Science and technology in Iran | Wikipedia audio article

Science and technology in Iran | Wikipedia audio article

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Iran. Has made considerable advances. In science and technology through, education, and training despite, international sanctions in almost all aspects, of research during, the past 30 years, iran's. University. Population swelled, from 100,000. In 1979. To 2 million in 2006. In. Recent, years the growth in iran scientific. Output is reported, to be the fastest, in the world Iran. Has made great strides in, different sectors including, aerospace nuclear. Science, medical, development, as well as stem cell and cloning research throughout, history Persia was always a cradle, of science contributing. To medicine mathematics astronomy, and, philosophy, trying. To revive the golden time of Persian science Iran scientists, now are cautiously, reaching, out to the world many. Individual, Iranian, scientists. Along with the Iranian, Academy, of Medical Sciences, and Academy, of Sciences, of Iran are involved, in this revival. Topic. Science, in ancient Iran Persia. Science. In Persia evolved, in two main phases separated. By the arrival and widespread, adoption of Islam in the region, references. To scientific, subjects, such as natural, science and mathematics, occur in books written in the parlor VIII languages. Topic. Ancient. Technology, in Persia. The, cannot a water management system, used for irrigation originated. In pre acumen II Persia the. Oldest and largest known, can at is in the Iranian city of Ghana bad which after, two thousand, seven hundred years still provides drinking, and agricultural, water to nearly forty thousand, people Persian, philosophers, and inventors, may have created, the first batteries, sometimes, known as the Baghdad battery in, the Parthian or sasnett, eras some. Have suggested that, the batteries may have been used medicinally other. Scientists. Believe the batteries were used for electroplating. Transferring. A thin layer of metal to another metal surface, a technique. Still used today in the focus of a common classroom experiment, wind wheels were developed by the Babylonians, CA. 1700. BC to pump water for irrigation in the, seventh century persian, engineers, in greater iran developed, a more advanced, wind power machine, the windmill building, upon the basic model developed by the Babylonians. Topic. Mathematics. The, ninth century mathematician. Mohammed IBN musa alkar, as me created, the logarithm table, developed algebra, and expanded, upon persian and indian arithmetic, systems, his. Writings, were translated. Into Latin by Gerard of Cremona under, the title the jebra, a Alma Kabbalah Robert. Of Chester also translated, it under the title LIBOR algebras, a Alma Kabbalah the. Works of car as me exercised. A profound influence on the development of, mathematical. Thought in the medieval West. Other. Persian, scientists, included, abu abbess faisal hata the Banu Musa brothers, Farah Hani Omar, eben Farrakhan Abu Zeid Armada been Sohail, bulky, 9th century, AD a believed IAF a boost Jonny Abu Jaffa can be given rostam kooky armor dibban Abdul Jalil ami boon Asura Wragge abu rayhan biruni, the noted iranian, poet Hakim, Omar Khayyam Nisha burry cotton, Marv Ossie Masuda, Ghaznavi. 13th, century, AD KJ, Nasir Uddin to Z and gear said in Jamshid Akash Ani. Topic. Medicine. The, practice, and study of Medicine in Iran has a long and prolific history. Situated. At the crossroads, of the east and west Persia was often involved in developments, in ancient Greek and Indian medicine, pre and post Islamic, Iran have been involved in medicine as well, for. Example the first teaching hospital, where medical students, methodically, practiced, on patients, under the supervision of physicians, was the Academy of gunsa / in the Persian Empire some. Experts go so far as to claim that to, a very large extent the, credit for the whole hospital. System, must be given to Persia, the. Idea of xenotransplantation, dates. To the days of a kameena diet the Accu minion dynasty, as evidenced, by engravings, of many mythologic, chimera is still present in Persepolis. Several. Documents, still exist from which the definitions, and treatments, of the headache in medieval, Persia can be ascertained, these. Documents, give detailed, and precise clinical, information on the different types of headaches the.

Medieval Physicians, listed various signs and symptoms, apparent, causes and hygienic, and dietary rules for prevention of headaches, the. Medieval writings, are both accurate and vivid and they provide long lists of substances, used in the treatment of headaches, many. Of the approaches, of physicians, in medieval Persia are accepted, today however still, more of them could be of use to modern medicine in the 10th century work, of shahnameh Ferdowsi, describes, a caesarean, section, performed, on Rue de Bay during which a special wine agent was prepared by a Zoroastrian. Priest and, used to produce unconsciousness. For the operation, although. Largely mythical, in content, the passage illustrates, working knowledge of anaesthesia in ancient Persia. Later. In the 10th century Abu, Bakr Mohammed bin Zachary arrazi, is considered, the founder of practical, physics and the inventor of the special or net weight of matter his. Student, abu bakr jo vainly wrote the first comprehensive, medical, book in the persian language, after. The islamic conquest of iran medicine, continued, to flourish with the rise of notables, such as raises in Haley Abbess albeit, Baghdad was the new cosmopolitan, inheritor. Of sassanids, on suppose Medical Academy an idea. Of the number of medical works composed, in Persian alone may be gathered, from Adolphe phonons or : conveyed their Persian, Medicine published in Leipzig, in 1910, the. Author enumerates, over 400, works in the Persian language on, medicine excluding, authors such as Avicenna, who wrote in Arabic author. Historians. Meyerhoff Casey wood and Hirschberg also have recorded, the names of at least 80 oculist's. Who contributed, treatises, on subjects. Related to ophthalmology. From the beginning of 800, AD to the full flowering, of Muslim medical literature in, 1300. Ad. Aside. From the aforementioned two, other medical, works attracted, great attention in, medieval, Europe namely abu mansur move affects materia, medica written, around 950. Ad and the illustrated, anatomy of man sir eben muhammad written in 1396. Ad. Modern. Academic, medicine began in Iran when Joseph Cochrane established, a medical college in Urmia in 1878. Cochrane. Is often credited for founding Iran's first. Contemporary, medical, college, the. Website, of Urmia university, credits, Cochrane for lowering, the infant mortality rate in the region and for, founding one of Iran's first, modern hospitals, Westminster. Hospital in, Urmia. Topic. Astronomy. In, 1080. Biruni, wrote an astronomical, encyclopedia. That discussed the possibility, that the earth might rotate around the Sun this. Was before Tycho, Brahe he drew the first maps of the sky using stylized, animals, to depict the constellations. In the, 10th century the Persian astronomer ABD. Al-rahman, al sufi cast his eyes upwards, to the awning of stars overhead and was the first to record a galaxy, outside our own gazing. At the Andromeda galaxy he, called it her little, cloud an apt, description of, the slightly wispy appearance, of our galactic neighbor.

