SpaceX returnable rocket | Wikipedia audio article
The, spacex, reusable, launch system, development, program, as a privately, funded program, to develop a set of new technologies. For an orbital launch system, that may be reused, many times in a manner similar to the reusability, of aircraft, the. Company, SpaceX is, developing, the technologies, over a number of years to facilitate, full and rapid reusability, of space launch vehicles, the. Project's, long term objectives, include, returning a launch vehicle first, stage to the launch site in minutes, and to return a second, stage to the launch pad following, orbital, realignment, with the launch site and atmospheric. Re-entry in, up to 24, hours. SpaceX's. Long-term, goal as that both stages, of their orbital launch vehicle, will be designed to allow reuse, a few hours after, return the program was publicly announced in 2011. SpaceX. First achieved, a successful landing, and recovery of a first stage in December 2015, the first. Re flight of a landed first stage occurred, in March 2017. With the second occurring in June 2017. That one only five months after the maiden flight of the booster the. Third attempt, occurred in October 2017. With the SES, 11 echo star 105. Mission, second. Flights of refurbished, first stages, then became routine. The. Reusable, launch system technology. Was developed and initially, used for the first stages, of the Falcon family, of rockets, after. Stage separation the, return process involves, flipping the booster around an optional, boost back burn to reverse its course re-entry, burn controlling, direction, to arrive at the landing site and a landing burn to affect the final low altitude, deceleration. And touchdown. SpaceX. Intended, from at least 2014. To develop technology. To extend, reusable, flight hardware to second stages a more challenging engineering. Problem, because the vehicle is traveling, at orbital velocity. Which. Is considered, paramount, to the plans Elon Musk is championing, to enable the settlement, of Mars, it. Is thus planned to be developed, for all of the flight hardware for, the new space X vehicles, plan to transit, to Mars with initial, test flights expected, no earlier than 2020. SpaceX. Will also experiment, with second, stage recovery. On a few select Falcon, 9 flights or falcon heavy flights, after. 2017. Much of the reusable, technology development. Work and testing turned substantially. Toward advances, in reusable, second-stage, with integrated, spaceship, technology, to support bfr, used not merely in Earth's atmosphere but, also as intended to be used on solar system, celestial, bodies such as the Moon and Mars with, very diverse atmospheric. Characteristics. Topic. History. The, spacex, reusable, rocket technology, as being developed for both falcon 9 v 1.2. And Falcon Heavy, SpaceX. Initially, attempted to land the first stage of the Falcon 1 by parachute. However the stage did not survive the re-entry, into the atmosphere, they. Continued, to experiment, with parachutes, on the earliest Falcon, 9 flights after 2010. SpaceX. Subsequently. Switched its focus to developing, a powered descent landing, system the broad outline of the reusable, launch system, was first publicly, described, in September, 2011. SpaceX. Said it would attempt to develop powered, descent and recovery, of both Falcon, 9 stages, a fully. Vertical, take-off vertical, landing VTV, L rocket, the. Company, produced a computer, animated, video depicting, a notional, view of the first stage returning, tail first for a powered descent and the second stage with a heat shield re-entering, headfirst, before rotating for, a powered descent in September.
2012, SpaceX. Began flight tests, on a prototype, reusable. First stage with the suborbital, grasshopper, rocket those. Tests, continued, into 2014, including, testing, of a second and larger prototype. Vehicle, f9r dev 1 news. Of the grasshopper test rocket had become public a few days earlier when the US Federal, Aviation Administration. Released a draft environmental impact, assessment. For the SpaceX test site in Texas, and the space media had reported it in May. 2012. SpaceX, obtained, a set of atmospheric, test data for the recovery, of the Falcon 9 first, stage based on, 176. Test runs in the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center wind, tunnel test facility, the. Work was contracted, for by SpaceX, under a reimbursable, space act agreement with, NASA in 2012. It was projected that the first stage separation of, a reusable Falcon, 9 rocket would, occur at a velocity of, approximately Mach. 6 2.0. Km/s. 7400. Km/h. 4600. Miles per hour rather than Mach 10 3.4. Km/s, 12,000. Kilometers, per hour. 7600. Miles per hour for an expendable, Falcon 9, provide the residual, fuel necessary for, the deceleration and, turnaround, maneuver, and the controlled, descent and landing in November, 2012, CEO. Elon, Musk announced, SpaceX's, plans to build a second much larger reusable, rocket, system this one to be powered by LOX, methane rather, than LOX rp1. Used on Falcon, 9 and Falcon, Heavy the new system was to be an evolution, of SpaceX's. Falcon 9, booster, and SpaceX. Reiterated. Their commitment, to develop a breakthrough in, vertical, landing technology, by. The end of 2012, the demonstration. Test vehicle, grasshopper. Had made 3 V TVL test flights including, a 29, second, hover flight to 40 metres 130. Feet on December, 17, 2012, in early. March 2013, SpaceX. Successfully tested. Grasshopper, for a fourth time when it flew to an altitude of over 80 metres 260. Feet in March 2013, SpaceX. Announced that it would instrument, and equip subsequent, Falcon 9 first stages as controlled, descent test vehicles, with plans for overwater. Propulsively. Decelerated. Simulated, landings, beginning, in 2013 with, the intent to return the vehicle to the launch site for a powered landing, possibly. As early as mid 201. For the. April 2013, draft environmental impact, statement, for the proposed SpaceX, South Texas launch, site includes, specific accommodations. For return of the Falcon 9 first-stage. Boosters, to the launch site, Elon. Musk first publicly, referred, to the reusable, Falcon 9 as the Falcon 9 R in April 2013 in, September, 2013. SpaceX, successfully relayed. Three engines of a spent booster on an orbital launch and the booster re-entered, the atmosphere at, hypersonic speed. Without burning up with. The data collected, from the first flight test of a booster controlled, descent from high altitude, coupled, with the technological, advancements. Made on the grasshopper, low altitude, landing demonstrator, SpaceX.
