BIOCON 2021 | Advanced Technologies for BRAIN
good evening everyone and welcome to the first Congress of biomedical engineering known as biocon organized by IEEE emds of the University of San Marcos and it's a pleasure to present this master conference about advances Technologies for brain my name is Natalie Andreas varnet I am an electronic engineering student of the University of San Marcos and before I started with the conference it is necessary to to know that there are some instructs into instructions that we are going to follow to follow during this Mastery conference first please during the conference you can leave your questions in the chat because at the end of the conference I'm going to read it and in case you want to turn on your microphones it is possible on G only you just need to raise your hand and finally um everyone at this meeting is remembered to fill out the attendance front that we will pass through that we will pass through the zoom chat you are also cordially invited to the following activities and now it's a honor for me to welcome our speaker PhD Medina case he is currently the founding chair of the new um by medical engineering department in the Jones s the professor of biomedical engineering at the University of Houston he is currently the president of IEEE Engineering in medicine and bio and biology biology Society he recited his Bachelor and master of science in electrical engineering and a PhD degree so today we are going to learn more about the complexity of our brain and how technology related to it now you can start the meat so now you can start making a cake okay let me choose okay can you see my screen yes okay and you can hear me well okay well it's wonderful to be here I really appreciate the invitation I'm pleased to be and also I had a pleasure and a chance to visit also your country and look forward to seeing your own in person in the near future uh as Natalie mentioned I am the President of I triple MBS and also the founding chair of biomedical engineering department at the University of Houston Texas before I start to the the brain initiative related talk I would like to tell about our society a little bit more and also the opportunities what's going on in the healthcare and it's going to be I will be pleased to answer any question you may have it after okay I typically engineering medicine Pilots Society is the oldest and the largest International biomedic engineering Society it was built in 1952 and the name changed to engineering and medicine and biology in 1963 and right now we have members more than 12 000 our conferences we always had an honor and pleasure to host colleagues from more than 100 different countries and we have student chapters and co-ops more than 100 countries and the also we have the student members is growing especially in South Central America as well as also in Asia Pacific area we have more than 2 000 student members please Society is very important for the students we have the several International Summer Schools sponsored by IEEE engineering medicine biology Society the first and oldest one is the biomedical Imaging always in France every two years and the second fund biomedical signal processing it has been held in Italy every other years and the biocomplexed by a design name is by external currently has been held in Crete Greece and the medical devices and sensors organized by Professor Whitey Zhang and has been held in Hong Kong and information technology in biomedicine is actually biomedical Health informatics in Greece and neural engineering we started in Shanghai and the computer model and medicine so it's very very important for the students and to apply because some of those Summer Schools may have the travel support some of them may have waived the fees or reduced it but there's a exceptional opportunities for students to meet with the leaders in the field to meet with the other students and it's a one week and always the has been held in a very nice location I think this is going to be a fantastic opportunity you may think about Society has the sponsored 13 journals and the three of them they're called Open Access Journal is especially the new one open uh the uh the Journal of engine meds and biology or the EMB and the Edison Chief is Paula bonata its Journal is going to have the impact factors a little more than one year it's going to be I believe that's going to be a high impact and it's also free access journal and you can look at the papers you can download and also we have the engineering in health and Medicine translation one transaction on neural systems and Rehabilitation those are called Open Access journals sponsored publication pulse is one of them plus is a is magazine actually for our society pulse is more than a magazine it's our faith to outside the world and it's very important and I strongly recommend those if you wanna if you're a beginner if you want to know something about it's more written more detailed by the expert I think it's a good place to look among this journal our Flagship Journal I took a transaction biometric engineering as you know and the and the health informatics is right now is the impact factor close to the thing and we have also the the reviews in biomedical engineering and the professor YT Chang did an exception job and we are going to get the impact factor for next year and by June I think it's a review article and we also co-sponsored several exceptional publication including Medical Imaging Nano bioscience biomedical circuits and systems computation Imaging plasma microwave and Robotics we have conferences since we are international Society we always have our conferences around the globe and as you can see this is just the starting 2005 the Shanghai New York Leon Vancouver and the last one 2021 it was the virtual it was the extremely successful conference was organized by the colleague and from Mexico was held in Guadalajara which is the healthcare industry hub for the Mexico we have several the technical committees as well as the technical communities I encourage you technical committees are open young meet careers you may not have the voting right for the committee but definitely your voice will be heard embs these are the information and we have also the outstanding embs student chapters Club Awards and the 2020 was the winner was the uh the Latin America Universidad the peruana cayetano has that Student Chapter as a president when I became in almost one year ago and the all Society has been doing wonderful and we had a fantastic leadership and the but we have what we have done we added something the new I'm going to talk about the the public forms the our mission we are Keen to Foster and promote Global biomedical engineering and Healthcare and Innovation research and the education globally we are indeed the leading Global societal biomedical engineering and the our aim to really improve the lives of old Humanity as well as we want to really increase the general public Awareness on the important Health Care issues and also the impact of healthcare and biomedical innovation in out the economy and Society we are building we have built very