Topic. Biology. You. Topic. Chemistry. Susy believed that a body of matter is able to change but is not able to disappear, entirely, he. Wrote a body, of matter cannot, disappear, completely it. Only changes, its form condition. Composition. Color and other properties, and turns, into a different complex. Or elementary, matter. 500, years later Mikhail, Lomonosov, 1711. 2 1765. And on Tuan laurent lavoisier. 1743. 2 1794. Created, the law of conservation of mass setting, down this same idea, however. It should be noted that 2 zi argued for evolution, within a firmly Islamic, context, he. Did not like Darwin, draw materialist, conclusions, from his theories. Moreover. Unlike Darwin, he was arguing hypothetically. He did not attempt to provide empirical data for his theories, nonetheless. His, arguments, which in some ways prefigure, natural selection, are still considered, remarkably, advanced, for their time. Gabriel. Urban Haiyan the famous Iranian chemist, who died in 804. At Towson, Khorasan, was the father of the number of discoveries recorded. In an encyclopedia and. Of many treatises, covering, 2,000, topics and these became the Bible of European chemists, of the 18th century particularly, of Lavoisier's, these. Works had a variety of uses including, tinctures, and their applications. In tanning and textiles, distillations of plants and flowers the, origin of perfumes, therapeutic. Pharmacy, and gunpowder a powerful, military instrument, possessed, by Islam long before the West, Jabby. Ribbon Haiyan is widely regarded as the founder of chemistry, inventing, many of the basic processes, and equipment still, used by chemists, today such as distillation. Topic. Physics. Biruni. Was the first scientist, to formally, propose that the speed of light is finite before, Galileo tried, to experimentally prove, this. Kemal. Al Din al-farisi. 1267. - 1318 born, in Tabriz Iran is known for giving the first mathematically. Satisfactory. Explanation, of the rainbow and an explication of the nature of colors that reformed the theory of even al-haytham. Al-farisi. Also, proposed.

A Model where the ray of light from the Sun was refracted, twice by water droplet, one or more reflections. Occurring, between the two refractions. He. Verified, this through extensive, experimentation. Using, a transparent, sphere filled with water and a camera obscura. Topic. Science policy the Iranian Research Organisation. For Science and Technology, in the national research institute for science policy come under the ministry of science research, and technology, they. Are in charge of establishing, national research, policies, the, government first set its sights on moving from a resource-based economy to. One based on knowledge in its 20 year development plan vision, 2025. Adopted. In 2005. This. Transition, became a priority after, international, sanctions were, progressively, hardened, from 2006. Onwards in the oil embargo tightened. Its grip in. February, 2014, the supreme, leader Ayatollah, Ali Khamenei, introduced, what he called the economy, of resistance, an economic, plan advocating. Innovation, and a lesser dependence, on imports that reasserted, key provisions, of vision 2025. Vision, 2025. Challenged. Policymakers, to look beyond extractive, industries, to the country's, human capital, for wealth creation, this. Led to the adoption of incentive, measures to raise the number of university, students, and academics, on the one hand and to stimulate, problem-solving. An industrial, research on the other Iran's, success, of five-year plans aimed to realize collectively, the goals of vision 2025. For. Instance in order to ensure that 50 percent of academic, research was oriented towards, socio-economic. Needs and problem-solving, the fifth five-year, economic development. Plan 2010, to 2015. Tied promotion, to the orientation, of research projects, it. Also made provision, for research, and technology centers to be set up on campus and for universities. To velop linkages, with industry, v, five-year, economic development. Plan had two main thrusts, relative to science policy the. First was the Islamization. Of universities, a notion that is open to broad interpretation. According. To article, 15 of the fifth five-year, economic development, plan university, programs, in the humanities, were to teach the virtues, of critical, thinking theorization. And multidisciplinary. Studies a number. Of research centers were also to be developed, in the humanities. The. Plans second thrust was to make iran the second biggest player in science, and technology by, 2015. Behind turkey to. This end the government pledged to raise domestic research, spending to 3 percent of GDP by. 2015. Yet. Our indies share in the GNP is at 0.06. Percent in 2015. Where it should be at least 2.5. Percent, of GDP an industry, driven R&D. Is almost non-existent vision.

2025. Fixed, a number of targets including. That of raising domestic, expenditure, on research and development to 4 percent of GDP, by 2025. In. 2012. Spending, stood at 0.3. 3%, of GDP in. 2009. The government adopted, a national master plan for science, and education, to 2025. Which reiterates, the goals of vision 2025. It. Lays particular stress, on developing, university, research and fostering, university, industry ties to promote the commercialization. Of research results. Topic. Human, resources. In, line with the goals of vision 2025. Policymakers. Have made a concerted effort to increase the number of students, and academic, researchers, to. This end the government raised its commitment, to higher education to, 1 percent of GDP in. 2006. After. Peaking, at this level higher education, spending stood, at 0.8, 6%, of GDP in, 2015. Higher. Education, spending has resisted, better than public expenditure, on education overall. The. Latter peaked at 4.7 percent of GDP, in 2007. Before, slipping to 2.9, percent of GDP, in 2015. Vision. 2025. Fixed. A target of raising public expenditure, on education to, 7%, of GDP by. 2025. Topic. Student. Enrollment, trends. The, result of greater spending on higher education, has been a steep rise in tertiary enrollment. Between. 2007. And 2013, student. Roles swelled from 2.8. Million to 4.4. Million in the country's public and private universities. Some. 45%. Of students were enrolled in private universities. In 2011. There. Were more women studying than men in 2007. A proportion, that has since dropped back slightly to 48% enrollment. Has progressed, in most fields, the. Most popular, in 2013. Was Social Sciences 1.9. Million students. Of which 1.1. Million women and engineering, 1.5. Million of which, 370. 3415. Women, women. Also made up two-thirds of medical students, one, in eight bachelor's students, go on to enroll in a master's ph.d, program this. Is comparable, to the ratio in the Republic, of Korea in Thailand one in seven and Japan one in ten the number of PhD, graduates, has progressed, at a similar pace as university, enrollment overall. Natural. Sciences, and engineering, have proved increasingly, popular, among both sexes, even if engineering, remains a male-dominated, field, in, 2012. Women, made up 1/3 of PhD, graduates, being drawn primarily, to health 40% of PhD, students, Natural, Sciences. 39%. Agriculture. 33%. And humanities, and arts, 31%. According. To the UNESCO, Institute for statistics 38. Percent of masters and PhD, students, were studying science, and engineering, fields in 2011. There. Has been an interesting evolution, in the gender balance among, PhD, students. Whereas. The share of female PhD. Graduates, in health remained, stable at 38, to 39 percent between. 2007. And 2012, it rose in all three other broad fields, most. Spectacular. Was the leap in female PhD, graduates, in agricultural, sciences, from 4%, to 33%. But, there was also a marked progression, in science from 28%, to, 39%. And engineering, from 8% to 16 percent of PhD, students, although. Data are not readily available on, the number of PhD, graduates, choosing to stay on his faculty, the relatively modest, level of domestic research spending would suggest that academic, research suffers, from inadequate funding the fifth five-year, economic development. Plan 2010, to 2015. Fixed the target of attracting, 25,000. Foreign students, to Iran by 2015. By. 2013. There were about 14,000. Foreign students, attending Iranian universities. Most of whom came from Afghanistan Iraq, Pakistan, Syria. And Turkey in. A speech delivered at the University, of Tehran in October, 2014, president, rouhani recommended. Greater interaction, with the outside world. He. Said that scientific. Evolution, will be achieved by criticism, and the expression, of different ideas. Scientific. Progress is achieved if we are related, to the world we. Have to have a relationship, with the world not only in foreign policy but also with regard to the economy science and technology I think, it is necessary, to invite foreign professors, to come to Iran and our professors, to go abroad and even to create an English university, to be able to attract foreign students, one in four Iranian, PhD, students, were studying abroad in 2012. 25.7%. The. Top destinations. Were Malaysia the USA, Canada, Australia UK. France, Sweden, and Italy in. 2012, one, in seven international students. In Malaysia was of Iranian, origin there. Is a lot of scope for the development, of twinning between universities. For teaching and research as, well as for student, exchanges. Topic. Trends, in researchers. According. To the UNESCO, Institute for, statistics the number of full-time equivalent researchers.

