Four Corners Lecture Series presents Paint Technology in the Chaco World with Kelsey Hanson
at 4 PM. Okay. Okay. Um well, welcome everybody. Uh welcome to the Four Corners Lecture Series presented by Crow Canyon archaeological center here. This is a great partnership we have. Um first of all, I wanted to give a couple shout outs. Say hi to John Kader who apparently was gifted a plum bob of Earl Morris. That was I
just got this little tidbit in the chat. That's awesome, John. At least I assume it's Jake, John Kader, Jay Kader on there and hello to Leslie O'Toole. Wanted to say hi to you as well. I see you in the chat. Um So today, Four Corners Lecture Series. Uh we're lucky to have
Kelsey Hanson with us and Kelsey is going to be presenting on Paint Technology in the Chaco World Now. The Crow Canyon Archaeological Center acknowledges the Pueblo and Hickorya Apache. People on whose traditional homelands this institution sits and upon which we work and reside. Our mission related work would not be possible without indigenous people in the past, the present, and the future. We respectfully recognize and honor ancestral and descendant indigenous communities for their contributions to all of humankind. Crow Canyon is
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within the the Q. and A. So you're gonna the Q. and A. So you're gonna see a couple of different in the in the little tab that's either in the little tab that's either at the top or the bottom of your screen usually Usually you'll see a couple of options one of the tabs is Q is Q and A. the other
is Q and A. the other is Q and A. is Q and A. The other tab is chat for questions that you specifically would like to to ask of to ask of Kelsey. You will use the Q. A You will use the Q. A. for more
general conversation. You will you will use the chat if you're you will use the chat, if you're having difficulties with zoom , you can , you can head over to our live stream on Facebook k pro canyon dot org slash k pro canyon dot org slash Facebook and you'll be able to find this talk later on, on talk later on on Youtube talk later on on Youtube and you can subscribe to our Youtube channel channel can subscribe to our Youtube channel. That'll keep you updated is more and more webinars come and more webinars come out , and so you can , and so you can find us at Pro Canyon dot dot org slash Youtube dot org slash Youtube Youtube We've got t some great some great upcoming webinars in the next couple of weeks coming up on coming up on november the third We have landscapes in life, expressions in glass, with ramps and and Loma Taylor that promises to and Loma Taylor. that promises to be a really good way one. think I've seen some of some ramps mson's work quite excellent And the week after that November tenth tenth curating and context. It tenth curating and context, a discussion on current current wheel, right museum current wheel, right museum exhibitions with with Andrea Hanley.
with Andrea Hanley. So check that out as as well . So So now, what we have is Kelsey Hansen So now, what we have is Kelsey Hansen with paint technology in the chaco world. Now paint is one of the oldest Now paint is one of the oldest known human technologies, yet it remains underrepresented underrepresented and underrepresented in archaeological discourse archaeological discourse. Making paint requires intimate knowledge of geologic sources. process Processing requirements and application techniques. in the in the contemporary pueblo in the contemporary pueblo world d paint is an especially important element of performance for regalia, communicating regalia, communicating regalia, communicating important knowledge, directional symbolism, and more in this talk in this talk kelsey E in this talk kelsey E this talk Kelsey Hansen will contextualize paint as a technology and as a technology and illustrate its significance and its significance and performances in the chocolate world, and he Northern Us Northern Us Southwest excavations excavations at excavations at Chocolate great t houses have yield houses have yield enormous amounts of archaeological pigment, paint, paint.
roduction ion, tools, and painted tools, and painted media. In this talk In this talk Ms. Hanson will provide some preliminary insights from the study of these objects in in Museum collections in Museum collections by looking at trends and paid production and depositional practices practices through through time Through time. Ms. Hanson will
offer some initial thoughts on offer some initial thoughts on sociopolitical change, and the rise and fall of the chaco world rise and fall of the chaco world rld, and if rld, and if any of you know me, rld, and if any of you know me, you can definitely you can definitely assume that i'm gonna be quite excited about this talk. Do you assume that you're right i've really been i've really been looking forward to this Kelsey Kelsey Hansen is a PHD. Kelsey Hansen is a PHD. Candidate in the school of Anthropology at the University of Arizona, and was selected to receive that 2 receive that 2,022 Lister receive the 2,022 Lister fellowship from Crochet Canyon She was an She was an internship was an intern at Crow, Canadian in 2,016 , which , which set her on her current path and southwest path, and southwest archaeology. She's dedicated to seeking creative interdisciplinary and collaborative means of understanding the the diversity of human the diversity of human expression, problem solving and sociopolitical organization Kelsey's Kelsey's dissertation work is inspired by anthropology ogical archaeology and ogical archaeology, indigenous philosophy, conservation, sciences philosophy, conservation, science, and investigators paint, text paint technology technology. To understand the circulation of To understand the circulation of specialized knowledge in the chocolate world.
Kelsey hands-on. experiential learning , and , and his maintained. it makes ift pigment lab in her studio apartment apartment.
Since the beginning of the Covid 19 pandemic she conducts 19 pandemic. She conducts ongoing experimental research on this growing collection of growing collection of regionally available pigments and binders and binders. I've gotten to see a couple of these things it's really cool these things it's really cool little rk, Kelsey rk, Kelsey is doing right now rk, Kelsey is doing right now Kelsey is doing right now. Really cool stuff. it's a variety of media variety of media archaeologists have often talked about , but I but I think she's one of the first but I think she's one of the first to really go after r this in the last couple of r this in the last couple of decades. So it's my pleasure So it's my pleasure to turn this over to my good friend Kelsey Ann i'm looking forward d to what you to what you have to say to us us.