Announced It believed it was ready to test a full land recovery of a booster stage based. On the positive results, from the first high altitude, flight test SpaceX, advanced, the expected, date of a test from, mid-2014. To early 2015, with, the intention, of doing so on the next Space Station cargo, resupply flight, pending, regulatory, approvals, that. Flight took place on April 18 2014. Musk stated, in May 2013, that the goal of the program is to achieve full and rapid reusability, of the first stage by 2015. And to develop full launch vehicle, reusability, following. That as part, of a future design, architecture. In February. 2014. SpaceX, made explicit, that the newly defined super, heavy launch vehicle for, what was then called Mars colonial, transporter, would also make use of the reusable, technology, this. Was consistent, with musk strategic. Statement, in 2012, that the revolutionary. Breakthrough. Will come with rockets, that are fully and rapidly reusable. We. Will never conquer, Mars unless, we do that it'll, be too expensive, the, American, colonies, would never have been pioneered, if the ships that crossed the ocean hadn't been reusable. Also. In May 2014. SpaceX, publicly, announced, an extensive, test program, for a related reusable, technology app repulsively landed, space capsule, called dragonfly, the tests were to be run in Texas, at the McGregor rocket, test facility, in 2014-2015. In June 2014, CEO, Gwynne, Shotwell clarified. That all funding, for development and, testing of the reusable, Launch System, technology, development, program is private, funding from SpaceX with no contribution. By the US government, as of. 2017. SpaceX had spent over a billion, dollars on the development, program for the first time SpaceX, stated, in July 2014, that they are highly. Confident, of being able to land successfully on, a floating, launch pad or back at the launch site Andrey, fly the rocket with no required, refurbishment. By. Late 2014, spacex. Suspended, or abandoned, the plan to recover and reuse the falcon 9 second, stage the additional, mass of the required heat shield landing, gear and low powered landing engines would incur too great a performance, penalty in, September.
2016, SpaceX. Announced that development, was underway to extend, the reusable, flight hardware to second stages a more challenging engineering. Problem, because the vehicle, traveling, at orbital velocity, the. Reusable, technology was, to have been extended to the 2016, designs, of both the tanker and crewed spaceship, upper stage variants, as well as the first stage of the its launch vehicle, for the interplanetary, transport, system. And is. Considered, paramount, to the plans Elon Musk is championing, to enable the settlement, of Mars in, 2016. Initial test flights of an interplanetary transport. System. Vehicle, were expected, no earlier than 2020, in 2017. SpaceX, was making test flight progress in incrementally, and iteratively developing. A fairing recovery, system, in, July. 2017. Musk, said we, are quite close to being able to recover, the fairing. We've, got a decent shot of recovering, a fairing by the end of the year and reef light by late this year or early next. The cost savings, to SpaceX, of recovering, the fairing is expected, to be on the order of five million dollars, together. The booster stage and the fairing make up approximately eighty. Percent of the cost of a launch, despite. 2014. Plans to suspend, development, of falcon 9 second, stage reuse. Musk. Further commented, in july 2017. That a few experimental, attempts, would be made on particular, future flights to bring a falcon 9 second. Stage back. Topic. Technologies. Several. New technologies needed. To be developed and tested to facilitate, successful, launch and recovery, of both stages of the spacex, reusable, rocket launching, system, following. The completion of the third high-altitude, controlled. Descent test and the completion of the third low altitude, flight of the second-generation, prototype. Test vehicle, plus eight flights of the first generation, grasshopper. Prototype, flight test vehicle spacex, indicated, that they are now able to consistently, re-enter. From space at hypersonic, velocity. Restart, main engines, twice deploy, landing legs, and touchdown, at near zero velocity. The technologies. That were developed for this program, some of which are still being refined include. Restartable. Ignition, system, for the first stage booster. Restarts. Are required at both supersonic. Velocities, in the upper atmosphere in, order, to reverse the high velocity away, from the launch pad and put the booster on a descent, trajectory back. Toward the launch pad and at, high transonic, velocities, in the lower atmosphere in order. To slow the terminal descent and to perform a soft landing. New. Attitude control, technology. For. The booster stage and second stage to. Bring the descending, rocket body through the atmosphere, in a manner conducive both, to non-destructive. Return and sufficient, aerodynamic. Control, such that the terminal phase of the landing is possible, this. Includes sufficient, roll control authority, to keep the rocket from spinning excessively, as occurred on the first high altitude, flight test in September, 2013 where, the roll rate exceeded, the capabilities of the booster attitude, control, system acts, and the fuel in the tanks, centrifuged. To. The side of the tank shutting down the single engine involved, in the low altitude deceleration.