Rose From 711, to. 736. Per million inhabitants between. 2009. And 2010. This. Corresponds, to an increase of more than 2000, researchers from. 52,000. 256. 250. 4813. The. World average is, 1083. Per million inhabitants. One. In four 26%. Iranian, researchers, is a woman which is close to the world average, 28%. In. 2008. Half of researchers, were employed in academia. 51.5%. One, third in the government sector. 33.6%. And just under 1 in 7 in the business sector 15 point o % within. The business sector, 22%. Of researchers were women in 2013. The same proportion, as in Ireland Israel Italy, in Norway the. Number of firms declaring, research activities, more than doubled between 2006. And 2011 from, 30 thousand, nine hundred and thirty five to sixty four thousand. 642. The. Increasingly, tough sanctions regime, oriented, the Iranian economy towards. The domestic, market and by erecting barriers to foreign imports, encourage knowledge-based, enterprises. To localize, production. Topic research expenditure. Iran's national, science budget was about 900 million dollars in 2005. And it had not been subject, to any significant, increase for the previous 15 years in. 2001. Iran, devoted, 0.5. O %, of GDP to, research and development, expenditures. Peta. 0.67. Percent of GDP in 2008. Before receding, to 0.3. 3 percent of GDP in, 2012, according to the UNESCO Institute for, statistics the. World average in 2013. Was 1.7. Percent of GDP. Iran's. Government has devoted much of its budget to research on high technologies, such as nanotechnology. Biotechnology. Stem, cell research and information, technology, 2008. In. 2006. The Iranian, government, wiped out the financial debts of all universities, in a bid to relieve their budget constraints. According. To the UNESCO, science report 2010, most research in Iran is government, funded with the Iranian government providing. Almost 75%. Of, all research funding. Domestic. Expenditure, on research stood at 0.7%. Of GDP in, 2008. And 0.3. Percent of GDP, in 2012. Iranian. Businesses, contributed, about 11% of the total in 2008. The. Government's, limited budget is being directed, towards supporting, small innovative, businesses, business, incubators. And Science and Technology parks the type of enterprises. Which employ university. Graduates, the share of private businesses, in total national R&D funding, according, to the same report is very low being just 14% as compared, with turkeys 48%, the. Rest of approximately, 11% of funding comes from higher education sector and nonprofit, organizations a. Limited. Number of large enterprises such. As i dro ni o c ni pc do iran, aviation, industries, organization Iranian. Space Agency, Iran electronics, industries, or Iran Khodro, have their own in-house R&D, capabilities. Topic. Funding, the transition, to a knowledge economy. Vision. 2025. Foresaw. An investment, of 3.7. Trillion dollars, by 2025. To finance the transition, to a knowledge economy it. Was intended for one third of this amount to come from abroad but so far FDI, has remained elusive it, has, contributed less than 1%, of GDP, since 2006. And just 0.5%. Of, GDP, in 2014. Within. The country's, fifth five-year, economic development, plan 2010. To 2015. A National Development Fund has been established to finance efforts to diversify the economy, by. 2013. The fund was receiving, 26%. Of oil and gas revenue, much of the 3.7. Trillion dollars earmarked in vision 2025. Is to go towards supporting investment, in research and development by, knowledge-based, firms, in the commercialization. Of research results a law. Passed in 2010, provides, an appropriate mechanism. The innovation, and prosperity fund. According. To the funds president, Buzard Soltani four thousand, six hundred billion Iranian Ryles circa, 170. 1.4. Million dollars had been allocated to, 100, knowledge-based, companies, by late 2014. Public. And private universities wishing. To set up private firms may also apply to the fund, some. 37. Industries trade shares on the Tehran stock exchange, these, industries, include the petrochemical. Automotive. Mining, steel iron copper, agriculture. And telecommunications. Industries, a unique situation, in the Middle East most. Of the companies developing, high technologies, remain state-owned, including, in the automotive and pharmaceutical. Industries despite. Plans to privatize 80%. Of state-owned, companies, by 2014. It. Was estimated in, 2014. That the private sector accounted.

For About 30%, of the Iranian pharmaceutical. Market the industrial, development and renovation, organization. I dro, controls. About 290. State-owned, companies, i dro. Has set up special-purpose, companies, in each high-tech sector to coordinate, investment, and business development, these. Entities, of the life-science development, company, information technology. Development, center iran info tech development company, in the Emad semiconductor. Company. In 2010. I dro, set up a capital, fund to finance the intermediary, stages of product and technology, based business development, within these companies. Topic. Technology. Parks. As of, 2012, Iran had officially, 31, science, and technology, parks nationwide. Furthermore. As of 2014. 36, science, and technology, parks hosting more than. 3650. Companies were operating, in Iran these. Firms have directly, employed more than 24,000. People according, to the Iran Entrepreneurship. Association. There are totally 99, parks of Science and Technology which operate without official, permits. 21. Of those parks are located in Tehran and affiliated, with University, Jihad thar biet modes' University, Tehran, University Ministry. Of Energy Iran, Ministry, of Health and medical education and Amir Kabir University. Among others, fars. Province with, 8 parks and reserve a Khorasan, province with, 7 parks a ranked 2nd and 3rd after Tehran, respectively. Iran. Has nearly 3,000, knowledge-based companies, in 2016. Topic. Innovation, as of 2004. Iran's national innovation system. Miss had not experienced, a serious entrance, to the technology, creation, phase and mainly exploited, the technologies, developed, by other countries eg in the petrochemicals. Industry in 2016. Iran ranked 2nd in the percentage, of graduates in science and, engineering in the global innovation index, iran, also ranked, 4th in tertiary education 26. In knowledge creation 31. In gross percentage, of tertiary enrollment, 41, in general infrastructure, 48, in human capital as well as research and 51, in innovation, efficiency, ratio, in recent, years several drug makers in Iran are gradually, developing, the ability to innovate away, from generic drugs production, itself according, to the state registration, organization. Of deeds in properties, a total, of nine thousand. 570. National inventions, was registered, in Iran during 2008. Compared. With the previous year there was a 38%. Increase in the number of inventions, registered, by the organization. Iran has several funds to support entrepreneurship. And innovation, innovation, and flourishing, prosperity, fund of the Directorate, of Science and Technology of the presidential, office national, researchers, and industrialists, support fund not big in technology, development Institute. Nanotechnology. Fund Noven Technology, Development, fund Sherif Export, Development Research, and Technology, fund support, fund of researchers and technologists. Pay Ambar Azam the great profit scientific. And technological award, student, entrepreneurs, Support Fund plus 6000, private interest-free funds in three venture capital, funds janazah, Simorgh and sera the pars, see. Also banking, in Iran. Topic. Private sector v development, plan 20 10 to 15 requires, the private sector to communicate, research needs to university, so that universities. Would coordinate research projects, in line with these needs with sharing of expenses, by both sides because, of its weakness or absence, the support industry, makes little contribution, to the innovation technology. Development, activities. Supporting. The development of small and medium enterprises, in Iran will strengthen, greatly the supplier Network as of 2014. Iran had 930.