Thank you so much Thank you so much. Kelly Thank you so much. Kelly. really appreciate really appreciate the warm introduction. give me 1 s Give me 1 s and i'll get this slide show all fired ired up up. Sounds good.
good, Kelsey. good look good. looks good to me looks good to me. Amazing Amazing Amazing, alright Amazing Alright, well let's get much, much, Kellum, it's your much. Kell it's really a pleasure to be here today first of all as First of all as Kalam already mentioned, like, Okay. mentioned, like, Okay.
nd it really means the and it really means the world to me and it really means the world to and it really means the world to me. And so thank you, Copany, me. And so thank you, Copany, for all the support from literally the first day that I day that I decided I was gonna work in the Southwest They perkany has been a perkany has been a place for me to for me to learn in a really me to learn in a really supportive way. supportive way. And now, with And now, with the the Lister fellowship that support has become even more invaluable And it's really been made it possible for me to do this work i'm great ntly in ntly in residence in Washington Dc Currently in residence in Washington, Dc. as a constance M Washington, Dc. as a constance M.
Filing fellow in the National Museum of Natural History. I just wanna take a moment to just wanna take a moment to thank all of my friends and and colleagues for supporting me long away, especially those from the public from the public. And Stany Akama a, and and hopi and elsewhere who i'm constantly learning m constantly learning from and m constantly learning from and with this really is your history, and i'm very honored to y honored to be learning from, nd with you in this and with you in this process and I want to really think like my wonderful arents parents, who are literally parents, who are literally flying to come see me as we speak.
flying to come see me as we speak. So, while they are on their way i'll take some time take some time to talk to you , so today i'm going to So today i'm going to talk about my ongoing dissertation research h on h on paint technology in the Chaco world Chaco world world. And i'll tell you right i'll tell you right now that I do not do not have all the answers. do not have all the answers. can't even say that I have many of the answers because because I'm in this because I'm in this beautiful murky place of the whole murky place of the whole distribution process where my head is just spinning and head is just spinning and I'm excited to share with you some of the things that i've seen and i've seen and the things i'm currently thinking about so let's get this show in the this show on the road so to so to start as so to start as Kel mentioned paint is one of Paint is one of the oldest human Paint is one of the oldest human technologies in the world technologies in the world.
Archaeologists working in South Africa have identified oak or press ssing ssing workshops that are at ssing workshops that are at least a 100,000 years old. 100 Not really. think about that a 100,000 years ago this is about t when we're becoming really modern humans . This is the time when we had This is the time when we had this revolution and toolmaking and what's one of our first priorities working with priorities working with color? So in my mind So in my mind in many ways paint , and the artistic and symbolic expression that it expression that it embodies is is really in a big way. is really in a big way. What makes us human it's a What makes us human it's a defining characteristic of humanity . Hello Hello. n a really a really interesting way a really interesting way.
It's also one of the only materials that's literally materials that's literally been with us for the entirety of our human story from day day one all the way until day one all the way until today we have had d made and applied and d made and applied and d made and applied and worked with paint, albeit in different with paint, albeit in different with paint, albeit in different with paint, albeit in different ways but still so, despite but still so, despite this paint, still so, despite this paint, is also one of one of the most universally misunderstood misunderstood materials in archaeology. archaeology Archaeologists routinely use. Archaeologists routinely use vague and inconsistent terminology , , where terms like , where terms like paint, pigment , where terms, like paint, pigment, and dye, are often used pigment, and dye, are often used in a nterchangeably They're actually very big actually very different materials. archaeological archaeological literature is often fraught with assumptions often fraught with assumptions where chemical composition is assumed , based on based on color alone. It's rarely rarely confirmed through composition through analysis then Then all this obscures a lot of potential variability that could potential variability that could be very important And often And often, when pigments are encountered in our context, especially in the Us.
Southwest Southwest. they're often interpreted as being for poverty, production. when in when in reality there are a number when in reality there are a number of possible types of pain. In Media like In Media my pictographs would body pay many, many more more. So it might not be a potter r, but let's set the record straight on that. So let's
on that. So let's start with a simple question what is picked ked so to answer ked so to answer that I'm what paint is not so first of all so first of all. so. First of all, paint is not a , a . a dye is a colorful cell . A dye is a colorful substance that is used to chemically bond that is used to chemically bond to its substance. trate usually we're talking about organic materials like plants plants, flowers plants, flowers, plants flowers, bark, or oak alls that kind of alls that kind of thing meter process, and then used to chemically alter alter something something.
So you often see this in textiles and contrast , Paint is a surface coding. ng so when you're painting ng so when you're painting something you're creating a layer of of color that's applied of color that's applied onto itself straight. So here itself straight. So here we're looking at several several layers of paint that were applied ied to wood to a ied to wood to a wood surface.
