Science and technology in Hungary | Wikipedia audio article
Science, and Technology, in Hungary as one of the country's most developed. Sectors. Hungary. Spent, 1.4. Percent of, its gross domestic product. GDP. On civil, research, and development, in 2015. Which, is the 25th, highest, ratio in, the world. Hungary. Ranks, 32nd. Among the most innovative countries. In the Blumberg innovation, index standing. Before Hong Kong Iceland. Or Malta the. Global, innovation index places. Hungry, 33rd, among the countries, of the world in 2016. In. 2014. Hungary, counted. 2651. Full-time. Equivalent, researchers, per million inhabitants, steadily. Increasing, from. 2131. In, 2010, and compares, with. 3984. In, the US or. 4380. In Germany. Hungary's. High technology. Industry, has benefited, from both the country's skilled workforce. And the strong presence of foreign high-tech, firms and research centers. Hungary. Also, has one of the highest rates of filed patents. The sixth highest ratio of, high tech and medium high tech output, in the total industrial output, the 12th highest research, FDI, inflow. Placed, 14th, in research, talent, in business enterprise, and has the 17th, best overall, innovation. Efficiency, ratio, in the world the key actor of research, and development, in Hungary as the national, research, development. And innovation office. And RDI, office. Which is a national, strategic and, funding agency, for scientific, research, development. And innovation the, primary, source of advice on RDI, policy. For the Hungarian, government and the primary, RDI, funding, agency, its. Role is to develop, RDI, policy. And ensure that Hungary adequately. Invest, in RDI, by, funding, excellent, research, and supporting, innovation to increase competitiveness. And, to prepare the RDI, strategy. Of the Hungarian, government to handle the national, research, development. And innovation fund. Presents the Hungarian, government and a Hungarian, RDI, community. In international. Organizations, the Hungarian, Academy of Sciences, and its research network is the another key player in Hungarian, R&D. And it is the most important. And prestigious learned, Society, of Hungary with the main responsibilities. Of the cultivation, of science, dissemination. Of scientific. Findings, supporting. Research, and development, and representing. Hungarian, science, domestically. And around the world. Topic. Research. Universities. And institutions. Among. Hungary's, numerous, research, universities. The EO TVO's, loránd, university. Founded, in 1635. Is one of the largest and the most prestigious public, higher education, institutions. In Hungary, the. 28,000. Students, at Elte are, organized, into eight faculties, and Inter research institutes, located. Throughout Budapest. Elte. Is affiliated. With five Nobel, laureates, as well as winners of the Wolf Prize Fulkerson, prize and, Abel prize the latest of which was Abel Prize winner and Reza Moretti in 2012. Semmelweis. University. In the recently, released Q s World University. Rankings, 2016. Listed, among the world's, best, 151. To 200, universities in.
The Categories. Of medicine, and pharmacy. According. To the International, ranking, in the field of medicine Semmelweis, University. Ranked, first among the Hungarian, universities. The. Modern, medical technologies. At Semmelweis, University, project, ensuring institutions. Place among, the leading research universities in, four, main areas. Personalized, medicine imaging. Processes. And bioimaging, from, molecule, to the human being bioengineering, and, nanomedicine. Molecular. Medicine. Budapest. University of. Technology and. Economics as, research activities. Encouraged. And is present, on all levels from the BSC through, to the doctoral level, during. The 1980s. The Bute was among the first in the Eastern. Bloc to. Recognise the importance, of participating. In research activities. With institutions. In Western, Europe. Consequently. The university. Has the most well established research. Relationships with, Western, European, universities. There. Are many famous alumni. At university. Dennis, gabor who, was the inventor of holography got, his Nobel Prize in Physics in, 