Science and technology in Israel | Wikipedia audio article
Science. And Technology, in Israel, as one of the country's most developed, sectors. Israel. Spend, 4.2. Percent of, its gross domestic product. GDP. On civil, research, and development, in 2013 one. Of the highest ratios, in the world. Israel. Ranks, fifth among the most innovative countries. In the bloomberg innovation. Index, it. Ranks, 13th, in the world for, scientific. Output as measured, by the number of scientific. Publications, per million citizens, in. 2014. Israel's, share of scientific. Articles, published worldwide. 0.9%. Was much higher than its share of the global population. 0.1%. It. Also has, one of the highest per capita rates. Of filed patents, Israel, counts, 140. Scientists. And technicians per, 10,000. Employees one, of the highest ratios, in the world in. Comparison. There are 85, per 10,000. In the United, States and 83, per 10,000. In Japan, in. 2012. Israel. Counted, eight thousand, three hundred thirty-seven, full-time. Equivalent, researchers, per million inhabitants. This. Compares, with. 3984. In, the u.s. six, thousand, five hundred thirty-three in, the Republic, of South Korea and. 5195. In, Japan. Israel's. High technology. Industry, has benefited, from both the country's, highly, educated, and technologically. Skilled workforce, coupled, with the strong presence, of foreign, high-tech, firms and sophisticated. Research centers, Israel, as home to major players, in the high-tech industry. And has one of the world's, most technologically. Literate populations. In. 1998. Tel Aviv was named by Newsweek as, one of the 10 most technologically. Influential. Cities in the world, since. 2000. Israel, has been a member of Eureka. The pan-european, research. And development, funding, and Corps nation organization. And held the rotating, chairmanship. Of the organization. For 2010-2011. In. 2010. American. Journalist, David Kaufman wrote, that the high-tech area, of yoke Nam Israel. Has the world's. Largest. Concentration. Of aesthetics technology. Companies. Google. Chairman, Eric Schmidt has, complemented the country, during a visit there saying, that Israel has the most important. High-tech, center in the world after the US. Topic. History. Jewish. Settlement, in Mandate, Palestine, was ideologically. Motivated, return. To the homeland, was perceived, as contingent. On a return, to the soil, to. Establish, the rural villages, that formed the core of Zionist, ideology and, produced, self-supporting. Jewish, farmers, agronomic. Experiments. Were conducted. The. Foundations. Of agricultural. Research in Israel. Were laid by the teachers, and graduates, of the mikveh Israel school. The country's, first agricultural. School established. By the Alliance, Israelite, Universal, in 1870. On a field. Trip to Mount Hermon, in 1906. The agronomist, Aaron Aronson, discovered, triticum de cocoa DS or Emmer, wheat believed, to be the mother, of all wheat in, 1909. He founded, an agricultural. Research, station. In applet where he built up an extensive. Library and, collected, geological. And botanical, samples. The. Agricultural. Station, founded, in rehovot in 1921. Engaged, in soil research, and other aspects, of farming in the country's difficult, climatic, conditions. This. Station, which became, the Agricultural. Research Organisation, Aero is now Israel's, major, institution. Of agricultural. Research and development. In, 1912. The first cornerstone, of the Technion Israel, Institute, of Technology. Was laid at a festive, ceremony, in Haifa, which was then occupied, by the Ottoman, Empire, the.
Technion Would become a unique, university, worldwide, in its claim to proceed, and create a nation, as, Jews. Were often barred, from technical, education. In Europe the Technion claims, to have brought the skills needed to build a modern state, established. Before World War one the Hebrew health station, in Jerusalem. Founded, by Nathan, Straus engaged. In medical, and public health research, operating. Departments. For public hygiene eye diseases. And bacteriology. The. Station, manufactured. Vaccines, against, typhus, and cholera and, developed, methods, of pest control to, eliminate, field mice, the. Pasteur Institute, affiliated. With the station, developed, a rabies vaccine. Departments. For micro biology. Biochemistry. Bacteriology. And hygiene. Were opened, at the Hebrew, University of, Jerusalem, founded. On Mount Scopus in, 1925. In. 1936. Jewish, workers in the center of the country donated. Two days pay toward the establishment, of the hospital. Of Judea, and Sherin, later. Renamed, violence, and hospital, in, 1938. By, linson established. The country's, first blood bank the. Rothschild. Hadassah, University. Hospital, on Mount Scopus opened, in 1939. And was the first teaching hospital. And medical center, in the country, since. Renamed, the Hadassah Medical. Center it has become a leader in medical, research. Industrial. Research began. At the Technion Israel. Institute, of Technology. Was also initiated, at the Daniel's seif Research Center later the Weizmann, Institute of, Science established. In 1934. In Rehovot the. Dead Sea laboratories. Opened, in the 1930s. The. First modern electronic. Computer, in Israel, and the Middle East and one of the first large-scale, stored-program. Electronic. Computers, in the world called, w e i za, c was. Built at the Weizmann, Institute during. 1954. 1955. Based, on the Institute, for Advanced, Study IAS. Architecture. Developed, by John von Neumann. W, ii i za, c has, been recognized, by the I Triple, E as a milestone in the history of Electrical, Engineering and, computing. IBM. Israel, registered. On June 8, 1950. Was the country's, first high-tech, firm, the. Company, located. On Allenby, Street in Tel Aviv assembled. And repaired punch card machines sorting. Machines, and tabulators, in. 1956. A local, plant was open to produce punch, cards, and a year later the, first service, center opened, offering, computerized. Data processing. Services. Scientific. And technological, research. In Israel, was boosted, by the appointment, of a chief scientist, for the industry, and trade ministry, at the recommendation. Of a committee headed by Ephraim, Kath sir later president of Israel the. Israeli, government, provided, grants, that covered 50 to 80 percent of, the outlay for new startups, with no conditions no, shareholding. And no participation. In management in, the. Early 1980s. Control, Data Corporation a. Partner, in eller and electronic. Industries, formed, the country's, first venture, capital, firm. Topic. Origin. Of Israeli, high-tech, industry. Israel's. High-tech, industries. Are a spinoff of the rapid development of, computer, science, and technology in. The 1980s. In such places as Silicon. Valley and Massachusetts. Route 128. In the US which, ushered in the current, high-tech era up. Until, that point Israel's. Economy had, been essentially. Based on agriculture, mining. And secondary, sectors, such as diamond polishing. And manufacturing. In textiles. Fertilizers. And plastics. The. Key factor, which enabled, high-tech, industries. Based on information. And communication, technologies. To take root and flourish in Israel, was the heavy investment. By the defence and aerospace industries. Which, spawned new technologies. And know-how. Israel. Devoted. 17.1. Percent of, its GDP to. Military, expenditure. In 1988. Even. Though this share had dropped to 5.8. Percent of, GDP. By 2016. Israel, military, spending, remains among, the highest, in the world for. The purposes, of comparison, the United States devoted. 5.7. Percent of its GDP to. Military, expenditure. In 1988. And 3.3. Percent in. 2016. This. Heavy investment. In defence and, aerospace formed. The basis, for Israel's. High-tech, industries, in medical, devices, electronics. Telecommunications. Computer. Software and hardware. The. Massive, Russian immigration. Of the 1990s. Reinforced. This phenomenon, doubling. The number of engineers, and scientists, in Israel overnight. Between. 1989. And 2006. About. 979. Thousand, Russian, Jews and their relatives, migrated. To Israel, which had a population of, just 4.5. Million in, 1989. Today, Israel, has the world's, most research-intensive, business.