So if you look closely you'll see that there's this initial see that there's this initial layer of white that's used layer of white that's used to smooth smooth the uneven nness, ness of the wood, and then ness of the wood, and then nness of the wood, and then layers of of paint are applied, afterwards so so again paid So again, paint is a surface . coding coding. Die is something that is a colored something so it's called chemically bonding to its substrate. So pains a service code ding like ng like. What is
ng like, What is it, then? So So they were ready for that question. So paint is the skillful combination combination of 3 key combination of 3 key ingredients, a pigment which is a colorful pen , Daniel, or Daniel or solid, and so a ion of pigments with a mbination of pigments with a binder so something's binder so something sticky, or something that allows those pigment particles to be held in pigment particles to be held in pigment particles to be held in place so So this can be something like So this can be something like tree gums or resins, like the gum Arabic shown shown here can also be things like oil or honey like oil or honey, or massive ted seeds ted seeds, or eggs seeds, or eggs that kind of thing So you take this combination you take this combination, and in order to make it it flow you need a liquid it flow you need a liquid vehicle, something that takes this takes this combination, then, makes it workable. So at it workable, so with that So with that 3, those 3 basic types of ingredients you're met with a lot of different options and the choices of which ingredients to to to use can be to use can be dependent on many different things. First of all , it can be dependent , it can be dependent on the regional availability of certain materials certain materials. Some materials might be abundant Some materials might be abundant and some might be harder to find find. materials might also be acquired through trade trade, so your trade, so your relationships with others may may influence what you have available to you available to you available to you.
available to you. It can also be influenced by or or dependent on what you're or dependent on what you're painting so certain substrates like plaster stone , stone, wood , stone, wood, or pottery, , stone, wood, or pottery, all require different recipes and these and these recipes can and these recipes can be defined or determined, both technically technically based on, like the technical requirements of them technical requirements of them like, Can it survive a 900 degree killed Either way of way of those those requirements can can also be like not like not be both like, not be both technical. The big also be based on cultural prescriptions or culture. rules rules.
So with this in mind like given the space aggressively, a pigment binder binder vehicle, I want you to for a moment about what it might mean, what about what it might mean, what the possible symbolic the possible symbolic implications are of of certain ingredients over others. of course there of course there are certain requirements, technical requirements, but there are some other things other things that might that might be important as well that might be important as well. So for binders, what might So for binders. What might it
mean to use pine pitch itch versus itch versus honey versus itch versus honey versus maybe itch versus honey versus maybe squash or melon seeds versus something like bear crease, or something something r something they all might carry different uses or different or or different when used in certain places . Similarly . Similarly, how . Similarly, how might maybe spring water versus river water spring water versus river water versus Snow. carry different meetings. When community bined. In this context in this context. Now, to be clear like I clear like I don't have the answers to those questions, answers to those questions, but But from what I have been told, these decisions can be just as important as the pigments, as they call ul component The role of The role of binders and and vehicles can be just important in making a good payment that That is good for what it's intended to do let's let's but to return this idea but to return this idea of regional availability of regional availability of materials. Some pigments are
Some pigments are geologically abundant, so Ochers or iron abundant, so Ochers or iron abundant, so Ochers or iron oxides, for example. e, are all of the e, are all of the place, especially in the Southwest. In general colors like In general, colors like red, yellow general colors like red, yellow, white, and d black, d black are all pretty abundant.
Okay black are all pretty abundant. course there will always be some sources that sources that are very high sources that are very high quality, but overall pretty quality, but overall pretty common. However, there are some colors like greens, blues, and purples like greens, blues, and purples harder harder to to find or process In the southwest . When you . When you think of blue, green when you think of blue green you're probably gonna think first about t t turquoise t turquoise right the turquoise is one of the most important examples of examples of blue, green minerals minerals in the Southwest of its s found all over the found all over the place but t Turk was actually t turquoise actually makes a t turquoise actually makes a really bad pigment.
So, while turquoise has this So, while turquoise has this rich blue green color as a rich blue green color as a stone when it's ground finer and d finer, it becomes really finer, it becomes really pale, so by the time the time it's fine enough to be a workable pigment pigment, it's pigment, it's lost of its color. So the point is. to make a make a blue green paint . Turquoise is Turquoise is not going to be the the choice for that you're gonna use turquoise for blue green paint , so making blue, green , so making blue create requires the knowledge of what other pigments pigments or minerals pigments or minerals might be might be might be used instead might be used instead So might be used instead So most blue, green most blue green pigments in the southwest are copper-based . So we're So we're talking Azari So we're talking Azari malachite Chrisicola and everything in Chrisicola and everything in between, because there's a lot of in between. but But another underappreciated like , like blue, green , like blue. green colorant, is s called Terra Barrett, or green and to tie it It's a type of iron potassium phylase phylase silicon that has been sporadically identified in sporadically identified in a pretty common color color, in a lot of pictographs color in a lot of pictographs and murals and murals So I include this to say that copper is copper is often put at the top of the list for what's really kind common But I do. There is other variability beyond that. So there are lots of pathways to get a certain caller and based on on how they're obtained, and how their process I think those their process I think those things could be quite meaningful ul so where do So where are you going to get So where are you going to get copyright? Probably copper mines right, and copper mines are common throughout, or copy just the y just the availability of copper.
Copper mines are common throughout Arizona in New Mexico and Sonora. Some of them Mexico and Sonora. Some of them are quite old, but also many of them have been obliterated by by by modern mining efforts, as by modern mining efforts, as well also I should say that Also I should say that even though ochers are abundant, some sources sources are preferred over others, sources are preferred over others so incredibly rich. Oakland rich.