1971. Georgia, law got his Nobel Prize in Chemistry in. 1994. Nowadays. The university, has 110. To part, 1100. Lecturers, 400. Researchers. University. Of sega, internationally. Acknowledged, competitive. Research activities. Are essential, parts of its educational. Mission and it is particularly, important. To ensure the institution's. Position, as a research, university. Its. Research, and creative, activities, include, basic, and applied research creative. Arts product, and service, development. University. Of Debrecen with, a student, body of about 30,000. As one of the largest institutions. Of higher education, in. Hungary and it's priority areas. Of research include, molecular science. Physical. Computational. And material, science, medical, health, environmental. And agricultural science. Linguistics. Culture, and bioethics. University. Of pet as one of the leading research, universities in. The country with a huge professional, research background, the. Scent Agatha, research center of the University, of patches, covers, all aspects, of education. Research, and innovation in. The fields, of biomedical. Natural. And environmental. Sciences. The. Infrastructure. Instrumentation. And expertise. Of the 22, research, groups, operating, on the premises, provide, an excellent basis, to become a well known leading. Research facility, in Hungary as well as in Central Europe with, an extensive, and fruitful, collaboration Network. Hungarian. Academy of Sciences, is Research Network also contribute. Significantly. To research, output, of Hungary it. Comprises. 15 legally. Independent, research, institutions. And more than 130. Research, groups, at universities. Co-financed. By the academy. This. Research, network, focusing. Above all on discovery, research, is unparalleled, in, Hungary accounting. For one-third of, all scientific, publications. Produced, in the country. Citation. Indices, of publications. Posted, by the academies, researchers. Surpassed, the Hungarian, average, by twenty five point five percent. The research Network addresses, discovery. And targeted, research in cooperation. With universities and, corporations the, main. Components. Of the network are, the MTA say. Guidry search center for biology. The MTA, Institute, for computer, science, and control, the MTA, Rainey Institute, of mathematics. The MTA, research, center for Natural, Sciences. The MTA, Institute. Of nuclear research. The MTA, Institute. Of experimental, medicine MTA. Wigner, Research Center for physics the MTA, Center, for energy research, and MTA, Research, Center for astronomy, and earth sciences, involved. With Khan Kali observatory. Topic. Venture. Capital, market. According. To the HVC, a Hungarian. Venture, capital, and private equity, Association. Report, joint efforts, of the venture capital, and private equity industry, and, the Hungarian government the access, of Hungarian, enterprises. To venture capital, and private equity funding. Could be significantly. Increased. During. The past two decades these, financial. Intermediaries. Have also played an increasingly important. Role in the Hungarian, economy. During. This period venture. Capital, and private equity funds, invested, close to four billion u.s., dollars, in to more than 400 Hungarian. Enterprises. However. So-called. Buyout, transactions. Have accounted, for about two-thirds, of the total volume of those investments, which were aimed at the acquisition, of shares in mature companies, that have been operating, profitably, for several years, the. Volume, of investments. In early and expensive, stage companies, was significantly. Lower. Only. About 30 percent of the total volume of investments.