Industrial. Parks and zones of which, 731. Are ready to be ceded to the private sector the. Government of Iran has plans for the establishment, of 50 to 60 new industrial parks, by the end of the fifth five-year, socio-economic. Development, plan 2015. A 2003. Report by the United, Nations industrial, development. Organization regarding. Small and medium-sized enterprises SMEs, identified. The following impediments. To industrial, development, lack of monitoring institutions. Inefficient, banking system insufficient. Research and development, shortage, of managerial, skills, corruption. Inefficient, taxation. Socio-cultural. Apprehensions. Absence, of social learning loops shortcomings. In international, market awareness necessary. For global competition, cumbersome, bureaucratic, procedures, shortage, of skilled labor lack of intellectual property, protection, inadequate, social capital, social responsibility. And socio-cultural, values. The economic, complexity, ranking, of Iran has increased, by one places over the past 50, years from 66, in 1964. To 65th. In 2014. According. To uncton, 2016. Private, companies in Iran need better marketing, strategies, with emphasis on innovation despite. These problems Iran has progressed, in various scientific, and technological fields. Including, petrochemical. Pharmaceutical, aerospace. Defense, and heavy industry. Even. In the face of economic sanctions. Iran is emerging, as an industrialized. Country, parallel, to academic, research several, companies have been founded in Iran during last few decades, for. Example, sinigang established, in 1992. Is one of the pioneering, biotechnology. Companies, in the region, silligan. One biotechnology. Asia 2005. Innovation, Awards due to its achievements, and innovation, in biotechnology, research in. 2006. Pars a semiconductor. Co announced, it had designed and produced a 32-bit. Computer, microprocessor. Inside the country for the first time, software. Companies, are growing rapidly in, separate, 2006. 10 iranian software, companies, introduced, their products, iran's. National Foundation, for computer, games unveiled, the country's, first online video game in 2010, capable, of supporting up to 5,000, users at the same time. Topic. Science. In modern Iran. Theoretical. And computational sciences. Are highly developed in Iran despite. The limitations in funds facilities, and international, collaborations. Iranian, scientists, have been very productive in several experimental, fields such as pharmacology. Pharmaceutical. Chemistry, and organic and polymer chemistry. Iranian. Biophysicists. Especially, molecular biophysicists. Have gained international reputation, since, the 1990s. High. Field nuclear, magnetic resonance facility, micro, calorimetry circular. Dichroism and instruments, for single protein channel studies have been provided, in Iran during the past two decades. Tissue. Engineering, and research on biomaterials. Have just started to emerge in biophysics, departments.

Considering. The country's brain drain and its poor political, relationship, with the United, States and some other Western countries Iran's. Scientific. Community, remains productive, even while economic, sanctions, make it difficult for universities. To buy equipment or to send people to the United States to attend scientific. Meetings. Furthermore. Iran considers, scientific, backwardness as one of the root causes of political, and military bullying, by developed, countries over, developing, States after. The Iranian Revolution there, have been efforts by the religious, scholars to assimilate, Islam with modern science, and this is seen by some as the reason behind the recent successes, of Iran to augment its scientific, output, currently. Iran aims for a national, goal of self sustainment, in all scientific, arenas. Many. Individual, Iranian, scientists. Along with the Iranian Academy, of Medical Sciences, and Academy, of Sciences, of Iran are involved, in this revival the. Comprehensive. Scientific plan has been devised based on about 51, thousand pages of documents, and includes, 224. Scientific. Projects, that must be implemented, by the year 2025. Topic. Medical, sciences. With, over 400 medical. Research facilities, in 76, Medical Magazine indexes available, in the country Iran is the 19th country, in medical research and is set to become the tenth within 10 years 2012. Clinical. Sciences are invested, in highly in Iran in areas, such as Rheumatology. Hematology and. Bone marrow transplantation. Iranian, medical scientists, publish regularly the. Hematology, oncology and, bone marrow transplantation. Research, Centre hor, see of Tehran, University of, Medical Sciences, in Sharia RT hospital was established, in 1991. Internationally. This Center is one of the largest bone marrow transplantation. Centres, and has carried out a large number of successful, transplantations. According. To a study conducted in, 2005. Associated. Specialized, pediatric, hematology, and oncology pho services, exist in almost all major cities throughout the country where forty-three board-certified, or, eligible, pediatric, hematologist, oncologists. Are giving care to children suffering, from cancer or hematological. Disorders, three. Children's, medical centers at universities, have approved fo fellowship, programs, besides. Hematology. Gastroenterology. Has recently attracted, many talented, medical students, the, gastroenterology. Research Centre based at Tehran University, of Medical Sciences, has produced, increasing, numbers of scientific. Publications since, its establishment. Modern. Organ transplantation. In Iran dates to 1935. When the first cornea, transplant, in Iran was performed, by professor Mohammad Polly shams at four RBI hospital, in Tehran Iran, the. Shiraz namazi, transplant, center also one of the pioneering, transplant, units of Iran performed, the first Iranian kidney, transplant, in 1967, and. The first Iranian liver transplant, in 1995. The. First heart transplant in Iran was performed, in 1993. In Tabriz, the. First lung transplant, was performed in, 2001. And the first heart and lung transplants. Were performed in, 2002. Both at Tehran University of, Medical Sciences. Iran. Developed, the first artificial, lung in 2009. To join five other countries in the world that possessed such technology. Currently. Renal, liver and heart transplantation. Czar routinely performed, in Iran Iran. Ranks fifth in the world in kidney transplants. The, Iranian, tissue bank commencing, in 1994. Was the first multi, facility, tissue bank in country, in, June 2000. The organ transplantation. Brain, death Act was approved by the Parliament followed, by the establishment, of the Iranian Network for transplantation. Organ, procurement, this. Act helped to expand, heart lung and liver transplantation. Programs. By. 2003. Iran, had performed. 131. Liver 77. Heart seven lung 211. Bone marrow twenty, thousand five hundred and eighty-one cornea, and sixteen thousand, 859. Renal, transplantation. Eighty-two. Percent of these were donated, by living, and unrelated donors, 10%. By cadavers, and eight percent came from living related donors the. Three year renal transplant, patient, survival rate was ninety two point nine percent and, the forty month graft survival rate, was eighty five point nine percent neuroscience. Is also emerging in Iran a few. PhD, programs, in cognitive and computational. Neuroscience. Have been established in the country, during recent decades, Iran. Ranks, first in MIDI stand region in ophthalmology Iranian. Surgeons, treating, wounded Iranian, veterans during the iran-iraq war invented. A new neuro surgical, treatment, for brain injured patients, that laid to rest the previously, prevalent, technique developed, by US Army surgeon, dr. Ralph munzo this. New surgical, procedure, helped devise new guidelines.