Maneuver The. Technology, needs to handle the transition, from the vacuum of space at, hypersonic, conditions. Decelerating. To supersonic, velocities, and passing through transonic, buffet before, relighting, one of the main stage engines, at terminal, velocity. Hypersonic. Grid, fins were added to the booster test vehicle, design beginning, on the fifth ocean controlled, descent test, flight in 2014, in order to enable precision, landing. Arranged. In an X. Configuration. The grid fins control, the descending, Rockets lift vector once the vehicle has returned to the atmosphere to, enable a much more precise, landing, location. Iteration. On the design continued, into 2017. Larger. And more robust, grid fins made from forged titanium and, left unpainted, were first tested, in June 2017. And has been used on all reusable, block 5 Falcon, 9 first stages since May 2018. Throttle. Able rocket engine technology, as required, to reduce engine thrust, because the full thrust of even a single merlin, 1d engine. Exceeds the weight of the nearly empty falcon, 9. Terminal. Guidance and landing capability, including a vehicle control, system, and a control, system software, algorithm. To be able to land a rocket with the thrust to weight ratio of. The vehicle greater than one with closed-loop thrust, vector, and throttle control. Navigation. Sensor, suite for precision landing a large. Floating landing, platform, in order to test pinpoint, landings, prior to receiving permission, from the US government to bring returning, rocket stages into US airspace overland. In the. Event, SpaceX, built the autonomous, spaceport, drone ship in 2014. And conducted, an initial flight test and landing attempt in January, 2015. Large. Surface, area thermal, protection system, to absorb the heat load of deceleration, of the second, stage from orbital velocity, to terminal velocity. Lightweight. Deployable, landing, gear for the booster stage in May. 2013 the design was shown to be a nested, telescoping. Piston on an a-frame the total span of the four carbon fiber aluminum, extensible. Landing legs is approximately. 18 meters 60, feet and weigh less than, 2,100. Kilograms. 4,600. Pounds. Deployment. System uses high-pressure helium. As the working fluid with. Flight 25, it was announced that each landing, leg contained, a crushed, core to. Absorb the impact of landing for particularly, hard landings. Topic. Economics. Of rocketry, use. In, order to make the Falcon 9 reusable. And return to the launch site extra, propellant, and landing gear must be carried on the first stage requiring, around, a 30%. Reduction of, the maximum, payload to orbit in, comparison. With the expendable, Falcon 9 brief. Light of a previously, used stage on a subsequent, flight as dependent, on the condition, of the landed stage and as a technique, that has seen little use outside of the space shuttles reusable, solid rocket boosters. In September. 2013. SpaceX, said that if all aspects, of the test program were successful, and if a customer is interested, the first reef light of a falcon 9 booster, stage could happen as early as late 2014, in, December. 2015, following, the recovery, of the first stage from December 22nd. Launch SpaceX. Projected, that the first reef light of a recovered, booster would likely occur in 2016. But that their plan was to not reef lie to em bird 22nd. Recovered, stage for that purpose. Musk. Projected, in 2015. That the reef light step of the program would be straightforward, because. Of the multiple, full duration firings. Of the engines that had been done on the ground and the multiple engine restarts, that had been demonstrated, by that time with no significant, degradation seen. In. 2015. Industry, analysts, continued, to forecast, problems, that could prevent economic reuse. Because costs, to refurbish, and relaunch the stage were not yet demonstrated and the economic, case for reuse, would necessarily be, highly dependent on launching, frequently, if SpaceX, is successful, in developing the, reusable, technology it, is expected, to significantly reduce, the cost of access to space and change the increasingly, competitive market. In space launch services. Michael. Bell Fiore wrote in foreign policy in, 2013. That had a published, cost of fifty six point five million dollars, per launch to low-earth orbit, Falcon, 9 rocket tsar, already the cheapest, in the industry. Reusable. Falcon nines could drop the price by an order of magnitude sparking. More space-based enterprise, which in turn would drop the cost of access to space still, further through economies, of scale. Even. For military launches, which have a number of contractual, requirements. For additional, launch services, to be provided, SpaceX's, prices, under 100, million dollars.
Space. Industry, analyst a.j Kothari has noted that spacex, reusable, technology, could do for space transport, what, jet engines, did for air transportation, 60. Years ago when people never imagined, that more than 500. Million passengers. Would travel, by airplanes, every, year and that the cost could be reduced, to the level it is all, because. Of passenger, volume, and reliable, reusability. SpaceX. Said in January, 2014, that if they are successful in, developing the reusable, technology launch, prices, of around $5. To 7 million for a reusable Falcon, 9 were possible, and, following. The successful, first, stage recovery, in December 2015. Musk said that the, potential cost reduction, over the long term is probably, in excess of a factor of 100, as, of. March 2014, launch, service, providers, who compete with SpaceX, were not planning to develop similar technology. Or offer competing. Reusable, launcher options, neither. ILS. Which markets, launches, of the Russian Proton rocket Arian. Space nor sea launch were planning on developing and marketing reusable. Launch vehicle, services. SpaceX. Was the only competitor, that projected, a sufficiently, elastic, market on the demand side to justify, the costly, development, of reusable, rocket, technology and, the expenditure, of private, capital to develop options for that theoretical. Market opportunity, as of 2014, the, Falcon 9 v1. 1. Rocket was designed with about 30%, more capacity than its official, payload specifications. The additional, performance, was reserved for SpaceX, to perform first stage reentry, and landing tests towards reusability, while, still achieving the, specified, orbital, payload delivery for, customers, in order to achieve the full economic benefit. Of the reusable, technology it, is necessary, that the reuse be both rapid, and complete without the long and costly refurbishment. Period, or partially, reusable design. That plagued earlier attempts, at reusable, launch vehicles. SpaceX, has been explicit, that the huge potential, to open up space flight is dependent, on achieving, both complete, and rapid reusability. CEO. Musk stated, in 2014. That success, with the technology, development, effort could reduce the cost of spaceflight by a factor, of 100, because the cost of the propellant oxidizer, on the Falcon 9 is only, 0.3%. Of, the total cost of the vehicle separate, from the market competition brought, about by SpaceX, lower launch prices, and the potential, future of even more radically, lower launch prices, if the technology can be completed, successfully Aviation. Week said in 2014. That SpaceX reusable, launch work is an R&D model the audacity of the concept, and speed of the program's progress, make it an exemplar the breakneck pace of development has, been almost apollo like in its execution. Even. While success, is far from guaranteed on, March 9 2016. SpaceX, president, Gwynne Shotwell gave. A more realistic appraisal, of the potential, savings of a reused launch now that attempts, to reuse, the second stage had been abandoned, due to cost and weight issues she. Said at 1 million dollars cost, of refueling, and three million dollars, cost of refurbishing, a used first stage could potentially, allow a launch to be priced as low as 40 million dollars, a 30%, saving. SpaceX. Biggest customer, ses, said it wants to be the first to ride a reused, vehicle, however it wants a launch price of 30 million dollars, or a 50 percent saving to offset the risk of pioneering, the process, according, to Elon Musk almost, every piece of the Falcon should be reused over 100. Times heat. Shields, and a few other items should be reused, over ten times before replacement. In March. 2017. SpaceX. Announced progress, in their experiments, to recover and eventually, reuse the six million dollar payload, fairing on the. SE s10 mission one of the fairing halves performed, a controlled, atmospheric. Reentry and, splashdown, using, thrusters and a steerable parachute, fairings, are eventually slated. To land on a floating bouncy, castle, structure, spacex, began reef light of previously, launched booster stages in 2017.