Was Directed, at companies, in the expansive, stage and less than 5% at. Early-stage companies. This. Is also reflected, by the fact that over the last two decades slightly. More than 10 percent of the total volume of venture capital, and private equity investments. Came from funds focusing, on early-stage companies. The. Remaining, close to 90 percent was invested, by private, equity funds focusing, on more mature companies, with greater economic, strength as for. The number of transactions. Companies. In the expansive, stage were targeted, by the largest number of venture, capital, and private equity, investments. Such investments. Accounted, for almost 60 percent of Hungarian, transactions. Nearly. A third of transactions. Involved, early-stage companies. Buy. Out deals, represented. Approximately, 10% of, transactions. By number several. Factors, have contributed to. This growth these, include, tax exemptions. On Hungarian, venture, capital, funds, established, in conjunction, with large, international. Banks, and financial, companies, and the involvement, of major organizations. Desirous. To capitalize. On the strengths, of hungarian, start-up, and high tech companies, in. Recent years, the share of venture, capital, invested, in the growth stages of enterprises. Has flourished at the expense, of early-stage investments. Topic. Nobel. Prize, laureates. Since. The first Hungarian won, a Nobel Prize in, 1905. The country has added a further 12 to its cash, with. Scientists, writers, and economists, all honored in the prestigious, awards. Topic. Hungarian. Inventions. You. The, English, word coach. Came. From the Hungarian catchy, Sh wagon. From Koch. Referring. To the village in Hungary, where, coaches were first made. Wolfgang. Von Kempelen invented. A manually, operated, speaking, machine in, 1769. Yano. Cerini, invented, the noiseless match. In. 1827. Anya's, jedlica invented. An early electric, motor, he. Created, the first device, to contain the three main components of, practical, direct, current motors the stator rotor, and commutator. He. Built the first generator, which used instead, of permanent, magnets to. Electromagnets. Opposite, to each other to induce the magnetic, field around the rotor one, two it was also the discovery of the principle of dynamo. Self-excitation. David. Schwartz invented. And designed the, first flyable, rigid, airship, aluminium. Made, later. He sold his patent, for German Graf Zeppelin, who built the so-called Zeppelin, airship. Donut. Banky, and Janos Tonka. Invented, the carburetor. Otto. Blahyi miksa, dairy and karoli zipper, now ski invented, the modern transformer. In 1885. Otto. Bladdy, invented. The turbo generator, in wattmeter. Hellman, Kondo invented, the three-phase, alternating current. Electric, locomotive. And was a pioneer in the development of. Electric, Railway traction. Pivoter. Puskás, invented, the telephone exchange. Des. Eaux Korda invented, the rotating, capacitor, tuning, capacitor. Joseph. Ghulam was, the inventor of many parts, of the Ford Model T and co-developer. Of the assembly, line. Sand. Or just invented, the tungsten electric, bulb, 1904. Emer. Brodie invented, the Krypton electric, bulb. Lauren. Do TVO's, weak equivalence principle, and. Surface, tension. Kalman. Tihany invented, and described, the, charge storage. Physical. Phenomena, a pioneer. In developing the. Electronic, television, and camera, tube, 1926. And invented, the plasma, TV. 1936. An infrared, camera, 1929. Joseph. Mihaly was Co designer or designer, an inventor, for Kodak the following, cameras, Kodak, extra, Kodak, medallist, Kodak, super, 620. And Kodak Bantam, special. Bela. Bahraini designed, the Volkswagen. Beetle and as the father of passive, safety and automobiles. Irvine. Kovetz invented, the concept of kovetz retention, index a concept, used in gas chromatography. Sabah, Horvath, constructed. The first high-performance. Liquid chromatograph. Firenze. An assets invented, the modern diesel, engine.
Albert. Sent georgie discovered, vitamin, c and created, the first artificial, vitamin. Nobel. Prize in Physiology or, medicine in. 1937. Theodor. Carmen, mathematical. Tools to study fluid flow and mathematical. Background of, supersonic, flight and inventor, of swept-back, wings, father. Of supersonic, flight. Albert. Phono invented, the ramjet propulsion. Georg. Jindra cick invented, the turboprop, propulsion. Leo. Szilard, hypothesized. The nuclear, chain reaction. Therefore, he was the first who realized, the feasibility, of an atomic, bomb patented. The nuclear, reactor, invented, the electron, microscope, and the linear accelerator. The first particle accelerator. And later invented, the cyclotron. Thomas. Pater Brodie invented, the