vibrant ecosystem of engineering scientists Physicians Healthcare leaders in this ecosystem we exchange ideas we disseminate our Research In some cases we share data and protocols actually we build a fantastic Network the public forum the idea was behind it's to [Music] in general the to increase the attendance and awareness of the healthcare industry mainly for our students and the young colleagues we wanted to bring the the experts in healthcare industry expert in data science in engineering and to our domain our platform and let them talk about four days in emerging areas and urgently needed areas to public so these forms are open to public free anybody can attend but the the idea is main goal is how engineering Innovations can be translated into the practice to produce meaningful solutions to these Grand challenges its platforms is very unique for scientists engineers all of us and the need is in fact is to to focus on the need for Paradigm shifts in healthcare and economic growth it's also I strongly believe that we have exposed the our students and postdocs to the many career and networking opportunities in the global Healthcare Market the first one we had it and some of you may know it was the code 19. I believe it was one of the most comprehensive covid-19 form uh including the social media and also the uh even the uh the you would see some of the meetings and the platforms for the covid-19 in TVs so if we focus on the four days on the challenges first they call it 19 and second day we focus on screening and the third day tracing and the last day the treatment we had I believe that 29th speakers they were the old expats in the field and they attended and we had also at the end of every day we have a small panel to summarize to the the the audience the highlight the important issues the second public form we had it on the data science and engineering in healthcare and I the uh we had four days again first day focused Medical Imaging and secondary digital Healthcare Precision medicine third day and the finally brain and neural systems it was February 2021 but those for data science we had 36 the global expats from the healthcare industry research institution Academia and to highlight these four important area this is the form we had the more than 1700 people attended and 52 speakers invited guests and the plus also the total legislation was indeed about 2200. finally the third one is was the healthcare industry Trend which is very important for our society I also believe that this may be one of the first maybe the first large Gathering of healthcare industrial leaders in our society meeting if you look at the focus areas if the Innovative medical device industry digital Health industry and the biofarm Biotech Industry and neurotech Industry again we had the most almost all the speakers they were Chief Executive Officer of the company's Chief Operating officers vice president for research or director of their Excellence the centers of these companies we had 26 the expat industry leaders attended and the we had almost more than 1100 people were listening and the Turkish speakers and I believe that we had more than 1400 people or 1500 people registered it was organizing Community leaders and they accept me they're all from industry they are with the companies and if you look at the medical device and we had speakers from the Netflix medtronics Dexcom Bloomberg and and also NIH expertise and the material impact is the Symposium was organized the doctors Natalie vinesky she is the founding CEO of the pro profusa and myself and the digital health and the as you can see that we have several expats in the digital Health era area and they also biopharm Tech and the we had several speakers if you look at that it's a very diverse we most of our speakers industrial leaders they were females and then finally the neurotech Symposium as you can see we had the uh leadership was left by the doctors and Miss Georgia Platt and the the seven speakers and it's the covers the broad area of the neurotech industry we also built during the last year the presidential distinguished lectures in addition that we have very functional very effective very powerful distinction program chapters are always welcome to invite the people coming attending the conferences okay so the this is on top of them the the presidential distinguished lectures and the idea was behind in addition to existing distinguished lecture let's have presidential missing Factory mainly from industry healthcare industry and if you want to hear their perspective we want to they have a new discussion on how different elements of the businesses and also the guide and the matter our young member young professional students how to become an entrepreneur among them is the Dr Erica Ross she's the the executive director of the research and developing The Habit lab Andy Dr Eva Rick's corn is she's the CEO founder of the Turner Medical Imaging and the doctor Anita rogat and she's with the HP head of the life science strategy and the Dr vinesky as I mentioned founder of and chief technology officers of the Cross USA she's the director of the senior director head of the competition of biology at the Pfizer and Dr tonight is currently CEO of the lifespan in Germany and the Mike has is the vice president corporate technology of the metronics so these speakers are can be available to attend to at least to connect remotely to the uh the academy so the I'm going to go to the the look at for the healthcare Innovation and this is the PowerPoint slides I borrow from the World Health Organization and the this is tells us about the which kind of disease we have to face uh 2030s and please note that is the uh pandemic is not theirs but it's there but it's not really appears the first one is of course the chronic disease the better immune system and the taking care of the chronic disease could really helps to subdue the pandemics of course and among them is it still is the number one killer indeed the Western World and developed countries or developing countries is the cardiovascularity disease the second one is the there's a significant increase is the uh cancel because cancel has become a global disease right now and the third is we live longer life expectancy significantly increased in developed countries and also the developing countries so the with in parallel is increasing my expectancy we have witness and face many neurological disease as you know and mainly the uh such as the Alzheimer's dementia and the also many Rehabilitation related to problems the the Aging problems so those are the areas are very important to focus on biomedical engineering still is the fastest growing the field I strongly believe that is the cross-section of the all engineering field and the future of the engineering if you look at the growth of the job market actually there's a significant the opening in healthcare Arena this is my personal belief that is data science and engineering Healthcare is the job market is tremendous and also the micro nanotechnology is also the second the highest to the focus on Innovative device at the more compact more the the variable more implantable also I think that's a the significant the opportunities for young people the U.S before if you look at the market is the before the pandemics the spending for the market for bioengineering was more than one trillion US Dollars majority of them were the biofarmed by the biopharma biopharmacisted science and biopharm engineering and it's almost close to uh one trillion dollars second fund is medical devices we are talking about almost the health trillion dollars 500 million dollars majority of the medical devices are in the areas of the number one is orthopedic engineering number two cardiovascular number three is the neural technology and brain if you look at these countries this is the GDP of the countries it was 2015.
