let’s go over what this means. A hydro-mechanical system is for any mobile crane  whose telescopic boom consists of a pivot section   and a maximum of three telescoping  parts. The pivot section is the   mainframe of the boom that can be angled  to change the height of the boom arm.   The internal telescoping parts slide out of  the pivot section using rope pull technology,   which is based on a double-acting two-stage  hydraulic cylinder. Now, what does that actually   mean? Very simply, a double-acting cylinder  has a piston with two-way hydraulic power,   so that it can be pushed or pulled. All of  the telescopic sections move simultaneously.   This enables the crane to extend and retract the  telescoping parts faster than a single hydraulic   cylinder. This boom type was designed for usage  at low heights, such as between buildings.

A Telematik boom, on the other hand, has an  automated telescoping mechanism that relies   solely on a single-cylinder extension system.  It also includes an internal locking system,   which locks each telescoping section  one after the other. In other words,   each section can only extend when the  section before it reaches its maximum length.  The Telematik boom has been in use since the  1990s. This decades-long experience is why most   mobile cranes are fitted with it rather  than other modern telescoping systems.   This technology is still unbeatable when it  comes to lifting and telescoping heavy loads.

Crane manufacturers also develop extensions  for mobile cranes to meet job requirements,   known as jibs. This includes the  folding jib and the fixed jib.   A folding jib is an extension that can be, as the  name would imply, folded up and doesn't need to   be taken off after use. Fixed Jib  On the other hand, a fixed jib is brought to  the worksite separately, and mounted thereafter.   Such jib extensions provide exceptionally  high hoist heights and load capacities when   compared to folding jibs. These can be  installed at different working angles.

The higher a boom goes, the harder it becomes to  keep stable laterally. To put it simply, a heavy   weight hanging from a long boom can cause the boom  to bend. Imagine how a thin metal strip deforms   when subjected to a force, and how a longer strip  will visibly bend more than a shorter strip. A   unique solution has been developed to counter this  problem; the Y-Guying system. It uses two ropes   on both sides of the boom, pulled in tension to  identical lengths. This keeps the boom straight,   and gives it a higher load capacity. It’s  definitely a complicated system, which is  

why Liebherr only uses it with cranes that have a  load capacity of 350 tonnes (385 US tons) or more.  One such crane is the LTM 1650, an 8-axle mobile  crane with a 700 t maximum load capacity. Using   the Y-guying system, it was able to install  a protective cover on the Raisting radome,   a satellite earth station located in Bavaria.  The total length of the crane’s telescopic   boom is 80 m, on which a 56 m luffing jib was  installed. Strong blowing wind was the real   challenge, as the cover was 50 m (164 ft) in  diameter, making it like a sail to the wind.   The team calculated that the mobile crane would  be able to draw over the cover with a wind speed   of up to 1.5 m/s; that’s about 3.3 mph. The  Y-guying kept this delivery frim, even when  

the load was 100 meter high from the ground This earth station, which once communicated   with Apollo 11 to complete the moon mission,  is now once again completely functional. The modern mobile crane comes standard with an  intuitive control system. These use a variety   of different sensors, alongside monitoring and  control modules. One such example is Liebherr's   Liccon system. Such a control system helps  operators deploy the mobile crane more quickly.   Using a BlueTooth remote control, operations  setup can be completed quickly and safely.   It employs advanced software in order to guide the  operator in real-time. A taste of the future, a  

VR-supported planner can be used in order to find  issues, and solutions, in advance of the project. The LTM 11200-9.1 is the largest mobile crane  in its fleet. It comes standard with a 100   meter (328 ft) telescopic arm, offering a maximum  load capacity of 1200 tonnes (1323 US tons)   and a maximum hoisting height of 188  meters (617 ft). In addition to that,   its boom can be extended using jib extensions or  a Y-guying system, which is considered an ideal   choice for the construction of wind towers.  Here this mighty machine, in collaboration   with the impressive LG 1750 , is raising a  160-tonne (176 US ton) top section for the mast.

Compared to a standard mobile crane, a  crawler crane has the ability to move   itself around the worksite, but it does so using  a crawling undercarriage rather than wheels.   This gives crawler cranes an advantage around the  worksite, by limiting the need for outriggers.   Sometimes crawler cranes are  steered while carrying a load.   As compared to mobile cranes, a crawler crane can  haul more loads and provides extra flexibility,   but that doesn't mean this type of crane can  smoothly deal with any jobsite situation.

For one, crawler cranes are  unable to move along roads.   Their tracks would cause damage to any  road surface, particularly when turning.   Thus, they generally have to be  transported to a job site via trailer. Along with this, as with any machine, the  working area under a crawler’s tracks can   only absorb a limited amount of pressure. Tracks  are great for spreading out pressure; however,   the ground around things like ledges or above  underground pits can only take so much force.  