active-matrix thin. Film transistor. Technology which. Underpins, the LCD. And o LED, displays, commonly. Used today. Dennis. Gabor invented. Holography Nobel. Prize in Physics in. 1971. László. Bíró invented. Ballpoint, pen. Edward teller hypothesized. The thermonuclear fusion. And the theory, of the hydrogen, bomb. John. Kemeny developed. The basic programming, language, with Thomas, II Kurtz. Firenze. Pavelic's, was one of two Co developers, of NASA Apollo lunar, rover, on. Talbot. She developed, Mars rover, Sojourner. Air. No Rubik invented, the so called Rubik's Cube. ArchiCAD, 3d. Software was, developed by Bo jar, 1987. Charles. Simonyi was, chief architect, at Microsoft, and oversaw, the creation of, Microsoft's. Flagship, office suite of applications. Gombo. A new geometrical. Body was, invented, in 2006. By Hungarian, scientists, Gabor, demarcus and Peter VAR Connie. Andhra. Mester invented, the low-level, laser therapy or. Light, therapy. Prezi. A web-based, presentation. Application and. Storytelling, tool developed. By Adam, Sam life Fisher and Peter hallux II in 2007. Our, only. Sanchi, invented, the lit rekon a translucent. Concrete building. Material. Daniel. Retie invented. The three-dimensional. Monitor, Leonar. 3do. The. Three-dimensional. Scanner microscope. 3d, Alba international. Patent, in, 2007. Was developed, by Katonah George Lee and Rosabella, gene august 1939. Szilárd. Approached, his old friend and collaborator Albert. Einstein, and convinced, him to sign the Einstein, silard letter blending, the weight of Einstein's, fame to the proposal, the. Letter led directly to the establishment, of research, into nuclear fission. By the US government and, ultimately to, the creation, of the Manhattan, Project. Szilárd, with Enrico, Fermi, patented. The nuclear, reactor. Topic. Science. You. Topic. Early. Education. History. The, bird, Shola the. World's, first Institute, of Technology. Was founded, in selmak, banya Kingdom of Hungary today, banská. Staff Nitza slovakia, in, 1735. It's. Legal, successor as, the university, of Miskolc in hungary. BM, e university. Is considered, the world's oldest, Institute, of Technology, which has university. Rank and structure, it. Was the first Institute, in Europe to train engineers, at university. Level. The. Legal predecessor. Of the university. Was founded in, 1782. By emperor joseph ii. And was named latin, instituting. Geometric. Oh Hydra Technical, Institute of. Geometry. And hydro technics. Topic. Scientists. And inventors important. Names in the 18th century are, maximilian, hell astronomer. Janos, Sano vyx linguist, Mathias, Bell polyhistor. Samuel. Maiko Vinny engineer. And Wolfgang, von Kempelen, polyhistor. And co-founder, of comparative. Linguistics. Anya's. Jed like physicist, and engineer invented. The first electric motor. 1828. The Dynamo the self-excitation. The, impulse generator and, the Cascade, connection an. Important. Name in 19th, century physics. As Joseph, Petzval one, of the founders, of modern optics. The. Invention, of the transformer. By Otto Blasi miksa dairy and Corolla zipper, now ski the AC electricity. Meter and the electricity, distribution systems. With parallel, connected power sources, decided. The future, of electrification, in, the war of currents, which resulted, in the global triumph of alternate, current systems, over the former direct, current, systems. Roland. Van io TVO's, discovered. The weak equivalence principle, one. Of the cornerstones. In Einsteinian, relativity. Rado. Van Kovas, Lagasse, discovered, laws of blackbody, radiation, before, Planck, and ween, hungary. Is famous, for its excellent, mathematics. Education, which, has trained numerous, outstanding. Scientists. Famous. Hungarian, mathematicians. Include, father Farkas, Bali I and son Janos Bolyai designer. Of modern geometry non. Euclidean geometry. 1822. 1823. Janos. Bolyai as, together with John von Neumann considered. As the greatest Hungarian. Mathematician ever. The. Most prestigious, Hungarian. Scientific. Award as named in honor of Janos, Bolyai. Paul. Air dish famed for publishing, in over 40 languages, than, whose air dish numbers, are still tracked and John von Neumann quantum.