highest GDP in the world is the United States I think pandemic could affect it but still I believe that it's in somewhere 17 to 23 dollars China has the largest market but GDP is somewhere to 11 to 12 days or 13 trillion dollars then Japan Germany France Italy and if you look at the the India Italy Brazil they are around the two uh the the trillion dollars the GDP but the there's a one institution if you look at them the institution The Graduate they created the companies I mean more than 30 000 companies okay these companies employed almost 5 billion people they provided jobs opportunities in this new very important research areas including the vaccine design and their contribution to global economy of course the U.S economy as well 1.9 trillion dollars it's very close to France Italy and India and this one institution is Massachusetts Institute of Technology many of you know as a MIT so why I was keep showing this that I was trying to emphasize the importance of translational research importance of translating your ideas into the production and build a company not just work a company but also get the challenge and the opportunity and also to contribute the economy I think it's the mission of the all most of the research Universe all the research universities right now to translate the research and also they encourage the the faculty and the the not only write Journal papers but also the focus on the patterns and the possible the small business opportunities and it's in fact it's working very well is the our students at the University of Houston recently one of our graduates he built a new company with his advisors foreign if you look at this building every floor we have something related to biology every floor we have something of 80 innovation although pme is at the second floor but we have colleagues and collaborators the at the first floor we have the clean room and the third floor is the nuclear receptor Institute and the fourth and fifth floor the we have the synthetic biology computational the synthetic biology molecular design molecular synthesis so what this is very important that is we cannot isolate ourselves as a biomedical Engineers we must really work very closely very closely with Biology and the basic scientists and also medical doctors and also the companies the our department is the goal is really to graduate our students with the strong emphasis on global scientific social cultural interaction because the the the very Dynamic and the changing the global Healthcare economy we have faced just a couple notes for the students I think it's very very important is if I start again I will definitely work on something is more the filter of course the data science in engineering data science and engineering in healthcare this is a fascinating field because it's applicable for genome engineering and applicable for the systems level analysis I think it's opportunity tremended but in addition it's very important to uh right now is the smart tensors and also smart biomaterial because and at the end of the day we have to have the smart sensors and to record the good data this data could be at every level from genomics Level the cellular level systemic level opportunities always at the close disciplines and the nanotechnology biotechnology material type but for engineers I think we need to also the the make sure that we create the Next Generation with strong analytical skills very creative Next Generation critical thinking and the very professional people it's of course the leadership the critical thinking is very important the because higher education should focus on the design Innovation critical thinking translation okay our Department's Focus areas is the we have neural cognitive Rehabilitation engineering and it's the neural implants neurogenesis chips cognitive engineering and also bio Neuroscience I believe we may be the first the biomedical Department hired immunologist MD PhD to the program and stem cell the global and also the third one is the more data science and engineering the focus molecular cellular Imaging and the cancer biomarkers and the cancer biology models foreign Houston is a very unique place actually is the as I'm sure that you have known this is the energy capital in the world energy Capital most of the headquarters of the large oil and gas corporate in the world is located in Houston area this is the larger background but there's something else very unique to Houston Texas Medical Center report we have somewhere 35 to 40 Hospital in this area located and every day 150 000 patients they come for treatment every day 150 000 clinical people the doctors nurses and they come forward to treat this patient so we are talking about 300 000 people every day to come this is the mecca of the healthcare this is the largest Medical Center in the world and also has the most prestigious one of the most Precision the research institute in the world including I will start from the MD Anderson the is the one of the most respected or the most respected cancer institutes they have several hospitals Texas heart Texas is to Rehabilitation research went out Hospital a better college or medicine at the medical school also and research is a fantastic research is going on Memorial Hermann and UT Health Science they have medical school fantastic Research Institute Methodist Hospital both educational and also medical school and they have also the new engineering based medical school with the Texas A M and Methodist in downtown so the this is the third medical school and the saint Duke hospital and Texas Children's Hospital and Texas A M have research activity as president-based medicine and University of Houston also has the pharmacy building and also we are just three to five miles away Texas Medical Center University of Houston has the the newest medical school we have a very Visionary the chancellor Renault Qatar and the extreme well-respected the dean of medical school and they we have they have built the brand new community-based population-based medical school and it's the uh the the application to this medical schools skyrocketing and also the new building will be open in by summer and it's really the it's complements all the existing medical school class and the idea is really unique is to serve the community so the economic disadvantage community and sure detects us and also serve the the United States the American