History of Steve Jobs (Full Documentary)

History of Steve Jobs (Full Documentary)

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Steve Jobs was born on 24th February 1955 in  San Francisco California. His birth parents   had to give up Steve due to being too young at  the time and not wanting to get married. Having   a child out of wedlock had a strong stigma in the  50’s, so Steve was adopted by Paul and Clara Jobs.  In 1961 the family moved to Mountain View,  California. This area, just south of Palo   Alto, California, was becoming the hub for  electronics such as radios, televisions,   stereos, and computers. At that time people  started to refer to the area as "Silicon Valley."  Paul Jobs was a machinist  and fixed cars as a hobby.  

Jobs remembers his father as being  very skilled at working with his hands.   Paul built a workbench in his garage for his  son to "pass along his love of mechanics”.  Steve often found it difficult in making  friends his own age and struggled to function   in a traditional classroom. He resisted authority  figures, frequently misbehaved and was suspended a   few times. Jobs later said himself he was “pretty  bored in school and had turned into a little   terror..” He regularly played pranks on others  at Monta Loma Elementary school in Mountain View. 

Although Jobs credited his fourth  grade teacher with turning him around:   "It took her about a month to get hip to my  situation. She bribed me into learning. She would   say, 'I really want you to finish this workbook.  I'll give you five bucks if you finish it.'   That kindled a passion in me for learning! I  learned more that year than I think I learned in   any other year in school. They wanted me to skip  the next two years in grade school and go straight   to junior high to learn a foreign language, but  my parents very wisely wouldn't let it happen.”  Jobs did skip the fifth grade and transferred  to the 6th grade at Crittenden Middle   School in Mountain View. However, this  transition led to Jobs being bullied,  

he then gave his parents an ultimatum, take him  out of Crittenden or he would drop out of school.   His parents used all their savings in 1967 to  buy a new house which would allow Jobs to change   schools. Their new house on Crist Drive in  Los Altos, California would later become a   key figure in Apple’s history. Whilst Jobs  started studying at Cupertino Junior High.  A fellow electronics hobbyist, Bill Fernandez,  from Cupertino Junior High, became his first   friend. Fernandez later commented that "for some  reason the kids in the eighth grade didn't like   Steve because they thought he was odd. I was  one of his few friends." Fernandez eventually  

introduced Jobs to electronics whiz Steve Wozniak,  who lived across the street from Fernandez.  As a child, Jobs preferred doing things by  himself. He swam competitively but was not   interested in team sports or other group  activities. He spent a lot of time working   in the garage workshop of a neighbour who worked  at Hewlett-Packard, an electronics manufacturer.  Jobs also enrolled in the Hewlett-Packard Explorer  Club where he saw engineers demonstrate new   products, and he saw his first computer at the age  of twelve. He was impressed and knew immediately   that he wanted to work with computers. While in high school Jobs attended lectures  

at the Hewlett-Packard plant. On one occasion  he boldly asked William Hewlett, the president,   for some parts he needed to complete for  a class project. Hewlett was impressed,   he gave Jobs the parts and offered him a  summer internship at Hewlett-Packard. Jobs said   “He didn't know me at all, but he ended  up giving me some parts and he got me a   job that summer working at Hewlett-Packard on  the line, assembling frequency counters...well,  

assembling may be too strong. I was putting  in screws. It didn't matter; I was in heaven.”  The location of the Los Altos home meant that  Jobs would be able to attend nearby Homestead High   School, which had strong ties to Silicon Valley.  He began his first year there in late 1968.   During mid-1970, Steve went through a period of  change, he said "I got stoned for the first time;   I discovered Shakespeare, Dylan Thomas, and all  that classic stuff. I read Moby Dick and went back  

as a junior taking creative writing classes."  From that point, Jobs developed two different   circles of friends, those involved in electronics  and engineering and those interested in art and   literature. These dual interests were particularly  reflected during Jobs's senior year as his best   friends were Wozniak and his first girlfriend,  the artistic Homestead junior Chrisann Brennan. 

He was described by a Homestead classmate as  "kind of a brain and kind of a hippie ... but   he never fit into either group. He was smart  enough to be a nerd, but wasn't nerdy. And he   was too intellectual for the hippies, who just  wanted to get wasted all the time. He was kind   of an outsider. In high school everything  revolved around what group you were in.   and if you weren't in a carefully defined group,  you weren't anybody. He was an individual,  

in a world where individuality was suspect."  Paul and Clara Jobs had made a pledge when they   adopted Steve that they would send him  to college. So they had worked hard and   saved dutifully for his college fund, which was  modest but adequate by the time he graduated.  

However Jobs, becoming ever more wilful minded,  did not make it easy. At first he toyed with not   going to college at all. “I think I might have  headed to New York if I didn’t go to college,”   

When his parents pushed him to go to college, he  responded in a passive-aggressive way. He did not   consider state schools, such as Berkeley, where  Steve Wozniak was, despite that they were more   affordable. Nor did he look at Stanford, just up  the road and likely to offer a scholarship. “The   kids who went to Stanford, they already  knew what they wanted to do,” he said.   “They
weren’t really artistic. I wanted something  that was more artistic and interesting.” 

Instead he insisted on applying only to  Reed College, a private liberal arts school   in Portland, Oregon, that was one of the most  expensive in the nation. He was visiting Steve   Wozniak at Berkeley when his father called to  say an acceptance letter had arrived from Reed,   he tried to talk Steve out of going there.  So did his mother. It was more than they   could afford but similarly their son responded  with an ultimatum: If he couldn’t go to Reed,   he wouldn’t go anywhere. They relented, as usual. Reed was known for its free-spirited hippie  

lifestyle, which combined somewhat uneasily  with its rigorous academic standards. Steve   enrolled at Reed to study Physics and Philosophy.  Chirssan Brennan remained involved with Jobs while   he was at Reed. However Steve soon decided to  drop out of Reed College. He liked being at   Reed however he didn’t enjoy having to attend the  required classes. Jobs continued to attend classes   he enjoyed like calligraphy. During that time the  relationship between Jobs and Brennan broke down. 

