Чей бешбармак? Казахи, киргизы и узбеки, татары и башкиры, Дагестан, Чечня, Ингушетия, Азербайджан!

Чей бешбармак? Казахи, киргизы и узбеки, татары и башкиры, Дагестан, Чечня, Ингушетия, Азербайджан!

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If you ask, what is the most popular dish in the Russian-speaking, let's say, space, on the territory of the former Soviet Union? If anyone thinks that we are talking about pilaf, no, it is not. For now, enjoy the products that are on my table. I just washed a piece of beef meant for simmering.

And now I am washing a piece of horse meat from Kazakhstan and also sending it to a cauldron. We are starting a program about tasty and healthy food. My name is Stalik Khankishiev.

This is also horse meat, but ribs. Note that the fatter the better. Well, you guessed it, probably already? Of course, of course, today we will cook what we call "beshbarmak" in Russian. Why do I focus on Russian? This dish is multifaceted.

It is distributed, one might say, throughout Eurasia. And different nations call it differently. But this meat is special, it is dried beef ribs. The fact is that beshbarmak, to be honest, is never cooked from completely fresh meat.

The meat is allowed to hang in the fresh air somewhere near the yurt, to dry out in the wind, even to dry. The fact is that such meat gives an excellent broth. Beef ribs cured for authentic flavor. Today, when we are filming this program, the eve of a big holiday, Eid al-Adha is called. But those dishes that we are going to cook today are just festive for all peoples who celebrate Eid al-Adha.

So here we have a coincidence. So we had beef, horse meat, beef ribs, horse ribs. And this is a mutton fat tail, because low-fat food cannot be tasty. Only I, Stalik Khankishiyev, boldly tell you the truth to your face. Food should be moderately fatty. Kazi will give a lot of fat.

This is what they call kazy in Kazakhstan, because there is only a rib part. One whole piece was stuffed into the intestines, boil and eat. But this is called "shuzhuk" made of small pieces of fat and meat.

However, in South Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, both are called in one word: "kazy". Kazy is prepared wherever horse breeding is developed, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tatarstan, Bashkortostan. Kazy is also made in Uzbekistan. But I prefer to boil the kazy separately, because the broth from the kazy is extremely fragrant. I will add it to the finished broth as a spice a little bit. There was a case, I went to learn how to cook beshbarmak from a woman craftswoman, from a Cossack by nationality.

But then I published this recipe several times on social networks, and they didn’t tell me all the subtleties. In the very west of Kazakhstan, on the shores of the Caspian Sea, beshbarmak is made from beluga, from sturgeon. I bought both beluga and sturgeon, but I don’t have enough cauldrons, because other people wrote that the most delicious beshbarmak comes from duck or goose. And look what a handsome goose I have on the table. Only I first want to cut off his neck, because I will need the neck for a completely different dish, not at all Muslim, but on the contrary, Jewish. And this handsome goose is more than enough.

God grant that he fits in this large cauldron. This fatty gland is very odorous. It definitely needs to be cut out. But after all, beshbarmak is also cooked in our Tatarstan, and in our Bashkortostan. And there, too, they prefer to cook from the goose.

Literally today, I called Ufa to ask for advice on how I can cook Bashkir beshbarmak, so that it turns out tastier. So I just said the words "Bashkir beshbarmak" and I already know how many people of different nationalities were offended by me, they say, beshbarmak is our national dish. Calm down, comrades, today at the end of this program I will tell you whose national dish is beshbarmak, besparmak, kulchetai, salma, khingal, and even zhizhig-galnash and dulkh-khaltam. Well, you know how to cook meat. Yes? The fire is small, they immediately salted it, because as soon as it was salted, the foam immediately went away. You see, the broth has not even boiled yet, and the foam is already leaving.

The purer the broth, the better it will be. It seems to me that pure broths are somehow tastier and more aromatic. The dish itself, let's call it conditionally "beshbarmak", is prepared by millions of people in various regions. Therefore, of course, a lot of variations have formed.

And in some variations of beshbarmak, both onions and carrots are put into it, while in other variations of beshbarmak they try to avoid carrots. So, in meat beshbarmak, I will put at least onions. The broth should have a certain flavor. But in goose beshbarmak, let's conditionally call it "Bashkir", I will put both onions and carrots. And right now it's time to pour some broth. The broth will cool slightly, and on this broth we will knead the dough.

The dough will be very flavorful. The goose gave a lot of fat. And I will collect this fat from the surface of the broth for completely different purposes. In the Kazakh, Kyrgyz beshbarmak, onion stewed in the fatty part of the upper part of the broth is necessarily added. But for the preparation of the Bashkir beshbarmak and for the preparation of the Azerbaijani khingal, onions are fried in butter or ghee.