and also the global and finally UTMB Galveston is the one of the biggest the uh the medical school is the focusing on infectious disease in fact I just want to move into the the next because this I'm mainly measuring to you that is the these are the Fantastic research institutes but the the healthcare service but the late focus is shifting into the the technology in the United States if you look at most of the healthcare biotech clusters are in the Northeast Boston and the New Jersey is on the Northeast Corridor especially in Boston there are several universities in the city and they they collaborate cooperate with the companies there are lots of spin-off companies are coming out of course the same thing for the New York City and also New Jersey and also the Atlanta and the it goes to the Research Triangle North Carolina of course the west coast is the Bay Area as we all know has been the primary before the I.T but also the uh it's one second it's right now is the the focus also the healthcare related and I could assure you that is the the second area is this you see the San Diego area and especially UC San Diego and the the salt Institute and many Fantastic small mid-sized companies expanding from San Diego the old way in South is the this also triggered the uh exceptional service exceptional medical centers and also deserve an exceptional companies it's almost 10 years ago I believe that Dr Robbins who was the CEO of the Texas Medical Center he determined he was determined to really the expand the research armor of the Texas Medical Center and he initiated or expanded the TMX the mainly the new companies corporate companies of course I would like to mention Austin also is a big Hub right now for biotechnology as well as also the I.T
Houston area if you look at this at the company is the I believe is right now is more than 300 life-size companies and the it's very diverse companies and the the focus goes for medical device drug development and digital health and the many big players uh TMX the early one is the 100 square foot space is right now they are expanding and also you see the atnt founded for connected Health sources available and the Jade apps which is a part of the Johnson Johnson innovation and they have a large present and also the CDI and the center for device Innovation and it's right now is already there and the University of Houston also uh it's a big initiative by the Chancellor's Qatar we have the U.S Innovation centers and I believe that space is much larger than 30 000 and the 28 film hoods this is more to host the spin-off companies from faculty and also I believe that the others innovators are welcome to the participate to use the facilities and the call collaborate and cooperate with the University okay I think it's time to talk about the with the uh the uh okay I'm going to the wrong direction okay great because almost that uh eight years or the almost a decade ago in the United States we have National academic engineering The Institute the independent Institute and it's the highest rank for an engineer to reach is a very honorable Institute they came up with the grand challenges one of the most engineering the brain and today I'm going to talk about the engine Innovations for the brain with you I'm sure that is many of you are the familiar or you heard of it because in our brain we have come to the the 11 neurons right consists and these neurons are connected to each other the connectivity is somewhere one two ten to the three we are talking about the massive Network in the brain is an incredible energy conservation but they also uh the the idea came and I just they have the uh video from the Dr Schwartz group but the also the other colleagues from the Duke Brown and they also the uh New York State University and the uh Pittsburgh and the many other places that is it possible to record brain activity to understand the the thoughts of the person so the uh brain is is active 24 7 as we all know okay so these the comments is coming from the brain brain is a common control center sensory information through the spinal cord to upper and lower limb and that's how we move that's how we eat and and sometimes is the it's basically it helps to translate the thoughts to action the critical issue is it is it possible to help the disabled people using their brain signal to help them to control their emotion I think much larger issue is it possible to use somebody's EEG signals thoughts in a different room to control the motion or the paralyzed patient in another so the initially this data has been recorded with the Utah array as you can see and it's almost like 12 by 12 and we are talking about 100 electrodes placed on top of the cortex so the subject in this case monkey continue their normal life activity but also we are trying to get these electrical activity we are trying to convert these electrical activity into the mechanical activity to control neural processes attached to the monkey or human or somebody else in another room okay so the record is this electrode that has been used in this case monkey system left arm of monkey is tied to the body but neural processes is placed to the left hand side of course if you put the food in front of the monkey monkey struggles to use the left hand then realize that is there is something else attached to his body or her body and start using it start using is how we are going to we know we record the electrical activity and using monkey's electrical activity is the sort of extract the information from the monkey's bit about what he or shimo then these parameters can be turned into the mechanical such as the Turk for the torque and speed and the the others to control the system look at with the initially the monkey struggles to get the food but with the time learns how the control to neural processes with his or her own brain signals okay let's recall the brain complete interface note that if the monkey is getting feedback in this case is the feedback is the visual in the feedback if the neural process is away and is try to see it and then move the neural prosperities and of course the brain signal tells to no processities to move the thing is the late the afterwards the Inhumans and this young lady doesn't have the the very functional upper limbs arms and using EEG signal bring signals and if you are controlling VR robots basically we are using her brain signal to control the robots to catch the ball next one this is a the work by Professor Sylvester Michaela is a distinguished purpose at the epfm and also pizza and the he and his group and they have recorded the EMG activity actually and they controlled the artificial arm using the uh EMG signal as you can see because EMG signal is the Amplified EEG or the uh it's more the filtered and enhanced because the EMG amput is higher than the EEG as you can see it's imagining to opening the fingers and this signal controls these mechanical the system here is the artificial hand it's very nicely controlling the the uh the artificial hand as you can see okay the young lady the the lost her left Upper Limb as you can see the one way to do it as the Michaela's group