Sector, In 2013. It alone performed. 3.4. 9%. Of GDP. Competitive. Grants, and tax incentives, are the two main policy. Instruments. Supporting, business, research, and development. Thanks. To government incentives. And the availability, of highly, trained human capital, Israel, has become an attractive location for, the research centers, of leading multinationals. The. Country's, national, innovation, ecosystem. Relies, on both, foreign, multinationals. And large corporate. Investors, in research, and development as well as on startups. According. To the Israel, venture capital, database. 264. Foreign, research, centers are currently, active in Israel, many. Of these centres are owned by large multinational, firms. That have acquired Israeli. Companies, technology and, know-how and transformed. Them through mergers, and acquisitions. Into their own local research facilities. The. Activity, of some research centers, even spans, more than three decades such, as those of Intel Applied, Materials. Motorola. And IBM, in 2011. Foreign, research, centers, employed, thirty three thousand, seven hundred workers, through, local subsidiaries. Two-thirds. Of whom. 23700. Worked. In research and, development. The. Same year these research, centers, spent a total of NIS. Fourteen. Point, one seven, billion, on research and, development across. The full spectrum of industry, up from 17, percent over. The previous year. Topic. Higher, education. Policy. Topic. Sixth. Higher education. Plan. Israel's. Higher education. System, as regulated. By the Council, for higher education and, it's planning, and budgeting, committee, the. Israeli, higher education. System, operates, under a multi-year. Plan agreed, upon by, the planning, and budgeting, committee PBC. And the Ministry, of Finance. Each. Plan, determines. Policy, objectives, and accordingly, the budgets to be allocated, in order to achieve these objectives the. Annual government allocation. To universities. Totaled, about. 1750. Million, dollars, in 2015. Providing, 50, to 75% of, their operating, budgets. Much. Of the remainder, of their operating, budget, 15, to 20%, comes, from annual, student, tuition, fees which, are uniform, at about $2. 750. Per years the. Sixth higher education. Plan, 2011. To 2016, makes, provision for, a 30 percent rise in the council, for higher education, budget, the. Sixth plan changes, the budgeting, model of the PBC, by placing, greater emphasis on. Excellence in research along. With quantitative. Measures for the number of students. Under. This model. 75%, of the committee's budget, and is 7, billion over, six years is being allocated to, institutions. Offering, higher education.
The. Sixth higher education. Plan launched, the Israeli centres of research, excellence I core program, in October 2011. This. Reflects, a renewed interest in, funding academic, research, and constitutes. A strong indication, of a reversal, in government, policy. Topic. Israeli. Centres of research. Excellence. The, Israeli, centres of research, excellence iCore. Program, which dates from 2011. Envisions. The establishment. Of cross-institutional. Clusters. Of top researchers. In specific. Fields and returning young Israeli, scientists. From abroad with each Center being endowed with state-of-the-art. Research, infrastructure. The. Sixth higher education. Plan invests. NIS, 300, million over, six years in, upgrading, and renovating, academic. Infrastructure. And research facilities. I Corps is run jointly by, the Council, for higher education planning. And budgeting, committee and the Israel, Science, Foundation. By. 2015. 16, centers, had been established in, two waves across, a wide spectrum of, research areas six, specialize, in life sciences. And medicine five, in the exact sciences. And engineering three. In social, sciences. And law and two in humanities. Each. Centre, of excellence has, been selected, via a peer review process conducted. By the Israel, Science, Foundation. By. May 2014. Around. 60, young researchers. Had been absorbed, into these centers many, of whom had previously worked. Abroad the, research topics, of each Center are selected, through a broad bottom-up. Process, consisting. Of consultations. With the Israeli, academic, community, in order, to ensure that they, reflect the genuine, priorities. And scientific. Interests, of Israeli, researchers ICOR. Is funded, by the Council, for higher education the, host institutions. And strategic. Business partners, with a total, budget of NIS. 1.35. Billion. 365. Million dollars. The. Original, goal was to, set up 30, centres of research, excellence in, Israel, by 2016. However. The establishment. Of the remaining 14, centers, has provisionally. Been shelved for lack of sufficient, external. Capital in 2013. 2014 the. Planning, and budgeting, committees budget, for the entire I, Corps program, amounted, to ni. 7.9. Million equivalent, to about 1%, of the total for higher education that, year this. Budget, appears to be insufficient. To create the critical mass of researchers, in various, academic fields. And thus falls short of the program's, objective. The. Level of government, support for the centers of excellence has, grown each year since, 2011, as, new centers, have been established and, as expected to reach NIS ninety, three point six million by. 2015-2016. Before, dropping to thirty three point seven, million in, 2017. 2018. According. To the funding, model government. Support, should represent one-third, aweful, funding, another third being funded, by the participating. Universities, and the remaining third by donors, or investors. Topic. University. Recruitment. Targets. In the. 2012-2013. Academic. Year. There were four thousand, 66, faculty, members the. Targets, fixed, by the planning, and budgeting, committee for faculty recruitment are, ambitious, universities. Are to recruit another. 1,600. Senior faculty within, the six year period about half of whom will occupy new, positions, and half will replace, faculty. Expected, to retire, this. Will constitute a net increase, of more than fifteen percent in, university. Faculty, in. Colleges. Another, 400, new positions, are to be created, in tailing a 25%. Net increase. The. New faculty, will be hired via the institution's. Regular, recruitment, channels, some in specific, research areas, through the Israeli, centres of research, excellence program. The increase, in faculty, numbers will also, reduce the student-to-faculty ratio the. Target, being to achieve a ratio of. 21.5. University, students, to every faculty, member compared. To twenty four point three at present, and thirty-five, students, for every faculty, member in colleges, compared, to 38 at present, this. Increase, in the number of faculty, positions, alongside, the, upgrading, of research, and teaching infrastructure. And the increase, in competitive, research funds, should help Israel to, staunch brain, drain by enabling, the best Israeli researchers at, home and abroad to conduct their academic, work in Israel if they so wish at institutions. Offering, the highest academic, standards, the new budgeting, scheme described, above as mainly concerned, with the human and research infrastructure. In universities. Most. Of the physical, development eg. Buildings, and scientific. Infrastructure. Eg. Laboratories. And expensive, equipment of universities. Comes, from philanthropic donations. Primarily. From the American, Jewish community Jay, 2014. This. Latter source, of funding, has greatly, compensated. For the lack of sufficient government funding for, universities.