I really liked this idea, but I want to add my little rationalization proposal to it. I'll mix the ghee with the goose fat. And I think it will taste even better. See how much fat is boiled out of the goose. Just pure fat, because it will harden, and you can use it for some other culinary needs. And for noodles or for beshbarmak, the fat that remained there in the broth is quite enough.

I took the onion in order, 800 g, maybe even 1 kg, but it will fry, there will not be much left, but I know in advance how tasty and fragrant it will turn out. 2 cauldrons of broth, 15 liters in one, 15 liters in the other. Can you imagine how much testing will be needed? While I take 1.5 kg of good sifted flour. I make a hole in the hill of flour and I beat the eggs into this hole. Some housewives do not add salt to the dough. They say that this makes the dough tough.

I don't think this is actually the case, so I think nothing but good will come from one pinch of salt. Add broth. Yes, yes, the same broth from horse meat, from beef, from lamb.

The dough will turn out very fragrant and very tasty. It is not necessary to pour a lot of liquid at once. On the contrary, it is necessary that water or broth pass through each grain of dough so that it is moistened, and the dough turns out like this in the form of flakes. When there is no pure flour left, but only dough flakes, as it were, add a little more broth.

Observe the principle of gradual addition of liquid. The dough in the end should turn out to be about the same as on dumplings. The dough must be kneaded until it starts to come off the bowl. Look, the basin is actually clean. Now you can do without a basin, but the table needs to be dusted.

Now the dough must be covered with a bowl, and let it stand so that it does not dry out, but ripens. Fry the onion slowly at medium temperature so that it is fried evenly and comes out golden red. So, for the Kyrgyz and Kazakh beshbarmak , the onion is barely simmered on the upper fatty part of the broth.

You don't need a lot of broth, as long as it's barely moistened. And literally 2-3 minutes on fire is enough. However, the meat in the broth is already more than ready, it's time to take it out. The meat needs to stand and dry slightly, cool a little so that it is convenient to cut it. Dulkh-khaltam and zhizhig-galnash, the Ingush and Chechen counterparts of this dish, are the easiest to serve.

There, they prefer to serve meat at least in such pieces, 400 g per person, and maybe even like this. I'll leave one piece as an example. And I will cut the rest of the meat into slices, as it is customary to serve in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tatarstan and Bashkortostan. This is horse meat, perhaps the most delicious part of horse meat, horse ribs.

Maybe someone thinks differently, but in fact horse meat is very tender, very soft and fragrant meat. The fact is that not those mares on which they plow, not those stallions on which they ride, but horses specially bred for this, are allowed for meat. Here's another piece of horsemeat, just pulp, but it's wonderful. Perhaps half of it will be enough.

Beef ribs. And yes, it's also very tasty. It is possible that someone will be indignant: "Too fatty meat. Isn't it harmful?" I'll tell you one thing. What is this cow, what are these lambs, what have they been eating all their lives? They ate the same grass. Maybe someone once treated me with a crust of bread and grain.

And yet, here's how fat they turn out. And now it's the turn of lamb fat. Boiled fat tail is very tender. And I have to tell you good news.

That myth, which was spread by the American Institute of Nutrition more than 50 years ago , that animal fat is hellishly harmful, has finally been dispelled by normal scientists. No, fat is absolutely harmless, and it is harmful to completely abandon animal fat. But this most terrible, terrible cholesterol, cholesterol, all this is formed in the body for completely different reasons. Well, in the end, show me at least one person who gave up fat and lived not for 100 years, but, say, 200 years. In general, the best geese, of course, are in late autumn, in winter. People say that a turkey, a goose, a duck are good when they see the first snow.

Well, this summer goose, and what to do if the holiday came in the summer, is also remarkably good. The dough is ripe, it's time to roll out. The dough is also all rolled out quite differently. Some prefer a very thin dough, some leave the dough of a normal, acceptable thickness. In Chechnya and Ingushetia, they make dumplings out of dough. The dough needs to dry out just a little, just a little, before I start cutting it further.

Well, for now, let's roll out the next juicy. Here, for Chechen and Ingush dumplings, the dough should be rolled out a little thicker, and then cut into neat strips 3-4 cm wide. We cut each strip into such slices.

And now here is an action that is well known to lovers of Italian cuisine. Look what I'm doing with these dumplings. I put them in flour, pressed the dumplings with my finger, pressed them and rolled them, pushed them towards myself, so that a space formed inside the dumplings, where the sauce, the broth would be scooped up. And now I want to try another way.