The. First reef flight was accomplished, in March 2017, nearly, year after the boosters maiden flight the second was in June 2017. Only, five months after its maiden flight both. Were successful, and both insurers, and launch service, customers, are readily supporting, the newly emerging market in launch services, provided, by multiple use boosters. Topic. Technical. Feasibility. Prior, to the reusability, programs, success, in December 2015, the return of an orbital, launch system, booster rocket had never been accomplished, and many questioned, both technical, and economic feasibility, and, even. After this success, the rapid reuse of a rocket has not been attempted. Developing. A reusable rocket as, extremely, challenging. Due to the small percentage of a rockets mass that can make it to orbit, typically. A rockets payload is only about three percent of the mass of the rocket which is also roughly, the amount of mass in fuel that is required for the vehicles reentry, Elon Musk said at the beginning of the program that he believed the return vertical, landing and recovery was, possible because the SpaceX, manufacturing. Methodologies. Result, in a rocket efficiency, exceeding, the typical, three percent margin a SpaceX. Rocket operating. In the reusable, configuration. Has approximately 30%. Less, payload, lift capacity than the same rocket in an expendable, configuration. Although the reusable, launch system, technology, was developed and initially, used for the first stages of the Falcon family, of rockets it is particularly, well-suited to the Falcon Heavy where the two outer core is separate, from the rocket earlier in the flight and are therefore moving more slowly at stage separation. For. Example, on Falcon, 9 flight 20. The speed at separation, was close to 6,000, km/h. And this allowed a return, to near the launch site on flight. 22 going, to a more energetic GTO, orbit the higher velocity, at separation, was between 8,000. And 9,000. Kilometers per, hour at these. Faster, speeds it is not possible, to return the booster to near the launch site for a landing if a landing is attempted, it needs to be hundreds of kilometers downrange, on an autonomous, drone ship. Topic. Test, program. In 2013. SpaceX, was testing reusable, technologies, both for its first stage booster launch, vehicle, designs with three test vehicles, grasshopper. F9r, dev, 1 and f9r dev, 2 and for. Its new reusable, dragon, v2 space, capsule, with a low altitude test, vehicle, called dragonfly. SpaceX. Has publicly, disclosed, a multi element incremental. Test program, for booster stages that includes four aspects. Low. Altitude, less than, 760. Meters. 2500. Feet low velocity, testing, of its single engine grasshopper, technology, demonstrator, at its Texas Test Site low. Altitude, less than 3,000 meters, 9,800. Feet low velocity, testing, of a much larger second-generation. 3, engine test vehicle, called f9 our dev 1 the second generation vehicle, includes, extensible. Landing legs and will be tested at the Texas Test Site high. Altitude, mid velocity, testing, was planned but cancelled in favour of post mission reentry, tests of first-stage, boosters, it. Would have used f9r dev, 2 at a SpaceX, leased facility, at spaceport, america in, new mexico. High-altitude, 91. Kilometers. Barry, high velocity, approximately. 2.0. Km/s. 6,500. Km/h. 4,100. Miles per hour Mach 6 ballistic, reentry, controlled, deceleration. And controlled, descent tests, of post-mission spent Falcon, 9 booster, stages following, a subset, of Falcon, 9 launches, that began in 2013 eight low altitude, booster flight tests, were made by grasshopper, in 2012, and 2013. The. First booster returned, controlled, descent tests from high altitude, was made in September 2013 with, a second, test in April a third. Test flight in July. And a fourth test in September, 2014, all four. Test flights to date were intended, to be over water simulated. Landings. Five. Low altitude, booster, flight tests, of f9r dev, one were flown during April August 2014, before the vehicle self destructed, for safety reasons on the fifth flight. Topic. Flight, test vehicles. SpaceX. Used a set of experimental, technology, demonstrator, suborbital. Reusable launch, vehicles, rlv, to begin flight testing, their reusable booster, technologies, in 2012, two.