Theory Game, theory a pioneer. Of digital, computing, and the key mathematician. In the Manhattan Project. Many. Hungarian. Scientists, including Zoltan. Bey the, dursa ble gave, a practical, solution to the three-body, problem newton. Solved, the two-body problem. Maria, talks, Emer Isaac air dish von Neumann, Leo Szilard, Eugene, Wigner Theodore. Von Karman and. Edward Teller emigrated. To the u.s. the. Other cause of scientists. Emigration. Was the Treaty of Trianon by, which Hungary, diminished. By the treaty became, unable to support, large-scale, costly. Scientific, research, therefore. Some Hungarian scientists. Made, valuable contributions, in. The United, States. Thirteen. Hungarian. Or Hungarian, born scientists. Received, the Nobel Prize von, Leonard, Bharani, zsi. Gimon D von sent Georgi de Hevesy von bkz, Wigner, Gabor, Palani a la Harsanyi, and her schoo all. Emigrated. Mostly, because of persecution, of, Communists, and or fascist, regimes, a. Significant. Group of Hungarian, dissident, scientists. Of Jewish descent who settled down in the United States in the first half of the 20th century, were called the Martians. Names. In psychology. Are Janos celli founder, of stress theory, and Csikszentmihalyi, founder, of flow theory. Thomas. Rosca, as co-inventor. Of CNN, cellular. Neural network. Some. Highly, actual, internationally. Well known figures. Of today include, mathematician. Laszlo lavash physicist. Albert, laszlo, barabasi. Physicist. Firenze crouch, biochemist. Arpad Pusztai and. The highly controversial, former, nasa physicist. Forints Moscone's II who denies the greenhouse. Effect. According. To science watch in hadron, research hungary has most citations. Per paper in, the world in. 2011, neuroscientists. Georg. Buzzer sake, Thomas, Freund and Peter so Mogi were awarded, 1 million, euro with the brain prize Danish, Nobel Prize for brain, circuits, involved, in memory after the fall of the communist, dictatorship. 1989. New scientific, prize, ball, Janos. Alko to EDG was, established. 1997. Politically. Unbiased, and of the highest international, standard, in. 2008. Barabási. Won the C&C prize in. 2010, Laszlo. Lavash, won the Kyoto Prize in 2012. And Reza Moretti won the Abel prize in. 2000. 103. For rents Crouch won, the Otto Hahn prize, in. 2015. Attila Kresna, hor K might have found the fifth force. In. 2018. Mathematician. Lazlo cked. Was awarded, the Leibniz award, as the third Hungarian, in. 2018. Physicist, or as leg ASA was awarded, the Humboldt Prize. Topic. Technology. You. Topic. Early. Milestones. In technology. And infrastructure. 1700. To 1918. The, first steam engine of, continental, Europe was built in huge Banja congas, burg Kingdom, of Hungary today, Nova, Bona Slovakia. In 1722. It. Was a new common type engine, it served on pumping, water from mines. Topic. Railways. The, first Hungarian, steam, locomotive. Railway, line was opened on the 15th, of July, 1846. Between, pest and vac, by. 1910. The total length of the rail networks, of the Hungarian, Kingdom had, reached twenty-two, thousand, eight hundred sixty-nine, kilometers, fourteen, thousand, two hundred ten, miles the Hungarian, network linked, more than one thousand, four hundred ninety, settlements. This. Has ranked Hungarian, railways, as the sixth most dense in the world ahead, of countries, as Germany, or France locomotive. Engine, and railway vehicle, manufacturers. Before, World War one engines. And wagons, bridge and iron structures. Were the Mavic company, in Budapest steam, engines, and wagons, and the Ganz company, in Budapest steam, engines, wagons, the production, of electric, locomotives. And electric, trams started, from 1894. And the rapa company, in gear the, ganz, works identified. The significance. Of induction motors, and synchronous, motors, commissioned. Kalman Kondo, 1869. To 1931. To, develop, it in. 1894. Kalman Kondo developed, high-voltage three-phase. AC motors. And generators for, electric, locomotives. The. First ever electric rail, vehicle, manufactured. By ganz works was, a six HP, Pitt locomotive. With direct, current traction, system, the. First ganz made, a synchronous. Rail vehicles, altogether, two pieces, were supplied, in 1898. To, evie unless Baines Switzerland. With a 37, horsepower. 28. Kilowatts, a synchronous, traction, system, the. Ganz works won, the tender of electrification, of, railway, of Valtellina railways, in Italy in 1897. Italian. Railways, were the first in the world to introduce electric, traction, for, the entire length of a mainline, rather, than just a short stretch, the. 106.