That Have decreased death rates for comatose, patients, with penetrating, brain injuries, from 55%, of 1980, to 20%, of 2010, it, has, been said that these new treatment, guidelines benefitted. US Congresswoman, Gabrielle, Giffords who, had been shot in the head. Topic, Biotechnology. Iran has a biotechnology. Sector that is one of the most advanced, in the developing, world the Razi, Institute, for serums and vaccines, in the Pasteur Institute of, Iran are leading regional facilities, in the development, and manufacture, of vaccines, in, January. 1997. The Iranian biotechnology. Society, IBS, was created, to oversee biotechnology. Research in Iran agricultural. Research has been successful, in releasing high yielding varieties with, higher stability as well as tolerance, to harsh weather conditions, the. Agriculture, researchers are working jointly with international, institutes, to find the best procedures, and genotypes, to overcome, produce, failure and to increase yield in. 2005. Iran's first genetically, modified GM. Rice was approved by national, authorities, and is being grown commercially for, human consumption, in. Addition, to GM rice Iran has produced, several GM, plants, in the laboratory such as insect resistant maize cotton, potatoes, and sugar beets herbicide. Resistant, canola salinity, and drought tolerant, wheat and blight resistant, maize and wheat the. Royal Institute, engineered, Iran's first cloned animal the Sheep was born on the 2nd of August 2006. And passed the critical first two months of his life in the last months of 2006. Iranian, biotechnologists. Announced, that they as the third manufacturer. In the world have sent to Novak's a recombinant, type of interferon, b18, to the market, according. To a study by David Morrison. And Ali cardem Hosseini, Harvard MIT in Cambridge stem-cell, research in Iran is amongst the top 10 in the world Iran. Will invest 2.5. Billion dollars in the country stem-cell research, over the next five years, 2008.

To 2013. Iran. Ranked second in world in transplantation. Of stem cells in 2010. Iran began mass-producing ocular. Bio implants, named sa MT Iran. Began investing, in bio technological. Projects, in 1992. And this is the tenth facility, in Iran life patch is the fourth bio implant, mass produced by Iran after bone heart valve and tendon, bio implants, 12 countries in the world produce, biotech, drugs among which Iran is one of them according. To Scopus Iran ranked 21st, in biotechnology, by, producing, nearly four thousand, related, scientific, articles, in 2014. In. 2010. REO jian biopharma. Established, the biggest and most modern knowledge-based facility, for production, of therapeutic, monoclonal, antibodies. In the region as at. 2012, iran produced, 15, types of monoclonal, antibody. Drugs, these. Anti-cancer. Drugs are now produced, by only two to three Western, companies, in 2015. Gnorga new company established, as first officially, registered, CRO and CM o in Iran Norgan. Uses the concept, of CMO, and CRO servicing, to the biopharma, sector of Iran is its main activity, to fill the gap and promote developing, biotech, ideas products, toward commercialization. Topic. Physics, and materials. Iran. Had some significant, successes, in nuclear technology during. Recent decades especially. In nuclear, medicine however. Little, connection, exists between Iran's scientific. Society, in that of the nuclear program of Iran, Iran. Is the seventh country, in production, of uranium, hexafluoride or, uf6. Iran. Now controls, the entire cycle for producing, nuclear fuel, Iran, is among the 14 countries in possession, of nuclear energy technology. In. 2009. Iran was developing, its first domestic, linear particle, accelerator, Li NAC, it. Is among the few countries in the world that has the technology to, produce zirconium. Alloys, Iran. Produces, a wide range of lasers, in demand within the country, in medical, and industrial fields. In. 2011. Iranian, scientists. At the Atomic Energy organization of. Iran a EEO I have, designed, and built a nuclear fusion device named, IRI ECF. Iran. Is the sixth country, with such technology. Topic. Computer. Science, electronics. And, robotics. The, center of excellence in design robotics. And automation was, established, in 2001. To promote educational. And research activities in, the fields of design robotics. And automation. Besides. These professional, groups several, robotics, groups work in Iranian, high schools surah, noor - robot. Which was designed by engineers, at university, of tehran was, unveiled in 2010, the. Robot can be used for handling sensitive tasks, without the need for cooperating. With human beings the. Robot is taking, slow steps similar to human beings harmonious. Movements, of hands and feet and other movements, similar to humans, next. To researchers planned to develop speech, and vision capabilities. And greater intelligence for this robot the Institute, of Electrical and, Electronics, Engineers, I Triple, E has placed the name of Serena among the five prominent robots of the world after analyzing, its performance, in.