In a 2005 commencement speech at Stanford  University, Jobs stated that during this period,   he slept on the floor in friends' dorm  rooms, returned Coke bottles for food money,   and got weekly free meals at the local Hare  Krishna temple. In that same speech,   Jobs said: "If I had never dropped in on  that single calligraphy course in college,   the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or  proportionally spaced fonts.”  In 1972 Wozniak had designed a low-cost  digital "blue box" to generate the   necessary tones to manipulate the telephone  network, allowing free long-distance calls.   Jobs decided that they could make money  selling it. The two stopped making the   boxes after they were nearly caught by the  police.  Despite giving up on the venture,   they reportedly made about $6000 selling the blue  boxes. Jobs said that if not for the blue boxes,  

there would have been no Apple. And that they  could take on large companies and beat them.  In mid-1973, when Jobs was 18 he moved back  to the San Francisco area and began renting   his own apartment. Brennan and Jobs relationship  was complicated by this stage. Jobs hitchhiked   and worked around the West Coast and Brennan  would occasionally join him. Brennan wrote   this in her dairy, "little by little, Steve and I  separated. But we were never able to fully let go.   We never talked about breaking up or going our  separate ways and we didn't have that conversation   where one person says it's over." They continued  to grow apart, but Jobs would still seek her out,   and visit her while she was working in a  health food store or as a live-in babysitter.  

In 1973, Steve Wozniak designed his own version of  the classic video game Pong. After finishing it,   Wozniak gave the board to Jobs, who then took the  game down to Atari in Los Gatos. Atari thought   that Jobs had built it and gave him a job as  a technician. 

Later Atari’s co-founder said   "The truth is that very few companies would hire  Steve, even today. Why? Because he was an outlier.   To most potential employers, he'd just seem like  a jerk in bad clothing. Steve was difficult but  

valuable. He was very often the smartest guy in  the room, and he would let people know that."  By early 1974, Jobs was living what Brennan  describes as a "simple life" in a Los Gatos cabin,   working at Atari and saving money for his  impending trip to India.  One of his friends   had been to India and he was urging jobs  to take his spiritual journey there too.   He ended up reaching the foothills of Himaya  after days of traveling by train and bus.   That’s where he was supposed to see Neem Karoli  Baba but by the time Jobs got there he had   passed away. Despite the setback, Jobs still spent  seven months in India exploring his spirituality. 

He said, “The people in the Indian countryside  don’t use their intellect like we do,   they use their intuition and their intuition  is more developed than the rest of the world.   Intuition is a very powerful thing,  more powerful than intellect,   in my opinion. That’s had a big impact on my work”  After staying seven months, Jobs left  India and returned to the US. Jobs   had changed his appearance; his head was shaved  and he wore traditional Indian clothing. Over this   time, Jobs experimented with psychedelics, later  calling his experimentation with LSD “a profound   experience, one of the most important things in  my life. LSD shows you that there’s another side   to the coin, and you can’t remember it when  it wears off, but you know it. It reinforced  

my sense of what was important—creating  great things instead of making money,   putting things back into the stream of history  and of human consciousness as much as I could.”  Jobs and Brennan both became practitioners of Zen  Buddhism. Jobs was living with his parents again,   in their backyard tool-shed which he had  converted into a bedroom with a sleeping bag,   mat, books, a candle, and a meditation pillow. He  considered taking up monastic residence in Japan,   and maintained a lifelong appreciation for  Zen. Jobs would later say that people around   him who did not share his countercultural roots  could not fully relate to his thinking.  Jobs then returned to Atari and was assigned  to create a circuit board for the arcade video   game Breakout. According to Bushnell, Atari  offered $100 for each TTL chip that was eliminated  

in the machine. Jobs himself had little knowledge  of circuit board design and made a deal with   Wozniak to split the fee evenly between them if  he could minimize the number of chips. Much to the   amazement of Atari engineers, Wozniak reduced the  TTL chip count from 96 to 46, a design so tight   that it was impossible to reproduce on an assembly  line. According to Wozniak, Jobs told him that   Atari gave them only $700 (instead of the $5,000  paid out), and that Wozniak's share was thus $350.   It was only later that Wozniak found out about  this to which he said "I cried, I cried quite   a bit when I read that in a book." It was around this time that Jobs   and Wozniak attended meetings of  the Homebrew Computer Club in 1975,   which was a stepping stone to the development  and marketing of the first Apple computer. 

In 1976, Wozniak designed and developed  the Apple I computer and showed it to Jobs,   who suggested that they sell it. Jobs,  Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne founded Apple   Computer in the garage of Jobs's  Los Altos home on Crist Drive. The two Steves attended the Homebrew Computer  Club together; a computer hobbyist group that   gathered in California's Menlo Park from 1975.  Woz had seen his first MITS Altair there - which   today looks like little more than a box of lights  and circuit boards. Wozniak was inspired by MITS'  

build-it-yourself approach (the Altair came as a  kit) to make something simpler for the rest of us. Wozniak went on to produce the first computer  with a typewriter-like keyboard and the ability to   connect to a regular TV as a screen. It was later  christened the Apple I and was the archetype of   every modern computer, but Wozniak wasn't  trying to change the world with what he'd made   - he just wanted to show off how much he'd  managed to do with so little resources. The two decided on the name "Apple" after Jobs  returned from the All One Farm commune in Oregon   and told Wozniak about his time spent  in the farm's apple orchard. Neighbours   on Crist Drive had described Jobs as  an odd individual who would greet his   clients "with his underwear hanging  out, barefoot and hippie-like."

Jobs approached a local computer store, The  Byte Shop with the Apple I, who said they   would be interested in the machine, but only if  it came fully assembled. The owner, Paul Terrell,   went further, saying he would order 50 of the  machines and pay US $500 each on delivery. Jobs   then took the purchase order that he had been  given from the Byte Shop to Cramer Electronics, a   national electronic parts distributor, and ordered  the components he needed to assemble the Apple I   Computer. The local credit manager asked Jobs  how he was going to pay for the parts. Jobs   explained about his purchase order from the Byte  Shop which was cash on delivery. Jobs persuaded  

Cramer Electronics to give him the parts on credit  and would pay him once he delivered the computers. Family and friends were roped in to sit at a  kitchen table and help solder the parts, and   once they'd been tested Jobs drove them over to  Byte Shop. When he unpacked them, Terrell, who had   ordered finished computers, was surprised by what  he found. Terrell had essentially received only   the motherboard of the computer. Customers would  have to provide the keyboard, power supply and TV   to actually use the Apple I. Although Terrell  was upset by this, he still accepted and paid   for the units. Not to mention giving Jobs an idea  of what the next Apple computer should be like.  