Kilometer. 66. Miles Valtellina, line was opened on the 4th of September 1902. Designed. By cando and a team from the ganz. The. Electrical, system was, three-phase, at 3 kilo, volts 15, Hertz, the. Voltage, was significantly. Higher than used, earlier, and it required new designs, for electric, motors and switching, devices, in. 1918. Kendo, invented, and developed the, rotary phase converter, enabling. Electric, locomotives. To use three-phase, motors, whilst supplied, via a single overhead, wire carrying. The simple industrial frequency. 50 Hertz single-phase, AC of, the high voltage national. Networks. Topic. Electrified. Tramways. The, first electric, tramway was built in Budapest, in 1887. Which, was the first tramway, in austria-hungary. By. The turn of the 20th, century, 22. Hungarian. Cities, had electrified, tramway, lines in Kingdom of Hungary. Date. Of electrification, of, tramway lines, in the kingdom of Hungary. Hungary. Budapest. 1887. Pressburg. Pose any Bratislava. 1895. Subodh, itza subotica, zombie, flee miskolc, 1897. Temas, var Timisoara. 1899. Sopron. 1900. Myrna Matti satu mayor. 1909. He say, 1905. Nagisa, Ben Sabae, 1905. Negev. Are odd or Adia, 1906. Sega. 1908. Debrecen. 1911. Huge Vedic Novi, Sad, 1911. Casa kosice, 1913. Pech, 1913. Croatia. Few, May 1899. Pula. 1904. Opatija. Lovren. 1908. Zagreb. 1910. Dubrovnik, 1910. Topic. Electrified. Commuter, railway lines. Budapest. Seat Bev rocof. Line, 1887. Szentendre. Line, 1888. God, alloh line 1888. Sea supple line, 1912. Topic. Underground. The. Budapest metro, line, one, originally, the Franz, Joseph, underground. Electric. Railway, company, is the. Second oldest underground, railway, in the world the, first being the London, Underground's, metropolitan. Line and the first on the European, mainland, it. Was built from, 1894. To 1896. And opened in Budapest, on the second of May 1896. In. 2002. It was listed as a UNESCO, World Heritage Site. Topic. Automotive. Industry. Prior. To World War one the kingdom of Hungary had, four car manufacturer. Companies, Hungarian. Car production started. In. 1908, emotive, factories, in the kingdom of Hungary manufactured. Motorcycles. Cars. Taxicabs. Trucks, and buses, these. Worth the ganz company, in Budapest raba, automobile. In gear mag later, Magha 'mobile in Budapest, and Marda Hungarian. Automobile, joint stock company, rad in a rad. Topic. Aeronautical. Industry. You. The, first Hungarian. Hydrogen-filled. Experimental. Balloons were built by Istvan Sabich, and Josef Dolman in 1784. The, first. Hungarian designed. And produced airplane. Powered, by in-line engine was. Flew in 1909. A tree cows mezzo, the. International. Air race was organized, in Budapest. Brickhouse mezzo, in June 1910. The. Earliest, hungarian, radial, engine, powered airplane was, built in 1913. Between. 1913. To 18 the Hungarian, aircraft, industry, began developing, the three. Greatest UFA. G Hungarian. Aircraft, factory. 1914. Hungarian. General aircraft, factory, 1916. Hungarian. Lloyd aircraft, engine, Factory at Azad. 1916. And Marta, in Arad, 1914. During. The WWI. Fighter, planes bombers. And reconnaissance, planes were produced, in these factories, the. Most important, aero engine, factories, were wise Manfred, works ganz, works and, Hungarian, automobile, joint-stock company. Rad. You. Topic. Electrical. Industry. And electronics. Power, plants, generators. And transformers. In. 1878. The, gans company's, general manager Andres. McCourt. 1853. To 1942. Founded. The Department, of Electrical Engineering, headed, by corrilesa, pronounced key, 1862.