Versions Of the prototype, reusable, test Rockets were built the, 100 six-foot-tall, grasshopper. Formerly designated as, grasshopper, v 1.0. And the 160. Foot tall Falcon, 9 reusable. Development, vehicle or f9 our dev 1 formerly. Known as grasshopper. V 1.1. As well. As a capsule, prototype, for testing propulsive, landings of the Dragon crew and cargo capsule, for, the Falcon 9 dragonfly. Grasshopper. Was built in 2011-2012. For, low altitude low, velocity, hover testing, that began in September, 2012, and concluded in October, 2013 after. Eight test flights, the. Second prototype vehicle. Design f9r, dev, 1 was built on the much larger Falcon, 9 V 1.1. Booster, stage was used to further extend, the low altitude flight, testing, envelope on a vehicle that better matched the actual, flight hardware and, made 5 test flights in 2014. The. Low-altitude low-speed, flights. Of the test vehicle rockets, and capsule were conducted, at the SpaceX, rocket test, facility, in McGregor, Texas basics indicated, in November, 2018, that they considered, testing, a heavily modified falcon, 9 second, stage that would look like a mini, bfr ship, and be. Used for atmospheric. Reentry testing. Of a number of technologies. Needed for the full-scale, space ship including, an ultralight heat shield and high mach control, surfaces, but two weeks later must dismissed the approach in favor of using a full diameter BF, R instead. Topic. Grasshopper. Grasshopper. The company's, first VTV l test vehicle, consisted, of a falcon 9 v, 1.0. First stage tank a single merlin 1d engine. And four permanently, attached steel landing, legs, it stood. 106. Feet 32, metres tall. SpaceX. Built a 0.5. Acre. 0.20. Hectares, concrete, launch facility, at its rocket development and, test facility, in McGregor, Texas, to support the grasshopper, flight test program. Grasshopper. Was also known as grasshopper, version 1.0. Or grasshopper. V 1.0. Prior to 2014. During the time the following grasshopper, class test vehicles, were being built in. Addition. To three test flights in 2012, five additional, tests, were successfully. Flown by the end of October 2013. Including. The fourth test overall in March 2013, in which, grasshopper. Doubled its highest leap to rise to 80 point one meters. 263. Feet with a 34, second flight in the. Seventh test in August 2013 the, vehicle flew to 250. Metres 820. Feet during a 60 second flight and executed, a 100, meter 330. Feet lateral, maneuver before, returning to the pad, grasshopper. Made its eighth and final test flight on October, 7 2013. Flying, to 744. Meters. 2441. Feet. 0.46. Miles before, making its eighth successful, landing the. Grasshopper, test vehicle, has now retired. Topic. Falcon, 9 reusable. Development, vehicle. As early. As October 2012. SpaceX, discussed, development, of a second-generation, grasshopper. Test vehicle, which was to have lighter landing, legs that fold up on the side of the rocket a different, engine bay and would be nearly 50%, longer than the first grasshopper. Vehicle in March. 2013, SpaceX. Announced that the larger grasshopper, class suborbital, flight vehicle, would be constructed, out of the Falcon 9 v 1.1. First stage tank that was used for qualification. Testing at the SpaceX, rocket development. And test facility, in early 2013, it. Was rebuilt as the f9r, dev, one with extensible, landing legs five. Test flights occurred in 2014. The second VTV L flight test vehicle, f9r. Dev one built on the much longer Falcon 9 v 1.1. First stage tank with retractable, landing legs made. Its first test flight on April, 17, 2014. F9. Our dev 1 was used for low altitude test, flights in the McGregor Texas area projected. Maximum, altitude below. 3,000, meters 10,000. Feet with, a total of 5 test flights all made during 2014. This. Vehicle, self-destructed. As a safety measure during its fifth test flight on August 22nd. 2014, by, April 2014, a third flight test vehicle f9r. Dev, 2 was. Being built and was planned to be flown at the high altitude, test range available at spaceport, america in, new mexico where, it was expected, to be flown at altitudes, up to 90 1000, meters 300 thousand, feet plus it was never flown as SpaceX, moved the high altitude, testing program, to its controlled, descent testing, of used boosters, following, their use on a paid orbital, launch and ascent.
Topic. Dragonfly. Dragonfly. Was a prototype, test article, for a propulsively, landed, version of the SpaceX, Dragon capsule, a suborbital reusable launch, vehicle, rlv intended, for a low altitude flight, testing, as of. May 2014, it was planned to undergo a test program in Texas at the McGregor rocket, test facility, during, 2014-2015. The Dragonfly test vehicle as powered by eight superdraco, engines, arranged, in a redundant, pattern to support fault tolerance, in the propulsion system, design, super. Draco's utilize, a storable. Propellants Chur, of monomethylhydrazine. Mmh. Fuel, and nitrogen, tetroxide oxidizer. Nto, the same propellants, used in the much smaller Draco, thrusters used. For attitude control and, maneuvering, on the first generation Dragon, spacecraft. While. Superdraco engines, are capable of 73,000. Newtons. 16400. Lbf, of thrust during, use on dragonfly flight test vehicle each will be throttled, to less than 68,000. 170. Newtons 15,000. 325. Lb, f to maintain vehicle stability a test flight program, of 30 flights was proposed, in, 2013-2014, including. Two propulsive, assist, parachutes, plus thrusters, and two propulsive, landing no, parachutes, on flights, dropped from a helicopter at an altitude of approximately, 3,000. Metres 10,000. Feet the. Other 26, test flights were projected, to take off from a pad eight to be propulsive, assist hops landing, with parachutes, plus thrusters, and 18 to be full propulsive, hops similar, to the grasshopper, and f9 our dev booster stage test flights as, of. 2014, the dragon flight test program, was not expected, to start until after the completion, of the f9r dev one booster testing, at the McGregor facility. Topic. Starship. Hopper. In November. 2018, SpaceX. Announced that an initial bfr, dev ship was. Under development to test landings, of the nine meter 30 feet diameter ship, design at the SpaceX, South Texas launch, site soon. Renamed starship, the company revealed that while it had long planned construct, the ship of carbon fiber composites, the vehicle would be metal. Specifically. Of stainless steel for both the structure, and tank construction due, to superior strength to mass ratio across. The anticipated. Temperature, ranges, that the orbital ship would encounter from cryogenic. To the high temperatures, of atmospheric, reentry, in late December musk, unveiled, that the first test article, starship, had been under construction in South Texas for, several weeks out in the open on SpaceX, property, the. Hopper. Was. Being built from the ground up of sheets and stainless, steel and would be flown on the initial test flights to characterize, the vehicle and develop the landing and low altitude low velocity, reentry, control, algorithms, the. Initial vehicle, will fly with only three of the seven possible raptor, method locks engines installed, and the initial flight as expected no earlier, than the first half of 2019. Although, several previous, statements, had indicated, SpaceX, was targeting, late 2019.
