Chicago Quantum Exchange Summit 2023 – Laurie Locascio

Chicago Quantum Exchange Summit 2023 – Laurie Locascio

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Good morning! It's such a pleasure to   be here. And, thank you Dr. Awschalom and,  of course, Dr. Alivisatos for having me.  You know, it's wonderful to really have so many  people gathered here from academia and government   and industry and all around the Chicago  area really coming together at this time.  And, it's most exciting to be here because, of  course, the Chicago Quantum Exchange and their   collaborators were recently selected by the  Department of Commerce's Economic Development   Administration the Block tech Hub was was named  one of the regional technology and Innovation   hubs for quantum computing and communications. And, that's that's a really cool thing. So,   congratulations, you already mentioned that. NIST is in the Department of Commerce—that's   our sister agency—and we're in the  Department of Commerce because our   goal is really around promoting economic  competitiveness and economic security.  But, I'm happy to be here today talking. First of all, I guess how many people know NIST? 

Wow! I love quantum! I mean I love quantum.   Do you know how many rooms I'll stand in  and I'll ask that and they don't know.  But, we do have a long history in quantum. And, it's exciting to be here to talk to you  

a little bit about not only that but some of  the other work that NIST is recently involved   in and charged with within the federal  government that really does hopefully   intersect quantum in in many different ways. But, it's also exciting to to be here to talk   about partnership because NIST doesn't  do any of its work without partnership.  We pride ourselves on being really good partners  not only to academia but also industry and   government to get our work done to really combine  our researchers with the other best minds in the   country to really accelerate and promote  the advancements of science and technology.

So, next slide please. Oh, I think I have control  of it thank you. I can do this—ah there we go! Alright, so NIST has a lot going on right now.  NIST's mission is really to promote U.S.  Innovation and industrial competitiveness. That's been our mission since  we were born in 1901, but,   of course, the industries of today are very  different from the industries of yesterday.

And, so, we really do morph and  change and are agile enough to   meet the needs of the industries that  are important for today's economy. And, so, of course, critical and emerging  technologies are essential for the U.S.   economic competitiveness and national  security and are a priority for NIST. And, so, I'm going to highlight four different  programs that we're currently involved in. Today, NIST is proud to lead the implementation   of the $50 billion CHIPS for America  program in the Department of Commerce. We also lead the implementation of the  U.S. government's National Standard  

Strategy for Critical and Emerging Technologies. We have a central role in the newly  signed executive order on safe,   secure, and trustworthy AI. And then, of course, NIST is a leading  agency in the National Quantum Initiative. So, let me let me talk about each one of  these just separately, but briefly within   the CHIPS for America program NIST will  be spending $39 billion dollar to ensure   that the United States is a world leader in  the next generation of microelectronics by   developing a domestic base for semiconductor  manufacturing within the United States. The other $11 billion dollars that we have is  really focused on building out the R&D program   that promotes in that provides innovators with  access to facilities and tools and expertise and   really round out the investments in manufacturing  to complement that with the R&D program that,   once the manufacturers are here in this country,  we will cement them here and keep them here   because they won't want to leave when we have  so much exciting research to support them. 

You know this idea of manufacturing an R&D really  is going to be and was and should be a virtuous   cycle of innovation that allows innovations to get  quickly to the manufacturing floor and vice versa. So, CHIPS for America will also support the  development of the workforce that's necessary   to support semiconductors sector in this country. It's anticipated that with this $52 billion total   investment by the U.S. government that  we will have about $200,000 new jobs   available in the semiconductor sector. And, we we want to be able to fill those  

jobs but also Inspire the next generation of  inventors and entrepreneurs and chip makers   and and lower the barrier to them getting  to be successful because right now it's   a very heavy lift and very expensive to get  into, get your ideas to market in this space.  So, to be successful as I  said: partnership, partnership,   partnership is really important for NIST. We will partner with a diverse group   of stakeholders from across  the microelectronics sector. 