Up Until now but it is expected, to diminish significantly. In the years to come unless the, government, invests. More in research, infrastructure. Israel's, universities. Will be ill equipped and insufficiently, funded, to meet the challenges, of the 21st century. Topic. Expanding. Access to, higher education. Israel. Has offered, virtually, universal. Access, to its universities. And academic colleges. Since the wave of Jewish emigration. From the former, Soviet, Union in, the 1990s. Prompted, the establishment. Of numerous, tertiary, institutions. To absorb the additional demand. However. The, Arab and ultra-orthodox. Minorities. Still attend, University. In in sufficient numbers. The. Sixth higher education. Plan places, emphasis on encouraging. Minority, groups to enroll in higher education. Two. Years after the Maher program, was implemented, in late 2012, for, the ultra-orthodox. Population. Student, enrollment, had grown by. 1412. New programs, for ultra-orthodox. Students. Have since been established. Three of them on university. Campuses. Meanwhile. The pluralism, and equal opportunity. In higher education, program, addresses. The barriers, to integration. Of the Arab minority in, the higher education. System, its. Scope ranges, from providing, secondary. School guidance through, preparation for, academic, studies, to offering students, comprehensive. Support in their first year of study a stage, normally, characterized. By a high dropout, rate, the. Program, renews, the mah fund, supporting, outstanding. Young arab faculty, members. Since. The introduction, of this program, in, 1995. The ma fund, has opened, tenure track opportunities. For nearly 100. Arab lecturers, who act as role models, for younger Arab, students, embarking, on their own academic, careers. Topic. Science. Technology. And innovation, policy. Topic. Policy. Framework. Although. Israel does, not have an umbrella type, policy, for science, technology. And innovation, optimizing. Priorities. And allocating, resources it. Does implement de facto an undeclared, set, of best practices, combining. Bottom-up, and top-down, processes. Via government, offices, such, as those of the chief scientist. Or the minister, of science, technology, and, space, as well as ad hoc organizations. Like the tell'em forum the. Procedure, for selecting, research projects. For the Israeli, centers for research, excellence as, one example of this bottom-up, process, Israel, has no specific, legislation, regulating.
The Transfer, of knowledge from the academic. Sector to the general, public and Industry, nevertheless. The, Israeli, government, influences. Policy, formulation. By universities. And Technology. Transfer by, providing, incentives. And subsidies through, programs, such as magnet, and Magneton, as well as through regulation. There. Were attempts, in 2004. And 2005. To introduce, bills encouraging. The transfer, of knowledge and technology, for the public benefit, but as these attempts, failed each University. Has since defined, its own policy, the Israeli, economy is, driven by industries. Based on electronics. Computers. And communication. Technologies. The result of over 50 years of investment, in the country's, defense infrastructure. Israeli. Defense, industries. Have traditionally. Focused on electronics. Avionics. And related, systems, the. Development. Of these systems, has given Israeli, high tech industries, a qualitative. Edge in civilian, spin-offs. In the software. Communications. And Internet sectors. However. The, next waves of high technologies. Are expected, to emanate from other disciplines, including. Molecular biology. Biotechnology. And, pharmaceuticals. Nanotechnology. Material. Sciences. And chemistry in, intimate, synergy, with information. And communication. Technologies. These, disciplines. Are rooted in the basic, research laboratories. Of universities. Rather than the defense industries. This. Poses a dilemma in the absence, of a national, policy, for universities. Let alone for the higher education system. As a whole it is not clear how these institutions, will, manage to supply, the knowledge, skills, and human resources, needed, for these new science-based industries. Topic. Evaluation. Of science, policy, instruments. The, country's, various, policy, instruments. Are evaluated. By the Council, for higher education the, National Council, for research, and development the, office of the chief scientist. The academy of sciences, and Humanities and the Ministry, of Finance. In. Recent, years the magnet Administration. In the office, of the chief scientist, has initiated several, evaluations, of. Its own policy, instruments. Most of which have been carried out by independent. Research, institutions. One. Such evaluation was. Carried, out in 2010. By the Samuel, Nieman Institute, it concerns, the no fart program, within the magnet Directorate. No. Far tries to bridge basic, and applied research before. The commercial, potential, of a project, has caught the eye of Industry. The. Main recommendation. Was for no fart to extend, program, funding, to emerging, technological, domains. Beyond. Biotechnology. And nanotechnology. The. Office, of the chief scientist. Accepted. This recommendation. And consequently. Decided. To fund projects, in the fields, of medical devices, water, and energy technology. And multidisciplinary. Research, an additional, evaluation.
Was Carried out in 2008. By Applied, Economics and. Economic. And management, research based consultancy. On the contribution. Of the high tech sector to economic, productivity in. Israel, it. Found that the output, per worker in, companies, that received, support, from the office of the chief scientist. Was 19%, higher, than in twin companies, that had not received, this support, the same. Year a committee, headed by Israel, McCobb, examined. The office of the chief scientists. Support, for research and development in. Large companies. The. Committee found economic. Justification, for. Providing, incentives, for these companies. Topic. Research. Funding, programs. The, Israeli, Science Foundation, as the main source of research funding, in Israel, and receives, administrative. Support, from the Academy, of Sciences. And Humanities. The. Foundation, provides, competitive, grants. In three areas exact. Sciences, and technology, life sciences. And medicine and humanities. And social, sciences. Complementary. Funding, is provided by, by national, foundations. Such, as the USA, Israel, by National, Science Foundation. S. 1972. And the German Israeli, Foundation, for scientific. Research and, development, esthe 1986. The ministry, of science technology, and. Space funds thematic, research, centers, and is responsible. For international. Scientific. Cooperation. The. Ministry's, national, infrastructure. Program, aims to create a critical mass of knowledge, in national, priority. Fields, and to nurture the younger, generation. Of scientists. Investment. In the program mainly, takes the form of research grants scholarships, and. Knowledge centers. Over. 80% of, the ministry's, budget, as channeled, towards, research, in academic, institutions and. Research institutes. As well as towards revamping. Scientific. Infrastructure. By upgrading existing. Research facilities. And establishing. New ones in. 2012. The ministry, resolved, to invest, NIS. 120. Million over, three years in four designated, priority, areas, for research brain. Science. Supercomputing. And cybersecurity. Oceanography. And alternative. Transportation, fuels, an, expert. Panel headed, by the chief scientist. In the ministry, of science technology. And. Space chose, these four broad disciplines. In the belief that they would be likely to exert, the greatest practical impact. On Israeli, life in the near future. The main ongoing, programs, managed, by the office, of the chief scientist. Within, the Ministry, of the economy, are the research and development fund magnet, tracks est', 1994. T and UFA, esthe, 2001. And the incubator, program, s point, one nine nine one. Between. 2010. And 2014. The, office of the chief scientist. Initiated. Several new programs. Grand. Challenges. Israel, since 2014. An Israeli, contribution. To the Grand Challenges. In global health program, which is dedicated to tackling, global health. And food security, challenges. In developing, countries, Grand, Challenges. Israel, as offering, grants of up to n is, 500. Thousand, at the proof-of-concept. Feasibility. Study stage. Research. And development, in the field of space technology. 2012. Encourages. Research, to find technological. Solutions, in various, fields. Technological. Entrepreneurship. Incubators. 2014. Encourages. Entrepreneurial. Technology. And supports, startup, technology, companies. Magnet, calming program, 2014. Provides, direct, support for applied research, in academia, that has potential. For commercial application. Cyber. Kidnap, program, 2014. Promotes, Israel's, cybersecurity. Industry. Clean. Tech renewable. Energy, technology. Center 2012, supports. Research through, projects. Involving, private public, partnerships. In the field of renewable energy. Life. Sciences, fun 2010. Finances. The projects, of Israeli, companies, with emphasis, on, biopharmaceuticals. Established. Together, with the Ministry of Finance and, the private, sector. Biotechnology. Sytem. Program. 2011. Provides, equipment, to support research, and, development, in life sciences. The. Chief scientist. Supports, Industrial, Organizations and. The PBC, provides, research, institutions. With assistance. Investment. In high-tech, industries. 2011. Encourages. Financial. Institutions. To invest, in knowledge-based, industries through. A collaboration. Between the office, of the chief scientist.
