ISART Day 1 Part 1

ISART Day 1 Part 1

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Good morning from Colorado and welcome to ISART  2020. My name is Rebecca Dorch. I serve as the   Senior Spectrum Policy Analyst at  the Institute for Telecommunication Sciences (ITS),   the research laboratory for the National  Telecommunications and Information Administration   (NTIA). I've been involved with this NTIA program,  the International Symposium on Advanced Radio   Technologies (ISART), since I joined ITS in 2016.  As is a tradition with ISART, we open with a tutorial. The topic ISART is tackling this year -- 5G spectrum and a zero trust network --

involves a tremendous amount of  cross-disciplinary understanding.   So, to help set a baseline of common understanding  for those joining us from different disciplines,   areas of expertise, and levels of knowledge, we  asked our tutorial panelists to do the impossible:   explain what 5G is from an engineering,  architecture, standards, spectrum, and   international perspective in under two hours,  and then to record those presentations so   that registrants could view them in advance.  On behalf of NTIA and our ISART co-hosts, the   National Institute for Standards and Technology  and the University of Colorado at Boulder,   I want to express my sincere appreciation for  the outstanding presentations we are about to see.  They each did a phenomenal job providing the  baseline we sought. I will briefly introduce   each of our five distinguished and accomplished  speakers prior to showing their presentations and   additional information about all of the speakers  is in the ISART program and the ISART app. At the   conclusion of the four presentations, we will all  be here live and in person -- virtually of course --  and please feel free to ask questions  online during the presentations and to vote   for questions that you, too, would like to have  answered during the Q&A portion of the tutorial. 

Now remember of course that our panelists from  government agencies are speaking   based upon their knowledge and expertise and  not on behalf of their respective agencies.   So, first up we'll learn about engineering and  architecture and underlying 5G from Professor   Jeff Reed and Professor Nishith Tripathi.  Professor Reed is a founder of Wireless at    Virginia Tech and has a distinguished career  teaching, advising, and directing programs   and initiatives, and establishing companies  related to wireless security and technology.   Professor Nishith Tripathi is an adjunct  faculty member at Virginia Tech and a research   and development strategist at Samsung Research  International, excuse me, Samsung Research America. He and Professor Reed co-authored a multimedia  book on 5G which explains the vast potential of   5G and P5G concepts in about 55 hours, and I've  asked them to cover it in about 20 minutes each.  

So we're grateful to both of them for sharing  their knowledge with us. So now, without further   ado, we will see the very first video: 5G  Fundamentals and Deployment Considerations. Hello and welcome to our tutorial: 5G  Fundamentals and Deployment Considerations.   My name is Professor Jeffrey Reed,   and my colleague Professor Nishith Tripathi, will  be presenting this tutorial. It's based upon  

our ebook: 5G Cellular Communications Journey and Destination, and you can find it at the link below. First, let me tell you a few things about myself. I'm the Willis G. Worcester Professor of Electrical   and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. I have  founded a number of different organizations,   such as Wireless at Virginia Tech, The Ted and Karyn Hume Center for National Security and Technology,   several companies: Cognitive Radio Technologies,  Federated Wireless, and PFP Cyber Security.  

I've also co-authored several books, most  of those books with Professor Tripathi. I'm also a winner of the International Achievement  Award by the Wireless Innovations Forum. Hello, I am Nishith. I work for Samsung and Virginia  Tech with Dr. Reed. I have co-authored a couple of   books, including the first multimedia book on  5G, and a textbook on cellular communications. 

I have contributed to organizations such as  the FCC, GSMA, Scientific American, and CTIA. Let's talk about the goals of this tutorial. First,  we're going to provide examples of services that   5G was targeted to support. Next, we will look  at the performance goals for 5G in terms of   data rates and latency, and we'll look at the  construction of the overall system architecture.   There's some very important features of  the architecture, including network slicing,   a service-based architecture, and multi-edge computing.   We'll summarize the key characteristics of new  radio error interface. This is the air link between  

the handset and the base station. And we're going to talk about   two important features of the  architecture: standalone and non-standalone   modes for 5G. And this is important particularly  as we discuss the spectrum aspects of 5G. So first topic: let's talk about 5G fundamentals,  the services that are targeted by 5G, and their   respective performance goals. Let's give some context to 5G and let's take a look at the evolution of 5G. It seems like every 10 years we have a new  wireless standard. These standards come from the   3GPP organization. 4G was defined in 2008, and 5G  began its definition in 2018, with the release 15. Phase 2 of 5G is release 16, and that's  expected to occur in July of 2020.

So what can 5G do for us? Oftentimes,  you'll see 5G represented by this triangle   in which we have three pivotal services: enhanced  mobile broadband, ultra reliable and low latency   communications, and massive  machine type communications.   These services allow for various applications. For  instance, with enhanced mobile broadband we see   gigabytes in a second, and with ultra reliable  low latency we see applications such as   self-driving cars, and mass and machine type  communications is there to support smart city.   We will be seeing the combination of these  services supporting other applications such as   enhanced 3D videos or our augmented reality or  industrial automation, combinations of properties   of massive machine type communications and  ultra reliable low latency are useful for   mission critical applications. And then finally,  the combination of enhanced mobile broadband  

with mass and machine type communications  is very useful for smart home and building applications. Let's take a look at  the performance of 4G vs. 5G. IMT   2020 specified the recommendations for 5G while  IMT Advanced specified the recommendations for 4G.   And as you can see from this diagram,  5G provides much more performance   than 4G systems in many critical areas. Peak  data rates of up to 20 gigabits per second,   user experience data rates of 10 times  the previous ones, spectral efficiencies   3 times, user mobility, much faster  speeds to support things such as   high speed trains, very low latency. And this I  think is perhaps one of the most important  

properties of 5G, this low latency, because  it opens up a variety of new applications, connection densities, at an incredible amount  of 100,000 devices in a square kilometer,  energy efficiency of 10 times the previous,   and finally the overall capacity a 100 times  greater with 5G versus 4G. So how do we build 5G?   Well, it's composed of a number of new components, such as new radio, new network architectures,   virtualization technologies, new devices, and  new applications that are supported by 5G. Let's start with the system architecture. We should get ourselves  familiar with some definitions.   The user equipment (UE) communicates with  the access network, which could be a 5G   access network, so called next generation radio  access network, or a non 3GPP access network.  