Oh, courtly Red oprah's from the grand Canyon are really highly prized, and are used year prized, and are used year after being being way harder r to get to get and wave like r to get and way like farther from where they're used all all this is to all this all this is say that acquiring certain pigments can be quite quite challenging but it's also quite challenging but it's also very important also important to keep in mind that that beyond the knowledge for like how to acquire like how to acquire the appropriate material s you s, You also need to know how to process them. process them. Many artists who I work with Many artists who I work with express that pigments have different personalities. You can feel it in the You can feel it in the mortar.
Some pigments are like, Have this relatively lative lative resistance or willingness resistance or willingness to be grounded d down very d down They react differently with different finders. All this has to be learned to create good to be learned to create good paints. So in my dissertation , i'm i'm working to unpack that , i'm working to unpack that process to unpack the process of coming roduction production by focusing production by focusing on paint t as a technology, as a as a technology, as a meeting And againly skillful act of embodied knowledge knowledge in knowledge in doing so knowledge. In doing so I treat paint as a material material material repository of knowledge material repository of knowledge and relationships to me me.
Pant embodies, relationships, relate embodies, relationships, relationships to play right right , for example, like these pigs e, for example, like these that I collected from a variety of f road cuts f road cuts in the cedar basa road cuts in the cedar basa area road cuts in the cedar basa area. But also relationships to people le so i've been on the road for my dissertation, since e about may e about may about May, and in which is a long time to be away from home But it's been a lot of fun and in that time these are some of st these are just some of the pigments that I've been given from friends along the the way, so you'll the way, so you'll the way, so you'll notice there's some green earth's here. from the green river area in Utah . ochre and ochre and ochre processed Robert Polish over Polish turquoise, from liable lank e enquire This down here is some indigo and indigo and indigo dyed clay from the tower s area, and I just got s area, and I just got these in yesterday yesterday. These little green beauties from the clackamus River area the clackamus River area in Oregon.
I actually don't know what these are yet but my but my little traveling payment collection collection connects me to distant places , but , but also to friends like , but also to friends like far and wide. And So it's something that I cherish very much as I move through this world . So these So these are all things that I think about. in my day to day think about. in my day to day life. But what
life. But what does this look like in the world of archaeology the world of archaeology the world of archaeology? Putting it in back in the context of the chocolate world. First of all, it's of all, it's impossible to ignore the importance the importance of color in the the importance of color in the pablo world. This was not lost on early ethnographers who wrote up these extensive lists of Color, dictionaries, color of Color, dictionaries, color terms. But when it came to writing about But when it came to writing about archaeological histories color, we s often often considered frivolous. s and inconsequential and inconsequential.
Less important than other means of defining of defining culture. Is this too bad , because the importance of color because the importance of color is embedded in very ually ually ually every facet of every facet of popular life . To To illustrate in in talking with Octan h Octavia, say October, the h Octavia Sayatoa, the supervisor of the Zuni cultural resource Advisory resource advisory team he's resource advisory team he's s often lamented that archaeologists often treat zuni history, like it, is black and white . He insists in contrast that . He insists in contrast that his ancestors did not really the no black and white world the no black and white world. and that color is was in isn't d is, an integral component of d is, an integral component of zoning zuny world views and identities. Color views and identities. Color permeates life, and is so pervasive that it that it is second that it is second that it is second nature. And these contacts caller color represents color represents directionality, capability.
ations ations, worldly phenomena ations, worldly phenomena, like rain or cloud format ions, ions or agricultural growth ions or agricultural growth or agricultural growth. Plants, so we might expect expect then that colorful expect then that colorful paints, when employed in specific contexts context, was no casual was no casual app app. The importance of color in the The importance of color in the pablo world is most readily seen in performances Public performances are vibrant, chromatic events, where culture chromatic events where cultural knowledge is shared shared, celebrated, shared, celebrated, and brought to life through song, day, dance e, and metaphor, and of course and metaphor, and of course, color r, or, despite r, despite fundamental cultural between pablo communities participation in a complex a complex calendar a complex calendar of performances is one of the few elements that shared throughout the public the public world . Several Several performances or help p throughout the year to provide communities with joy, goodwill, and cosmological balance and cosmological balance, and of all the elements needed to create a good performance , call , caller is one of the most important it's a careful application of color creates layers of of symbolic meaning used to communicate communicate histories, values. , and and traditions, and and traditions, and ultimately to affect worldly phenomena and the record. this material archives archive of paint shows at archive of paint shows that this colorful world has has very deep roots, has very deep roots. So to
has very deep roots. So to understand the dynamic origins and histories of this origins and histories of this cornerstone of public life, I turn to the chocolate chocolate world Neil Judd Neil Judd once declared Judd once declared that in few places in the in the pageant Apollo in the pageant Apollo history be seen so clearly as in Chocolate Canyon a Chaco canyon. for those a Chaco canyon a Chaco canyon. For those who may be unpopular.
the choco world is characterized by a vast system of monumental architecture. The number that emerge that emerge from extensive that emerge from extensive agrarian communities centered in chocolate canyon canyon in the center of the San Juan basin in northwest New Mexico in northwest New Mexico in northwest New Mexico. The chocolate world is mostly The chocolate world is mostly characterized by its very characterized by its very distinctive architecture, namely, it's great houses, and it's great kivas. the chocolate it's great kivas. But the chocolate world writ large is also is also is also noteworthy for its extensive for its extensive communication of exotic, and, like highly of exotic, and, like highly prized goods, like cacao and turquoise.