You see, the board is so ribbed, even erase on it. Come on, I'll try to roll dumplings on it. We'll see how it goes? Oh wow, that's even better. Not only do they roll better into a tube, they also repeat the shape of the board. That is, on this dumpling of the sauce, the broth will stick even more, and the jig-galnash will turn out tastier. But you know that for the Kazakh beshbarmak they use small square juices.

I know how to make them, but when I saw that in Azerbaijan, several thousand kilometers from Kazakhstan , juicy for khingal is cut in exactly the same way, my heart skipped a beat. This is what common blood and common history are. Look, once with a knife along the rolling pin, and all, in principle, the same pieces. And now for the squares. But in Bashkortostan, juicy for beshbarmak is prepared in a completely different form. In Bashkortostan, the dough is cut into rhombuses, just like baklava in Azerbaijan.

If they prepare pure beshbarmak, then the juices are made somewhat wider, larger. But if they cook something like salma, that is, something like noodles, when dough products are served with broth, then the diamonds are cut smaller so that 2-3 diamonds fit in each spoon. And finally, the dough for beshbarmak, as in Tatarstan and Kyrgyzstan.

There, the dough is cut like noodles. First, the rolled sheet is rolled into a tube. Well, a tube with a sharp knife.

Chick-chick-chick, here's your noodles ready. So, for the Bashkir beshbarmak, add horse broth from kazy, goose, mix, select. About the same as a sommelier makes drinks.

Well, now tear yourself into at least a few parts, because there is a lot of work at once. The dish on which we will serve the Kazakh beshbarmak is supposed to be warmed up. Do you know how? The simplest. There were no food warmers, no special stoves for heating food in the steppe. And it is not necessary, because you can just warm up the broth.

Like this. And besides, the dish has already become a little greasy. And now the dough will not stick to it.

Pieces of dough, inkal, as they say in Western Kazakhstan, shake off the flour, put it in a slotted spoon, and cook in a cauldron. I know that in some regions of Kazakhstan, the dough is boiled in a large rolled circle. Just like that, they lower it on top of the broth. And only then, when it is cooked, it is cut or simply torn into small pieces convenient for eating. But we still need to cut some very important delicacies.

This, dear friends, is a piece of smoked horse mane. In Kazakhstan, what kind of delicacies are not made from horse meat. Let's cut it thinner, so that it's enough just to try. Here is a dried, specially prepared and smoked horse brisket. You know, if you talk about beshbarmak with the residents of Kazakhstan, they will tell you that for the right beshbarmak, you also need to add a camel's hump. I just don’t know, from a two-humped or one-humped camel.

Well, if a two-humped camel is still used, then which hump is better, front or rear? But I'm just joking, and it's time for us to lay out the juices in beshbarmak, pieces of dough, inkal, as they are called in Western Kazakhstan. And the same word is used for both Dagestan and Azerbaijani khingal. Well, the dough is ready.

Sautéed onions on top of the dough. Look how handsome he is. It still crunches a little.

Well, even with this order, what to lay out ahead, dough or meat, where onions, for dough or for meat? Here, too, there are endless disputes, because Kazakhstan is a rather large country. And every house, every yurt, every family has its own beshbarmak. Just like we have our own cabbage soup, or our own borscht, or our own plov. So, it remains to decorate beshbarmak with meat, but here's the thing. I already cut the meat half an hour ago, it had time to cool down. But it's okay, we lower the sliced ​​\u200b\u200bmeat slices into a cauldron, and let them warm up.

We spread the heated pieces of meat on the surface of the onion and dough. I decided today, I like it so much. Around a piece of fat from the mane for everyone to try. Well, the chest. It remains to cut, perhaps the most expensive treat, kazy. So, goats are meat from the rib of a horse, which is packed in a shell and seasoned.

And we boiled it today. Kazakh beshbarmak is ready. But that's not all, wait, now we'll cook Kyrgyz. As I said, the Kyrgyz prefer beshbarmak in the form of noodles. And cut up some goat. Reheat the meat the same way.

Now I'll be honest. I don't know for sure if noodles in Kyrgyzstan are seasoned with onions. But why not? It is delicious. If this is not so, if they do not season it, then what can be done.

Come to my social networks and correct me. Meat, trembling mutton tail, all over noodles. And generously decorate the kazy with rings.

So the Kyrgyz beshbarmak is ready. We go further, we move to the Caucasus: Dagestan, Chechnya, Azerbaijan. Chechen dumplings will have to cook a little longer. Still, these pieces of dough have a serious volume. In exactly the same way, we heat the goose meat, lower it back into the broth.