Investments in the chips program will include  integrated photonics and heterogeneous   integration as well as investments in new R&D  and, as I said, manufacturing infrastructure. And, we hope that all of this  provides significant benefits to   the growing quantum community and  the growing quantum marketplace. So, of course the impact and influence  of artificial intelligence only continues   to grow and, of course, will shape our  world in new ways through interfacing and   intersecting with really all of the critical  and emerging technologies, including quantum. On October 30th, President Biden signed  an executive order on the Safe, Secure,   and Trustworthy Development and Use of  AI and this executive order puts NIST   in a central role and asks— us directs—to  develop guidelines and best practices to   ensure the development of safe, and deployment  of safe, secure, and trustworthy AI systems. This builds on a long history that NIST has  in fundamental and applied AI research. Also,   our development of benchmarks and  guidances and tools and frameworks   and ultimately what we're seeking to do is  development the measurement methods that   allow you to determine whether your AI  is safe and trustworthy and responsible.

And, we need to do that with the entire  community through our engagement,   not only nationally but also internationally. So, just last week after that announcement of the   executive order the Biden Administration also  announced the NIST-led AI Safety Institute,   which will play a critical role in advancing  the goals of the newly signed executive order.  And, we'll be looking for partners! We're looking to partner extensively   with academia and with industry through  this new institute that we're setting up. 

All of that, ultimately, is to really help shape  the government's approach to responsible AI. And, this past spring the  White House released the U.S.   government's National Standard Strategy  for Critical and Emerging Technologies.

And, NIST was assigned the lead role in  executing that strategy, including the   prioritization of quantum standards that ensure  a strong future for the emerging quantum market. So, the standard strategy  actually is a really good one.  It creates a strategic approach to  international standards development   during this rapid pace of technology  innovation that we're all living in. Why is this important? A lot of audiences that  I talk to don't know why this is important,   but standards underpin 93% of all in global trade  and that in turn impacts trillions of dollars. 

And, the U.S. for decades has really been  at the center of international standards   development and that has benefited  in almost in every single industry   in the United States and ultimately  has greatly impacted our economy. You may not realize the importance of standards,  but if you have a company and you want to sell   products on the market either nationally or  globally it's better if your technology sets the   gold standard then if you're a follower where you  could actually get driven out of the marketplace. So, the standard strategy that the U.S.  government devised is a really solid one,   as I said, it's a good one. It prioritizes investment in   R&D in this country because it understands  and drives it the fact that if we don't   have the R&D that promotes the best  technology innovations in the world,   then we will not have success at the standards  table—we can't be the standard setter, right. 

It also prioritizes participation by our  best experts in the standards process,   and that's something the U.S. also needs in order  to stay competitive in the global marketplace. So, the standard strategy specifically  calls out critical technologies,   like quantum information technologies. And, the NIST team is coordinating across   the U.S. government to strengthen our  involvement and our participation in   international standards development  efforts working with the private   sector and we're very interested  in working with academia as well.

We welcome your thoughts on how best to  get engagement in the standards processes,   in particular by academia and academic  experts and smaller companies and innovators. We actually have a request for information out  there now closes on December 15th and we'd love   to hear your thoughts in particular  for instance have you ever considered   participating in the standards process? And, if not, why not? And what would   encourage you to be a part of it? Because we need our best minds at   the table in order to secure our  future in global competitiveness. So, I hope you will help in joining us to assure  that standards development in quantum information   technologies receives the attention it needs  in the early days of these of the market. 

And, this will dictate which technologies  are premiere in the future global markets. Okay, so many NIST experts participate  in a lot of different developments on   the international standard setting and  international standard setting bodies. One example is NIST participates in this  joint committee between ISO and IEC in   participation in work particularly related  to the development of quantum standards.

I know it's early and we can talk about  why quantum standards are being developed   so early, but I won't go into that here. Just to say that we need to be there and   present at that table while they're being  developed and proposed by other countries. NIST quantum researchers also responded to  feedback from our industry partners telling   us that there was a need for basic definitions  in the fields of single photon measurements.  And, in September they completed what's on  this chart here: the dictionary for single   photon sources and detectors. And, writing this document was a   three-year effort which involved many  national and international experts.