and nd macaws and jet, and macaws and jet. And the list goes on and on And the list goes on and on, Paulo Benito shown Paulo Benito shown. here is a Paulo Benito shown here is the largest of them you can see with some of the people for scale, for those who might be unfamiliar miliar The largest the chocolate has in chocolate Canyon, 4 stories high, chocolate Canyon, 4 stories high, and estimated 600 rooms, high, and estimated 600 rooms. The plaza The plaza, bisected by a north, plaza bisected by a north south road. of room rooms, seem here by my cursor, I hope you by my cursor. I hope you can see if not it's in the middle e just a e just a spectacular place. the
earliest accidents of great houses in the in the Southwest t were by and large, driven t were by and large, driven by a thirst to stock museum shelves on thirst to stock museum shelves on the east coast t, like the one that like the one that I'm in now most of most of the major activators of major activators of major activators of chocolate major activators of chocolate Canyon relied heavily on India enous enous labor to activate and enous labor to activate and recover materials, to stop these very museums However, it's However, it's interesting because some of the footnotes in these in these foundational activation reports came activation reports hint at the importance of paint and color for for indigenous people. Neil Neil Judd, for example, wrote about how peculiar it was to watch the Zuni Navajo career delight over a certain mineral igments that are being igments that are being igments that are being exhibited and how they would beg to take them home A question is often fulfilled, A question is often fulfilled so as i've been working through archives and museum collections . It's not It's not that uncommon to find a note saying you know we had 4 azure for Azerite pellets given to oomi workmen fresh workmen fresh rubbing seen on this piece of s piece of ochre is probably from s piece of ochre is probably from the Navajo from the Navajo workman we have all this evidence of of zoomy zoomi and and zoomi and and Navajo people working working with working with working with or being excited about the pigments that were being in covered ncovered from these great house ncovered from these great house ncovered from these great house sites. Despite the practice of occasionally handing occasionally handing out pigments to the to the zoomi and Navajo workmen to the zoomi and Navajo workmen. to the zoomi and Navajo workmen. paint and paint and pigment is abundant in Paint and pigment is abundant in museum collections from museum collections from chocolate, canyon so here's a map of here's a map of chaco canyon here's a map of chaco canyon with the relative distributions of paint.
pigment pigment, paint, production, pigment, paint production, tools and painted media When I say paint production tools, i'm referring to any tool that tool that has documented pigment residues pigment residues and my painted video category category includes anything from category includes anything from painted wood, stone bark , plaster. But specifically, not padre because it's a lot of it and it's very different and it's very different, so that's for r most of the r most of the rest of people who study pottery. but But just looking at the distribution of these materials in Chocolate Canyon Chocolate Canyon, it's clear Chocolate Canyon, it's clear Chocolate Canyon, it's clear that Pablo Bonito and Paula that Pablo Bonito and Paula also have a of paint in terms of in terms of t in terms of pigment and tools and media a this is this is partly because they've been been excavated a lot they 've next 've next they had very 've next they had very expensively but I also note that some of the of the sites that are not only of the sites that are not only y smaller, but have also been activated much less activated much less extensively on so have so have have pretty notable evidence for paint notable evidence for paint production sites like spade, but toad and twin as twin Sj twin Sj. 6, 2, 7 in the corner down here 2, 7 in the corner down here all have e more more pigment than you would more pigment than you would expect more pigment than you would expect. That said That said, I will say that maps like these are undergoing undergoing constant revisions, because I'm actually working in the questions right now to actually analyze and and refine these and refine these categories , because, things like paint and pigment, as you might expect.
are really are really a are really a poorly defined. The are really a poorly defined. The in catalog descriptions, which is mostly why i've been mostly what I've been relying since Covid is just been n en museum like catalog en museum like catalog descriptions. were things like paint pushed mars red paint, question mark, or a question mark or a paintstone. Maybe , but just a lot of things e but just a lot of things that t don't carry a lot of weight until you see it you see it. And ultimately things like words like ochre, for example, are like ochre, for example, are used to refer to both red and yellow.
, just things that are very , just things that are very , just things that are very helpful at an armed slave, right So I've been working in the collections to refine those understand what we're actually looking like. So look at this map, but it will change because i'm change because i'm actually working in the room t now now. of those collections I wanna show e. I wanna re I wanna take some time because I don't have a lot of because I don't have a lot of really final thoughts on what's going on here, But going on here, But I do want to take you you threw some of what I have been seeing to keep you been seeing to keep you atiated satiated while i'm figuring things while i'm figuring things out so i'm gonna look through this I'm gonna move you as kind of quickly gonna move you as kind of quickly.
But I want you to get get you give you a sense of what give you a sense of what paint production n in n in chocolate looks like n in chocolate looks like so museum questions from chocolate chocolate Chocolate Canyon are m Chocolate Canyon are brimming with examples of with examples of colorful so things like yellow ochers, red yellow ochers, red ochers like this one here which you can't quite see quite see. But if you look closely there's s a couple of grinding facets, evidence of Robin that evidence that it was tested and evidence that it was tested and used, we have great ochers, so red iron ochers, so red iron oxide so ochers, so red iron oxide so much have been shaped and you much have been shaped and you can see these very fine lines of these very fine lines of scoring as well. There as well they're all over as well they're all over it as well as well they're all over it as well.