After the Apple I’s success, the business was in  need of investment. They had used a variety of   methods, including selling various prized items  like Wozniak's HP scientific calculator and   Jobs' VW bus. Jobs started looking for cash,  but banks were reluctant to lend him money;   the idea of a computer for ordinary  people seemed absurd at the time. 
  Co-Founder Ronald Wayne became hesitant about  the business due to a failed venture four years   earlier and soon dropped out of the company,  leaving the two Steves as the active primary   co-founders. In 1977 Jobs eventually met Mike  Markkula, an American businessman and investor who   co-signed a bank loan for $250,000 (equivalent  to $1,080,000 in 2017). Markkula brought his   business expertise along with his money and became  a one-third owner of Apple and employee number 3.  

Steve Wozniak, later credits Markkula for  the success of Apple more than himself.   Meanwhile Chrisann Brennan returned from her  own journey in India and she visited Jobs at   his parents' home where he was still living. It  was during this period that Jobs and Brennan fell   in love again, as she noted changes in him that  she attributes to Kobun, a Zen priest that had   mentored Jobs. It was also at this time that Jobs  displayed a prototype Apple computer for Brennan   and his parents in their living room. By the early  1977, she and Jobs would spend time together at   her home at Duveneck Ranch in Los Altos, which  served as a hostel and environmental education   center. Brennan also worked there as a teacher  for children who came to learn about the farm.  
Wozniak and Jobs had soon moved on from the  Apple I. Many of the design features of the  

computer were due to the limited amount of  money they had to construct the prototype,   but with the income from the sales  of the Apple I and recent investment.   They were able to start construction of  a greatly improved machine, the Apple II;   the two Steves presented it to the public at the  first West Coast Computer Faire in April 1977.  
The main difference internally was a completely  redesigned TV interface, which held the display   in memory. Now not only useful for simple text  display, the Apple II included graphics and,   eventually, colour. Jobs meanwhile pressed  for a much improved case and keyboard,   with the idea that the machine should be  complete and ready to run out of the box.  
Jobs usually went to work wearing a black  long-sleeved mock turtleneck, blue Levi jeans,   and New Balance 991 sneakers. He said his  choice was inspired by that of Stuart Geman,  

a noted applied mathematics professor at Brown  University. Jobs liked the idea of having a   uniform for its daily convenience  and maintaining a signature style. As Jobs became more successful with his  new company, his relationship with Brennan   grew more complex. In 1977, the success of  Apple was now a part of their relationship,   while Brennan and Jobs moved into a  house near the Apple office in Cupertino.  

Brennan eventually took a position in the shipping  department at Apple. The relationship between   Brennan and Jobs was deteriorating as his position  with Apple grew, and she began to consider ending   the relationship through small changes. 

In  October 1977, Brennan was approached by Rod Holt   who was Apple’s 5th employee and developed  the unique power supply for the Apple II,   who asked her to take "a paid apprenticeship  designing blueprints for the Apples."   Both Holt and Jobs felt that it would be a good  position for her, given her artistic abilities.   Holt was particularly eager that she take the  position and puzzled by her ambivalence toward it.   Brennan's decision, however, was overshadowed  by the fact that she realized she was pregnant   and that Jobs was the father. It took  her a few days to tell Jobs, whose face,  

according to Brennan "turned ugly" at the  news. At the same time, according to Brennan,   at the beginning of her third trimester, Jobs  never wanted to ask her to get an abortion.   

But he also refused to discuss the pregnancy  with her. Brennan herself felt confused about   what to do. She did not feel comfortable with the  idea of having an abortion. She chose instead to  

discuss the matter with Kobun, who encouraged  her to keep the baby and pledged his support.   Meanwhile, Holt was waiting for her decision on  the internship. Brennan stated that Jobs continued   to encourage her to take the job by saying, ”be  pregnant and work at Apple, you can take the job.   I don't get what the problem is." Brennan however  notes that she felt so ashamed at the thought   of having a growing belly in a professional  work environment with the child being Jobs. Brennan turned down the internship and decided  to leave Apple. She stated that Jobs told her  

"If you give up this baby for adoption, you will  be sorry" and "I am never going to help you.”   She would sometimes ask Jobs for money but  he always refused. Brennan hid her pregnancy   for as long as she could, living in a variety of  homes and continuing her work with Zen meditation.   At the same time, according to Brennan,  Jobs started to spread rumours that   she slept around and he couldn’t  conceive a child as he was infertile.  
A few weeks before she was due to give birth,  Brennan was invited to deliver her baby at the   All One Farm and she accepted the offer. When  Jobs was 23 (the same age as his biological   parents when they had him) Brennan gave birth  to her baby, Lisa Brennan, on May 17, 1978.

Jobs went there for the birth after he was  contacted by Robert Friedland, their mutual   friend and the farm owner. While distant,  Jobs worked with her on a name for the baby,   which they discussed while sitting in the fields  on a blanket. Brennan suggested the name Lisa   which Jobs also liked and notes that Jobs was  very attached to the name Lisa while he was also   publicly denying paternity. She would discover  later that during this time, Jobs was preparing   to unveil a new kind of computer that he wanted  to give a female name. She also stated that she   never gave him permission to use the baby's  name for a computer and he hid the plans from   her. Jobs also worked with his team to come  up with the phrase, "Local Integrated Software   Architecture" as an alternative explanation for  the Apple Lisa. Decades later, however, Jobs  

admitted to his biographer Walter Isaacson that  "obviously, it was named for my daughter". When Jobs denied paternity, a DNA test established  him as Lisa's father. It required him to   give Brennan $385 a month in addition to  returning the welfare money she had received.   Jobs gave her $500 a month at the time when  Apple went public, as Jobs became a millionaire. On December 12, 1980, Apple launched the Initial  Public Offering of its stock to the investing   public. It generated more capital than any IPO  since Ford Motor Company in 1956 and instantly   created more millionaires (about 300) than any  company in history.  Several venture capitalists  

cashed out, reaping billions in long-term capital  gains. Jobs was worth over $1 million in 1978   when he was just 23 years old. This grew to  over $250 million by the time he was 25. He   was also one of the youngest people ever to make  the Forbes list of the nation's richest people—and   one of only a handful to have done it  themselves, without inherited wealth.