Then, we have 5GC or 5G core network,  also called next generation core (NGC). NGC interfaces with the outside world, and some data networks such as the internet.   When we combine the UE 5G access network and the 5G code network, what do we get? A 5G   system. A network function (NF), is  some 3GPP defined or 3GPP adopted   processing function in the network. For example,  the base station GNB is a network function.

Let's talk about the major features  in the 5G network. First, we have NG-RAN, the next generation radio access network that  allows LTE and 5G new radio to work together.   Then, there's the cloud ran aspects of 5G. The  radio axis network can reside in the cloud. 5G has a new core network: 5GC. Sometimes,  it goes by other names as well.   That 5G core is a service-based architecture,   in which the components of the core network can  reside at different locations within the cloud. There's a number of different radio access network  architectures, combination of 5G base stations,   4G base stations, 5G cores, 4G core. The multiple  access re-edge computing network or MEC allows for  

applications to reside near the edge of the  network. This is one of the the neat features   of 5G that allows for very low latency. And finally,  perhaps one of the most significant aspects of 5G   is that it was developed with network slicing in  mind, so you can share a physical network but the   networks can be separated under different  slices. Each one of those slices provision   for a different quality of service experience, or  different authentication, or different security. The next generation radio access network  is NG-RAN. So what do we have in the NG-RAN?

So we have 5G base stations, gNB next  generation node b. So the gNB communicates with   the user equipment through the new radio or NR air  interface. Also, we can have some LTE base stations   that have been upgraded to understand the 5G core  network, so we call them ng-eNB. So  

these eNBs talk to the UE using the LTE air  interface. Now the standard allows the gNB to be   decomposed or desegregated into two components: central unit (CU), and distributed unit (DU). So central   unit allows pulling of resources, and distributed  unit is closer to the cell side so it has the   RF equipment. Now, what are the key benefits  we can get from engineering? Well, we can   benefit from high performance 5G NR air interface,  we get quite a bit of flexibility in deployment, and we get cost savings when we  do such disaggregation of the gNB.

5G core: so we have a variety of network functions  in the 5GC. Here, we will take a look at some of   those. We have access and mobility management  function that exchanges non-access stratum,   NAS Signaling with user equipment for  example messages related to authentication.   We have session management function that  allocates an IP address to the UE. UPF user  

plane function is a gateway to the outside world.  So, the packets from the outside world, a web server,   will pass through the internet routers, will  arrive at the UPF, UPF to the gNB, and gNB to the UE. The important aspect is that   we have modularization, so we have more  than a dozen different network functions.

This architecture gives us benefits, such as  scalability, flexibility of supporting network   slicing, a variety of services some we may not  even know today, and it gives us cost savings. One of the key features of the 5G is SBA (service  based architecture). So, each network function   provides a set of services. For example, AMF  says that, okay I provide certain services.   It will let the network  repository function about that,  and session management function will also  contact NRF, so now NRF knows that we have   this AMF alive, this SMF alive. So if somebody  is looking for an AMF, they can talk to the NRF.

These kind of network functions can store data  in some storage functions such as UDR and UDSF. So, they can store information  as well as retrieve information.   For example, information about the subscriber. What are the benefits we get from SBA? Well, it  facilitates implementation. There is increased   resilience, because you can have the data  separated from the computing resource. So, if   we lose computing resources, we still have the data  intact. We can start another processor, as the AMF.

Another aspect of 5G is MEC (multi-access  edge computing or edge computing).   So, the idea is to bring the processing closer to  where the users are. So, if we look at traditional   processing, then the user traffic will go from  application server through the internet routers   core network radio network, and to the UE. So, this core network is highly centralized.  

Now when we go to MEC processing, we bring  the application close to the user, so the   packet from the application server will  arrive at the mobile edge host, and then we   place some gateway, like UPF we talked about  user plane function, and from that gateway   to the radio network our gNB and gNB  to the UE. So, we are not passing through   a big comprehensive core network, so that will  give us several benefits. For example, we will be   able to reduce the latency, because now the server  is close to the user. There will be less traffic   in the backhaul and core networks, and we can  make use of some things we couldn't do earlier.  

For example, location hour and renault services,  because this application server is closer to the   radio network and it can talk to the coordinate  the radio network and exchange some information. Network slicing: another  very important feature in 5G. So, the basic idea is to provide custom quality  of service for a variety of services, as well as   customers, so we create different logical networks  by using the same physical infrastructure.  

So for example, in the standard, we have enhanced  mobile broadband slice, so that has data rates   with much more importance. So, we provide high  data rates to the user. Then, we have ultra   reliable low latency communication slice. So here, latency is very very important. Then, we have yet another slice massive machine  type communication. Here, our coverage is very   important. Maybe there is a vending machine in the  basement of a building, so coverage is important. So,   basically, we have different slices to  take care of different types of services.   So, we get several benefits  like custom quality of service,   and cost savings, so we use only  those functions that are required.