Some pieces of okay Some pieces of ochre that are very clearly have evidence of very clearly have evidence of rubbing so o this one o this one in particular is very characteristic of a rubbing that characteristic of a rubbing that might happen, especially when it's a little wet wet. So so a lot of So so a lot of evidence of payments that are both process and unprocessed unprocessed Examples of things like Examples of things like white Examples of things like white gypsum, which I think this is an example of f heat heat. Treated gypsum based on like local , based on like local salonites in the area, but something I have to test, but i'm pretty sure that's what we're seeing g. There's quite a lot g, and there's quite a lot of and there's quite a lot of that was also also also examples of azerate pellets of azerate pellets, right? so our blue, green Ezra and malachite and these as right pellets particular particular are have been articular are have been split and ground on the edge edges again probably to test edges again, probably to test again. again.
Probably to test them. I do need to get a better camera, though, because these photos don't do them justice, so I before So before I wrap this before I finish our lead here i'll get some better some better etter photos. But suffice to say But suffice to say there's quite evidence of having been worked another another category y of y of paint of paint. Technology, I think, is really exciting in the chocolate world.
Are these paint cakes Are these paint cakes? So these are examples of pig ments that have ments that have been processed, and then shaped then shaped for storage . So . So So it's a little. to be determined whether they also have have binders and things mix in with them. But needless to say they to say they have been shaped in some way, and at least in this case it does a drill is evidence is evidence of drilling is evidence of drilling in the center as well. this is
really i've seen across the south thwest, but it's really interesting to see it in kind of interesting to see it in kind of a large number a large number in the in the chocolate world Here's another example where This one looks like it was of a bowl again, with a of a bowl again with a perforation of a bowl again with a perforation. Her drill in the middle. It drill in the middle. and when t case it's kind t case it's kind of like you're gonna take a tray gonna take a tray of water colors and crack it like an ice an ice cube tray and dump them all out that's kind all out that's kind of this is like, so it's paint that just needs a to be rehydrated with a with a vehicle to make it workable again.
So here's another So here's another example of one yellow in this case, and this in this case, and this one it's oval. s oval, more oval than the oval, more oval than the others And is? has it And is? has it a is she And is, has it? A is shaped, you know And is, has it? A is shaped, you know, shaped in a kind of a cup shape. But it's been broken so you can see the edge insights as this brown cortex with h like charcoal flakes on the like charcoal flakes on the outside probably happen probably happen afterwards And then here's one as well this one's probably one of the things one's probably one of the things I'm one of the of the examples of paintings I'm most excited about this I'm most excited about this is a small green p cake, and again probably nger ngerines and blues is really difficult. and really time consuming and , and and requires a lot of and and requires a lot of knowledge. So, seeing this pre seeing this pre-prepared cream and and cream In this questions is really exciting this questions is really exciting. so will the we'll the more this needed to we'll the more this needed to see exactly what it is, and how it was processed, but saying, here is what ly exciting exciting.
And speaking of processing paints paints there's also paints there's also a lot of paints there's also a lot of examples of really full paid production tools. tools, some large and tools, some large and highly specialized mortars with pigment, if you ng, to them, them, you can see the red Do we also Do we also have small have small, round or mo mortars small round or mortars with round or mortars with routed edges we also have some We also have some that are square, and then made round. So square, and then made round. So we got a little bit of we got a little bit of everything. everything.
We also have these We also have these incredibly puzzles puzzles. So yeah. but a mortar. you have e a castle e a castle with a castle with really refined grinding , grinding surfaces. These are These are very small for a very These are very small. for very fine work again, kind of like, when you really need to process It's a It's a great tool for it we also have things we also have things like monos With extremely vibrant vibrant blues Again. Blue is s hard to produce hard to produce.
So seeing paint production tools So seeing paint production tools with evidence of paint in blue with evidence of paint in blue paints in production is really interesting. I should note I don't have photos of of them because They're in New York of them because They're in New York, and I haven't been there yet to take photos, but they're also meditating But they're also metatays as well so they're absolutely ly covered in red paints covered in red paints all which points to our all of which points are really robust nvestment nvestment in color nvestment in color production. There are also some like the one one from my title Slide Slide Slide Slide.
That is just awesome. so it's used That is just awesome. so it's used to to process green pigment used to to process green pigment pigment. And interestingly. it can you can't see it super well from here, but I don't know that this was used to process a lot of green pigment, or if it was of green pigment, or if it was password passive operator passive grader, so could be something that be something that was used to make a lot work with a lot of green pigment calls to use d to d to process small to process small amounts. But more work. his name
But more work is needed to see there there. But then there are there. But then there are some tools s that are a little s that are a little challenging to tell what's going on going on from the naked going on from the naked eye alone So this, for example this, for example, back to me as st didn't call it st didn't call it a stone st didn't call it a stone palette, but at first glance, you know, there are a couple of of red ish of red ish areas, but it's not screaming. screaming at you like some of the ones I just showed you were fortunately y we have y we have this amazing software called D Stretch, which is called D Stretch, which is very popular among among folks who work with among folks who work with rock art, rock imagery. and
Basically, it's a software that imposes false imposes false color in images So. it makes subtle colors tellers tellers much more much more visible. So yeah, it's usually ot in ot in the context of in in the context of looking at Patrick catch a bus and picture graphs , but , but it's also awesome in museum questions.