And The ministry of finance another, source of public research, funding, is the forum for national, research, and development, infrastructure, tell'em. This. Voluntary. Partnership, involves. The office of the chief scientist, of the Ministry of the economy. And the ministry, of science technology, and, space, the planning, and budgeting, committee, and the Ministry, of Finance. Tellem. Projects. Focus, on establishing. Infrastructure. For research, and development in. Areas that are of common interest, to most tell'em partners. These. Projects. Are financed. By the tell'em members, own resources. Topic. Trends. In research, funding. In, 2014. Israel, topped the world for research intensity, reflecting. The importance, of research and innovation for. The economy. Since. 2008. However, Israel's. Research, intensity. Has weakened, somewhat, 4.2, 1%. Of GDP. In 2013, even, as this ratio has experienced. Impressive, growth in the Republic, of Korea. 4.15, percent, in 2014. Denmark. 3.06. Percent, in 2013. And Germany. 2.94. Percent, in 2013. The. OECD. Average was, two point four zero percent. Of GDP. In 2014. Business. Expenditure. On research, and development bird. Continues, to account for approximately, 84%. Of, GERD or three, point four nine percent. Of GDP. The share of higher education. In gross domestic expenditure. On research, and development GERD. Has decreased, since, 2003. From zero point six, nine percent. Of GDP. To zero point five nine percent. Of GDP. 2013. Despite. This drop Israel, ranks, eighth among OECD. Countries, for this indicator. The. Lion's, share of GERD, forty, five point, six percent in Israel, as financed. By foreign companies. Reflecting. The large scale, of activity, by foreign, multinational. Companies, and research centers, in the country the share of foreign funding, in university, performed, research, is also quite significant. Twenty one point eight percent, by. The end of 2014. Israel. Had received, eight hundred, seventy five point six million euros from, the European, Union's, --use, Seventh, Framework Programme, for, research, and innovation.
2007. To 2013. 70%, of which had gone to universities. Its. Successor. Horizon. 2020. 2014. To 2020. Has been endowed with nearly 80 billion euros, in funding, making, it the --use. Ambitious, research and innovation, program, ever as of. February, 2015. Israel, had received. 119. Point eight million euros, from the horizon 2020, program. In 2013. More than half. 51.5%. Of government, spending was allocated, to university. Research, and an additional, twenty nine point nine percent to, the development, of industrial, technologies. Research. Expenditure. On health and, the environment has. Doubled, in absolute, terms in the past decade, but still accounts, for less than 1%, of, total government gird. Israel. As unique, among OECD. Countries, in its distribution, of government, support by objective. Israel. Ranks, at the bottom in government, support, of research in health care environmental. Quality and infrastructure. Development there, has been insufficient. Government, funding, for universities, in recent, years. University. Research, in Israel, as largely grounded. In basic, research even. Though it also engages, in Applied Research and, partnerships, with industry. Basic. Research in Israel, only accounted. For 13%. Of research, expenditure. In 2013. Compared, to 16%, in. 2006. There. Has since been an increase, in general university. Funds and those destined, for non oriented. Research. Topic. Trends. In human, resources. In 2012. There were. 77282. Full-time. Equivalent. Researchers, in Israel 82%. Of whom had acquired an academic, education. 10%. Of whom were practical, engineers, and technicians and, 8%, of whom held other qualifications. Eight, out of ten, 83.8%. Were employed, in the business sector, 1.1. Percent in, the government, sector. 14.4. Percent in, the higher education sector and. 0.7%. In, nonprofit, institutions. In 2011. 28%. Of senior, academic. Staff were women up by five percent, over the previous decade from. 25, percent in 2005. Although, the, representation. Of women has, increased it remains, very low in engineering. 14%, physical, sciences. 11%. Mathematics. And computer, sciences, 10%. Relative, to education. 52%, and paramedical. Occupations. 63%, there is a visible, aging, of scientists. And engineers in, some fields. For. Instance about. Three-quarters. Of researchers, in the physical, sciences. Are over the age of 50, and the proportion, is even higher for practical. Engineers, and technicians. The. Shortage, of professional. Staff will be a major handicap, for, the National, innovation, system, in the coming years as the growing demand, for engineers and, technical professionals. Begins, to outpace, supply. During. The 2012-2013. Academic. Year, 34. Percent, of bachelor's, degrees were obtained, in fields, related, to science, and engineering, in Israel, this. Compares, well with the proportion, in the Republic, of Korea 40, percent and most Western countries, about 30 percent on average, the. Proportion, of Israeli, graduates, in scientific. Disciplines and, engineering. Was slightly lower at the Masters, level 27. Percent, but dominated, at PhD. Level 56, percent. Since statistics. Support, the assertion, that Israel, may be living, on the fruits of the past that, is to say on the heavy investment. Made in primary, secondary, and, tertiary, education. During the 1950's, 1960s, and. 1970s. Between. 2007. And 2013, the. Number of graduates, in physical, sciences. Biological. Sciences, and agriculture, dropped, even though the total number, of university. Graduates, progressed, by 19% to. 39,000. 654. Recent. Data revealed, that Israeli, educational. Achievements. In the core curricular, subjects, of mathematics. And science are, low in comparison to, other OECD. Countries as, revealed, by the exam, results of Israeli, 15, year olds in the OECD's. Program, for International, Student Assessment. Public. Spending on primary, education has. Also fallen, below the OECD. Average. The. Public, education, budget, accounted, for 6.9.
Percent Of. GDP. In 2002. But only, 5.6. Percent in, 2011. The. Share of this budget going to tertiary education, has. Remained, stable at 16, to 18 percent but, as a share, of GDP, has. Passed under the bar of 1 percent, there. Is concern, at the deteriorating quality. Of teachers, at all levels of education and the lack of stringent. Demands on students, to strive for excellence. Topic. Research. Universities. Israel. Has seven research universities. Bar-ilan. University. Ben-gurion. University. Of the Negev the University. Of Haifa Hebrew. University of, Jerusalem the. Technion Israel, Institute, of Technology. Tel aviv university and. The Weizmann, Institute of, science Rehovot, other. Scientific. Research, institutions. Include, the Vulcan, Institute. Of agricultural. Research in Beit dagen the Israel, Institute, for Biological, research and the Zurich Nuclear, Research Center. The. Ben-gurion, National. Solar Energy Center. At SDE, Boker as, an alternative, energy research. Institute, established. In, 1987. By the ministry, of national, infrastructures. To study, alternative. And clean energy, technologies. Israeli. Universities. Are ranked among the top 50. Academic. Institutions. In the world in, the following, scientific. Disciplines, in chemistry, Technion, in computer. Science weizmann, institute of, science Technion. Hebrew, university tel. Aviv university in. Mathematics. And natural sciences, hebrew, university Technion, and in engineering, Technion. In 2009. More, zabun an israeli, high school student, from Netivot won, first prize in the first step - nobel prize in physics competition. In. 2012. Yuval ketse, nelson of curiata, won, first, prize with, a paper entitled, kinetic. Energy, of inert gas in, a regenerative. System of activated. Carbon. The. Israeli, delegation won. 14, more prizes, in the competition. Nine Israeli, students, won second, prize one won third prize and, one one fourth, prize. Topic. Scientific. Output. The, number of Israeli, publications. Stagnated. Between, 2005. And 2014. According, to Thomson, Reuters web, of science science.