We can rapidly deploy services, because we have done the customization. Now, let's take a look at the fundamentals  of the new radio error interface. Let's take a look at creating  the new radio error interface.   First of all, 5G was developed with the  ability to support a variety of spectrum   shared, licensed, or unlicensed spectrum.  It has the capability of supporting massive  

MIMO, particularly at higher frequencies to  improve the throughput and range of the system. That's a very flexible framing structure. One thing  you have to say about 5G is it's the ultimate   and flexibility, and it means that actually a lot of  flexibility in the formation of the OFDM signal, as   well, such as spacing of the subcarriers. There are  advanced coding techniques that are incorporated   in the air interface, and have the ability  to connect to multiple radio access systems. Massive MIMO is one of the key features of the  5G physical layer. You can have hundreds of   antenna elements at the base station  to enhance the overall performance.

These antennas, when combined properly,  provide for high gain and neural beams.  They can be used to support multiple users  by pointing to different users in space to   separate those users, and increase  the overall capacity of the network,   or you can use spatial multiplexing in  order to improve the overall throughput rate   by using different propagation  paths to convey the information. So, you get high throughput and high capacity  using MIMO antennas. 5G has quite a flexible   frame structure, so we have a self-contained  slot where the resource allocation data   transmission and even positive or negative  acknowledgement can all occur in the same slot.   Now the slot itself is of variable length, so we can have a longer slot or a shorter one,   and that will help us adapt to the  quality of service requirements. 

We not only have backward compatibility but  forward compatibility as well, so we have   traditional 1 millisecond subframe in LTE. In 5G, that subframe has one or more slots.   So, some slot could be used in future  to define a new kind of air interface. We have quite flexible OFDM numerologies. 

What is a numerology? It is basically a  configuration with a certain subcarrier spacing.  So, for example, if you look at LTE, we have 15  kilohertz spacing for a typical channel, so between   two subcarriers rock solid fixed 15 kilohertz. But,  now in 5G, it could be 15 times 230 could be 60, 120, and so on, so we have more options in 5G. So, that  allows us to have a low complexity processor, even   though we might have large channel bandwidths. It  helps us meet qualitative service requirements,

and it facilitates diverse deployments. So,  we can have low band, high band, and still   have reasonable processing complexity. Channel coding is quite advanced in  5G. So, for example traditionally in LTE when we want to convey resource allocation  for that signaling, we use convolutional coding.   But, in 5G we use polar coding. So, that will  give us benefits, like better error protection,  

more efficient to decode. When we talk about  data transmission in LTE we use a turbo code.   But now we have low density parity check  coding, so that has the benefits such as   higher throughput, the complexity is  relatively lower, and we save some power. Okay. Time to talk about some 5G deployment   considerations. So Dr. Reed, let's  start with network architectures. 5G has a number of candidate architectures,  combinations of base stations, and core networks.  

The most popular, eventually, will be option 2. We call it the standalone option with new radio,  mixed with the next generation core. Option 3 is what we're seeing deployed today. Primarily   the non-standalone option in which we take new  radio, and we use the old core network with it. But, there are various options,  some with different types of   base stations mixed with next  generation cores, or with the old 4G core.

And of course, there's option 1. E-UTRA with an EPC. The most common option will  be the standalone architecture,   option 2, that consists of the new radio  connected with next generation core network. That next generation core network will  connect to the 5G base station, the G node B,   both with the user plane and the control plane, and of course the information will be  relayed from the next generation core   through the 5G base station, the  G node B, to the user equipment.

It is this architecture that allows us to realize  the full potential of 5G. However, it requires a   new core network, as well as a new radio network.  It's, this is more of the later deployments of 5G. Option 3x, quite popular, also called non-standalone NR with EPC or EN-DC E-ULTRA   dual connectivity. So, basically our UE can  have connectivity with both LTE eNB and 5G gNB. So, one of the things that we can do with  option 3x is that data can come from   core network to the 5G gNB. From 5G gNB,  some data can directly go to the UE over   NR interface, and some data can be forwarded to  LT base station, and we use LTE air interface.  

So, that is the kind of flexibility we  have. So, both the base stations LTE and 5G   have signaling connection, as well  as traffic connection between them. LTE is the master node, because the NAS signaling  passes through the LTE base station. So, the  

benefits here include faster time to market, and  you can still get pretty good performance from NR air interface, and we have overall coverage that  is reasonably good due to widely deployed LTE. Network functions virtualization  is important. So, we basically   go away from physical network functions, where we have individual boxes doing the functions. They are purpose built, proprietary hardware, proprietary software, and tightly coupled hardware software. But, when we virtualize it, then we do the  software implementation on generic hardware.  So, for example, we can put the AMF software on some  generic processor. It becomes AMF, so we can use   generic hardware, often called COTS  (commercial off-the-shelf) hardware.  

This gives us independence of software  and hardware, and the software runs on the   cloud infrastructure resources, and we make use  of compute storage and networking resources   of the cloud infrastructure. We get the benefits  like cost savings, scalability, and agility. Software defined networking is also important for  deployments. So, the basic idea is that we try to   rely more on software to connect different  nodes or network functions. So, traditionally,  

what happens is that we have an IP router, that has  the functions like routing table creation, packet   forwarding, and now instead of doing all these  functions in the same network element, what we   do is we divide the control plane and data plane.  So, it is like dividing and conquering. So, control plane   would centralize the intelligence to determine  optimal paths, effectively routing tables,   in the data plane (very simple), it simply forwards  the packets. So, we separated the signaling from   traffic, so now we can use very simple  SDN switches or networking devices.   So, what are the benefits? Well, since we  have centralized the intelligence, then   we can make better decisions, because we know what  is happening in different parts of the network. 