museum questions. So let me show you this. Is it with the naked eye. And here it is it is with it is, with some help from deep tretch d. Stretch so you'll see that again it's very subtle, but you'll l see that there's definitely an area in the center.
that that has had some that has had some abrasion and nd what I think this is is a very very pale pig, but being pivot being used, but having been a en a braided away n braved away, probably while n braved away, probably while Wet. And now that part is no longer there, What was interesting is, there, What was interesting is, you know, when you use D you know, when you use D stretch, you can flip through a couple of couple of different modes of couple of different modes of false color. this one is useful for picking out this yellow yellow and like negative yellow and like negative area. there's a second version that really helps pull out the red here in here in the corner, and you'll notice that it's it's different than what I just showed showed you with an area of showed you with an area of negative relief that looks quite wet in contrast what we're seeing here Looks we're seeing here Looks more like scratching so you have red scratching scratching. If air a small area, you know If air a small area, you know If air, a small area, you know, rubbing in the corner instead.
This is a very different way to be processing pigment be processing pigment. I think this is more in line with what i've seen in terms of lapidary work, so using lapidary work, so using ochre as a very y soft material called jewelers y soft material called jewelers rouge to Shakespeare. like like turquoise like turquoise. So I think there's a couple of different ways that paint is being pigment or being P. event is g used, and this destruct is really an awesome way to to see it quickly, and to see it quickly and also to identify areas to sample identify areas to sample later, there are , there are some of these there are some of these passive breeders and grinding stones that are in ven more ven more formalized. and what just shown you.
So here is an example of another here is an example of another large, grinding step , or , or past the brainer. but this , or past the brainer, but this those who are those who are unfamiliar with those who are unfamiliar with chocolate Archaeology, a wealth of new Archaeology. A wealth of new research suggests that sandals, especially sandals, sandals sandals. With this emphasized 6 toe in the in the corner there's a lot in the corner there's a lot of evidence to suggest that those sites ymbols are really big ymbols are really big are really big.
So are really important signs of So are really important signs of elite status and as you'll see here, the d stretch helps reveal that that this sandals hape, shape stone was shape stone was also used as a stone was also used as a palette, and not just any palette palette palette process 3 different process 3 different colors, a very bright yellow, a kind of orange y red y red, and another bright red, and another bright red red So so far So so far it's not uncommon but e i've e i've seen several of these e i've seen several of these so far, and I think it's going to be very exciting to see e e what further what further analysis shows s in terms of s in terms of what types of in terms of what types of pigments they're processing does any processing there's any similarities and and also looking at the job system al context context of some of them as well well. But Kane is made, and a lot of very important and very structured ways . and finally my category of painted d media at Pan meeting g again is kind of a g again is kind of a that i'm still working with But payment But payment. Wood is one of the But payment. Wood is one of the
most common types of payment media found in found in chocolate. great in chocolate great houses, in chocolate great houses, although it's a Great houses, although it's often small and incredibly fragmentary pieces like this one like this one. Under high magnification, Under high magnification, though we can see some really impressive control of pigment color color color. So if you look closely you can So if you look closely you can n see 2 different, not n see 2 different, not only but particle sizes . So So one very small pale So one very small pale blue, and throughout are these speckles of larger r dark dark blue dark blue particles dark blue particles. and I And I think we're looking at is a combination of 2 very different grades about azure, azure, because when you grind azerate azer right down kind of like turquoise, but not as bad it starts to it starts to lose its color it becomes r it it becomes it becomes paler through time. So if you want to retain a really bright blue, you can't find blue, you can't find all of it down to a very down to a very fine pale color color, he did retain some of the dark blue, so I think that might be what k that might be what that might be what we're seeing here, ere. So but that's a question
ere. So but that's a question that requires a bit more analysis. And so I want to transition into what that analysis looks like. So, in order to figure out what So in order to figure out what it is you do have to to in has a more tricks up your sleep has a more tricks up your sleeve, so I will say with the support support and With the support and approvals from the pablo of Santa Clara.
Sandal Defonso, Zuni Sandal Defonso Zuni and the Hopi tribe. I've been working in collections across the country and drawn ng from my ng from my ng from my training in n conservation science conservation science. I use a suite of non-destructive techniques to characterize the pigments, and pigments and binders when they're preserved . so i'd like to So i'd like to stay very plainly that i do not work with that i do not work with objects that are from burial contacts. that are from burial contacts. that are from burial contacts.
so none of the things so none of the things So none of the photos that you see here none of the samples that I'm taking none of g none of that none of them are based on objects from burial based on objects from burial contacts, and when I say extremely y extremely minimal sampling, I extremely minimal sampling, I want to show you but I mean I meet So, whenever possible. I take my I take my samples during object photography, and I photography, and I do this taking photos is often often more destructive often more destructive than my sampling techniques. so let sampling techniques. so let sampling techniques. So let me illustrate So here's like a very small piece of yellow ochre, with a grinding facet that's visible on the left side on the opposite on the opposite side on the opposite side.