Citation. Index expanded. Consequently. The number of Israeli, publications. Per million inhabitants also. Declined, between, 2008. And 2013, it dropped, from. 1488. To. 1431. This, trend reflects, a relative, constancy. In scholarly, output in, the face of relatively. High population. Growth, 1.1. Percent in, 2014. For a developed, country and near zero growth in the number of full-time equivalent, researchers. In universities. Between. 2005. And 2014. Israeli. Scientific. Output was, particularly, high, in life sciences. Israeli. Universities. Do particularly, well, in computer, science but, publications. In this field tend to appear mostly, in conference, proceedings. Which are not included in the web of science Israeli. Publications. Have a high citation. Rate and a high share of papers, count among the 10 percent most, cited, the. Share of papers, with foreign, co-authors. As almost twice the OECD. Average which, is typical, of small countries. With a developed, scientific, and, technological. Ecosystem. A team. Of 50, Israeli, scientists, work full-time at, CERN the European Organization. For. Nuclear Research, which, operates, the Large Hadron Collider in, Switzerland. Israel. Was granted, observer status, in, 1991. Before, becoming a fully fledged, member, in 2014. An, Israeli. Delegation headed. By President. Shimon Peres, visited. The particle, accelerator. In 2011. Israeli. Scientists, collaborate. Mostly, with Western, countries, such as the European, Union and the United States but, there has been strong, growth, in recent years, in collaboration. With East, Asian, countries such, as China, Japan, and, South Korea as, well as India, and, poor. Topic. Technology. Transfer. Topic. History. Research. Conducted at Israeli, universities. And Institute's, as shared with the private, sector through technology. Transfer, TT units. Israel's. First university. TT, unit, Yetta was established, by the Weizmann, Institute of, Science in. The 1950s. Research. In such fields, as arid and semi-arid zone, agricultural. Engineering, was transferred, to kibbutz seam and private, farmers on a gratis, basis, and agricultural. Knowledge was, shared with developing, countries in. 1964. Yas'm the technology, transfer company. Of the Hebrew University of. Jerusalem was. Founded, since the 1990s. The traditional. Dual mission of universities. Of teaching, and research has. Broadened to include a, third mission, engagement. With society, and Industry, this. Evolution. Has been a corollary, of the rise of the electronics. Industry and, information. Technology. Services, along, with a surge in the number of research, personnel, following, the wave of emigration, from the former, Soviet, Union Israel. Has no specific, legislation. Regulating, the transfer, of knowledge from, the academic, sector to the general, public and Industry, there. Were attempts, in 2004. And 2005. To introduce, bills encouraging. The transfer, of knowledge and, technology for, the public benefit, but as these attempts, failed each University. Has since defined, its own policy. Topic. University. Industry, collaboration. All Israeli. Research, universities. Have technology. Transfer, offices, recent. Research conducted. By the Samuel, Neiman Institute, has revealed that between. 2004. And 2013, the, universities, share of patent, applications. Constituted. 10 to 12 percent of the total inventive. Activity, of Israeli, applicants. This. Is one of the highest shares, in the world and as largely due, to the intensive, activity, of the university's, Technology, Transfer offices. The. Wiseman Institute's, technology. Transfer, office Yetta has been ranked, the third most profitable in, the world, through. Exemplary, university. Industry collaboration, the. Weizmann, Institute of, Science and. Tariffs are Masuda chol industries, have discovered, and developed the Copaxone drug, for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Capac. Sanest Eva's biggest selling, drug with one point six, eight billion dollars, in sales in the first half of 2011. Since. The drugs approval, by the US, Food and Drug Administration, in, 1996.
It Is estimated that the Weizmann, Institute of, Science has. Earned nearly two billion dollars, in royalties, from the commercialization. Of its intellectual, property. Topic. International. Technology. Transfer. In. 2007. The United Nations, General Assembly's. Economic. And financial. Committee adopted an Israeli, sponsored, draft resolution. On agricultural. Technology. Transfer, to developing. Countries, the. Resolution. Called on developed, countries, to make their knowledge and know-how accessible. To the developing, world as part of the UN campaign, to eradicate hunger. And dire poverty, by 2015. The. Initiative, as an outgrowth of Israel's, many years, of contributing. Its know-how to developing. Nations especially. Africa, in the spheres of Agriculture. Fighting, desert if ocation rural development, irrigation. Medical, development, computers, and the empowerment, of women. Topic. Venture-capital. As new. Technology. Companies, require, money, and seed capital to grow and thrive, Israel's science, and technology, sector, as backed by a strong venture. Capital, industry. Between. 2004. And 2013, the, Israeli, venture, capital, industry played, a fundamental role, in funding the development of, Israel's, high-tech, sector, in. 2013. Israeli. Companies, had raised more venture, capital, as a share of GDP, than companies, in any other country, as it attracted, two thousand, three hundred forty, six million dollars, alone during that year, today. Israel, is considered, one of the biggest venture, capital, centres in the world outside the, United, States of America. Several. Factors, have contributed to. This growth these, include, tax exemptions. On Israeli, venture, capital, funds, established in, conjunction, with large, international. Banks, and financial, companies and, the involvement, of major organizations. Desirous. To capitalize. On the strengths, of Israeli, high-tech companies. These. Organizations. Include some, of the world's, largest multinational. Technology. Companies, including. Apple Cisco, Google. IBM, Intel. Microsoft. Oracle, Siemens. And Samsung, in. Recent, years the share of venture, capital, invested, in the growth stages of enterprises. Has flourished at the expense, of early-stage investments. Topic. Intellectual. Property, rights. Intellectual. Property rights, in Israel, protect, copyright. And performers, rights trademarks. Geographical. Indicators. Patents. Industrial. Designs, topographies. Of integrated, circuits, plant, breeds, and undisclosed, business, secrets. Both. Contemporary, Israeli. Legislation. And case law are, influenced. By laws and practices, in modern countries, particularly. Anglo-american. Law the emerging, body of EU law and proposals. By international. Organisations, Israel, has made a concerted effort, to improve, the economy's, ability to, benefit, from an enhanced, system of intellectual. Property rights. This. Includes, increasing. The resources, of the Israel, Patent Office upgrading. Enforcement. Activities, and implementing, programs to, bring ideas funded. By government, research, to the market, between. 2002. And 2012. Foreigners. Accounted, for nearly 80 percent of the patent applications. Filed with the Israel, Patent, Office a. Sizeable. Share of foreign applicants. Seeking protection from, the Israel, patent office are pharmaceutical, companies. Such as F hoffman-laroche. Janssen. Novartis. Merck, Bayer shirring, sanofi-aventis. And, Pfizer which happen to be the main business competitors. Of Israel's, own Teva, Pharmaceutical. Industries, Israel. Ranks, 10th in the world for the number of patent, applications, filed with, the United, States Patent. And Trademark Office USPTO. By. Country, of residence of, the first named inventor. Israeli. Inventors, file, far more applications. With USPTO. 5436. In 2011. Than with the European, Patent, Office EPO. Moreover. The number of Israeli filings. With EPO, dropped, from 1400. To 1063. Between. 2006. And 2011. This. Preference, for USPTO. Is largely, because foreign, research, centres implanted, in Israel, are primarily, owned by US firms, such as IBM Intel. SanDisk. Microsoft. Applied, Materials, Qualcomm. Motorola. Google, or hewlett-packard.