did it is use the EMG signal the to control the attach the the neural positivity inside so this is the one the issues the most of the neurons in this the uh in our arm they are not located very close to the surface what happens the brain sending signal these neurons the action potential or motor induction potassium it's the Innovative muscle and we but they are really not very close to service but the surface so the the idea came from the uh the Case Western and the resources of Chicago uh that is what they decided to doctor Quicken and the uh the new name is the ability lab right now instead of the uh before we use the EMG signal and to do some surgery move some of the neuron very close to the surface that way more innovation of the muscles more EMG signals will be recorded and better control of the neural processes this one is called body temperature interface foreign foreign okay and these are the almost the 14 years ago artificial hand they came from the Scottish company touch bionics as you can see everything it's your electronic everything is mechanical everything is good to engineering and which is the the biomedical engineer so the uh using his hand the person can turn the key on excerpt power and also the uh this precisely hold the material or object and this is much the enhanced version I think it's if you look at this the neural prosthesis artificial hand you sort of if you look at uh that it's almost the beginning of the 20th century or late 19th century that the the people they were losing their the arms and legs and the first world war many people they came they lost the the arms or legs and the in Germany uh is one of the country that is the early neural prosthesis developed actually and if you look at this simple one the earliest one it's just it hold it open and close basically hold the object right this is most of us do it when you're in the kitchen when you're peeling something one and hold the other one you peel it right can you hear the sound from coming from video okay no we can we can't hear it that's really okay I don't know [Music] um foreign foreign because what do I need to translate I need let me go back again can you hear me right now yes no okay wonderful so this is the I'm sure that you may not remember but your parents definitely remember this is the one of the famous movie Star Trek right [Music] what he's doing is doing the neural processes and the system is so sophisticated that is not only brain tells to neural processes what to do but also the sensory feedback coming from neural processes going to brain and feels the pain and action so these people almost more than 40 years ago they imagine that neural prostitute or brain computer intervened or neural processes very critical should be bi-directional not only brain helps how to move right and left but also feel the heat the pressure and also pain okay see [Music] brain implants also this is the 2010 is the brown group if you look at the Utah array this is the surface of the coordinate okay you put the electrode array on top of the brain so the electrodes are communicating with the neurons then of course the signal has been carried as you can see to the dura and this then it goes to the outside the early one is the this is the monkey's brain and the Erectors is placed in the brain and the dura and most of the multiplexing signal processing transmission everything has been bound on purple skull but if you look at the power consumption of this system it's tremendous we are talking about somewhere 100 to 200 microwave but the something this technology is all technology but if we have only one electrodes single unit requirement if you put this one into the monkey's brain when monkey is trying to reach the food as you can see neurons start firing more closer to the food as you can see significant increase significant significance just tell us something even by looking for single neural they could we could link closely to the behavior of course it's very important to record from multiple channels using multiple electrodes and to look at the uh the connectivity of the neuron look at their Network their behavior and the it's very important but I think even looking this I think it's really fascinating then the group moved on they have developed the multi-elected and it is placed on the surface of the cortex they do some preampification and also the multiplexing on the chip very close to the cortex this is also very important because the idea is behind if you're close to Source if you animate the noise noise will not be enhanced to until reach the computers or the smartphones whatever they are using they also in the system then information has been carried out to the cranial unit above the Dua it's it's a micro circuit and if they do the ADC Telemetry and the power if you look at them is no battery power is inductive power as we all know from the undergraduate engineering courses and the the power can be the FED into the the cranium unit from outside it's the then the alt at the at the top of the skin we have the external unit to add and this information has been carried out so the the connectivity is between external and cranial unit simply pushes the data out and get the energy problem in so it's almost like it's a nano uh laser almost I think it's a very powerful tool so you don't have to worry about the energy and inside the brain or close to the cortex but the outside of energy can be provided okay I want to talk about the how many minutes do I have Nicole then how many minutes do I have um 30 minutes okay so the let me talk about the what we are doing also the in our lab we are focusing on addiction okay this is the brain in this is the frontal cortex hypocampus and the cerebellum and in the midbrain is the area is called ventral tegmental area okay this is the area is related to the addiction okay so the in VTA we have three at least three different groups of neurons as they called dopamine neurons and the Gaba neurons glutamagic neurons and maybe the others what happens if any stimulants such as alcohol or nicotine or excitement the dopamine neuron in VTA which is projected to the preferental cortex as well as also the projected to the MTA they release the dopamine in the PFC and NAC so the dopamine is a neurotransmittent it's the uh it's a sign of excitement okay so the it's also related to prediction excessive dopamine release with the time it also is causing problem because the family and also the uh assets calling balance it's very very important because if system has so much dopamine maybe the hypocampus the dopamine centers will not release so much dopamine or VTA because assuming that is the system has so much with the time they may not be the active so that caused the problem because unless you have stimulus from outside and the the person even trying to stop the smoking and drinking they will have a hard time at the beginning to recover right so the our goal is to understand the Dynamics of the neural network in VTA in response to alcohol and nicotine and also the neuromodulation these signals has been projected to but also on the way back an NAC projects back to the red