A little more to cook and warm up. In Bashkiria, in shurpa, or rather in sulfa, as they say in Bashkortostan, they add cabbage in addition to onions and carrots. But broth is not served with cabbage. No, it's just for flavor, it's just for smell. And this seems very surprising to me. However, the meat is already warmed up, and I put it along with the carrots.

They told me that no, they don’t serve carrots, but honestly, it’s so beautiful. How can you refuse? But now everything will become even more beautiful, because on top of goose meat, on top of carrots, fried onions along with butter. Look how beautiful it is. And most importantly, this is the same goose fat that melted out, which went into the broth. And now what to do with it? Yes, we'll send it here.

And let it soak every slice of goose. Well, where are the diamonds? The dumplings are perfectly cooked, but I will try to put them on one edge of the plate. And now all the remaining diamonds, inkal for the Dagestan and Azerbaijani khingals. We decorate the Bashkir beshbarmak with dough.

I know they don't do this, but I think it would be very tasty. Fried onions on top of the dough, too, and a little fat so that the dough does not stick together, so that everything turns out very fragrant and very tasty. This part is Chechen, and this is Dagestan, and here it will be Azerbaijani.

We spread a good piece of meat in the Dagestan part. We spread a piece of meat in the Chechen part no worse. Chechen zhizhi-galnash is served with garlic sauce.

How is it prepared? The garlic is chopped and poured over the upper fatty part of the broth. Now we cut the meat into pieces and dip it there or dip the dumplings there. And go ahead.

But Dagestan khingal is served with two sauces, one red. You understand what it is. Pureed tomatoes, and they added the same garlic and some more greens. But this is a very good katyk, to which salt and garlic were also added. But the Azerbaijani khingal, just like the Bashkir khingal, is seasoned with fried onions.

Chickens and domestic chickens are often boiled to the Azerbaijani khingal. У нас сегодня не было домашних цыплят, но у нас есть отличный гусь. И мы можем позаимствовать гуся у наших татарских и башкирских братьев.

Да-да, сегодня мы с вами приготовим еще и татарскую лапшу. А ведь все готово. Мясо сварилось, бульон отличный, лапша свежая домашняя. Подавай от всей души. Пока лапша варится, вернемся на минуточку в Казахстан. В Казахстане говорят "ет етке" (мясо к мясу), а шурпа, "сорпа бетке".

То есть шурпа к лицу. То есть шурпа делает краше человека. После того, как поедят бешбармак, непременно каждому разливают по косушке доброй шурпы, очень сытного, очень вкусного и ароматного бульона, который приправляют, нет, не сметаной.

В Казахстане сцеживают кислое молоко и получают продукт, который в Узбекистане называют "сузьма", а в Казахстане называется "сюзьбе". То есть это по сути дела сцеженный творог. Так вот, этим самым сцеженным творогом приправляют казахскую шурпу, забеливают, подкисливают, делают ее еще более аппетитной, потому что бешбармака наешься, куда еще шурпа? Но вот от такого никто не откажется. Помимо этого во всех странах Средней Азии: в Татарстане, в Казахстане, в Киргизии из вот этой самой сюзьмы, сюзьбе, из сцеженного творога катают особые шарики, которые называются "курт", "курут". То есть по сути дела сухое молоко.

Так вот, в Башкирии к бешбармаку курут подают прямо вот так, прямо в шариках. Ну что же, нам пора разливать татарскую лапшу. Вот она какая, сварилась не хуже, чем у бабушки в деревне. Но и к чеченскому жижиг-галнаш, к ингушскому дулх-халтам тоже непременно подают по косе хорошего бульона. И башкирский бешбармак непременно завершает именно сулпа, шурпа, чорп.

Все наши народы называют мясной либо бульон из птицы одинаково. Сегодня я приготовил 7 национальных блюд наших братских народов. Мы исторически веками, тысячелетиями живем рядом на одной земле.

У нас зачастую схожие языки, схожие обычаи. Иногда нас невозможно разобрать по лицу, кто есть кто. Но дело не в этом.

Самое главное, что каждый наш народ создал великолепные образцы нематериальной культуры, а именно свою национальную кухню, которые зачастую пересекаются. Да, теперь уже не выяснить, кто первым придумал варить мясо, а кто первым перемолол пшеницу и раскатал тесто. Кто первым догадался сочетать отварное мясо, а вот оно рядом пасется, лук, который растет под ногами, и кусочки сваренного теста? И достались нам в наследство от наших предков бешбармак, лапша, хингал и всякие другие вкусные блюда, о происхождении которых спорить, пожалуй, не стоит. Лучше приглашать друг друга в гости и говорить: "Приятного аппетита, дорогие мои!"

2022-09-11 15:37

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