1939. Engineers. Miksa Derry, 1854. To 1938. And Otto Blatty, 1860. To 1939. Also. Worked at the department, producing, direct, current machines, and arc lamps, in. Autumn, 1884. Karoli zipper, now ski Auto Blath II and miksa dairy zbd. Three, engineers, associated. With the Ganz factory, had determined that open core devices were impracticable. As they were incapable, of reliably, regulating. Voltage, in. Their joint 1885. Patent, applications. For novel transformers. Later called zbd. Transformers. They described, two designs, with, closed magnetic circuits. Where copper, windings, were either a wound around iron, wire ring core or be surrounded. By iron, wire core, the. Two designs, were the first application. Of the two basic, transformer. Constructions. In common, use to this day which, can as a class all be termed as either core form or shell form or alternatively. Core, type or shell type as an ax or B respectively. See images, the gans factory, had also, in the autumn of 1884. Made, delivery, of the world's, first five high efficiency, AC transformers. The first of these units, having been shipped on September, 16, 1884. This. First unit, had been manufactured. To the following specifications. 1400. W 40, Hertz. 122. 72, v, 11.6. 19.4. A ratio. One point, six seven one, one phase, shall, form, in. Both designs, the magnetic, flux linking. The primary, and secondary windings. Traveled, almost entirely, within, the confines, of the iron core, with no intentional. Path through air see toroidal cores below, the. New transformers. Were three point four times more efficient, than the open core bipolar, devices, of Guillard, and Gibbs. The. Zbd, patents, included, two other major interrelated. Innovations. One concerning, the use of parallel, connected, instead. Of series, connected. Utilization. Loads the, other concerning, the ability, to have high turns, ratio, transformers. Such that the supply network voltage, could be much higher initially. 1,400. To 2,000, volts, than the voltage of utilization loads, 100. Volts initially, preferred, when employed in parallel, connected electric, distribution, systems, closed, core transformers. Finally, made it technically. And economically feasible. To provide, electric, power for lighting in homes businesses, and, public, spaces. Vladdy. Had suggested, the use of closed, cores zipper, now skee had suggested, the use of parallel. Shunt connections, and Derry had performed, the experiments. The other essential milestone. Was the introduction, of voltage source voltage. Intensive, vs VI systems. By the invention of constant, voltage generators. In 1885. Otto, Blasio. So invented, the first AC electricity. Meter. Transformers. Today are designed on the principles. Discovered, by the three engineers. They. Also popularized. The word transformer. To describe, a device for altering the EMF, of an electric, current although the term had already been, in use by, 1882. In. 1886. The zbd, engineers, designed, and the gans factory, supplied, electrical, equipment, for the world's first power station, that used AC generators. To power a parallel, connected common, electrical, network the steam-powered roam chair cheap power plant, the. Reliability. Of the AC technology. Received. Impetus, after, the ganz works electrified. A large, European metropolis. Rome in 1886. Turbo, generators. The first turbo, generators, were water turbines, which propelled, electric, generators. The. First Hungarian water, turbine, was designed by the engineers, of the ganz works in. 1866. The mass production, with dynamo, generators. Started, in 1883. The. Manufacturing. Of steam turbo, generators. Started, in the ganz works in, 1903. In 1905. The Lange machine, factory company. Also started, the production of steam turbines, for alternators, light bulbs, radio, tubes, and x-ray. Tongues. Ram as a hungarian, manufacturer. Of light bulbs, and vacuum, tubes since 1896. On, the, 13th, of December, 1904. Hungarian. Sandor just and Croatian, Fran Johanna men were granted, a hungarian, patent, number, 30. 4541. For, the world's, first tungsten, filament, lamp the. Tungsten filament lasted. Longer, and gave brighter light than the traditional, carbon filament. Tungsten. Filament, lamps, were first marketed, by the hungarian, company, tongs ram in 1904. This. Type is often called tongs Ram bulbs, in many European, countries their. Experiments. Also showed that the luminosity, of bulbs, filled with an inert gas was. Higher than in vacuum, the. Tungsten filament, outlasted. All other types especially. The former carbon, filaments, the. British tongues Ram radio works was a subsidiary, of the Hungarian, tongues RAM in pre ww2.