For The initial flights. Topic. Falcon, 9 booster, post mission flight tests. In, an arrangement highly, unusual for launch vehicles. SpaceX, began in 2013 using, some first stages of the Falcon 9 V 1.1. Rockets, for propulsive, return controlled, descent flight, tests, after they completed, the boost phase of an orbital flight since. The advent of space flight in 1957. Launch vehicle, boosters would ordinarily just be discarded, after setting, their payloads, on their way the. Over water test started, by SpaceX, took place in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, south, of Vandenberg Air Force Base and east of Cape Canaveral, Air Force Station. The first flight test occurred on September, 29, 2013, after the second stage with the cassiopea, nano set payloads, separated, from the booster these. Descent, and simulated, landing tests continued, over the next two years with, the second flight test taking place on April 18 2014, two more tests in 2014. And four subsequent tests, conducted in, 2015. Spacex. Continued, to make iterative, and incremental changes. To the booster design as well as the specific reusable. Technologies, descent, profile, and propellant, margins, on some 2016. To 2018 Falcon. 9 and Falcon Heavy flights, to tweak the design and, operational, parameters, many. Of these descent, and landing tests. Were tested, on active, orbital spaceflight missions, for, SpaceX, customers, as the booster re-entered, the atmosphere and, attempted, recoverable, landings. Topic. Re-entry. And controlled-descent development. Following. Analysis of the flight test data from the first booster controlled, descent in September, 2013, SpaceX. Announced it had successfully, tested a large amount of new technology, on the flight and that coupled with the technology, advancements, made on the grasshopper, low altitude, landing demonstrator, they were ready to test a full recovery of the booster stage the. First flight test was successful spacex, said it was able, to successfully, transition. From vacuum, through hypersonic. Through supersonic. Through transonic. And light the engines all the way and control, the stage all the way through the atmosphere. Musk. Said the next attempt to recovery, SiC the Falcon 9 first, stage will be on the fourth flight of the upgraded, rocket this. Would be the third commercial. Dragon, cargo flight to ISS. This. Second, flight test took place during the April, 2014, dragon, flight to the ISS. SpaceX. Attached landing, legs to the first stage decelerated. It over the ocean and attempted, a simulated, landing over the water following, the ignition, of the second stage on the third cargo, resupply mission. Contracted, to NASA the first, stage was successfully. Slowed down enough for a soft landing over, the Atlantic, Ocean. SpaceX. Announced in February, 2014, the intent, to continue the tests to land the first stage booster in the ocean until precision. Control, from hypersonic. All the way through subsonic, regimes has been proven. 5. Additional controlled. Descent tests, were conducted in the remainder, of 2014. Through April 2015, including two, attempts, to land on a floating landing platform, a SpaceX. Built autonomous, spaceport, drone ship on the, Atlantic, Ocean east of the launch site both of which brought the vehicle to the landing platform but neither of which resulted. In a successful, landing. Topic. First, landing, on ground pad.
During. The 2015, launch hiatus, SpaceX, requested, regulatory, approval, from the FAA to attempt returning, their next flight to Cape Canaveral instead, of targeting a floating platform in the ocean the. Goal was to land the booster vertically, at the least landing, zone one facility, the, former launch complex, 13, where SpaceX, had recently, built a large rocket, landing pad, the. FAA approved, the safety plan for the ground landing on December, 18 2015. The. First stage landed, successfully on, target, at 2038, local, time on December, 21st, 138. Coordinated. Universal, Time on December 22nd. First stage booster b101. Nine never flew again after, the flight rather. The rocket was moved a few miles north to the SpaceX, hangar facilities, at launch pad 39a, recently. Refurbished by SpaceX, at the adjacent Kennedy Space Center where it was inspected, before being used on January, 15th, 2016. To conduct a static fire test on its original launch pad launch complex, 40 this. Test aimed to assess the health of the recovered, booster and the capability, of this rocket designed to fly repeatedly, in the future the. Tests delivered, good overall results, except for one of the outer engines, experiencing. Thrust fluctuations. Elon. Musk reported, that this may have been due to debris ingestion. The. Booster was then retired, to the SpaceX, facility, in Hawthorne, California. Topic. Near-misses on the oceans. Falcon. 9 flight 21. Launched, the jason-3 satellite. On January, 17, 2016. And attempted to land on the floating platform, just read the instructions, located for the first time about 200, miles 320. Kilometers, out in the Pacific, Ocean. Approximately. Nine minutes into the flight the live video feed from the drone ship went down due, to the losing its lock on the uplink satellite. The. Vehicle, landed smoothly onto the vessel but one of the four landing legs failed to lock properly reportedly. Due to ice from the heavy pre-launch, fog preventing, a lockout call it from latching. Consequently. The booster fell over shortly after touchdown, and was destroyed in a deflagration upon, impact with the pad flight 22, was carrying a heavy payload, of 5,000.