We minimize the manual configurations of routers,   and of course we reduce the cost, because  data plane devices are very simple. Spectrum, very important for 5G, so in phase  1 we have frequency range 1 that is below   6 or 7 gigahertz, and we have defined FR2  to cover approximately 24 to 53 gigahertz.   In general, millimeter wave means we should  have 30 gigahertz or more frequency. Right? But,   in practice even if it's 24 gigahertz,  we say it is millimeter wave spectrum.   So, if you look at license spectrum, could be  below 1 gigahertz. For example, operators have  

600 megahertz deployment. Then, we have 1 to  6 gigahertz, that is mid band kind of spectrum,   and then we have millimeter wave spectrum  above 6 gigahertz, a variety of frequency pens. So, there are several benefits and challenges. If  you have lower frequencies, we get better coverage,   but channels are narrower, so throughput is low.  If your millimeter will spectrum, you have so  

much spectrum that your throughput is high, but  because of large apartments, coverage is smaller. So, let's summarize what we've learned.  5G supports enhanced mobile broadband,   ultra reliable low latency communications,  and massive machine to machine communications.

5G has much better specs than 4G, and note  particularly the latency is much lower than 4G. The 5G next generation RAN includes  its base station G node B's,   and also the core network is comprised of  network functions such as AMF, SMF, and UPF. Network slicing is one of the neat features  of 5G, allows custom logical networks to be   created to support a variety of quality  of service and customer requirements.

The new radio interface includes such features as  massive MIMO, different OFDM numerologies, as well as different framing structures for the OFDM, and operates over diverse spectrum,  and it has advanced channel coding. The standalone new radio architecture is the  ultimate, it works with the 5G core. However,   currently we're mostly deploying the  non-standalone architecture, in which the new   radio needs the old core network, the EPC and it  needs a LTE base station to act as the master node. 5G operates over a very large frequency range.  While the lower frequencies are used to provide   coverage, the higher frequencies such as the  millimeter wave range provide a higher throughput. 

Mobile edge computing places the  application closer to the users,   and that's one of the key reasons why  we're able to reduce the delays in 5G. The service-based architecture defines  interfaces and facilitates a modularization   and virtualization of the core network. SDN is very  helpful in improving the routing and reducing cost.  And finally, network function virtualization  enables software implementation   of a network function using very  generic commercial off-the-shelf hardware. Thank you again Professors Reed and Tripathi for that extremely informative presentation.  

Next up is Jeffrey Cichonski, who will provide us  with information about 5G standards. Mr. Cichonski is an information technology specialist at the  National Institute of Standards and Technology, working  in the applied cyber security division of the   information technology laboratory. He's an active  member of the 3 GPP SA3 working group which   he'll explain in his presentation, and he has been  engaged in the development of 5G security.  So now we will roll the second tutorial video, which is:   5G Standardization, 5G Security Enhancements, and  Supporting Infrastructure Security Considerations. Good morning everyone, my  name is Jeff Cichonski. I'm   a researcher in the information  technology lab at NIST, and this morning I'm going to talk a bit about 5G  standards. Specifically, 5G security enhancements  

that come with the 5G standards, and some of the  supporting infrastructure security considerations.  I want to say thank you to organizers for  including me on this morning's tutorial session. So when we talk about 5G standards and  standardization in general, it's important to   understand that there's many different  standards developing organizations or SDOs.

Many different SDOs are responsible for defining  and specifying different pieces of the 5G system.   Specific examples are the  Internet Engineering Task Force.   They define critical internet protocols, like  TCP, TLS, things like IPSEC. A lot of their protocols   are used heavily in the 5G system. There's ETSI, the  European Telecommunications Standards Institute.   They do a lot of work in various different  technology standards, but specifically   virtualization is very important, and different ICT standards as well. 

Then there's the Institute of Electrical and  Electronics Engineers (the IEEE), they're really   critical. They've defined the 802.11 specification,  or otherwise known as Wi-Fi, and they're doing   other work related to 5G. But specifically for  5G, the main group that's defining how the 5G   system works is the 3rd Generation Partnership  Program. They defined 3G, they defined LTE or 4G,   they defined the voice over LTE, that LTE brought  with it and now they're working on defining 5G. So we're going to dive in a bit about 3GPP,  because that's kind of the relevant   standard developing organization for 5G, and really  the group where the the meat of the 5G system   is being defined. So 3GPP is really defined as  a global initiative, and they're responsible for  

mobile communication specifications, so they call  themselves a global initiative because they're   made up of partner organizations or regional SDOs. Examples of these SDOs are ETSI in Europe,   Arab, and Japan, Addis in North America, and the makeup of all these developing   organizations, these standards bodies  contribute to the third generation partnership   program. So in order to contribute to 3GPP, you  have to be a member of one of these regional SDOs.   So kind of the really short too long didn't read:  3GPP is writing the technical specification   for 5G, they're defining the interoperable  interoperable interfaces the protocols, and the   security features which we're going to get into a  bit more today. And just a little timeline, 3G was   defined by 3GPP, and released 3 back in 2000. 4G  or LTE defined by 3GPP, and released 8 back in 2009.   The first version of 5G, known as 5G non-standalone, was released in 3GPP release 15 in 2017,   and a few months ago we finally frozen  the 5G phase 2 or release 16 specification.