While the Apple II was already established  as a successful business-ready platform   because of Visicalc, Apple was not content.  The Apple III was designed to take on the   business environment, released on May 19, 1980. The Apple III was a relatively conservative   design for computers of the era. However, Steve  Jobs did not want it to have a fan; instead,   he wanted the heat generated by the electronics to  be dissipated through the chassis of the machine,   forgoing the cooling fan. However, the physical design of the   case was not sufficient to cool the components  inside it. By removing the fan from the design,   the Apple III was prone to overheating. This  caused the integrated circuit chips to disconnect  

from the motherboard. Customers who contacted  Apple customer service were told to "raise the   computers six inches in the air, and then let go",  which would cause the ICs to fall back into place.  Thousands of Apple III computers  were recalled. A new model was   introduced in 1983 to try and rectify the  problems, but the damage was already done. 

By August 1981 Apple was among the three largest  microcomputer companies. IBM entered the personal   computer market that month with the IBM PC, but  Apple had many advantages. While IBM began with   one microcomputer, little available hardware  or software, and a couple of hundred dealers,   Apple had five times as many dealers in the US and  an established international distribution network.  After examining the IBM PC and finding it  unimpressive, Apple confidently purchased   a full-page advertisement in The Wall  Street Journal with the headline "Welcome,   IBM. Seriously". Microsoft head Bill Gates was at  Apple headquarters the day of IBM's announcement   and later detailed about How Apple didn’t seem  to care and it took them a year to realize what   was happening. By 1983 the PC surpassed the  Apple II as the best-selling personal computer. 

Apple's board told Jobs he needed  adult supervision but he could sign   off on whoever they hired. Jobs and the  board went through about 20 candidates,   most in the tech sector, but Jobs vetoed them  all. Finally, he met John Sculley, who had risen   to CEO of Pepsi in just 10 years. He also had a  reputation for being a marketing master, having   helped create the "Pepsi Challenge" campaign that  sparked the so-called cola wars of the 1970s.   Jobs lured John Sculley away from Pepsi-Cola to  serve as Apple's CEO, asking, "Do you want to   spend the rest of your life selling sugared water,  or do you want a chance to change the world?"  Apple Computer's business division was focused  on the Apple III, another iteration of the   text-based computer. Simultaneously the Lisa  group worked on a new machine that would feature  

a completely different interface and introduce the  words mouse, icon, and desktop into the vocabulary   of the computing public. In return for the  right to buy US$1,000,000 of pre-IPO stock,   Xerox granted Apple Computer three  days access to the PARC facilities.   PARC was a sub research and development company.  After visiting PARC, they came away with new   ideas that would complete the foundation for  Apple’s first Graphical User Interface computer. 

By 1984, Apple had proved twice over that it was  a force to be reckoned with. It had taken on IBM,   the biggest name in business computing, and  acquitted itself admirably. The Apple I and   II were resounding successes, but while the  Apple III and Lisa had been remarkable failures,   Apple needed another hit. Both to guarantee its  future and to target the lower end of the market,   which to date it had regularly ignored. That hit, was the Macintosh: the machine   that largely guaranteed the company's future. We'll always remember Steve Jobs as the man who  

launched the Macintosh, but he only arrived on the  project in 1981 - two years after Jef Raskin had   started work on the low-cost computer for home and  business use. Jobs quickly stamped his mark on it,   and Raskin left in 1982 - before the product  shipped. We must give Raskin credit for original   idea and its name (his favourite kind of  apple was the McIntosh, but otherwise the   machine that eventually launched was a fair way  away from the one he’d originally envisaged. 

Raskin's early prototypes had text-based displays  and used function keys in place of the mouse for   executing common tasks. Raskin later endorsed the  mouse, but with more than the single button that   shipped with the Macintosh. It was Jobs and Bud  Tribble, the latter of whom is still at Apple,   that really pushed the team to implement  the GUI for which it became famous.  They saw the potential of the GUI’s  desktop metaphorical based design,   and they'd already laid much of the groundwork  for Apple's own take on the system as part of the   Lisa project. Tribble tasked the Macintosh team  with doing the same for their own machine which,  

in hindsight, may have been the most important  directive ever issued by anyone inside Apple.  If the Macintosh team had continued down the  text-and-keyboard path, it's unlikely their   product would have sold as well as it did - and  Apple, as we know it, might not exist today at   all. In early 1984, at Apple's annual  shareholders meeting, an emotional Jobs introduced   the Macintosh to a wildly enthusiastic audience. Nobody would ever deny that the original Macintosh   was a work of genius. It was small, relatively  inexpensive and friendly. It brought the GUI  

to a mass audience and gave us all the tools we  could ever need for producing graphics-rich work   that would have costs many times as much on  any other platform. Yet, right from the start,   it was in danger of disappointing us. You see, Apple had built it up to be   something quite astounding. It was going to  change the computing world, we were told, and as   launch day approached, the hype continued to  grow. It was a gamble – a big one – that any   other company would likely have shied away from. But then no other company was ran by Steve Jobs. 

Jobs understood what made the Macintosh special.  And he knew that, aside from the keynote address   at which he would reveal it, the show-stopping  machine needed a show-stopping ad. He put in   a call to Apple’s agency, and tasked them  with filling sixty seconds during the third   quarter break of Super Bowl 18. The premise was simple enough,   but the message was a gamble, pitting Apple  directly against its biggest competitor, IBM.   They dominated the workplace of the early 1980s,  and the saying that ‘nobody ever got fired for   buying IBM’ was a powerful expression working  in its favour. People trusted the brand, staking  

their careers on the simple choice of IBM or  one of the others. As a result, the others often   missed out, and if Apple wasn’t going to languish  among them, it had to change that perception.  So the ad portrayed Apple as humanity’s only hope  for the future. It dressed Anya Major, an athlete,   with a picture of the Mac on her vest. She was  bright, fresh and youthful, and a stark contrast   to the cold, blue, shaven-headed drones around  about her. They were brainwashed by Big Brother,   who lectured them through an enormous  screen. But Major hurled a hammer through  

the screen to destroy the evil talking head. Even without the tagline, the inference would have   been clear, but Jobs and CEO John Sculley agreed  to add the memorable line, ‘On January 24th, Apple   Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you'll  see why 1984 won't be like Nineteen Eighty-Four’.  Two days after the 1984 ad aired,  the Macintosh went on sale.   It came bundled with two applications designed  to show off its interface: MacWrite and MacPaint.  