The. Inventions. Of these companies, are attributed, to Israel, as the inventor of the patent, but not as the owner applicant. Or assignee. The. Loss of intellectual, property into. The hands of multinationals. Occurs, mainly, through the recruitment, of the best Israeli talent. By the local, research, centres of multinational. Firms. Although. The Israeli, economy benefits. From the activity, of the multinational, subsidiaries. Through. Job creation and, other means the advantages. Are relatively, small compared. To the potential, economic gains. That might have been achieved, had this intellectual. Property, been utilized, to support and, foster, the expansion. Of mature Israeli, companies, of a considerable, size. Topic. Applied. Science, and engineering. Topic. Energy. Topic. Solar, power. As of. 2014. Israel, leads the 2014. Global clean, tech innovation, index. The. Country's lack of conventional. Energy sources has. Spurred extensive. Research and development, of alternative, energy, sources and Israel, has developed, innovative technologies. In the solar energy field. Israel. Has become the world's, largest per, capita user. Of solar water heaters, in the home a new. High-efficiency. Receiver. To collect concentrated. Sunlight has, been developed, which will enhance the use of solar energy, in industry, as well in a 2009. Report, by the clean tech group Israel, ranked, number-five clean. Tech country, in the world the. Arrow ecology. Company, has developed the arrow bio process. A patented. System which takes trash, directly. From collection, trucks and separates, organic, and inorganic, materials. Through gravitational, settling, screening. And hydro-mechanical. Shredding. The. System, is capable of sorting huge, volumes, of solid, waste salvaging. Recyclables. And turning, the rest into biogas and, rich agricultural. Compost. The. System, is used in California. Australia Greece. Mexico. The United Kingdom, and in Israel, for. Example a, narrow bio plant, that has been operational at. The hariya landfill, site since December. 2003. Serves, the Tel Aviv area and processes. Up to 150. Tons of garbage a day in 2010. Technion, the Israel, Institute, of Technology. Established. The grande Technion energy, program, GTE, P this. Multidisciplinary. Task force, brings, together Technion, top researchers. In energy, science, and technology. From over 9 different, faculties. GTE. Peas four-point, strategy. Targets, research, and development, of alternative, fuels renewable. Energy, sources, energy storage. And conversion and, energy, conservation. GTP, is presently, the only Center in Israel offering, graduate studies, in energy, science, and technology. To bring the energy skills, and know-how to address, the energy challenges.
Of The future. Topic. Natural. Gas. Since. 1999. Large, reserves, of natural gas, have been discovered, off Israel's, coast, this. Fossil, fuel has become the primary fuel, for electricity, generation, in, Israel and, is gradually, replacing. Oil and coal in. 2010. 37. Percent, of electricity in. Israel, was generated. From natural gas leading. To savings, of 1.4. Billion dollars, for the economy, in. 2015. This rate is expected to surpass 55. Percent, in addition, the usage of natural gas, in industry, both as a source of energy and, as a raw material is, rapidly, expanding, alongside, the, requisite, infrastructure. This. Is giving companies, a competitive. Advantage, by reducing their, energy costs and lowering national, emissions. Since. Early 2013, almost, the entire natural gas, consumption, of Israel, has been supplied, by the Tamar, field an Israeli, American, private, partnership. The. Estimated, reserves amount. To about 100. O BCM. Securing. Israel's, energy, needs for many decades to come and making Israel a potentially. Major regional. Exporter, of natural gas, in. 2014. Initial. Export, agreements, were signed with, the Palestinian. Authority, Jordan, and Egypt there are also plans, to export, natural gas, to Turkey, and the EU via, Greece in 2011. The government asked. The Academy, of Sciences. And Humanities, to convene, a panel of, experts, to consider, the full range of implications. Of the most recent, discoveries, of natural, gas, the. Panel recommended. Encouraging. Research into, fossil, fuels training. Engineers, and focusing, research, efforts, on the impact, of gas production, on the Mediterranean. Seas ecosystem. The. Mediterranean. Sea Research Center of Israel, was established, in 2012, with, an initial, budget of NIS, 70, million new, study programmes have since been launched, at the center to train engineers and, other professionals. The oil and gas industry. Meanwhile. The office of the chief scientist, among, others plans, to use Israel's, fledgling, natural, gas industry. As a stepping, stone to building capacity in advanced. Technology. And opening, up opportunities. For Israeli. Innovation. Targeting, the global, oil and gas markets. Topic. Space, science, and technology. During. The 1970s. And 1980s, Israel. Began developing. The infrastructure. Needed, for research, and development in. Space exploration and, related, sciences in. November. 1982. The, minister, of science and technology, Yuval Naaman, established. The Israel, Space Agency. ISA to coordinate, and supervise a, national. Space program, as well as to conduct space, planetary. And aviation. Research. Because. Of geographical. Constraints, as well as safety, considerations. The Israeli, space program, focuses. On very, small satellites. Loaded, with payloads, of a high degree of sophistication. And, cooperation. With other national, space agencies. The. Technion assure space research institute, plays a central role in educating, the aerospace, engineers. Of the next generation. In. 2009. Israel, was ranked second, among 20. Top countries in. Space sciences. By Thomson, Reuters Agency, Israel, launched, its first satellite. OfE, q1, from, the locally, built shavit launch vehicle. On September, 19, 1988. And has made important, contributions in. A number of areas, in space, research, including. Laser communication. Research, into embryo, development, and osteoporosis. In, space pollution. Monitoring, and mapping, geology. Soil, and vegetation in. Semi-arid environments. Key projects, include, the tau, VX. Telescope. The Tel Aviv University. Ultraviolet. Experiment. A UV, telescope. For astronomical, observations, which. Was developed, in the 1990s, to, be accommodated. On an Indian Space, Research Organization. Israel, geosynchronous. Satellite. GS, 84. For joint operation. And used by Indian, and Israeli, scientists. The Venus micro, satellite, developed, in collaboration with. The French Space Agency CNES. Which. Will use an Israeli, developed, Space camera, electric, space engine, and algorithms, and Mei de X Mediterranean. Israel, dust experiment. In collaboration. With NASA Ilan. Ramon, was Israel's first, astronaut. Ramon. Was the Space Shuttle payload. Specialist, on board the fatal. Sts-107. Mission of, space shuttle, Columbia, in which he and the six other crew, members were killed in a reentry, accident, over the southern United, States. Ramon. Had been selected, as a payload, specialist. In, 1997. And trained at the Johnson, Space Center Houston. Texas. From, 1998. Until, 2003. Among. Other experiments. Ramon was responsible. For the MEI de, X project, in which he was required to take pictures, of atmospheric. Aerosol, dust, in the Mediterranean. Area using, a multispectral, camera designed. To provide scientific. Information, about, atmospheric. Aerosols, and the influence, of global, changes, on the climate, and data for the total ozone mapping, spectrometer Tom's.