271. Kilograms, 12,000. Pounds to geostationary. Transfer orbit, GTO. This was heavier than previously, advertised, maximum, lift capacity, to GTO being, made possible by going slightly sub-synchronous. Following. Delays caused by failure of flight 19, spacex, agreed to provide extra thrust to the SES, 9 satellite, to take its super synchronous, as a. Result, of these factors, there was little propellant, left to execute a full reentry, and landing tests with normal margins. Consequently. The Falcon 9 first, stage followed, a ballistic, trajectory after separation, and re-entered, the atmosphere at high velocity, making it less likely to land successfully, the. Atmospheric. Reentry and, controlled, descent were successful, despite the higher aerodynamical. Constraints, on the first stage due to extra speed however. The rocket was moving too fast and was destroyed, when it collided with the drone ship. Spacex. Collected, valuable, data on the extended, flight envelope required, to recover boosters, from gto, missions. Topic. Landings. At sea. Starting. In January 2015. SpaceX, positions, stable, floating, platforms, a few hundred miles off the coast along the rocket trajectory, those transformed. Barges, were called autonomous spaceport. Drone ships on April. 8th 2016, Falcon. 9 flight 23. The third flight of the full thrust version, delivered, the SpaceX, CRS, eight cargo, on its way to the International Space. Station while, the first stage conducted, a boost back and re-entry, maneuver over, the Atlantic Ocean nine. Minutes after liftoff the booster landed, vertically, on the drone ship of course I still love you 300, kilometers, from the Florida, coastline achieving, a long sought-after milestone. For the SpaceX, reusability, development. Program, a second, successful, drone ship landing occurred on May 6 2016. With the next flight which launched, JCS, a t14 to gto, this. Second landing at sea was more difficult than the previous, one because the booster at separation, was traveling, about. 8350, kilometers, per hour 5,000. 190. Miles per hour compared, to 6,000, 650. Kilometers, per hour, 4,100, 30 miles per hour on the CRS, 8 launch to low-earth orbit. Pursuing. Their experiments, to test the limits of the flight envelope SpaceX. Opted for a shorter landing burn with three engines instead of the single engine burns seen in earlier attempts, this approach consumes, less fuel by leaving the stage in freefall as long as possible and, decelerating, more sharply thereby, minimizing, the amount of energy expended to counter gravity, Elon. Musk indicated, this first stage may not be flown again instead being used as a life leader for ground tests, to confirm others, are good a third successful, landing, followed, on the 27th, of May again, following deceleration. From the high speed required, for a gto launch the. Landing, crushed a crush, core in one, leg leading, to a notable tilt to the stage as it stood on the drone ship. Topic. Routine. Procedure. Over. The subsequent, missions landing. Of the first stage gradually. Became a routine procedure and since January, 2017. SpaceX, ceased to refer to their landing attempts, as experimental. Low-energy. Missions, to the ISS fly. Back to the launch site and land at LZ 1 whereas, more demanding, satellite, missions, land on drone ships a few hundred miles downrange. Occasional. Missions with heavy payloads, such as echo star 23, do not attempt to land flying an expendable, configuration. Without fins and legs, further. Successful. Landings occurred, on the. LZ one ground pad CRS. 9 on the 18th of July 2016. CRS. 10 on the 19th, of February, 2017. N rol, 76. On the 1st of May CRS, 11, on the 3rd of June, CRS. 12 on the 14th of August Boeing x-37b. O TV 5, on the 7th of September, CRS, 13, on the 15th, of December, and Zuma on the 8th of January, 2018, on, drone. Ships JC SAT, 16, on the 14th, of August 2016. Iridium next, one on the 14th, of January, 2017. SCS, 10 on the 30th, of March and bu LGA our IAS. 81. On the 23rd, of June 1st and 2nd recoveries of reef lone boosters, iridium, next to on the 25th, of June fo our MOS 85. On the 24th, of August, iridium next, three on the 9th of October, SES, 11 Ecostar 105. On the 11th of October and Korea set 5a on the 30th of October 2017. Topic. Future. Tests. During, 2016. And 2017, SpaceX. Has recovered, a number of first stages to both land and drone ships helping, them optimize, the procedures, needed to reuse the Boosters rapidly, in January. 2016. Elon Musk estimated, the likelihood, of success, at 70%, for all landing, attempts, in 2016. Hopefully, rising, to 90%, in 2017. He also cautioned, that we should expect a few, more ru. D's rapid. And scheduled disassembly, Musk's euphemism, to denote destruction, of the vehicle on impact, Musk's.
Prediction, Was vindicated, as five out of eight flown boosters. 63%. Were recovered, in 2016. And 14, out of 14, 100%. In 2017. Three. GTO missions, for heavy payloads, Ecostar 23, in March 2017. Inmarsat, 5f4, in may 2017. And Intel sat 35, E in, July 2017. Were flown in an expendable, configuration. Not equipped for landing, one. Booster which could have been recovered, was intentionally, flown without legs and left to sink after a soft touch down in the ocean booster, be 103 6, for the iridium next 31, to 40 mission in December 2017. Since. Late 2017. Incremental. Testing with refinements to the fairing recovery, design have been conducted. SpaceX. Has indicated, that they expected, to recover an intact fairing, in 2017. And to fly a recovered, fairing in 2018. As of. April 2019. One pair of fairings, which are intended for reuse, have been recovered, from a splashdown landing. It. Is planned that these will be reused on an upcoming launch, of SpaceX, is StarLink satellite, constellation. Later in 2019. Topic. First-stage. Reuse. As of. The 6th of August 2018. SpaceX, had recovered 21, first-stage. Boosters, from previous, missions of which six were recovered, twice yielding, a total 27, landings, in. 2017. SpaceX, flew a total of five missions, out of 20 with reused boosters. 