Although the Mac garnered an immediate,  enthusiastic following, it was too radical   for some, who labelled it a mere "toy". Because  the machine was entirely designed around the GUI,   existing text-mode and command-driven  applications had to be redesigned   and the programming code rewritten; this was  a challenging undertaking that many software   developers shied away from, and resulted in an  initial lack of software for the new system.  It had all been good news so far for  Apple. The company was still young,   but going from strength to strength, and it  offered some serious competition for its larger,   longer-established rivals. Sculley and Jobs  management styles were wildly different, though,  

and it's perhaps inevitable that this led to some  conflicts between the two men. Sculley didn't like   the way that Jobs treated other staff members, and  the two came to blows over more practical matters,   including the pricing of the Macintosh. From the moment of its inception,   the Macintosh was always supposed to be a computer  for the rest of us, keenly priced so that it would   sell in large numbers. The aim was to put out a  $1000 machine, but over years of development – as  

the project became more ambitious – this almost  doubled. Shortly before its launch it was slated   to go on sale at $1,995, but Sculley could see  that even this wasn't enough and he decreed   that it would have to be hiked by another  $500. Jobs disagreed, but Sculley prevailed   and the Macintosh hit the shelves at $2,495. That was just the start of the friction between   the two men, which wasn't helped by a downturn  in the company's fortunes. Sales of the Macintosh  

started to tail off, the Lisa was discontinued and  Jobs didn't hide the fact that his initial respect   for Sculley had cooled. The board urged Sculley to  reign Jobs in. That's exactly what he did, but not   until March 1985 - just shy of two years after  arriving at the company. Sculley visited Jobs   in his office and told him that he was taking away  his responsibility for running the Macintosh team.  Talking to the BBC in 2012, Sculley said  “what went on inside the company at the time:   When the Macintosh Office was introduced in  1985 and failed, Steve went into a very deep   funk. He was depressed, and he and I had a major  disagreement where he wanted to cut the price of   the Macintosh and I wanted to focus on the  Apple II because we were a public company.   We had to have the profits of the Apple II and we  couldn't afford to cut the price of the Macintosh   because we needed the profits from the Apple II  to show our earnings - not just to cover the Mac's   problems. That's what led to the disagreement and  the showdown between me and Steve and eventually  

the board investigated it and agreed that my  position was the one they wanted to support.”  Sculley and Jobs's respective visions for the  company greatly differed. Sculley favoured open   architecture computers like the Apple II, sold  to education, small business, and home markets   less vulnerable to IBM. Jobs wanted the company  to focus on the closed architecture Macintosh as   a business alternative to the IBM PC. Sculley had  little control over chairman of the board Jobs's   Macintosh division; it and the Apple II division  operated like separate companies, duplicating   services. Although its products provided  85 percent of Apple's sales in early 1985,  

the company's January 1985 annual meeting did  not mention the Apple II division or employees.   Many left including Wozniak, who stated that the  company had "been going in the wrong direction   for the last five years" and sold most of his  stock. The Macintosh's failure to defeat the PC   strengthened Sculley's position in the company. But Jobs wasn't ready to go without a fight.  Sculley had to leave the country on business that  May, and Jobs saw this as the perfect opportunity   to wrestle back control of the company. He  confided in the senior members of his own team,  

which at the time included Jean-Louis Gassée,  who was being lined up to take over from Jobs   on the Macintosh team. Gassée told Sculley what  was happening, and Sculley cancelled his trip.   The following morning, Sculley confronted  Jobs in front of the whole board,   asking if the rumours were true. Jobs said they  were, and Sculley asked the board to choose   between the two of them – him or Jobs. They  sided with Sculley, and Jobs' fate was sealed.  Scully reorganised the company, installed  Gassée at the head of the computer division   and made Jobs Apple's chairman. That might sound  like a promotion – but in reality it was a largely   ceremonial role that took the co-founder away  from the day-to-day running of the company. 

A few months later, on September 17, 1985, Jobs  submitted a letter of resignation to the Apple   Board. Five additional senior Apple employees also  resigned and joined Jobs in his new venture, NeXT.  Jobs later explained that the industry went in  to a recession and Sculley did not know what   to do. He said there was a leadership vacuum  at the top of Apple, there were strong general   managers running divisions at Apple but there was  a lack of leadership. Jobs described John Sculley   as having an incredible survival instinct  so that when the going got tough he blamed   all of Apple’s problems on Jobs. Mentioning  that you don’t become one of the top CEO’s  

in corporate America without learning how to  survive. Steve Jobs said he hired the wrong guy.  Following his resignation from Apple in 1985,  Jobs founded NeXT Inc. with $7 million. A year   later he was running out of money, and he sought  venture capital with no product on the horizon.  

Eventually, Jobs attracted the  attention of billionaire Ross Perot,   who invested heavily in the company. The NeXT  computer was shown to the world in what was   considered Jobs's comeback event, a lavish  invitation only gala launch event that was   described as a multimedia extravaganza. In 1986, Jobs funded the spinout of The   Graphics Group (later renamed Pixar) from Lucas  film's computer graphics division for the price   of $10 million, $5 million of which was given to  the company as capital and $5 million of which was   paid to Lucasfilm for technology rights. Jobs did what the best managers often do:   He got out of the way. It was said that Jobs  "saw the potential of what Pixar could be before  

the rest of us," and had only one request  of the animated films: "make it great."  Some believe, that without Steve Jobs, Pixar would  not have survived long enough to make Toy Story or   any of the films that followed. And when others  urged Pixar to pick up the pace and churn out   more CGI films per year, Jobs let Lasseter and  Co. maintain a relative snail's pace — at least  

for a film company, ensuring a slow-but-steady  stream of high-quality and award-winning movies.  The first film produced by Pixar  with its Disney partnership, Toy   Story (1995), with Jobs credited as  executive producer, brought fame and   critical acclaim to the studio when it was  released. Jobs took Pixar public in 1996,   and by the end of the first day of trading, his 80  percent share of the company was worth $1 billion.   After nearly 10 years of struggling, Jobs had  finally hit it big. But the best was yet to come. 

Chrisann Brennan notes that after  Jobs was forced out of Apple,   "he apologized many times over for his behaviour"  towards her and Lisa. She also states that Jobs   "said that he never took responsibility when he  should have, and that he was sorry. By this time,   Jobs had developed a strong relationship  with Lisa and when she was nine, Jobs had   her name on her birth certificate changed  from "Lisa Brennan" to "Lisa Brennan-Jobs."   In addition, Jobs and Brennan developed  a working relationship to co-parent Lisa,   a change Brennan credits to the influence  of his newly found biological sister, Mona   Simpson (who worked to repair the relationship  between Lisa and Jobs). Jobs found Mona   after first finding his birth mother, Joanne  Schieble Simpson, shortly after he left Apple.  But Jobs didn’t contact his birth family  during his adoptive mother Clara's lifetime.  