And Moderate, resolution imaging, spectroradiometer. Modis, instruments. Researchers. From tel aviv university tao. Were responsible. For the scientific. Aspect, of the experiment. The. Tao team also worked, with a US company orbital. Sciences, corporation to. Construct, and test special, flight instruments. For the project. Topic. Aerospace. Engineering. Aerospace. Engineering. Related to the country's, defense needs, has generated, technological. Development, with consequence. Civilian, spin-offs, the, Arava. Short, takeoff, and landing, stole, plane, manufactured. By Israel, Aerospace Industries. Was. The. First aircraft to, be produced, in Israel in the late 1960s. For, both military, and civilian, uses. This. Was followed by the production, of the west wind business, jet from, 1965. To, 1987. And later variants. The Astra, and the Gulfstream. G100. Which are still in active service. Israel. As among the few countries capable. Of launching satellites, into. Orbit and, locally, designed and, manufactured, satellites. Have been produced, and launched, by Israel, Aerospace Industries. IAI. Israel's. Largest military. Engineering, company, in cooperation. With the Israel, Space Agency. The. Amos 1 geostationary. Satellite. Began, operations. In, 1996. As Israel's, first commercial. Communications. Satellite, it. Was built primarily for direct. To home television. Broadcasting. TV distribution and. VSATs, services. Amos. 2 was launched, in December, 2003. And a further series, of Amos communications. Satellites, Amos, chapter 2. 5 I are, operated. Or in development by, the space comm satellite. Communications. Company, headquartered. In Ramat, Gan Israel. Space. Comm provides, satellite. Telecommunications. Services, to countries, in Europe the Middle East and, Africa. Another. Satellite, the Gerwin 2 techs at designed, and manufactured, by the Technion, was launched, in july, 1998. To, provide, communications. Remote, sensing, and research services. Eros. Launched, in 2000. Is a non, geostationary. Orbit, satellite, for commercial, photography. And surveillance, services, Israel, also develops. Manufactures. And, exports, a large number, related, aerospace, products, including, rockets, and satellites display.
Systems, Aeronautical. Computers. Instrumentation. Systems, drones, and flight simulators. Israel's. Second-largest defense, company, as elbit systems which. Makes, electro-optical. Systems, for air sea, and ground forces drones. Control. And monitoring, systems. Communications. Systems, and more the. Technion Israel, Institute of Technology. Is home to the Asscher Space Research Institute. Which is unique in Israel, as a university. Based center, of space research, at. Asri. Israeli. Students, designed, built, and launched, their own satellite. Gerwin, tech set. Topic. Agricultural. Engineering. Israel's. Agricultural. Sector, is characterized. By an intensive, system, of production stemming, from the need to overcome, the scarcity, and natural, resource, particularly. Water, and arable land, in a country where more than half of its area is desert, the. Growth in agricultural. Production, is based on close cooperation of, scientists. Farmers, and agriculture. Related industries. And has resulted in the development of, advanced, agricultural. Technology. Water conserving, irrigation. Methods, anaerobic. Digestion, greenhouse. Technology. Desert, agriculture. And salinity research. Israeli. Companies, also supply, irrigation. Water conservation, and, greenhouse, technologies. And know-how to other countries, the modern technology. Of drip irrigation was invented, in Israel, by Simha Blass and his son Yeshayahu. Instead. Of releasing, water through, tiny holes blocked, easily, by tiny particles. Water, was released through, larger, and longer passageways. By using velocity to, slow water inside, a plastic emitter. The. First experimental. System, of this type was established. In, 1959. When Blass partnered, with kibbutz hot ziram to create an irrigation, company called Netafim. Together. They developed and patented the first practical. Surface, drip irrigation, emitter.
This. Method, was very successful, and. Had spread to Australia North. America, and South America by, the late 1960s. Israeli. Farmers rely, heavily on greenhouse, technology. To ensure a constant year-round. Supply. Of high-quality produce. While, overcoming the obstacles, posed by adverse, climatic, conditions. And water and land shortages. Technologies. Include, computerised. Greenhouse. Climate, control, greenhouse, shading. Irrigation. Fertigation. Greenhouse. Water recycling. And biological. Control, of plant disease, and insects, allow farmers, to control. Most production. Parameters, as a. Result, Israeli, farmers, successfully. Grow 3 million, roses per, hectare, in season, and an average of, 300 tons, of tomatoes per hectare. 4 times the amount harvested. In open fields. Topic. Computer. Engineering. Israeli. Companies, excel in computer, software and hardware development. Particularly, computer. Security, technologies. Semiconductors. And communications. Israeli. Firms include, checkpoint. A leading, firewall, firm Amdocs. Which makes business, and operations. Support, systems, for telecoms. Converse, a voicemail company. And mercury, interactive, which measures, software, performance, a high. Concentration, of, high-tech, industries. In the coastal, plain of Israel has led to the nickname silicon. Wadi Lit Silicon. Valley, both. Israeli. And international companies. Are based there Intel. And Microsoft built. Their first overseas research. And development, centers, in Israel and, other high-tech, multinational. Corporations. Such, as IBM Cisco. Systems, and Motorola, have, opened facilities, in the country. Intel. Developed, its dual core core duo processor. At its Israel, Development, Center in Haifa, more. Than 3000. 850. Startups, have been established in Israel, making, it second, only to the u.s. in this sector and has the largest number of nasdaq, listed companies. Outside, north america optics. Electro. Optics and lasers are. Significant. Fields, and israel produces, fiber optics. Electro-optic, inspection. Systems, for printed circuit boards, thermal, imaging, night-vision systems. And. Electro-optics. Based robotic. Manufacturing. Systems. Research. Into robotics, first began, in the late 1970s. Has resulted in the production of robots, designed to perform, a wide variety of computer. Aided manufacturing. Tasks. Including, diamond, polishing, welding.