line is here going back to the VTA okay so the uh this is the uh the Kaaba it's almost the system how it works sometimes when you have so much excitement and the break comes in this case break is the carbon neuron okay we have developed it several the the electrophysical studies as well as also the genomic studies so we are looking for how alcohol nicotine affects the newborn babies if mother is alcoholic or nicotinetic we are looking for the changes alteration in gene regulated Network and also we are looking for the changes in neural activity and there's the eventual segment scenario and of course with the time we would Dr lupetti behavioral changes in the baby okay so the lots of people they have been working in the area for the the red experiences here how delicate the the research if you look at this this is the head nose eyes Okay and the this occipital area or and we are making like almost 0.2.3 millimeter to write a nanohome we move our electrodes from this hole and we know the term the geometric we know the exact location of the VTA we adjust electronically go up and down and we place the electrode to the it's mental pigment today when you're recording the activity there are two groups mainly as I mentioned one of them is Gaba very short signal and the other one is the reddish one is the dopamine okay so the by looking look at this I mean how much deep you need to go somewhere 0.5 to 0.9 millimeters if you are off a little bit you will be completely collecting data from that signals are different by just looking for the waveform I can figure out is it whether or not we are recording the document we are using the complexity method is called the health Z somewhere you may know we are converting the data into the binary sequences this is action potential if this activity comes if we put one otherwise we replace everything with zero then we look at the repeated patterns inside for example this is the data when zero zero goes up and we get the first pattern second third fourth we just want to make sure that these patterns are not repeated before then using the formula the SD complexity we determine V comma number higher the numbers very Dynamic very aspiring the system we have because we have the highest complexity forget about the mathematical part for a while if you just look at me Naked Eyes the signal this is before the nicotine injection single unitary coin and after as you can see after liquid injection the neurons will stop firing so fat so quickly okay when we look at the instead of recording from one unit we also move into the recording from multiple sites this is the from the 11 reps as you can see we were using the this time is the Michigan array and the each shank has the several recording sites the 8 to 16. and the we are using the same nanoholes and this time we are very much interested to really understand the uh to map the neural activity inside the VTA this is the whole VT area okay in that case if you look at them VTA consists of several different segments and the our hypothesis that we believe that majority of the dopamine neurons are located in the pif ndpn region and the last PVP so which means that is the uh if we are looking we need to prove that is the using the neural signal and also genomic studies that have these dopamine the neurons are distributed inside in this case this is the the local field potential and the after the denoising local field potential we use the waveliant transform it's a wonderful job done by the doctor and the Dragon and then when we look at the the complexity of the data and this is for PVP upward area saline control iniquity digital change but pif is the central is the large change when the nicotine is given the entropy the complex of the system significantly increases almost like 50 percent okay so this shows that is the majority of them is are related to the in the central one then the doctor dragomir and it came up the the concept of the using Markov model to characterize the firing irregularity instead of using the spectral analysis of the dopamine neuron pilot okay so the this one is the uh the if you look at the gamma distribution is one coefficient firing distribution K is if Decay is at a 0.5 is the neural filing is burst type activity is almost like releasing the the dopamine and then the random one and then the regular one is the transition random one is the transition between the first and regular his modeling is the if you look at the again is the burst type activity random firing and continuous when we estimate the irregularity uh the coefficient firing irregularity final regularity K is for the first type is 0.7
when you look at the random one it's much lower when you look at this The Continuous one is the is the sixth so the it's it's just looking for irregularity we can see three distinct patterns pattern a pattern B pattern C when we look at their original signal at a corresponds to the burst first type that can be more random transition and then goes to continues the colleagues also the doctor she and I told they have done this Vector analysis they have shown that is the first type activity is around one Hertz and therefore the uh random one much more high frequency and also going to the more high frequency for continuous signal anyway so the uh the dragon's data is the it shows that is the hidden Marco process is is a very good model because this way we can model the system high the uh slow the oscillations this is the burst type and the low slow oscillation and continuous one and the because the slower station is the corresponding to high one is the burst type activity and the low one is The Irregular or you can call the random and then goes to the continuous so they are linked to each other so each state has been represented with the two nodes and I think this is the result I mean look at the firing firing regulatory coefficient and then the nicotine is given is the high slow oscillation the blue one increases timeline firing time okay and then the wall is the red one as you can see and the the green is the and when we show the summary results it's here if it's saline is the normal condition and you have less the first type activity because the body will continue release performance okay but not high the duration because it's only duration is we are talking about somewhere 45 seconds right then mid one is the low slope is a transition random one is much higher because it's just like the randomly the action and the continuous one in between when the nicotine is given as you can see the burst type activity significantly increased is almost twofold then the other two the transition or the random one continuous one goes down okay and the if you look at the effect of the the alcohol and nicotine these are our the students professoriasmina Pai and I we are the their supervisors and they are the people they did to work actually and they I'm going to go to the this is a very unique Financial let me show you some the genomic studies okay this is this slide is taken from the brain of the uh red so this is upper part PVP this is lower part and this is PM they are stained by the th is the marker for