He would later tell his official biographer "I  never wanted Paul and Clara to feel like I didn't   consider them my parents, because they were  totally my parents. I loved them so much that   I never wanted them to know of my search, and I  even had reporters keep it quiet when any of them   found out." However, in 1986 when he was 31, Clara  was diagnosed with lung cancer. He began to spend   a great deal of time with her and learned more  details about her background and his adoption,   information that motivated him to find his  biological mother. Jobs found on his birth   certificate the name of the San Francisco doctor  to whom Schieble had turned when she was pregnant.  Jobs only contacted Schieble after Clara died  and after he received permission from his father,   Paul. Jobs stated that he was motivated to find  his birth mother out of both curiosity and a need   to see if she was okay and to thank her, because  he was glad he didn't end up as an abortion. She  

was twenty-three and she went through a lot  to have him. Schieble was emotional during   their first meeting (though she wasn't familiar  with the history of Apple or Jobs's role in it)   and told him that she had been pressured into  signing the adoption papers. She said that she   regretted giving him up and repeatedly apologized  to him for it. Jobs and Schieble would develop a   friendly relationship throughout the rest of  his life and would spend Christmas together.  During this first visit, Schieble told Jobs that  he had a sister, Mona, who was not aware that she   had a brother. Schieble then arranged for them  to meet in New York where Mona worked. Her first  

impression of Jobs was that he was straightforward  and lovely, just a normal and sweet guy. Simpson   and Jobs then went for a long walk to get to know  each other. Jobs later told his biographer that   Mona was not completely thrilled at first to have  me in her life and have her mother so emotionally   affectionate toward me but as we got to know  each other, we became really good friends,   and she is my family. I don't know what I'd do  without her. I can't imagine a better sister. 

In 1989, Jobs first met his  future wife, Laurene Powell,   when he gave a lecture at the Stanford Graduate  School of Business, where she was a student.   Soon after the event, he stated that Laurene "was  right there in the front row in the lecture hall,   and I couldn't take my eyes off of her  ... kept losing my train of thought,   and started feeling a little giddy." After the  lecture, Jobs met up with her in the parking   lot and invited her out to dinner. From that  point forward, they were together, with a few   minor exceptions, for the rest of his life. Jobs proposed on New Year's Day 1990 with  

a handful of freshly picked wildflowers. They  married on March 18, 1991, in a Buddhist ceremony   at the Ahwahnee Hotel in Yosemite National  Park. Fifty people, including his father, Paul,   and his sister, Mona, attended. The ceremony was  conducted by Jobs's guru, Kobun Chino Otogawa.   Jobs's and Powell's first child, Reed, was  born September 1991. Jobs's father, Paul,  

died a year and a half later, on March 5,  1993. Jobs and Powell had two more children,   Erin, born in August 1995, and Eve, born in  1998. The family lived in Palo Alto, California.   NeXT workstations were first released in 1990  and priced at $9,999. Like the Apple Lisa, the   NeXT workstation was technologically advanced and  designed for the education sector, but was largely   dismissed as cost-prohibitive for educational  institutions. The NeXT workstation was known   for its technical strengths, chief among them was  its object-oriented software development system.   Jobs marketed NeXT products to the financial,  scientific, and academic community, highlighting   its innovative, experimental new technologies,  such as the Mach kernel, the digital signal   processor chip, and the built-in Ethernet port. NeXT went after the education market, which had  

been Apple’s territory. However, it did it with  even more expensive hardware than Apple’s. Outside   of the LC line, Apple’s systems were pricey in the  early 1990s. NeXT attempted to make up for this   by aiming its sales teams at higher education,  selling not mere computers, but “workstations.” 

After the 1990 hardware didn’t sell well NeXT  stopped manufacturing computers in 1993 to   become a software-only vendor, selling NeXTSTEP as  a combination operating system and object-oriented   development environment. NeXTstep for Intel  became a popular product among large companies   and especially financial institutions for rapidly  developing and deploying custom software.   Meanwhile at Apple, the future isn’t looking so  bright. Despite initially being quite successful  

in chasing high profits with wide margins,  its market is starting to shrink and, with it,   so did its retained income. For the first  time in the company’s history, its year-end   results showed its cash balances to be rising  more slowly than they had the year before.  That wasn't its only problem, though. IBM had been  out-earning Apple since the mid-1980s, when it   established itself as the dominant force in office  computing. There was little indicating that this  

would change any time soon and, to make matters  worse, Apple’s key differentiator was about to   be dealt a close-to-lethal blow: Microsoft was  gearing up for Windows 3 - a direct competitor   to the all-graphical Macintosh System Software. Apple Computer bought NeXT in 1996 after its own   efforts to upgrade the Macintosh operating system  failed.  After the sale, Steve Jobs first began   working as an advisor but was later appointed  acting-CEO, and then finally CEO of the company.   Apple said that NeXT’s “strengths in development  software and operating environments” would be   combined with Apple’s “ease-of-use” and multimedia  software. Apple initially said that NeXTSTEP   features would be used in its own operating  system, Mac OS. Soon after Apple closed the deal,  

however, NeXTSTEP became the foundation on  which all future Apple operating systems,   including today’s macOS, could be traced. Arguably Apple saved Next from being a failure   however much of its software helped build  the next generation of Apple. NeXT failed   to achieve its objectives and burned a ton  of cash in the process. But the hardware and   software wasn’t without technical qualities. Some writers, like Randall Stross in Steve  

Jobs and The NeXT Big Thing, would pin  the business failure mostly on Jobs,   and his personality, who famously micromanaged  everything, insisted on bizarrely difficult and   expensive positions, alienated important partners,  and pivoted wildly as they ran out of money and   investors. However this failure taught him so  much that he was finally able to be a great CEO   when he returned to Apple in the late  1990s. Steve Wozniak explained in a   2013 interview that while Jobs was at NeXT  he was really getting his head together.  In 1996, Apple announced that it would  buy NeXT for $427 million. The deal was  

finalized in February 1997, bringing Jobs back  to the company he had cofounded. Jobs terminated   a number of projects, such as Newton, Cyberdog,  and OpenDoc. In the coming months, many employees   developed a fear of encountering Jobs while riding  in the elevator, "afraid that they might not   have a job when the doors opened. The reality  was that Jobs's summary executions were rare,   but a handful of victims was enough to terrorize  a whole company." Jobs also changed the licensing  

program for Macintosh clones, making it too costly  for the manufacturers to continue making machines.  When Jobs returned, the company wasn't in a very  good condition. Apple had begun to flounder as   cheap PCs running Windows flooded the market.  Jobs found himself in the driver's seat again and  

took some drastic steps to turn the company  around.