Hacking And building. Research. Is also conducted, in the application. Of artificial, intelligence to, robots, israel's, Weizmann, Institute of, Science and. Technical. Institute of, Technology. Are ranked among the top 20, academic, institutions. In the world in computer, science. An Israeli. CEO. And president of M systems, DAF Moran, invented. The first flash, drive in, 1998. Topic. Cybersecurity, in, November, 2010, the Israeli, Prime Minister entrusted, a task force with responsibility. For formulating. National, plans to place Israel, among the top five countries in the world for cybersecurity, on, the. 7th, of August 2011, the, government approved, the establishment, of the National, Cyber Bureau, to promote the Israeli, cyber defense, industry. The. Bureau is based in the Prime Minister's Office, the. National, Cyber Bureau, allocated. And is, 180. Million circa, 50, million dollars, over 2012. To 2014, to, encourage, cyber research, and dual military civilian. R&D. The funding, is also being used to develop human, capital, including through, the creation of cybersecurity, centers. At Israeli, universities. That are funded, jointly by the National, Cyber Bureau, and the universities. Themselves in, January, 2014. The, Prime Minister, launched, cyber spark, Israel's, cyber Innovation Park. As part of plans to turn Israel, into a global, cyber hub, located. In the city of Beer Sheva to foster, economic development, in. Southern, Israel cyber, spark, as a geographical. Cluster, of leading cyber companies. Multinational. Corporations. And universities, involving. Ben-gurion, University. Of the Negev technology. Defense units, specialized. Educational. Platforms. And the national, cyber event, readiness, team about, half of the firms in cyber spark, are Israeli, mostly, small to medium sized. Multinational. Companies, operating. In cyber spark, include, EMC. - IBM. Lockheed. Martin, and Deutsche, Telekom. PayPal. Recently. Acquired the Israeli, startup Sai active, and has since announced plans to set up its second Israeli, Research Center in cyber spark, with a focus, on cyber security. This. Acquisition, as, just one of the many Israeli, cybersecurity, startups. Acquired, by multinational. Companies, in the past few years. Major, acquisitions. Of Israeli, startups, in 2014. Including, tellings, purchased. By bottom-line, technologies. And severa. Purchased, by Palo Alto Networks, the, National, Cyber Bureau, has estimated, that the number of Israeli cyber, defense companies, had doubled, in the past five, years to about 300, by 2014. Israeli. Companies, account, for an estimated 10 percent of global sales, which, currently, total, an estimated, 60, billion dollars. Total. Research, spending, on cyber defense in Israel, quadrupled. Between 2010. And 2014. From, 50 million dollars, to two hundred million dollars, bringing Israel's. Spending, to about 15, percent of global research, spending, on cyber defense in 2014. Cyber. Security, technologies. Are exported, by Israel, in accordance, with the Wassenaar arrangement a. Multilateral. Agreement, on export, controls, for conventional, arms and dual use goods and technologies. Topic. Hydraulic. Engineering. Since, rainfalls, only, in the winter and largely, in the northern part of the country irrigation. And water engineering. Is vital, to the country's, economic survival. And growth. Large-scale. Projects. To direct, water from, rivers and reservoirs in. The north to make optimal, use of groundwater, and to reclaim flood overflow, and sewage, have been undertaken. The. Largest, such project, was a national, water distribution, system. Called the national, carrier completed. In, 1964. Flowing, from the country's, biggest freshwater, lake, the Sea of Galilee to, the northern Negev, desert through, huge channels, pipes, and tunnels, the. Ashkelon sea water reverse osmosis. SW. Ro desalination. Plant. Was the largest, in the world at the time it was built the. Project, was developed as, a bot build-operate-transfer. By. A consortium, of, three international. Companies, Veolia, water, ID technologies. And Elrond. Topic. Water-saving. Technologies. According. To water, experts, pipe leakage, as one of the major problems. Confronting, the global, water supply, today, for. Israel which as two-thirds, desert, water saving, technologies. Are of critical importance.
The. International. Water Association, has. Cited, Israel, as one of the leaders in innovative. Methods, to reduce, non-revenue. Water, ie. Water, lost, in the system before, reaching the customer. Topic. Military. Engineering. You. Rejection. Of requests. For weapons and technologies. Arms, sanctions. And massive rearmament of, the Arab countries prodded, Israel, into the development, of a broad-based, indigenous. Arms industry. The. Israel, Defense Forces. Relies, heavily on, local, military, technology. And high-tech. Weapons, systems, designed, and manufactured, in Israel. Israeli. Developed. Military, equipment. Includes, small arms, anti-tank. Rockets, and missiles boats, and submarines, tanks. Armoured, vehicles, artillery, unmanned. Surface vehicles. Aircraft, unmanned. Aerial, vehicles, UAVs air. Defense, systems, weapons stations, and radar an, impetus. For the development of, the industry was, the embargo, on arms sales, to Israel, during the six-day, war which, prompted, Israel, Aircraft Industries, iae, founded. As a maintenance facility. In, 1953. To begin developing and, assembling, its own aircraft including. The kfir. The Arava and the Nesher. Notable. Technology. Includes, the Uzi submachine gun. Introduced, in, 1954. The country's, main battle, tank the Merkava and the jointly designed Israeli. And US arrow, missile, one of the world's only operational. Advanced. Anti-ballistic. Missile, systems. The. Iron Dome mobile, air defense system, developed, by Rafael. Advanced, defense systems, as, designed, to intercept, short-range. Rockets, and artillery shells. The. System, was created as, a defensive. Countermeasure. To the rocket threat against, Israel's civilian, population. On its northern, and southern borders and, was declared operational, and. Initially, deployed in, the first quarter, of 2011, it. Is. Designed, to intercept, very short-range, threats. Up to 70, kilometers in. All weather situations. On, April. 7 2011, the, system, successfully, intercepted. A grad rocket, launched, from Gaza marking. The first time in history a short-range. Rocket, was ever intercepted. Israel, has, so developed, a network of reconnaissance, satellites. The. O feq. Lit, horizon. Series, ofE, q1, ofe q7. Were launched, between 1988. And. 2007. The. Satellites, were carried, by shavod, rockets, launched, from palma key airbase both. The satellites, and the launchers, were designed, and manufactured, by Israel, Aerospace Industries, IAI. With, Elbit Systems L, op divisions, supplying, the optical, payload. Israel. Also has the first all-around, operational. Active, defense, system, for tanks named trophy. Successfully. Intercepting. Anti-tank. Missiles, fired at Merkava tanks. Topic. Life, sciences. Israel. Has an advanced, infrastructure. Of medical, and paramedical research. And bioengineering. Capabilities. Biotechnology. Biomedical. And clinical research. Account, for over half of the country's scientific. Publications. And the industrial. Sector, has used this extensive. Knowledge to, develop, pharmaceuticals. Medical equipment. And treatment, therapies. Topic. Biotechnology. Israel, has over 900. Biotechnology. And life sciences. Companies, in operation. Throughout the country, with nearly 50, to 60, formed each year, many. Multinational. Corporations. Such as J&J. Perego, GE, Healthcare. And Phillips Medical have all established branches. In Israel. Topic. Genetics. And cancer, research. Israeli. Scientists, have developed methods, for producing a human growth hormone, and interferon. A group of proteins, effective, against, viral, infections. Copaxone. A medicine, effective, in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, was. Developed, in Israel from, basic, research to industrial. Production. Genetic. Engineering, has resulted in a wide range of diagnostic. Kits based on monoclonal, antibodies. With other, microbiological. Products, advanced. Stem cell research, takes, place in Israel the. First steps, in the development of, stem cell studies occur