So, to continue to talk about 3GPP and  kind of the organizational structure,  it's kind of important to understand  they're made up of three overarching groups   specifically the radio access network or otherwise  known as RAN, the service and systems aspects,   commonly referred to as the SA groups and the  core networking terminals or referred to as   the CT groups. So each of these groups kind  of has a plenary group that's oversees   the sub-working groups, and they're responsible  for setting the priorities the timelines and   the coordination that's happening within the  within each of these technical working groups. So specifically for the past four years, I have been an active delegate in 3GPPs   SA 3 working group, this is the groups  responsible for defining the security architecture.   When I started attending 3GPP meetings was when  5G security architecture was kind of a blank page,   and we were just beginning to lay out how the 5G  security architecture was going to work and what   security features would be included. A little  more to continue on about 3GPP and kind of   how the group works. A little more  specifics about RAN, they're really   responsible for defining all things radio  interface: they define the really hard   technical aspects of the radio access network,  they're responsible for advancing the state   of technology, and how we're able to send more  bits over the limited spectrum we have available.  

The SA groups are really responsible for the  overall architecture and services capabilities   of the system from requirements to  general architecture to kind of specific   security architecture. The CT groups are  responsible for specifying terminal interfaces   kind of the logical and physical interfaces  the different terminal capabilities   and the core network parts of the 3GPP system. If  you look at CT, they're the folks that take   the high levels specifications and boil them  down into the bits and the bytes and actually   standardize what each message and each bit needs to look like. Another important component of 3GPP   is they work using a three-stage methodology,  and that's applied in within the working   groups as follows kind of stage one overall  service description from the user standpoint   really high level coming up with requirements  and what are some of the services that the   the new release of 3GPP system should have  included. Stage 2 is the overall description   of the organization of the network functions to  map service requirements into network capabilities, so a lot of the architecture stuff is happening  in stage 2. In stage 3 a lot of times is   where a lot of the CT groups comes in  and it's the definition of switching and   signaling capabilities and needed to support the  services defined in stage 1 so really CT is or   stage 3 is really writing the hard zeros  and ones that go into making the system operate.

So, just some insight into the 3GPP process  as I said, I participate in 3GPP SA3. Each working group is a little bit unique so my  perspective is kind of an SA3 perspective, but   the general approach is you study new features, new capabilities, new things you want to include, and   then potentially the next release from a security  perspective this could be studying security issues   or security features that are seen as important  and then kind of the outcome of those studies are made into the technical specifications  in the form of normative work   which is actually making  it into an actual standard. So the TR really from an SA3 perspective  the technical report or TR presents the   different solutions for a specific problem or  capability and a lot of these times we're leveraging protocols and capabilities and  technologies from other standards organizations.   So as we mentioned, IETF and IEEE 3GPP relies  heavily on technologies defined by other standard   organizations to make the system work. There are  definitely roles and responsibilities for each  

of these SDOs, and they try to utilize each  other's technologies as much as possible. It's really the work really  happens in an iterative pipeline   SA3 to find solutions based on SA  1's requirements and SA 2's architecture,   and also for mission critical  services that are defined by SA6.  There's a lot of tight timelines that  require the groups to really work in parallel,  and sometimes rework is required if an  architecture changes from SA2 perspective.   That means the security solution for that  architecture might also need to change or evolve,   and then SA3s security solutions are really made  real by CT1 so they write they take the high level   security architecture and implement it in the  overall system in kind of that really detailed   bits and bytes level and then a really important  notion for 3GPP is it's a consensus based process.   So, the idea is all individual contributing  companies bring contributions. Those contributions   are discussed at a very technical level. They're argued, they're disagreed with,  

they're agreed with, they're promoted, and sometimes they're kind of not looked on with much   seriousness if it's not a a real technical  solution. So it's really hard to kind of just   barge into a 3GPP meeting and try to push your  solution to a specific problem, because it needs   to be really informed at a technical level,  and it needs to make sense within the system.   So, these technical discussions  resorting to a vote is really   rare. It's kind of seen  as a failure of the process and voting is from an SA3 perspective  Really what I've seen has been reserved for    electing the the leaders of the working group. Just  a quick splash of the current timeline you can see   release 16 has been frozen in June 2020.   Release 17 is underway in many of the groups,   and release 18 is beginning or already  has begun in some of those stage 1 groups.

So we're going to shift a little bit and talk a  little bit about network security and just the   overall security capabilities that   3GPP and 5G bring to bear in this new generation   of cellular network. So just the super basics.  We have a device that's connected to a network   of base stations that network of base stations or  radio access network is then connected to a packet   core of some kind and then that packet core  provides connectivity out to different IP networks,   whether that's the internet or some specific other  IP network that needs to be connected up to.   So super high level diving in to overlay some  security around that. An important component of  

3GPP and mobile network security is security  is provided but it's provided at a hop by hop   level, it's not defined to be end to  end. There's no security from the 3GPP   system perspective from my device all  the way to the internet. The security happens   at each hop of the network so from in the radio  access network, I have access stratum security   there's NDSIP or network domain security  used which is a 3GPP term for IPSEC. 

NDSIP is used between kind of the radio  access network and the core network   and then there's also non-access  stratum security provided from my   device into the core network to protect a  lot of the signaling traffic that happens.   So just the key point is security is  provided. It's provided at a hop by hop layer. This is just a good representation  of kind of where security exists.   So we have user plane security we have as  security or action stratum protecting the   control plane from the radio network and we  have non-access stratum security that's protecting   the signaling of the core network traffic. There's  NDSIP or IPSEC and then there's TLS provided at   multiple layers of the of the system so to  overlay you can see that user plane security   and kind of the radio control plane security is  terminating through the base station and then we   have security protecting core network signaling  going from the UE into the the 5G AMF or CF,   and then we have NDSIP used to protect  different portions of the network as well.   TLS is becoming widely used within the different functions of the core network   and then over top of all of that from  an actual application perspective   a lot of our applications and our apps and our  organizations we have user plan application   layer security that is providing kind of an  overall layer of security from end to end   taking advantage of all the baked in mobile  network security and layering on top of that.