And, it's already received a lot of  attention from standards organizations   and other other federal agencies  who are interested in using it. And, then, of course, the  National Quantum Initiative. And, that's critically  important to all the agencies,   to all the partners, and of course to NIST.

The National Quantum Initiative is a whole  of government approach to accelerate quantum   research and development for the economic  and national security of the United States. It has been extraordinary in its impact and really   pushing forward the quantum  research in this country. And, it provides an overarching framework  to continue to strengthen and coordinate   quantum information sciences across U.S.  government and industry and academia. Now, NIST has a leadership role in supporting  the national priorities laid out by the NQIA,   the national Quantum initiative act. Our mission combined with a history of excellence   in quantum research makes it  a very natural fit for us.

And, so, we are continuing our work in  basic R&D, including the foundational   research into the essential theories that  underpin quantum information science. But, we also do research in quantum  engineering to provide more robust quantum   systems and measurement infrastructure to advance  commercial development of quantum applications. Now, NIST in our quantum research has for  many, many years leveraged our strengths with   other strengths in academia and we have several  long-standing partnerships related to quantum:   the Joint Quantum Institute, or JQI, and the  Joint Center for Quantum information and Computer   Science (both with the University of Maryland);  and JILA with the University of Colorado. And, the way these work, um we just  don't provide funding for them,   but our researchers are really form about  half the workforce in the joint centers.

And, we come together and really leverage  each other's strengths and knowledge. And, so, so it's been really important, I  think, for our success and for our future   to not only leverage these institutes  but think about where we're going in   the future and how to build new partnerships  around quantum around AI and around CHIPS. So, our collaborations are are not just  academic, as called for by the NQIA.  NIST established and remains of very active  member in the QED-C, or the Quantum Economic   Development Consortium. I'll talk about that in  the next slide, but this staff also participate  

in both NSF and the DOE Quantum Centers and one  of our quantum researchers, Dr Gretchen Campbell,   is on detail in the White House to the  National Quantum Coordination Office. So, through the NQI, U.S. government  are being coordinated, of course,   to advance quantum technology from  the fundamental underpinnings of the   science to developing Quantum applications  to engineering robust systems to providing   the foundations of a trained workforce to  providing the foundations of a strong supply   chain and then to developing standards that the  U.S. needs to mature the U.S. quantum economy.

Now, 2023 marks the halfway point for  the National Quantum Initiative Act. I know a a lot of you are following what's  going on, the reauthorization bill that came   out on November 3rd introduced by the House  Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. We're excited about that. We're looking  forward to that. Now, as a sign of the   strength of the quantum ecosystem in the  Chicago area, I note that two of the 15   members on the National Quantum Initiative  Advisory Committee are from this area.   Dr. Fred Chong and Dr. Nadia Mason,  both from the University of Chicago. And, NIST is proud to say that  we have Jun Ye also as a member.

Now, NIST has long supported and will continue  to support and grow the quantum ecosystem. We've been investing in this  area for many many decades.  A lot of that really the work  that comes out of NIST is based   on measurement science which is  the heart of the NIST mission.

And, we are all always pushing to advance the   frontiers of measurement—our  ability to measure things.  And, it's not surprising then that our work  took us decades ago into the quantum realm   because there we are truly at the  fundamental limits of measurement. And, our breakthroughs in quantum  science is really reflected in,   among other areas, our pioneering work  in atomic clocks and the development   of more accurate sensors and measurement tools. In fact, the first major QIS workshop was  held at NIST Gaithersburg campus in 1994. It was within a year of Shor's algorithm  being announced and and just a year later NIST   researcher David Wineland, who's up here at the  at the at the far end of this slide, demonstrated   the first quantum gate using trapped ions. A young postdoc named Chris Monroe, who's now  

at Duke of course, was in that group and would go  on to found IonQ and John Martinez who would lead   Google's Quantum Computing efforts was also at  NIST in the early '90s working on [inaudible]. And, Wineland's group also would  go on to influence quantum.  So, NIST researcher stretching from  the '80s into the 2000s led to four   Nobel Prizes, include including Dave Wineland's.