2010. Iranian, researchers, have for the first time in the country, developed, 10 robots for the nation's automotive, industry, using domestic know-how, ultra-fast, micro, processes, Research Center in Tehran Zamir kabir University, of Technology, successfully. Built a supercomputer in. 2007. Maximum. Processing, capacity of the supercomputer. Is 860. Billion operations per second, Iran's. First supercomputer, launched, in 2001. Was also fabricated by, Amir Kabir University. Of Technology, in. 2009. A SUSE Linux based, HPC. System, made by the aerospace research institute of, Iran re was launched with 32, cores and now runs 96. Cause it's. Performance, was pegged at 190. To gigaflops, Iran's. National supercomputer. Made by Iran Infotech, Development Company a subsidiary, of i dro was built from 216. AMD, processors, the. Linux cluster machine has a reported, theoretical. Peak performance, of, 860. Gig flops, the. Ruta lab team at the University, of Tehran successfully. Designed and implemented an Access Rooter RA hya, b300. And a 40 gigabits per second, high capacity, switch fabric, boots in. 2011. Amir Kabir University. Of Technology, in Isfahan, University of. Technology produced. Two new su computers, with processing, capacity of, 34,000. Billion operations per second, the. Supercomputer. At Amir Kabir University. Of Technology, is expected, to be among the 500 most, powerful, computers, in the world. Topic. Chemistry, and nanotechnology in. 2007. Iranian, scientists, at the Medical Sciences and Technology, Center succeeded, in mass producing, an advanced, scanning microscope, the scanning tunneling microscope, STM, by. 2017. Iran ranked fourth in ISI Index nano articles. Iran. Has designed, and mass-produced, more than 35, kinds, of advanced, nanotechnology. Devices, these. Include, laboratory, equipment, antibacterial. Strings power station, filters and construction, related equipment, and materials, research in nanotechnology has. Taken off in Iran since the nanotechnology, initiative, council, nick was founded in 2002. The. Council, determines, the general policies, for the development, of nanotechnology, and coordinates, their implementation. It. Provides, facilities creates. Markets, and helps the private sector, to develop relevant, R&D. Activities, in the. Past decade. 143. Nanotech, companies, have been established in eight industries. More. Than one quarter of these are found in the healthcare industry compared. To just 3% in the automotive industry today, five research centers, specialize in nanotechnology. Including, the nanotechnology, research center, at Sharif University. Which established, Iran's first doctoral program, in nanoscience. And nanotechnology a, decade, ago Iran. Also hosts, the International, Center on nanotechnology. For water purification, established. In collaboration. With UN I do in 2012, in. 2008. Nick established, in a canal no network to promote the scientific, and industrial, development, of nanotechnology among. Fellow members, of the Economic, Cooperation, Organization. Namely Afghanistan, Azerbaijan. Kazakhstan. Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan. Tajikistan. Turkey, Turkmenistan and. Uzbekistan. Iran. Recorded, strong growth in the number of articles on nanotechnology between. 2009. And 2013. According, to Thomson Reuters web of science, by. 2013. Iran ranked seventh for this indicator, the, number of articles, per million population has, tripled to 59, overtaking. Japan in the process, few. Patents are being granted to Iranian inventors, in nanotechnology. As yet however the. Ratio of nanotechnology. Patents, to articles, was 0.41. Per 100, articles for Iran in 2015. Topic. Aviation. And space. On the, 17th, of August 2008. The Iranian, Space Agency, proceeded, with the second test launch of a three stages sapphire, SLV from a site south of Semillon in the northern part of the - DK veer desert the. Safir, ambassador satellite. Carrier successfully, launched the Omid satellite, into orbit in, February 2009. Iran. Is the ninth country, to put a domestically, built satellite, into orbit since, the Soviet Union launched the first in 1957. Iran. Is among a handful, of countries in the world capable, of developing satellite, related, technologies, including. Satellite navigation systems. Iran's. First astronaut, will be sent into space onboard an Iranian, shuttle by 2019. Iran. Is also the sixth country to send animals in space Iran. Is one of the few countries capable. Of producing 20, to 25, tons e patrol aircraft in. 2013. Iran constructed, its first hypersonic. Wind tunnel for testing missiles in doing aerospace, research, Iran.

Is The eighth country, capable of manufacturing jet, engines. Topic. Astronomy. The, Iranian government, has committed, 150. Billion Ryles roughly 16 million u.s. dollars for a telescope an observatory, and a training program, all part of a plan to build up the country's, astronomy, base, Iran. Wants to collaborate internationally, and, become internationally, competitive in, astronomy says the University, of Michigan's, Carla Calif an adviser to the Iranian, project, for, a government that is usually, characterized. As wary of foreigners, that's an important, development, in, July. 2010, Iran unveiled its largest domestically. Manufactured, telescope. Dubb tarah, in, 2016. Iran unveiled its new optical, telescope, for observing celestial, objects, as part of a PCSO it. Will be used to understand, and predict the physical, location, of natural, and man-made objects. In orbit around the earth. Topic. Energy. Iran. Has achieved the technical, expertise, to set up hydroelectric. Gas and combined-cycle, power plants. Iran. Is among the four world countries, that are capable of manufacturing, advanced, v90 4.2, gas turbines. Iran. Is able to produce all the parts needed for its gas refineries. And is now the third country in the world to have developed gas-to-liquids, GTL. Technology. Iran. Produces, 70%, of its industrial equipment. Domestically, including, various turbines, pumps, catalysts. Refineries, oil tankers, oil rigs offshore, platforms, and exploration, instruments, Iran. Is among the few countries that has reached the technology, and know-how, for. Drilling in the deep waters, iran's. Indigenously, designed darkovan, nuclear power plant is scheduled, to come online in 2016. Topic. Armaments. Iran. Possesses the technology, to launch superfast, anti-submarine, rockets that can travel at the speed of 100, m/s, underwater making, the country second, only to Russia in possessing the technology, Iran. Is among the five countries in the world to have developed, a munitions, with laser targeting, technology, Iran. Is among the few countries that possess the technological. Know-how of the unmanned aerial vehicles, UAV, fitted with scanning and reconnaissance systems. Iran. Is among the 12 countries with missile technology, and advanced, mobile air defense systems, over. The past years Iran has made important, breakthroughs, in its defense sector, and attained self-sufficiency. In producing, important, military equipment, and systems, since. 1992. It also has produced its own tanks, armored personnel carriers. Sophisticated. Radars, guided, missiles a submarine, and fighter planes. Topics, scientific, collaboration, Iran annually, hosts international science, festivals, the, International, Car Azmi festival in basic science, in the annual Rossy medical, sciences, research festival promote, original, research in science, technology and, medicine in Iran there.

Is Also an ongoing R&D. Collaboration. Between large, state-owned, companies, in the universities. In Iran. Iranians. Welcome scientists, from all over the world to Iran for a visit and participation, in seminars, or collaborations. Many. Nobel laureates, and influential scientists. Such as Bruce Alberts F Sherwood, Rowland Kurt Warrick, Stephen, Hawking and Pierre Jill dejenne visited, Iran after, the Iranian Revolution. Some. Universities. Also hosted American and European scientists, as guest lecturers during, recent decades, although. Sanctions. Have caused the shift in Iran's trading partners from west to east scientific. Collaboration, has remained largely oriented. Towards the west between. 2008. And 2014. Iran's, top partners, for scientific, collaboration. With the USA, Canada, the UK and Germany in that order, Iranian. Scientists, co-authored, almost twice as many articles, with the counterparts, in the USA. 6377. As with their next closest collaborators. In Canada. 3433. And the UK. 3318. Iranian. And US scientists, have collaborated, on a number of projects, Malaysia, is Iran's fifth closest, collaborator, in science, and India ranks 10th after Australia France, Italy, in Japan. One-quarter, of Iranian, articles, had a foreign co-author in 2014. A stable, proportion, since 2002. Scientists. Have been encouraged, to publish in international, journals in recent years a policy, that is in line with vision, 2025. The, volume of scientific, articles authored, by Iranians, in international, journals has augmented, considerably, since 2005. According, to Thomson Reuters web of science science, Citation, Index expanded. Iranian. Scientists, now published, widely in international, journals in engineering, and chemistry as well as in life sciences, and physics, women. Contribute about 13%. Of articles, with a focus, on chemistry medical. Sciences, and social sciences. Contributing. To this trend is the fact that PhD, programs, in Iran now require students, to have publications, in the web of science, Iran. Has submitted a formal request to participate, in a project which is building an international thermonuclear, experimental.