Days. Despite. The long, experimentation. With vacuum tubes, at tongues Ram Company, the mass production, of radio tubes, begun, during ww1. And the production, of x-ray tube started. Also during, the ww1. In, tongues Ram company home appliances. The. Orion, Electronics, was founded, in 1913. Its. Main profiles, were the production, of electrical, switches sockets. Wires incandescent. Lamps, electric, fans electric. Kettles and various, household, electronics. You. Topic. Telecommunication. The, first telegraph, station on Hungarian, territory, was opened in December, 1847. In Pressburg, kozani, Bratislava. In. 1848. During, the Hungarian Revolution another. Telegraph, center was built in Buda to connect the most important, governmental centres, the. First Telegraph, connection, between Vienna, and pest Buda later Budapest, was constructed, in 1850. In. 1884. 2406. Telegraph, post offices, operated. In the kingdom of Hungary by. 1914. The number of telegraph, offices, reached, 3,000. In post offices, and a further. 2400, were installed, in the railway, stations, of the kingdom of Hungary the first Hungarian, telephone. Exchange, was opened in Budapest. May 1st 1881. All. Telephone, exchanges. Of the cities and towns in the kingdom of Hungary were linked in 1893. By. 1914. More, than 2,000, settlements. Had telephone, exchange, in the kingdom of Hungary the telephone, her mondo telephone. Herald service, was established, in 1893. Two. Decades before the introduction, of radio broadcasting. Residents. Of Budapest, could, listen to news cabaret. Music. And opera at home and in public spaces daily, it. Operated, over a special, type of telephone. Exchange, system, and its own separate, network the. Technology. Was later licensed. In Italy, and the United States see, telephone, newspaper. The. First Hungarian, telephone. Factory, factory. For telephone, apparatuses. Was founded, by Janos, new hold in Budapest, in 1879. Which, produced, telephones, microphones. Telegraph's. And telephone, exchanges. In 1884. The tongues Ram Company, also started, to produce microphones. Telephone. Apparatuses. Telephone. Switchboards. And cables, the Erickson, Company also established, a factory for telephones, and switchboards. In Budapest, in 1911. You. Topic. Navigation. And shipbuilding. The, first Hungarian, steamship. Was built by antal Bernhard, in, 1817. Called, SS. Carolina. It was also the first steamship. In Habsburg, ruled States the. Daily passenger, traffic between, the two sides of the Danube by the Carolina, started, in 1820. The regular. Cargo and passenger, transports. Between, pest and Vienna began, in 1831. However. It was countess, von Szechenyi with the help of austrian, ship's company, erste dona dump chief arts gazelle shaft DD SG, who established, the óbuda shipyard, on the Hungarian, Hodja yari Island, in 1835. Which, was the first industrial. Scale steamship, building company, in the Habsburg, Empire, the. Most important, seaport, for the Hungarian, part of the K u, K, was, fiume Rika today, part of Croatia where, the Hungarian, shipping, companies, such, as the Adria operated.
The. Largest Hungarian. Shipbuilding, company, was the gans Danube ia's in, 1911, the. Gans company, merged with the Danube ia's shipbuilding, company, which, largest, shipbuilding, company, in Hungary, since. 1911, the, unified, company, adopted the gans. Danube es brand. Name as. Ganz. Danubius. The company, became involved in shipbuilding, before, and during World War one ganz was responsible, for building the dread-nots szent istván supplied. The machinery, for the cruiser Novara. Diesel-electric. Military. Submarines. The. Ganz danubius, company, started, to build u-boats, at its shipyard, in Budapest, for final assembly at fiume. Several. U-boats, of the u29, class, u xxx. Class u 31 class in u32, class, were completed, and, the. Number of other types were laid down remaining. Incomplete, at the war's end. The company, built some ocean liners, to in. 1915. The Whitehead, company, established, one of its largest enterprise, the, Hungarian, submarine, building, corporation. Or in its German name Unger, undersea, BOTS bow egg you be AG, in fiume, Kingdom, of Hungary now, Rijeka, Croatia. SMU. XX, SMU. 21, SMU. 22, and SMU 23. Type diesel-electric. Submarines. Were produced, by the ub AG, corporation. In fiume. Topic. C also. Economy. Of Hungary. Telecommunications. In Hungary. Hungarian. Academy, of Sciences. Education. In Hungary. Hungarian. Space, office. List. Of Hungarian, Nobel laureates. Open. Access in, Hungary to scholarly, communication. Science. And Technology, in Europe. European. Research, area. European. Institute, of innovation, and technology, HQ, Budapest.