the document as you can see in Saline and we have some presence of the neuron neuron but then if the nicotine is given most of the excited neuron in piano this also confirms the neurological result that I was shown to you okay so the these are the we also did some genomics the the result and the use the keg pathway we look at the alteration in the gene regulator networks I'm going to show you this some of them and the mainly affected One glutamagic Finance and also axon guidance and they were very very important because if you're going to design drugs you need to understand the activities and alterations in gene regulatory networks these are some of the publication with our students to look at them if someone is interested and also the sum the the news about the how nicotine intake why mother Alters the gene Network in newborn okay so the other resource that is the group is working on the brain chip in our the group and I showed some of them and the in addition to the recording from the single unit and the collaboration uh professors uh June orta and Dr otta and the uh Mr sagawa and the Dr snaga Who is a postdoc for Dr Akai and myself this is a joint effort and we collaborate and the corporate published Mentor the students together and the design of the the custom made of the genetics and the systems and the neural systems most of the credit goes to the doctor yesterday so the the design is have the CMOS and the if you look at the size micro Imaging device the implant inside the brain BTA to record the neural activity instead of looking for a one by one the neural activity we can see the whole activity on the VTA python is very small 0.3.6 767 millimeters and also that we are currently designing in addition to the CMOS and also we are going to have the also the the sensors to record the neural activity there's a several the highlights from the published papers and the and then when we implant these CMOS as you can see most of the activities is in the look at the Green and yellow part neural activity is right after five minutes later we could see it this activity is much more highlighted in unknown number of the neurons the common neuron in Central and the normal pump okay this is the systems and the neural probe the Imaging directly goes from the nanoholes to the VTA we are also the the working on the the optogenetics we modulate the instead of nicotine and alcohol we directly entered custom made of the genetic into the VPN and the the stimulate PVP pif pm and we look at the dopamine release we measured using macro dialysis device side okay our data shows that is when we stimulate the VTA this is from PFC this Mac as you can see the opening release within a 30 minute increases significantly in PST and also takes a little bit time as you can see is increases so this is the it takes 15 minutes to add the early parts to the estimate the performance release and right now we are using the the better technology to continuously determine the dopamine release in response to stimulation photo simulation of the VTA neurons in this case is mean the dopamine neurons and also in parallel to determine the dopamine release okay and the next is to really the the record from the multirector that is from VTA and PFC at the same time and also the build and the table of the wireless system to uh the transmit the signals to the outside okay let me stop here and if you have any questions I will be very happy to answer your question right now foreign conference thank you very much for sharing us this information is so valuable and I am pretty sure that it will help us to expand our vision about what technology can achieve and now as you said um it's time to start the round of questions remember guys if you want to to turn on your microphones you just only need to raise your hands or also you can use the job don't be shy if you have any question please ask the question okay I'm going to start according to the more slow technology will grow exponentially and what awaits Us in the next two years related to brain implants I think it's the uh I had a bond the posting we recently had brain Mind Body Workshop it's organized by Professor Gert kauvin back from UC San Diego he was the chair of the workshop I was the co-chair with the Dr subramian Who is the past president of our society so the uh we need to also melt the brain with body so basically is it possible to get the idea or thoughts of the person in room a use this idea send it to the person B in the room B and to move his or her legs motion so we are converting I mean this is future okay not today but it's the idea will be fantastic if we get the thoughts and ideas fuse into the another person in this case is a disabled person to move their affected disabled part of their body this is it's going to be melding Minds it's to really share the conscience or the two issues mouth the brain with body mouth Minds now brain body is basically how to disable people using other people find them and the second one is to is it possible to have to melt the to share the consciences that's going to be very important these are most of them of course it's going to be EG signal is collected from the the brain and the eventually maybe the sum the uh recording implanted electrodes could come to the play in my view this is going to be very important that was the the idea actually the doctors the common bag as dependent but I really expanded that one second is going to be this was a panel discussion I would like to acknowledge the Dr Richie from the UC the Berkeley she also indicated yesterday how are we going to close the blue which means that is added let's say we have epilepsy patients or we have when epilepsy comes right and we need to give the neural stimulus and the just onset to stop the epilepsy I think many companies they have developed Technologies they develop the the sort of the loop but I think for mental patients or other neurological disorders and is it possible to get the information from implants nothing goes out by the way it is all inside it's maybe put the page how they put the Pacemakers just about skins right on the chest right so they let's say the the mental disorder or physiophenic patient so they detect them get the electrical signal and then use that one to give stimulate the area and complete the closed loop for mental health that's the uh that's what I suggested to Dr to to Gert to to focus on next Workshop that's going to be the future but I think the the issue should be called us the ethical point of view I think it's to me it's not really super important to share ideas it's just to help the disabled people and improve the quality of the life of the mankind it's not to create the uh the Superman this is monster and to me it's that's the ethical issues but if we are here we are Keen I'm talking about all and the all the engineers biomedical engineers and the researchers innovators that is to improve the quality of the life for the all mankind that's important thank you very much for your response now we have another question Carmen says what is your vision about embs in the next 10 years okay I think it's the our mission is we