25%. In, total, 14 boosters, have been reflow, n-- as of august 2018, on, July. 28th, 2016. The first stage from the JC SAT, to, be mission was successfully. Test-fired, for, a full duration at the SpaceX McGregor facility, the. First reuse, attempt, occurred on the 30th, of March 2017. With the launch of SES, 10 resulting, in a successful, flight and second landing of the be 102 one, first stage recovered, from the CRS, eight mission, of April 2016. Another. Reef flight succeeded, in June 2017. With bul GA our IAS, 81. Riding, the be 102 nine booster, from the January, 2017. Iridium next mission, booster. Be 103, one, flew the CRS, 10 mission to the ISS in. February, 2017. And helped loft communications. Satellite, SES, 11, to geostationary. Orbit, in October, 2017. Boosters. Be 103 five and be 103, six, were flown twice each for the same customer, be 103 five for NASA missions, CRS. 11, and CRS, 13, in June and December 2017. And be 103 six for two batches of 10 iridium next satellites, also in June and December 2017. Be. 103, two was reused for govt, s 81. In January, 2018, after, NRO l 76. In May 2017. Finally. Be 102, three, and be 102, five, were reused as side boosters on the Falcon Heavy test flight in February, 2018. SpaceX. Spent four months refurbishing. The first booster to be reused be 102, one, and launched, it again after approximately. One year the. Second booster to be flown again be 102, nine, was refurbished, in only a couple of months and, relaunched. After five months l, musk initially, stated a goal to turn around a first stage within 24, hours before the end of 2017. Musk. Remains, convinced, that this goal can be met those SpaceX, is now targeting 2019. To achieve it boosters b101, 9 and be 100 to 1, were retired, and put on display, be. 102 9 was also retired after the bul, GA our IAS, 81. Mission, be. 102, 3, be 102, 5, be 103, 1, and be 103, 5, were recovered, a second time while be 103 2, and be 103, 6, were deliberately, sunk at sea after a soft ocean touchdown. Topic. Block, five boosters. With, a streak of 17 successful, recovery, attempts, of the first stage throughout 2017. SpaceX, has focused, on rapid, reusability, of first-stage. Boosters, block. Three and block four proved, economically, feasible to be flown twice as 11 such boosters, have been reflow, nin 2017. And 2018. Block. Five has been designed with multiple reuses. In mind up to ten reuses, with minimal inspection, and up to 100, uses with refurbishment. New. Aggressive reentry, profiles, were experimented. With expendable. Block three and block four boosters, in early 2018 to test out the limitations, on the range of recoverable, launch margins, that are potential, for future block, 5. Topic. Ferenc reuse. As early. As mid 201. Five musk hinted that SpaceX, might be working on fairing reusability, following, the discovery of wreckage of an unidentified, Falcon, 9 launch vehicle. Section, off the coast of the Bahamas and was subsequently, confirmed by SpaceX, to be a component of a payload fairing that had washed ashore, by. April 2016. They had publicly, announced, Falcon, 9 fairing, recovery, as an objective the. Cost of the fairing is about six million dollars, each which accounts for 10% of, the overall launch, costs, in March 2017, as part of the SES 10 mission SpaceX, for the first time performed, a controlled, landing of the payload fairing and successfully.
Recovered, A fairing half aided, by attitude control, thrusters and, a steerable parachute, helping, it glide towards, a gentle touchdown on water, the. Company announced intent to land the fairings eventually, on a dry flexible, structure, jokingly, described, by musk as a floating. Bouncy. Castle, with, the aim of full, fairing reuse. With. Successive, tests, and refinements, on several flights intact, fairing recovery, was stated as an objective for 2017. With reef light of a recovered, fairing planned in 2018. The bouncy. Castle idea. Was superseded, by a net strung between large arms of a fast platform, supply vessel named mr., Steven the. Recovery, vessel is equipped with dynamic, positioning, systems, and was tested after the launch of the pause satellite, from Vandenberg, Air Force Base in that 2017. This. Mission was also the first to use a version 2 fairing explicitly. Designed to improve. Survivability, for, post launch recovery, attempts, and to be reusable, on future, missions. This. Recovery attempt, was not fully successful, the fairing missed the boat by a few hundred metres but landed intact in the water before being recovered, and taken back to port as of. August 2018. All four attempts, by SpaceX, to land a fairing on a recovery, ship have failed despite fitting, mr. Steven with larger nets before the July 2018. Attempt, in October, 2018, at least two fairing recovery, tests, were performed involving. Mr. Steven and a helicopter which, would drop a fairing, half from the height of about three thousand three hundred meters the. Actual outcome of the tests as unclear, in April 2019. Doing, the second falcon heavy mission recovery, boats fished the fairing halves out of the sea and it was announced the fairings would be used on a StarLink, mission. Topic. Second-stage. Reuse. Despite. Early public statements, that SpaceX, would endeavor to make the Falcon 9 second, stage reusable, as well by late 2014, they, determined, that the mast needed for re-entry heat shield landing engines and other equipment, to support recovery, of the second stage as well as the diversion, of development, resources, from other company, objectives was, at that time prohibitive. And indefinitely, suspended, their second stage reusability, plans, for the Falcon rockets. However. In July 2017. They indicated, that they might do experimental, tests, on recovering, one or more second, stages in order to learn more about reusability. To inform their new much larger VFR, launch vehicle, development process, and in. May twenty eighteen provided, additional details, about how they might carry out some of that testing, the bfr is planned to replace all existing, spacex launch and space vehicles after the mid-2020s, Falcon. 9 Falcon, Heavy and the Dragon spacecraft aimed, initially, at the Earth orbit, launch market, but with capability, to support long-duration.
Spaceflight. In the SIS lunar and Mars mission environments. Both. Stages will be fully reusable the. Integrated, second stage with spaceship, design has not been used in previous launch vehicles. Topic. Operational. Flow. In the, first year of successful. Stage return from the experimental, test flights SpaceX. Performed, ad hoc and flight specific, evaluation, and component, testing on each successfully. Landed stage, stages. Were processed, and initially, evaluated, in either launch hangars or for Cape Canaveral landings, in the new hangar SpaceX, recently, completed at Kennedy Space Center launch, complex, 39. Returned. Rocket, parts have also been transported, to SpaceX, Hawthorne and SpaceX McGregor for engineering, evaluation and, testing in. February. 2017. After, eight rocket, cores had successfully. Landed seven. Of them having launched from Cape Canaveral, SpaceX. Announced plans to expand, their physical facilities, to process, and refurbish, rockets they. Will do so in both leased space and in a new building to be built in Port Canaveral Florida, near, the location, where the Atlantic autonomous, spaceport, drone ship is birthed and where stages, that land on the East Coast drone ship are now removed, from the ship. Topic. See, also. Blue, Origin new, Shepard a suborbital, VT, VL system.