The other Nobel Prizes were for  cooling of atoms with lasers,   the invention of frequency combs, and the  first realization of Bose-Einstein condensate. But, today, NIST continues to drive forward  by providing basic research and development. And, again, part of our success  relies on partnering with other   agencies with industry and academia, including  the world-class organizations here in this area.

For example, NIST researchers will be  participating in round robin measurements   of superconducting devices that  launched last week at Fermilab. Okay, so, I just mentioned Shor's algorithm and  this was already mentioned in my introduction. Shor's algorithm poses an  immense liability, of course,   to current implementations  of public key cryptography. 

Cryptography is also a focus area for  NIST and NIST has taken a leadership role   in the development and the evaluation of secure  algorithms for post-quantum cryptography or PQC. NIST work in PQC aims to develop cryptographic  systems that are secure against both quantum   and classical computers and can interoperate with  current communication protocols and and networks. Now, fortunately, back in 2016 NIST  realized that this security concern   could be a potential problem and we launched  an open competition for new classic-based   algorithms that would be resistant to  both classical and quantum computers. And, we received submissions from  across the world of algorithms. And,   researchers from industry and  academia and government have been   rigorously testing them for over a year. So, I'm happy to report that, in August,   NIST released draft federal information processing  standards or FIPS for the first PQC algorithms.

The standards are now available for comment.  People are still working on them and testing   them and they are expected to  be finalized early next year. And, we look forward to publishing them and  to working with stakeholders on equitable   deployment of PQC, which is going to  be very very rigorous and difficult. Okay, so beyond our push to advance  science we also carry out our larger   mission of supporting industry. I did mention the QED-C and the   QED-C is a a very important. It's a thriving  industry-led consortium focused on growing a   robust commercial quantum industry  and the associated supply chain.

Right now it has over 170 members from  industry, more than 35 academic institutions,   and nine professional societies,  and 50 government partners. I know many of you are already engaged with  them if you aren't uh please engage because   it holds workshops, it writes really reports on  topics ranging from quantum use cases to global   market landscape, it develops roadmaps for quantum  technologies, it runs activities to support the   quantum workforce, and it has developed benchmarks  for testing and evaluating quantum computers. And, I will say that the QED-C provides inputs on   policies that impact the emerging  industry such as export controls.

So, it's a very important entity and a very  important contribution back to government. Workforce development is very important to NIST   because we want to make sure we have a  skilled and diverse workforce to answer   all of these technology needs and  continue to build our tech economy. I won't mention all of these, but I  just want to mention that we have a   very robust summer undergraduate  research fellowship program. We had 175 summer undergraduate interns at  NIST in Gaithersburg in Maryland this summer.

And, another important point that I  wanted to show from this slide is that   we host NRC post postdoctoral fellows  from across a broad range of research. It's a highly competitive program and but we have  people in chemistry, physics, material science,   mathematics, computer science, engineering all  coming to the campuses coupling with our world   class research staff and facilities and many NIST  former postdocs are now leaders in quantum fields. So, I think I'm at the end of my talk I just  wanted to mention that we do work in collaboration   with the community on training the workforce  and this is a workshop that we held with the   University of Colorado in Boulder on single  photon sources, detectors, and measurements. And, then, finally, looking to the future  I just wanted to again congratulate the   Chicago Quantum Exchange and the region  for their new announcement on the Tech Hub. And ,I'm delighted to be here, to be in person,  to be able to answer your questions. Thank you. [Applause] Questions for Lori? Thanks for an excellent talk.

AUDIENCE MEMBER: This executive order for the  safe use of AI and that NIST would be central   to developing measurements for that. Now, of  course, when we're talking about the safe use   of AI these aren't the things I necessarily  associate with NIST with, right? This isn't   measuring something to one part in 10 of the 15  or how much wattage for eye safety, right? These   are issues of ethics and politics and so forth.  So, is this a change for NIST's sort of mission? LORI LOCASCIO: Yeah. AUDIENCE MEMBER: be central  to this or or am I misunderstanding?