Jobs summoned Apple’s top employees to   the auditorium, and, wearing shorts and sneakers,  got up on stage and asked everyone to tell him,   quote, “what’s wrong with this place.” After some murmurings and uncertain responses,   Jobs cut everyone off. “It’s the products! So  what’s wrong with the products? The products   suck! There’s no sex in them anymore!” And that’s because while Jobs was away   Apple started to lose their iconic identity  which was a trademark of Steve Jobs influence.   Prices went up and Macs suddenly stopped  selling. The product line proliferated  

and became so fragmented that it was impossible to  tell the difference between models. This not only   confused customers, but also sales associates,  and Apple’s image was damaged in the process.  Jobs started making steps to put back in place  the Apple he had originally built. This started   at the 1997 Macworld Expo, Steve Jobs announced  that Apple would be entering into a partnership   with Microsoft. Included in this was a five-year  commitment to release Office for Macintosh as well  

as a $150 million investment. As well as Apple and  Microsoft agreed to settle a long-standing dispute   over whether Microsoft's Windows operating system  infringed on any of Apple's patents. Jobs used the   money to ramp up advertising and highlight  the products Apple already offered, while   choking off R&D money in non-producing areas. One of Jobs's first moves as new acting CEO was   to develop the iMac, which bought Apple time to  restructure. The original iMac integrated a CRT   display and CPU into a streamlined, translucent  plastic body. The line became a sales smash,   moving about one million units each year. It also  helped re-introduce Apple to the media and public,  

and showcased the company's new  emphasis on design and aesthetics.  Through Jobs's guidance, the company increased  sales significantly with the introduction of   the iMac and other new products. Their appealing  designs and powerful marketing worked well   for Apple. And at the 2000 Macworld Expo, Jobs  officially dropped the "interim" modifier from   his title and became Apple’s permanent CEO. In May 2001, after much speculation,   Apple announced the opening of their own retail  stores, to be located throughout the major   U.S. computer buying markets. The stores  were designed for two primary purposes:   to stem the tide of Apple's declining share of the  computer market and to respond to poor marketing   of Apple products at third-party retail outlets. Another initial selling point was the original  

incarnation of the Genius Bar, which  featured pictures of Albert Einstein   and other famous geniuses who had been included  in Apple's "Think Different" ads of the time.   Jobs positioned the in-store "geniuses" as able to  answer customers' questions —and if they couldn't,   there was a landline to someone in Cupertino who  could. 

More than 500 fans lined up at the Tysons   store starting before dawn that first day. Over  the weekend, Tysons and Glendale hosted more than   7500 visitors, and sold a combined  $600,000 in products over the first two days.  In the years following, the Apple Store has grown  to more than 500 locations in over 20 countries.  

It has surged in growth despite  troubling times for the retail sector,   especially in the consumer electronics space.  While helping to drive Apple's own growth   and playing a key role in the launches of  iPod, iPhone, iPad and more, the Apple Store   also forever changed the look of computer  and electronics retail. And that look has   been widely imitated, from Microsoft launching a  chain of lookalike stores to Sony attempting the   same to actual knockoff Apple Stores in China.  However, in order to grow faster, Apple needed   something other than the Mac. The company  subsequently branched out, introducing and  

improving upon other digital devices. Portable MP3  players had been around since the mid-1990s,   but Apple found that everyone on the market  offered a lackluster user experience.   Steve Jobs had a strong term for gadgets  like that: “crap”. Everyone at Apple agreed.  Flash memory based players of the era held only  about 15 songs. Hard drive players held far   more but were relatively big, heavy, and  they sported difficult-to-navigate user   interfaces that did not scale well when  scrolling through thousands of songs. 

Moreover, most portable media players used the  pokey USB 1.1 standard to transfer music from   a host computer to the player, which made the  user wait up to five minutes to transfer about   15 songs. When moving thousands of songs,  the transfer time could shoot up to several   hours. Jobs decided that Apple should attempt  to create its own MP3 player, one that played   well with iTunes and could potentially  attract more customers to the Mac platform.  2001 marked an uncertain time for the company.  The recent tech stock crash loomed fresh in   everyone’s minds, and Apple was just barely  breaking even financially. The company’s  

main focus was on the Mac computer line, and it  had few resources to spare for other projects.  Due to this the iPod had to be finished  quickly so Apple wouldn’t shut down the   project; the product had to justify its existence  as a financial drain on the company. Product lead,   Tony Fadell also felt that competitors would  beat Apple to market with a similar device   if Apple didn’t work as fast as it could. After six months of hard work,   the iPod began to come together. The concentrated  and well-organized efforts of Apple’s various iPod  

teams proved that they could finish the product  in time, but one hiccup almost got in the way.  The events of September 11, 2001, took  place during the final stretch of the iPod’s   development. As the attacks unfolded, an Apple  team carrying key iPod prototypes from Taiwan   landed on U.S. soil—just before the U.S.  government shut down air travel nationwide.   The iPod prototypes made it in time. The first iPod shipped in November 2001.  

And to date, Apple has sold more than 304  million units across four different models.  With the successful introduction of the iPod,  the company entered the mobile device and   music distribution industries. Giving  and enormous boost to Apple’s revenue.  In 2003 Apple launched the iTunes music  store with 200,000 songs at 99 cents each,   giving people a convenient way to buy  music legally online. It sold 1 million   songs in its first week. Music expert Mark  Mulligan described Jobs as single-handedly  

pulling the music industry into the digital age. Before Apple launched iTunes, Jobs met with dozens   of musicians in the hopes of corralling record  labels into going along with the iTunes plan.   One of the people Jobs pitched to was  prominent trumpet player Wynton Marsalis.  