So that was kind of a high level of where security  is in mobile networks that that relevant for   LTE it's relevant now moving forward for 5G. So as  the standards were defined there's definitely some   known security issues with LTE. The technologies  have been around for 10 years. It's not perfect.   Just some inherent ways in the way the network  was designed allowed potential attackers to   do some subscriber tracking based on information  that was sent over the air in the clear.   An LTE based on the the key hierarchy there  there was no possibility of user plane integrity   protection so no way to protect user plane traffic.  At that 3GPP system layer there are   definitely some roaming issues. I'm sure folks  are familiar with SS7 and diameter threats   taking advantage of weaknesses in  some of those networks and then   kind of general false base station threats  are definitely a real thing with any kind   of RF technology. So moving forward, 5G the  goal really was from a standards perspective

to build on the security provided in LTE. LTE had  robust security protections just because there was   some worse unknown issues doesn't mean it wasn't a robust secure system, but the engineers that   were defining the the 5G security architecture in  3GBP understood some of those security weaknesses,   and really aim to improve 5G security. So we like  to say 5G security is really an evolution of LCE   security. It's not a revolution. It's building upon  some of the good stuff that was already there   so some of those specific features that we  have. Our user plane  

traffic integrity protection as I mentioned  that didn't exist in LCE it's now possible 5g   there's some subscriber privacy features to  prevent some of those subscriber tracking threats   there's a notion of a security edge protection  proxy this network function provides standard   standardized security at the roaming interface  there's a new authentication framework to allow   different authentication network methods into the  network and there's uh this notion of splitting   out the radio unit in this centralized  unit and distributed unit so you can put   the you can do some security enhancements  kind of from an architectural perspective   we're going to dive into a bit of these in  more detail starting with the radio network   security piece so as i mentioned finally we  have integrity protection for the user plane   all the control plane integrity protection  was available since the umts days   and then as I mentioned we also have this  split out of the gnode b into a central   and distributed unit the CU can or centralized  unit performs the security critical functions   terminating confidentiality and integrity   and the air interface security terminates at  the CU so that allows you to locate that in a   more trusted environment closer to the  trusted core network. There's also some language in the specification to provide increased  visibility to applications to have a better   understanding of what their security connection  looks like. This could be really promising moving   forward as the 5g system evolves it could allow  applications to query the network to understand   what their security posture of their  current connection is you can   picture a banking app if you open it it could  hit this the app could hit this api understand   its security connection if it didn't meet  the requirements for whatever is laid out   by that application that application  then could initiate some kind of   over-the-top application layer security to protect  against that kind of weak base station connection so there's some privacy protections within 5g  as well kind of the objectives of these were   really to protect the permanent identifiers  cycle temporary identifiers in a more regularly   scheduled way a more standards based way  and kind of avoid these re-authentication that   posed some threats in previous generations  of 3gpp systems so the big thing that   comes up when we talk about 5g and 5g security  is the encryption of the subscriber identity   in 5g that subscriber identity is known as the  soupy in lce that subscriber identity was known   as the mz and i'm sure folks are familiar with  mz catching threats so now the 5g system allows   you to send this subscriber identity over  the air in a concealed manner so it's no longer   sniffable or catchable by rogue  base station or just malicious actor there's some 5g authentication framework  enhancements as well so the credential   storage we have storage and secure hardware  whether that's a removable uicc sim card   or if it's an embedded element in the device  like something commonly referred to as an esim   you can have the same authentication method  to access both 3gpp and non 3gpp access   so picture connection to wi-fi um using a  3gpp kind of security or credential there's   also native eep support for 3gpp access so  this could allow in the future things like   iot devices to take advantage of tls to prevent  them from having to have that physical sim card   and allow a more scalable deployment of  authenticating iot devices on the network. So one critical thing I like to talk about  that's really important from a 5g security   perspective is the 5g network is really comprised  of many components utilizing different modern i.t  

technologies. 5g is moving from a legacy kind  of network functions as a physical box to a more   software eyes cloud native approach to the system  the packet core network functions are really being   written in a in a cloud native way using things  like containers and container orchestrations to   to manage and operate how the system works  so taking advantage of modern technologies   the network functions are really one piece of  that 5g system the network functions are going   to operate on top of kind of general purpose  i.t components things like cloud computing   technologies cloud operating systems they're  going to utilize virtualization and container   orchestration so it's really important that you  look kind of below the 3gpp network function perspective and look at that  supporting infrastructure   and apply and understand what  the cybersecurity best practices   that can be used for those various different  components of the technology stack there's   a lot of best practices that exist for these  technologies these technologies are widely used   in the i.t space so it's really important that  you're turning on and enabling the capabilities   from a security perspective that exist in that  supporting foundational infrastructure layer and just to build on that a little bit there's  many different technologies and protocols being   used I mentioned cloud computing technologies but  it's also important to note that internet security   protocols are being widely used as well and  these protocols as I mentioned are specified by   other standards developing organizations things  like ipsec tls josie um many other i.t security   protocols are being used in these systems so it's  important to understand what the best practices   and the best ways to deploy those types of  technology are so if you have any questions   or comments feel free to reach out to me at  my email address here I really appreciate everyone's time today  and I hope you enjoy the rest of the conference.

thank you Jeffrey Cichonski for that very  informative overview of the standards process.   I'm actually looking forward to asking  you some questions during the QA period.   We will now learn about spectrum for 5g within  the United States from Dr. Monisha Ghosh,   the current Chief Technology Officer of  the Federal Communications Commission. Dr. Ghosh is also a research professor at the  University of Chicago and prior to joining the FCC   in January of 2020, Dr. Ghosh served as a program  director at the National Science Foundation.  