If you look closely there's some e tiny particles that were moved while maneuvering this object for a photo, you can't see it t's all right i'll see all right, i'll zoom in a little bit it oops There you oops There you go these tiny particles particles right there particles right there that's all I need so I take a all I need so I take a little tiny piece piece of fabric to collect piece of fabric to collect the particles which I then save for particles which I then save for particles which I then save for later analysis, and can cterization cterization, which i'll get to which i'll get to later so Yes. it is sampling, but in most is sampling, but in most cases it's more like recycling , or or being resourceful or being resourceful or being resourceful. If you've ever done object photography in museums, you know this is the material that is often swept away between is often swept away between photos is often swept away between photos. So I'm using that and I'm using that and using that to characterize characterize the object to characterize the object whenever possible. However, as you might expect , there there are some cases where where objects do not self-sample where objects do not self-sample like that.
So in those instances I use the same type of fabric and same type of fabric and press it gently onto an it gently onto an object it gently onto an object which results in a very tiny track fer of payment particles , which I , which I then roll up and , which I then roll up and put in a little plastic vile for later, and when I say later. And when I say later, this is what I do. So I I take that little piece of of fabric with little of fabric with little tiny particles on it. and I mount And I mount them onto a microscope side. To do that,
take a look le le swab of le swab of isopropyl alcohol, and le swab of isopropyl alcohol, and wipe it on the microscope slide and transfer slide and transfer President across the abric to it and that room was s enough particles that can be enough particles that can be mounted for microscopy mounted for microscopy mounted for microsoft be ew, and if you do a nd if you do it twice, so nd if you do it twice, so press once press twice once press twice. That's enough tiny part of les to do to do another a whole a whole suite of non-destructive techniques non-destructive techniques. Things like X, with fluorescence Fourier transform infrared infrared spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy and Roman spectroscopy. Without getting in the leads on these they're just various ways of characterizing the erials erials based on how they interact with light.
interact with light. So it's not destructive and So it's not destructive and so those tiny particles can then be archived and use d by d by future researchers. by future researchers. Later. with these Later. with these techniques I can basically tell you what it can basically tell you what it is basically that requires.
So what types of minerals are being used, how they were being processed, and what processed, and what types of binders are being are being are being used if they're preserves Again, Organics don't preserves Again, Organics don't last as long as as minerals, but I will as minerals. is where they're they're they're not not with they're, not not with any not a definitive way, anyway. To do that that requires that requires much more aggressive sampling, and it aggressive sampling, and it also requires really understanding the geologically geologic landscape geologic landscape of possible matches. So it's a huge it's a huge undertaking it'd be interesting , but it's , but it's a huge undertaking , and again requires much more aggressive sampling than is aggressive sampling than is reasonable right now now. But I will say there's definitely room for something like that asking provenance based by estions down down the road road. with all this mind so like again, since e May May of this year I e May of this year I have collected a total of collected a total of 859 samples 9 samples 9 samples with more to samples with more to go samples with more to go.
But this has been a long this has been a long process of relying on using n museum collections and museum collections and museum staff to get access staff to get access and And you It's been an incredible process for sure once I process for sure once I return process for sure once I return to Tuesome in January. to Tuesome in January. to Tuesome in January.
That's when i'll begin That's when i'll begin analysis so unfortunately I still came t say t say definitively, what's going t say definitively what's going on but I you can think on. But I you can think Covid, for that I guess so i'm working on it so I've been it's been years now of waiting to waiting to get to this point and so i'm finally t and so i'm finally calling the data to be able to start saying something saying something about what ? how pants , how paints are being made. how paints are being made in the chocolate world. I've also I've also learned that it's like surprisingly difficult to surprisingly difficult to wrangle up access access to a access to a polarized light microscope. big check out to out to carriage layer, though t out to carriage layer, though for letting me use one from U for letting me use one from U and M this summer the oldest one i've used so far one i've used so far but it worked so but I will say, Okay so but I will say if anyone out there has one that you're e trying to get rid of, let me trying to get rid of, let me know . but anyway know. But, anyway, as you might expect , there is a lot left to do there is a lot left to do so again.
this point I can't say anything to too definitive but I also too definitive but I also don't want to leave you here. hanging hanging, so I do want to hanging, so I do want to leave be with some preliminary thoughts and some in itial itial impressions of what I think is going on , so . so first of all . so first of all, just looking at the distribution of certain at the distribution of certain at the distribution of certain colors is telling so ome Some colors are more abundant than others, and some seem to to be comparatively more to be comparatively more restrictive. restrictive. So, just looking at the distribution of blue green pigments, for example.
compared to compared to the distribution compared to the distribution of 2 schools with blue green on them. them. Shows that the production of them that the production of them is often restricted to restricted to only a couple of restricted to only a couple of places, so I would So I would suggest that that me means that the knowledge to produce to produce them was also not to produce them was also not widely circulating. This is an agreement with what Cannis lewis found in in 2,002 in her 2,002 master's, thesis in her 2,002 master's, thesis on the role of paint in chaco leadership. So she
shout out to her shout out to her as well just building on some of that that really great scholarship really great scholarship. great scholarship. another thing i've noticed is is that I think I've is that my thing I'm noticing is that over time is that over time. I think there seems to be increasing investment in public increasing investment in public displays displays of colorful material displays of colorful material through time . There are . There are There are pavlovito wasn