Marsalis said Jobs talked for two hours straight.  “He was a man possessed,” he said. “After a while,   I started looking at him and not the computer,  because I was so fascinated with his passion.”  Pitching and selling was a key part of Jobs’  repertoire. He was one of the world’s best   presenters. His keynote speeches captivated  audiences and have become a staple of the Apple   brand. He didn't just announce a new Apple  product; he found ways to get the audience   as excited as possible while masterfully making  that Apple product the next "must have" item. Jobs  

passion shown through each and every presentation  which resonated with the audience. He was both   admired and criticized for his skill at persuasion  and salesmanship, which has been dubbed the   "reality distortion field" and was particularly  evident during his keynote speeches (colloquially   known as "Stevenotes") at Macworld Expos and  at Apple Worldwide Developers Conferences.  However in October 2003, Jobs was diagnosed  with cancer. In mid-2004, he announced to his   employees that he had a cancerous tumor in  his pancreas. The prognosis for pancreatic   cancer is usually very poor; but Jobs stated  that he had a rare, much less aggressive type. 

Despite his diagnosis, Jobs resisted his doctors'  recommendations for medical intervention for nine   months, instead relying on alternative  medicine to thwart the disease.   According to Harvard researcher Ramzi  Amri, his choice of alternative treatment   "led to an unnecessarily early death". Other  doctors agree that Jobs's diet was insufficient   to address his disease. With Kettering Cancer  Center Chief Barrie Cassileth, saying, "Jobs'   faith in alternative medicine likely cost him his  life.... He had the only kind of pancreatic cancer   that is treatable and curable.... He essentially  committed suicide." According to Jobs’ biographer,   Walter Isaacson, he refused to undergo  surgery for his cancer because, quote,   “he didn’t want his body being opened.” A decision  Jobs later regretted as his health declined. 

It was around this time in 2005, a year after he  was first diagnosed with cancer, that Jobs made a   candid speech to graduating students at Stanford  University. This speech is known as one of the   best Jobs has ever delivered. He talked about  his love for what he does and the importance of   “Staying hungry, staying foolish.” He also  reflects on the hardest moment of his life,   leaving Apple in 1985. He explains that he didn’t  see it at the time but it ended up being the   best thing that could’ve happened to him. Back at Apple, Jobs began preparing for  

the June 6, 2005 Worldwide developers  conference, where Apple would reveal   their plan to begin producing Intel-based Mac  computers in 2006. And when that day arrived,   the new MacBook Pro and iMac became the first  Apple computers to use Intel's Core Duo processor.   By August, Apple had made the transition  to Intel chips for the entire Mac   product line—one year earlier than expected. And all of these great performances and products  

helped to boost Apple's stock price, which  increased more than tenfold between early 2003 and   2006, from around $6 per share to over $80. And  in January 2006, Apple's market cap surpassed that   of Dell, a huge milestone for the company. Because  nine years prior, Dell's CEO had said that if he   ran Apple he would "shut it down and give the  money back to the shareholders." Jobs sent an  

email to all employees when Apple's market  capitalization rose above Dell’s, it read:  Team, it turned out that Michael Dell  wasn't perfect at predicting the future.   Based on today's stock market close, Apple is  worth more than Dell. Stocks go up and down, and   things may be different tomorrow, but I thought  it was worth a moment of reflection today. Steve  Meanwhile Pixar's contract with Disney was running  out, Jobs and Disney chief executive Michael   Eisner tried but failed to negotiate a new  partnership, and in early 2004, Jobs announced   that Pixar would seek a new partner to distribute  its films after its contract with Disney expired.  But In October 2005, Bob Iger replaced Eisner at  Disney, and Iger quickly worked to mend relations   with Jobs and Pixar. In 2006, the two announced  that Disney had agreed to purchase Pixar in an   all-stock transaction worth $7.4 billion. When the  deal closed, Jobs became The Walt Disney Company's  

largest single shareholder with approximately  seven percent of the company's stock.  In January 2007, Apple entered the smartphone  business with the introduction of the iPhone.   It included a touch display, all the features  of an iPod, and an internet browser. It was a  

complete rebuke of the entire smartphone market,  which had been fixated on adding more buttons,   more features, and more styluses. But all  those things came at the detriment of the   user experience. That’s why Steve Jobs used this  graph while introducing the iPhone. The Moto Q,   Nokia E62, and Palm Treo were more capable than  the average cellphone, but those extra features   added complexity. The iPhone set out to deliver  the best of both worlds: The most feature-filled   phone ever, while also being the easiest to use.  And it all started by eliminating what Steve Jobs  

had loathed throughout his entire career: Buttons. The iPhone had a huge multi touch display, with   only one button. That way, the interface could  change depending on which app was being used.   An approach that had worked well on computers  for decades. There was also pinch-to-zoom,   physics-based effects like inertial  scrolling and rubber-banding,   and multitasking that allowed users to seamlessly  switch from music to phone calls to web browsing   to email and back. The first-generation iPhone  may be considered primitive by today’s standards,   with its 2-megapixel camera, small display,  and thick frame. But the original iPhone  

single-handedly began the modern smartphone  era, with nearly all of today’s devices   borrowing it’s design and functionality elements. On June 28, 2007, the iPhone finally went on sale   after five months of anticipation. And the  excitement resulted in lines forming outside   Apple Stores across the country two days before  the product’s release. The iPhone was nothing  

short of a success, with a quarter of a million  units being sold on its first day. Smart phone   makers went back to the drawing board to develop  multi-touch devices that could compete, and Apple   went to work on their next model, the iPhone 3G. In January 2009 Jobs issued a memo informing Apple   employees, quote, “that my health-related issues  are more complex than I originally thought.”   And he took a six-month medical leave of absence,  leaving Tim Cook in charge of Apple’s day to day   operation, as he did in 2004. At this point, Jobs  finally agreed to undergo a liver transplant.   And by mere coincidence, Tim Cook happened to be  an eligible donor since he shared Job’s O negative   blood type. But when Cook offered a portion of his  liver, Jobs cut him off. Yelling, “No, I'll never   let you do that. I'll never do that." Instead,  he was put on a waiting list in Tennessee,  

where he had the best chance of receiving  a liver transplant as quickly as possible.   And that’s exactly what happened in April 2009.  Post surgery, Job’s prognosis was described as   “excellent.” And he returned to Apple  six weeks later on a part-time basis.

The first public appearance Jobs made after  his surgery was at an Apple Event in September   2009. When he walked on stage, Jobs was met with a  standing ovation that lasted almost a minute long.   It was during this event that he unveiled the  iPad. A product that was actually conceived   before the iPhone, but was shelved due to the  smartphone project taking priority. The idea of  

a tablet in particular appealed to Job’s, mainly  because of its simplicity and portability. There   was no keyboard or mouse needed, just a sheet  of glass that displayed anything you wanted.   In fact, Jobs called the iPad, quote, “the most  important thin

2021-03-22 11:01

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