So our third tutorial video is spectrum  for next generation wireless 5g and wi-fi. Good morning, everyone. First of all, I'd like to  start off by thanking the organizers for providing   me the opportunity to spend a few minutes  discussing FCC's priorities in allocating spectrum   for next generation wireless both 5g and wi-fi. My  name is Monisha Ghosh. I'm in a temporary position   at the FCC as the chief technology  officer. I'm also a research professor  

at the University of Chicago where I conduct  experiments and research on 5g and wireless. So the topics I'd like to cover in the next few  minutes start off with the spectrum landscape   for both licensed and unlicensed. As we're all  aware both of these parallel technology parts   for wireless deployments have been progressing  very rapidly over the last few years. Each of  

them have designed and specified system designs  that are increasingly higher rate lower latency   providing better quality of service  and in order to do this efficiently   both systems need larger and larger spectrum  allocations. So we'll talk a little bit about   where we think the spectrum can come from. Then I  will move into a discussion of the licensed   regime talk about spectrum allocations in high mid  and low bands. All of these three spectral regions  

are very important in order for us to  get a complete user experience. I will   also talk about unlicensed even though one  does not think about unlicensed spectrum   as where licensed technologies like the g's  1 through 4 and 5g will be deployed.   It is increasingly clear especially  as born out by the deployment of lte   laa in 5 gigahertz that cellular technologies  will take advantage of the unlicensed spectrum   to deploy their systems in a way that they can  aggregate channel capacity to give a better end   user experience. So there are two actions in this  area that I would like to talk about. One is a six  

gigahertz draft report and order and the second is  the repurposing of the 5.9 gigahertz spectrum. No   talk on spectrum is complete without this picture  which many of you have probably seen in the past.   This basically gives you the United States  frequency allocations. While this is specific   to the U.S. similar charts exist for every country  in the world and they're all similarly crowded.  

The bottom line is that spectrum is scarce. It is  a finite resources and as you can see from all the   little colors and the bars on this chart it is  pretty much allocated, especially if you look at   the regions that have been used  the most for consumer communications which is   somewhere up until 30 gigahertz. You see your  familiar services; there are your AM radio and   FM radio and television and then the cellular and  wi-fi services. This is not a complete depiction of   everything that has been allocated so far but it  just gives you a general sense of how little of   the spectrum that's out there is actually used for  the services that all of us have come to depend on.  

The other thing I should point out that a  large part of this these spectrum bands are   allocated for federal use and those have  usually been off limits up until now but   increasingly sharing with federal services or  finding ways to coexist with them is becoming   an important part of the spectrum strategy for  not only the FCC but other regulatory bodies   around the world. Now as you can see  from this picture as you're going from the chart   from top to bottom the scale  changes it's not a linear scale   and so the same area covered by a circle at  the bottom of the chart actually encompasses   a larger swathe of spectrum. So the 60 gigahertz  wi-fi circle is actually 14 gigahertz of spectrum   in that little circle there at 60 gigahertz which is more than all of the allocated spectrum   saying below three gigahertz obviously.  So basically what this tells you is that  

if you're looking for more bandwidth more spectrum  availability you need to go higher in the spectrum   band but at the same time as you go higher you  face the problems that physics poses in terms of   propagation. The signals don't travel very far and  so it has to come with a accompanying change in   the way you design your cellular systems or wi-fi  systems to operate at these higher frequencies.   I'd like to now talk about the FCC 5g fast  plan. So this is fast stands for facilitate   America's superiority and 5g technology. You  can either google their FCC 5g fast plan or   if you go to the website there what you will see  outlined there is a very comprehensive strategy   of how the fcc plans to allocate spectrum in high  mid and low bands as well as in the unlicensed   band in the service of future 5g and advanced  wireless services. In the high band    which I denote is greater than 24 gigahertz  this is where one expects the 5g millimeter   variant to be deployed again because this  is much higher in frequency propagation losses.  

Propagation inherently limits the distance that  you can cover with a single base station. This   lends itself to small cell deployments however  the bandwidths are much much higher and so you   have the potential of actually getting gigabits  per second throughput in these frequency ranges.   In fact as part of the research that I do at  the University of Chicago with my students.  

We've been taking a lot of measurements on the   Verizon's millimeter wave deployment in Chicago  5g deployment and we have measured download speeds   of one to one and a half gigabits per second  depending on where we are located. However purely focusing on the high band is not  an effective way of rolling out 5g for   everybody. The mid band plays a crucial role in in  in getting 5g out to everyone. It is a nice balance   between coverage and throughput. The frequencies  lend themselves to wider deployments and there   is enough bandwidth there to get reasonable  throughput as well. So it is very very important   for any wide-scale mobile wireless system to have  mid-band mid-band allocations. I will not  

spend a lot of time talking about low band which  is less than one gigahertz. This frequency has been   mostly allocated for a broadcast television in the  past but over time more of it has transitioned   over to mobile wireless especially with the  transition to digital tv. The spectrum was repacked   leading to some auctions of some  channels and other channels which have been   repurposed for 5g applications. Now do keep in  mind that the bandwidths that are available at   these low bands are pretty narrow so you're  not going to get the height throughput that   one expects when one talks about 5g. But on the  flip side you will get very wide area coverage   and this would be great for the next generation  of iot applications for example.   For example city scale iot where you need  large ranges but your data rates are not that high.  