just have this strategic planning meeting and the all the the leadership I think it's the for students but as a president I would like to see more the international the student complex I want students getting involved and learning leadership getting involved with our society okay and also have more Regional conferences to promote the field in South Central America in Africa and also the Europe as well Asia Pacific area my dream is to have the first conference in Africa next year as a president and I have been working on one of the sub-Saharan countries it's going to be focused on global Health Innovations to scientists from different parts it's not just to go and give a talk is to partner with them and to build collaboration and the first footstep for our society and the I deeply care about the people in developing countries I think it's the technology is very very important but not to uh there will be speakers from the wonderful beautiful African continents distinguished speakers will be the people from outside is the the share the ideas too jointly build collaboration jointly supervised Mentor student is going to be one thing and I would like to push for more Regional conferences different part of the world that's very important mission for the research fight it's very important that is we always need to ahead of the Curve what is the future if you look at our three public firms we have almost five six thousand people attended we have a remarkable speakers you cannot have 36 CEOs or the company for the spending part this is first but I think we need to make it more these speakers are available our student chapters clusters and our members organizing conference different parts of the world so we need to melt and get them involved and they move this the public form to have one in South Central America with the speakers it's the it could be Peru it could be tuna it could be Argentina Brazil or Mexico but the it should be free and get this for the speaker and expose the student and coming learning interacting from them so the public forum should go from online to to face the or the brilliant student different part of the world okay for research-wise if strategically I believe that is important is digital Health digital Health means that is the Smart sensors and also machine learning machine learning and the data science is very important if you are tackling important research problem but unless you have a good data unless you have a good the sensors data quality will not be put machine learning will not help you so the digital Health in that way because it's can you imagine two years ago or two and a half years ago I will be selling at home and teaching and doing my lectures right so the you like it or you don't like it is right now we move into the next domain is digital these online with the interactive system will be with us like how we are struggling with the wireless I am also very positive that we will confine the virus we will contain the virus but still we need to be continued we need to be uh be careful we are dealing but this Digital Life will be with us okay the second is monitoring the patient remote monitoring the patient using Advanced Technologies it's not just a telemedicine issue it's more we are moving to the 5G and more data more images can be transformed and shared with the patient and doctors so that's going to be the very important part for brain I mentioned I would like to I assume that is the more the Innovative smart neuromodulation the by electronic medicine especially is it possible to use bioelectronic medicine to control the blood pressure because there's almost a 25 of the population is known the suffer from blood pressure and some parts of the world is definitely more than 25 percent and the so the if you do not take care of the blood pressure it will cause more important the damage eventually right so that's the maybe technology can be used and also the the remote control and the modulation smart Innovative Technologies for mental health is very important that's one of focus and we want to look at for the genome engineering biomanufacturing that's important I think it's the to me the most important educating the Next Generation students Next Generation leaders that's the critical one what we need to talk about to then two things one Healthcare Innovations matters entrepreneurship methods so it's this traditional way to take the class graduate look for a job is of course it's very important we have the entitlement but also we need to look at something that is take challenge don't be afraid and translate and spend more time because this is the profession it's not really the fixed hours it's more dedication you have to work with your heart with your mind with your hand this is very important okay thank you thank you again for your response guys any question do you have another question to to say good night can you hear me hey good night Professor well I have two questions uh first question what would be the treatment uh for the patients who have a PLC or Autism for example and second question what about the future of the AI artificial intelligence related to your research our research okay yes okay the first let me ask the second one first the all right now we are the we had a recent publication that is we modified the uh one of the uh the CNN based and they turned into the uh what energy is going to be a problem energy which means that is the AI is the if you're using the uh most of the AI algorithms could be challenging using your laptop of course depends on the laptop if there's a powerful laptop you can run it but if you're using the main computers Mainframe also universities have the the super computer centers and it takes more time to that so the several colleagues they have been focusing on to develop the uh to use this machine learning techniques on their laptop it's just a regular laptop is the like-minded so we have slightly modified this one of the the AI the the concept and we work on the to look at for the the skin disorders calorices and I think it was extremely powerful and we published one paper at the Open Access Journal OJ MBA but for the EMB OJ EMB and the for the long term our interest to to use the modeling purposes to uh let the uh for example for addiction like is it possible to uh learn the behavior of response to nicotine and alcohol okay and then the Train the network to look at the several responses over 60 Minutes 90 minutes then next time when there's an input let the network spill the output predicted every minute what could happen so that's the one for the long term for AI I believe that it's going to be prediction is very important and also the pattern recognition is very important and also the guiding and the learning the behavior is very important so there's a tremendous the influence the AI could have okay okay thank you for working response again um again we have another question um uh without the ethical dilemmas how far do you think is this technology will go what will be the limit okay can you repeat the early part of the question sorry do you G will go and what will be the limit to me is the the ins