Reactor ITER, in France by 2018. This. Mega project, is developing, nuclear fusion technology, to lay the groundwork for tomorrow's, nuclear, fusion power plants, the. Project, involves, the European, Union China India, Japan Republic, of Korea Russian, Federation, and USA, a team. From ITER visited, Iran in November, 2016, to deepen its understanding, of Iran's fusion, related programs, Iran hosts several international, research centres including, the following established, between 2010, and 2014. Under the auspices of the United Nations the regional, center for Science Park and technology, incubator, development, UNESCO, s 2010. The International, Centre on nanotechnology UN, I do s. 2012. And the regional educational, and research center, for oceanography. For Western Asia UNESCO, s. 2014. Iran is stepping up its scientific. Collaboration, with developing, countries in. 2008. Iran's nanotechnology. Initiative council, established in a kana no network to promote the scientific, and industrial, development, of nanotechnology among. Fellow members, of the cooperation. Organization. Namely Afghanistan, Azerbaijan. Kazakhstan. Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan. Tajikistan. Turkey, Turkmenistan and. Uzbekistan, the. Regional, center for Science Park and technology, incubator, development, is also initially targeting, these same countries it. Is offering and policy advice on how to develop their own science, parks and Technology incubators, Iran is an active member of Co MS te CH and, collaborates, on its international, projects, the. Coordinated, general of Co MS te CH dr., a tea or ramen has said that Iran is the leader in science and technology among, Muslim countries, and hoped for greater cooperation with, Iran in different international technological. And industrialization. Projects. Iranian. Scientists. Are also helping, to construct the compact, muon solenoid, a detector, for the Large Hadron Collider of, the European, Organization, for Nuclear Research CERN. That is due to come online in, 2008. Iranian. Engineers are, involved in the design and construction of, the first regional, particle, accelerator, of the Middle East in Jordan, called sesame since the lifting of international sanctions, Iran. Has been developing, scientific, and educational links. With Kuwait Switzerland.

Italy Germany, China, and Russia. Topic. Contribution, of Iranians, and people of Iranian, origin to modern science scientists. With an Iranian background. Have made significant, contributions, to the international, scientific community in. 1960. Ali jayven, invented, first gas laser in. 1973. The fuzzy set theory was developed by Lotfi a Zadeh. Iranian. Cardiologist. Tophi massive and invented, the first artificial. Heart and afterwards, developed, it further, hba1c. Was. Discovered, by Samuel rebar and introduced, to the medical community, the. VAF a Witten theorem was proposed by Kamran VA FA an Iranian, string theorist, and his co-worker Edward Witten the. Card of Parisi Jiang kpz, equation. Has been named after Moran cada notable, iranian physicist, other, notable, discoveries and, innovations by, Iranian, scientists. And engineers or, of Iranian, origin include, Kareem Meir Nia discovery, of spermatogonia, stem cells reza gay dairy 1998. Fineman prize for invention, of a self-organized. Replicating. Molecular, system Medi VA easy Yovani invention, of sheer force microscopy, Siavash. Alamou t and waha Tarek invention, of space time block code, share in dehghan 2006. Women in technology award, maiden, geta inventor, of invisibility, shield plasmonics. Cover and research leader of the year 2006. Scientific. American magazine and, winner of a Guggenheim Fellowship. 1999. For fractional, paradigm, of classical, electrodynamics. Alley, Safari Neely co-inventor. Of Mars advanced radar, for subsurface and ionosphere sounding, ma RS is Pierre, Omidyar economist. Found there in chairman of ebay ruse by Yasin II inventor, of the cable modem Homer, Yoon sera G most published, author in the 20 year history of the journal of robotic, systems, declared, in 2007. Muslim. Batted ori reported, the first case of plasma cell granuloma, of the lung Mohamed. Abdullahi, the laureate of I ASCO MS te CH, 2005. Prize in the field of pharmacology. And toxicology in. An IAS, fellow, MA. Is ranked as an international, top 1%, outstanding, scientists, of the world in the field of pharmacology. And toxicology according. To essential, science indicators for, us a Thompson Reuters is I an award. Named Mohamed, Abdullahi prize has been established by Asian Network for, scientific, information and science alert publishing, company, in the International, Journal of pharmacology. In the recognition, of MA efforts in the field of pharmacology. And toxicology. MA. Is also known as one of outstanding, leading scientists, of OIC member, countries. Mason. Go van loo inventor, of tongue drive wheelchair, man, sir our median and Gelinas Rai developers, of pars parallel, application, from rapid simulation, which won the IET, Innovation Award 2008. In software design mohammad nabi sabah Lukie invention, of dentro song shekhu for nick fair the awardee of the top women scientists, byte was TW, o WS Scopus in the field of medicine in 2009. After. Nairobi, a inventor, of an ultra strong and lightweight material. Known as composite metal foam cmf, maya. Mirza carney in august 2014. Mirza connie became, the first ever woman as well as the first-ever iranian, to receive the Fields Medal the, highest prize in mathematics. Raman, goalless Damien in August 2014, Raman. Girlís Danian won the whole wet prize for his research work in physics. Topic. International. Rankings. According. To Scopus iran ranked 17th, in terms of science production, in the world in 2012, with the production, of thirty four thousand, one hundred and fifty five articles above, Switzerland, and Turkey. According. To the Institute, for scientific, information ISI. Iran, increased, its academic, publishing output, nearly tenfold from, 1996. To 2004. And has been ranked first globally, in terms of output growth rate followed by China with a three-fold, increase in. Comparison. The only g8 countries, in top 20 ranking, with fastest, performance, improvement, are Italy at 10th in Canada at 13th, globally, Iran.

China India, and Brazil are the only developing, countries, among 31, nations with, 97.5. Percent of the world's total scientific. Productivity, the. Remaining, 162. Developing, countries, contribute, less than 2.5. Percent of the world's scientific, output, despite. The massive improvement, from, 0.03. Percent of, the global scientific output, in 1972. 0.29%. In, 2003. Still, Iran's total, share in the world's total output remained, small, according. To Thomson Reuters Iran, has demonstrated a, remarkable growth, in science and technology over, the past 1 decade, increasing, its science and technology, output, fivefold, from 2000. To 2008. Most. Of this growth has been in engineering, and chemistry producing. 1.4. Percent of the world's total output in the period, 2004. To 2008. By. Year 2008. Iranian, science and technology, output accounted, for 1.0, 2%, of the world's total output that is approximately. 340. Thousand, percent growth in 37, years of 1972. 2008. 25 percent of scientific, articles published in 2008. By Iran were international co-author, ships the. Top five countries co-authoring. With Iranian, scientists. A US UK Canada Germany. And France a. 2010. Report by Canadian, research firm science, metrics, has put Iran in the top ranked globally, in terms of growth in scientific. Productivity, with a 14.4, growth index followed, by South Korea with a 9.8, growth index. Iran's. Growth rate in science, and technology, is 11 times more than the average growth of the world's output in 2009. And in terms of total output per year Iran has already surpassed the total scientific, output of countries, like Sweden, Switzerland Israel. Belgium, Denmark Finland. Austria, or that of Norway, Iran. With a science and technology, yearly growth rate of 25%, is, doubling its total output every three years and that this rate will reach the level of Canadian, annual output in 2017. The. Report further notes that Iran's scientific. Capability, buildup has been the fastest, in the past two decades and that this buildup is in part due to the Iraqi invasion of Iran the subsequent, bloody iran-iraq, war in Iran's high casualties, due to the international, sanctions in effect on Iran is compared, to the international, support Iraq enjoyed, the.