LORI LOCASCIO: Yeah, you know.  I appreciate that question. It's   interesting because—you're right—it's very  different from what people know NIST to be.  We are...I mentioned that as a society and  the market changes NIST has really adapted to   grow and change and evolve to be part of that. So, as the digital economy started growing we   started growing our efforts related to the  digital economy. That's unlike most other   national metrology institutes in the world world,  where we have really expanded our capabilities to   envelop those things that are most important  to our economy, including the digital economy.

With AI you're absolutely right it's new  and it's different because there will not   only be technical character characteristics  that we have to measure robustness accuracy,   things like that, but also socio-technical  characteristics...very different, right?  So, we are um excited about this  it's going to to be very difficult   a lot of these things that we need these  characteristics that we need to measure   not just um things like bias but also safety  and security are very difficult to measure.  And, so, we have for instance put together  a public working group on generative AI   where it's over 2,000 people participate in that  really coming together to think as a community,   "How do we approach the measurement of things  like safety and security and and bias?"  And, so, yeah, it's a new field. It's  going to be hard but we intend to really   bring everybody together with us to do it. We're not going to do this one alone and   so ethicist will definitely  be a part of it. Thank you!

SUPRATIK GUHA: I had a very quick question  for you: So, when the CHIPS and Science Act   got announced in August of last year, you were  one of the key people who actually got it going,   right? And, I think there's a there's  a realization now that, you know,   quantum information processing and classical  computing are going to merge at some point and   which means that the quantum technologies and  microelectronics have to come hand in hand.  How do you see the role of, you know, quantum  with microelectronics as the CHIPS Act,   you know the consequences of it, are rolled out. LORI LOCASCIO: Yeah, so I appreciate that.  And, I will say that the R&D program is   still being developed—the $11 billion dollar  part of the program. Announcements are going   to be coming out soon but we have launched  the formation of the National Semicondctor   Technology Center as a public private partnership  and an independent 50c3 or type of organization.  And, so, I will say the writing is still not  on the wall. There's still a lot that needs  

to be decided in in terms of what is going to be  funded, but I will say there is a difference in   that the CHIPS Act did not call specifically call  out quantum. Er, the CHIPS in Science Act did but   not the CHIPS portion. It didn't call out the  funding of quantum; but, there are so many   opportunities where they intersect that I truly  know that there will be um research that either   greatly impacts quantum or directly funds quantum. All of that is still left to be decided by this   independent entity that that is going  to be managing most of the funding.

SUPRATIK GUHA: I look forward to it. Thank you. LORI LOCASCIO: Yeah, me too. Thanks. SUPRATIK GUHA: I think we have  time for one more quick question.

AUDIENCE MEMBER: Please, in which area in  general...where do we stand with China? LORI LOCASCIO: That's that's that's interesting  but I am a part of the administration; so,   I'm gonna leave that one to Jerry! [Laughs] No,   no I will you know they are our  biggest competitor right. So, I think we   have to have our eyes wide open that we have a  very, very strong global competitor right now.  And, I think a lot of the energy that you're  seeing in Washington is really around the facts   that we attention is being paid to the fact that  we do have to compete in this global economy. We built the greatest tech  economy in the world. Now,   we're at this time where that is where  we're we're experiencing competition   unlike any other. Does that mean we don't  collaborate? Of course not! It means we  

collaborate. We still collaborate globally,  but we have to go in with our eyes wide open.  We have to make sure that we can secure our  research so it doesn't get stolen. I don't   think anybody in this audience wants their  research to get stolen and go somewhere else.  I mean even if you're sitting across if  you're a company and you're sitting across   the table from another company you don't  want them to take your ideas either; so,   I think that it's it's really being cognizant  about making sure that we can protect what we   produce, but at the same time making sure  that we can still be a global collaborator. 

Ideas don't happen within a single  location in the world, right? So,   we need to make sure that we all harness the  best ideas and are able to work together. SUPRATIK GUHA: Thank you, Lori! [Applause]

2023-12-26 04:38

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