I will also talk about the actions that FCC has  taken an unlicensed to enable not only expansion   of wi-fi which is the first technology one thinks  about when you're thinking about the unlicensed   spectrum. But also as we've increasingly seen in  five gigahertz unlicensed spectrum is also   a great place for cellular systems to deploy as  long as they meet the rules of unlicensed spectrum.   We've seen deployments in Chicago for example  where cellular carriers are aggregating up to   three channels in the unlicensed band  to enhance the throughput that they deliver   to their customers. We fully expect that the  new unlicensed spectrum will be used by 5g and r  

unlicensed in the same way as well oftentimes  in industry you see these two technologies set   up in a competitive manner. While it is  true that they occupy different spaces   we also feel that we need to allocate sufficient  spectrum to both because advances in one   enable advances in the other. If you're at your  home with a very high speed wi-fi connection and   you're used to that kind of a user experience  you expect the same level of service when you   step outside the home where of course wi-fi is  not going to provide you that experience but   cellular will. So we view both these systems  as you know pulling each other up and the consumer   benefits and allocating enough spectrum for both  is very very important part of the FCC strategy.   So let us take a little bit of a deep dive  into what FCC has done on the high band.   A number of auctions have been completed already.  In January 2019 800 megahertz was allocated in 28  

gigahertz, 750 megahertz in May of 2019 and 24  gigahertz. And just recently earlier this year   3.54 gigahertz of spectrum was  allocated in the upper 37, 39, and 47 gigahertz.   Now the earlier spectrum allocated  was just last year and we're already seeing   5g rollouts happen in the spectrum. So the industry  is just waiting for spectrum to get allocated for   them to start rolling out systems. So the total  of 4.95 almost five gigahertz of spectrum has  

been allocated for millimeter wave based 5g.  I believe the U.S. now leads the world in   high band licensed allocations and this has  resulted in an extremely aggressive rollout   of millimeter wave 5g across the U.S. And  as I mentioned before this is the band   where you're going to get the gigabits of  speeds that we have come to expect of 5g.  

On the mid band there's a lot of actions that  have been done and more that have been planned.   The 2.5 gigahertz is actually an interesting  band as the single largest continuous blocker   spectrum below three gigahertz. It's currently  allocated to educational broadcast servers in   the broadband radio service. The FCC has an  NPRM out to re-evaluate the spectrum and to say  

what are the current needs of these two  services EBS and BRS. And then any spectrum that   is left over there's an anticipated  auction that will begin in early next year. Again   this is the mid-band spectrum which has the nice  characteristics of both propagation and sufficient   bandwidth. The c-band report and order which went  out earlier this year will result in a   public auction of 280 megahertz of spectrum in the  3.7 gigahertz band. So this 3.7 to 3.98 gigahertz   is slated to start in December 2020.  If you remember the chart that I showed earlier  

on where you see how crowded the spectrum is most  of the time going forward if we are trying to free   up spectrum in the mid band in particular for  5g. We have to look at what's already in there   because there really isn't any spectrum that's  sitting there either. So in this band in particular   you have satellite incumbents which have  to be moved out of these 280 megahertz of   spectrum. They will continue to operate in the  upper 200 megahertz so 4 to 4.2 there   will be a 20 megahertz of guard band between  the 5g mobile terrestrial and satellite but   that takes time. There is also a process by which  the satellite incumbents are paid to move out of   the spectrum and the money for that comes  from the proceeds that the auction will raise.  

So licensing spectrum in the mid band is usually a  longer process than say the high band where there   was a lot more available spectrum. And we're going  to see this repeat in other bands that we pick up   for 5g as well. CBRS has been in the works for  many years now. This is the 3.55 to 3.65 gigahertz   band where navy radars operate. The auctions  were supposed to have started in June. They   slipped by about a month due to Covid but they have begun. This auction will be for   the priority access licenses so CBRS is a band  which is not only being shared by navy radars   through SAS or AFC service but is also going to  have three different priority classes of service.   So the incumbents, then the priority access  license, and then the general access category.  

So the licenses being auctioned today are for the  priority access licenses. This will probably be in   the U.S. the first mid-band 5g rollout that  happens and the industry is very excited about   it. There are a lot of different use cases being  planned for this band. For example, private 5g  

networks is one thing that you can see rolling out  here and also just early 5g mid-band deployments.   We are also investigating potential sharing in  the band right below the 3.55. So this is the   3.45 to 3.55 gigahertz, a band which also  has a lot of federal use right now. NTIA came up with a report on spectrum sharing  earlier this year and we are in the process of   refining some of the assumptions and parameters  to really understand under what conditions the spectrum can be shared. So there are a lot  of actions in mid-band and we hope to be able  

to get a fair amount of spectrum into  the hands of 5g providers fairly soon.   Low band, as I said, I'm not really going to talk  a lot about. There is a 600 megahertz band, there's   about 70 megahertz of a license spectrum that  has been allocated there and in 900 megahertz.   There is some discussions about repurposing  part of the band to enable broadband using LTE for beginning for start and  then possibly 5g into the future.  

Finally let me talk about unlicensed. We recently  concluded the biggest unlicensed allocation   for that is the biggest that  has ever been done. It is 1.2 gigahertz of spectrum   has been allocated for unlicensed use in the  six gigahertz band which is basically 5.925 to   7.125. Now unlike the five gigahertz  or at least most of the five gigahertz  

this is not a clean band. Again as I mentioned  before there's very little clean spectrum left.   it will be shared with existing incumbents so  there are six gigahertz fixed links and broadcast   auxiliary services there which provides services  like wireless wireless news gathering. However   FCC has been very careful in crafting rules that  will permit low power indoor wi-fi devices or   unlicensed devices without any automatic frequency  control to coexist with these bands.  

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2022-09-06 23:03

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