Then Technologically. Superior Iraq, and its use of chemical weapons, on Iranians, made Iran to embark on a very ambitious science, developing, program by mobilizing, scientists. In order to offset its international, isolation and, this is most evident in the country's nuclear, sciences. Advancement, which has in the past two decades grown, by, 8400, percent as compared, to the 34, percent for the rest of the world this. Report, further predicts, that though Iran's scientific. Advancement, is a response, to its international isolation may, remain a cause of concern for the world all the while it may lead to a higher quality, of life for the Iranian population, but simultaneously and, paradoxically, will also isolate, Iran even, more because of the world's concern, over Iran's technological. Advancements. Other. Findings, of the report point, out that the fastest, growing sectors, in Iran of physics Public, Health Sciences, engineering, chemistry and mathematics. Overall. The growth has mostly occurred after 1980, and specialy has been becoming faster since 1991. With a significant, acceleration, in 2002. In an explosive surge since 2005. It. Has been argued that scientific. And technological advancement. Besides the nuclear program, is the main reason for United, States worried about Iran which may become a superpower, in the future some. In Iranian scientific, community, see sanctions, is a Western, conspiracy to, stop Iran's rising, rank in modern science and allege that some Western countries want, to monopolize modern, technologies, as per. US government, report on science, and engineering, titled, science and engineering, indicators, 2010. Prepared, by National, Science Foundation. Iran has the world's highest growth, rate in science, and engineering article. Output with an annual growth rate of twenty five point seven percent the. Report is introduced, as a factual and policy, neutral, volume of record comprising, the major high quality quantitative, data on the US and international, science and engineering, enterprise, this. Report, also notes that the very rapid growth rate, of Iran inside a wider region, was led by its growth in scientific. Instruments, pharmaceuticals.

Communications. And semiconductors. The. Subsequent, National Science Foundation. Report published, in 2012, by US government under, the name science, and engineering, indicators, 2012. Had put Iran first, globally, in terms of growth in science and engineering article. Output in the first decade of this millennium with, an annual growth rate of twenty five point two percent, the. Latest updated, National, Science Foundation. Report published, in 2014, by, US government titled. Science and engineering, indicators, 2014. Has again ranked Iran first globally, in terms of growth in science and engineering article. Output at an annualized, growth rate, of 20 3.0, percent with 25%, of, Iran's output, having been produced through international, collaboration. Iran. Ranked 49th, for citations, 42nd. For papers and 130. Fifth for citations, per paper in, 2005. Their. Publication. Rate in international, journals has quadrupled during the past decade, although. It is still low compared, with the developed, countries, this puts Iran in the first rank of Islamic, countries, according. To a British government study, 2002. Iran, ranked 30th in the world in terms of scientific impact. According. To a report by US Junior a Spanish sponsored, scientific, data data Iran ranked 25th, in the world in scientific, publications by, volume in 2007. A huge leap from the rank of 40 few years before as per. The same source Iran ranked 20th and 17th, by total, output in 2010, and 2011 respectively, in. 2008. Report, by Institute, for scientific information, ISI. Iran, ranked 32, 46. And 56, in chemistry, physics, biology, respectively. Among all science producing, countries, Iran. Ranked, 15th, in 2009. In the field of nanotechnology in. Terms of presenting articles. Science. Watch reported, in 2008. That Iran has the world's highest growth, rate for citations, in medical, environmental. And ecological sciences. According. To the same source Iran during the period, 2005. To 2009. Had produced 1.7. 1% of world's total engineering. Papers 1.6. 8% of world's total chemistry, papers and 1.1. 9%, of world's total material sciences. Papers. According. To the sixth report on international, comparative, performance of UK research base prepared, in September, 2009. By, Britain based research firm evidence and Department, for Business Innovation, and, Skills Iran, has increased its total output from zero point one three percent of world's output in 1999. To almost 1 percent of world's output in 2008. As per. The same report Iran had doubled its biological, sciences, and health research output, in just two years, 2006. To 2008. The. Report further notes that Iran by 2008. Had increased its output in physical, sciences, by as much as 10 times in 10 years and it's sharing world's total output had reached 1.3, percent comparing. With us share of 20% and Chinese share of 18 percent, similarly. Iran's engineering, output had grown to 1.6. Percent of, the world's output being greater than Belgium or Sweden and just smaller than Russia's output at 1.8, percent during. The period 1999. To 2008. Iran improved, its science impact from, 0.66. To 1.07, above the world's average of 0.7. Similar to Singapore's, in, engineering. Iran improved, its impact, and is already ahead of India South Korea and Taiwan in, engineering, research performance. By. 2008. Iran's, share of most cited, top 1%, of world's papers were 0.25. Percent of the world's total as, per. French government, report the, observer to our des Sciences. A des techniques, OST. 2010. Iran. Had the world's fastest, growth rate in scientific, article, out between 2003. And 2008. Period, at plus two hundred and nineteen percent producing. 0.8. Percent of the world's total material, sciences, knowledge output, in 2008. The same as Israel the.

Fastest Growing scientific, field, in Iran was medical sciences at three hundred and forty four percent and the slowest growth was of chemistry, at one hundred and twenty eight percent with the growth for other fields, being biology, three hundred and forty two percent ecology. Two hundred and ninety eight percent physics, one hundred and eighty two percent basic, sciences, two hundred and eighty five percent engineering. Two hundred and thirty five percent and mathematics, at two hundred and fifty five percent as per. The same report among the countries, that produce less than two percent of the world science, and technology, only Iran Turkey, and Brazil had, the most dynamic growth in the scientific, output with Turkey, and Brazil having, a growth rate above forty percent in Iran above two hundred percent, compared, with South Korea and Taiwan growth, rates at thirty one percent and thirty seven percent respectively. Iran. Also was among the countries, whose scientific visibility. Was growing fastest, in the world such as China Turkey, India, and Singapore they're, all growing from a low visibility, base. According. To the latest updated, French government report the, observer to our des Sciences. A des techniques, OST. 2014. Iran. Had the world's fastest, growth rate in scientific, production output in the period, between 2002. And 2012, having, increased its share of world's, total scientific. Output by plus, 682. Percent in the said period producing, 1.4. Percent of world's total science and ranking 18th globally, in terms of its total scientific, output, meanwhile. Iran also ranks first globally, for having increased its share in the world's high-impact top 10 percent publications. By plus. 1338, percent between 2002. And 2012, and similarly ranks first globally, as well for increasing, its global scientific, visibility. Through having its share of international. Citations, increased, by plus, 996. Percent in, the above period, Iran. Also ranks, first globally, in this report for the growth rate in scientific. Production of individual, fields, by having increased its science output in biology by plus.

1286. Percent in medicine, by plus nine hundred percent in Applied biology and. Ecology by, plus eight hundred and sixteen, percent in chemistry, by plus three hundred and fifty six percent in physics, by plus five hundred and seventy-seven, percent in space

2019-01-03 18:50

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