Exceeding this can cause subsidence and,  as a result, the machine could overturn. In order to cope with this problem, a ground  pressure visualization system is installed in   crawler cranes. This system constantly measures  the ground pressure and the exact position of   all moving parts. On the control monitor,  the machine's center of gravity and ground   pressure are displayed so that the operator  can avoid potentially hazardous situations. Unlike mobile cranes with telescopic booms,  a crawler crane is typically mounted with a   luffing jib. It has a lattice-jib  that can be raised and lowered,   a motion known as "luffing,” which offers  greater adaptability and lifting capacity.  

Due to the reduced slewing radius, it is  particularly useful for work in congested areas. The LR 13000, with a 120 m (413 ft) main  boom and a 126 m (393 ft) luffing jib,   is the tallest crane in the world, offering  an overall height of 246 m (807 ft). Erecting   such a long heavy boom is a challenge in  and of itself, and keeping it straight   is yet another. The higher the boom stands  the harder it becomes to keep it upright,  

as the boom becomes exposed to increasingly  stronger winds. This can lead to tipping, which   is a problem that occurs when the crane's center  of gravity is not above the tracks or outriggers. This is the reason wind sensors are  mounted on the top of the boom and jib.   These provide real-time feedback to the  system. If the situation becomes severe enough,   the inbuilt AI stops the operation and  brings the boom back to a safe position.

It is also critical to keep the load  vertically and horizontally aligned.   To prevent swaying, the operator has  to ensure that the boom is aligned   directly above the load, and must keep  the rope tensioned before lifting.   Moving the load horizontally while keeping  it level is the real test for operators.

To make this risky task less challenging,  Leibherr developed a system to automate   much of the work. The crane automatically  senses the tension of the rope and positions   the crane’s boom above the load. This prevents  swaying of the load when first being lifted.   The control unit then automatically  adjusts the hoist gear for steady   horizontal movement of the hook and load. This  results in quick and easy lifting operations. The LR 11350 is a crawler crane with a maximum  lifting capacity of 1,350 tonnes (1488 US tons),   a hoisting height of 220 meters (721 ft), and  a boom radius of 164 meters (538 ft). This   crane was able to lift the protective shell of  one of the reactors at the Leningrad nuclear   power plant. The dome was designed to prevent  the emission of harmful substances into the  

atmosphere in the event of reactor failure, and  had a total weight of 300 tonnes (330 US tons). Transporting such a massive crane to the  job site and assembling it is no easy task.   Liebherr designs each major component of the crane  with transport standards in mind. In addition,   Liebherr creates a variety of crawler cranes that  come standard with the ability to self-assemble.   The basic crane unit can easily stand  on its outriggers and install different   parts of the crane, including the crawling  undercarriage, counterweight units, and winches.

Each section of a lattice boom typically  features connection locks that need to be aligned   and locked. To lift the boom, the boom's  first section is connected to the A-frame.   Then, the sections of the boom are connected.  After that, counterweights are mounted. The crane   is then positioned in front of and connected to  the main boom. A typical crane has two winches.   One winch operates the lift cable while  the other controls the tilt of the boom.  

An auxiliary winch is required to operate  the luffing movement for a luffing boom.   The rope of the main winch that lifts  the load is led to the end of the boom.   Likewise, all winches are  connected to their relevant parts.   Finally, wind sensors are attached, and the  boom is erected by pulling the wire rope. Though cranes are generally known for their use  during construction for lifting heavy objects,   they do have a number of other uses. For  instance, they can be used for a variety of   earthmoving tasks, such as piling foundations,  dredging canals, and grabbing dry bulk.  

These types of cranes are known as duty-cycle  crawler cranes. These duty-cycle cranes are   capable of being outfitted with slurry wall grabs  or hydro mills. They function as a piling rig with   fixed and swinging leaders. They become a  drilling rig when a pile grab and casing   oscillator are attached. The duty cycle cranes  are able to compact soil using tamper weights.   These can also be converted into a dragline  excavator for a variety of applications.

Mobile cranes have a long history of helping  keep the construction of countless projects   practical and safe, with Liebherr always  staying at the forefront. We hope that all   of you enjoyed this special documentary from  Lord Gizmo on Liebherr’s involvement in the   world of mobile cranes, and that you got  to learn something about the work they do.   In the future, we will be covering  even more in the world of cranes,   as well as the works of other companies in mining,  construction, and all things civil engineering. If you have anything that you’d  want to see in a future documentary,   or think there was something  missing from this one,   make sure you let us know down below! Thanks  for watching, and we hope to see you next time.

2022-08-31 01:29

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