Science and technology in Burkina Faso | Wikipedia audio article
Science. And Technology. In Burkina, Faso, summarizes. Developments. And trends in this field in burkina faso since. 2010. And places, them in their sub regional context. Topic. Socio-economic. Context. Burkina. Faso is, striving, to achieve middle, income status by 2030. Gross. Domestic product. GDP. Per capita has. Risen steadily over, the past decade. To. 1720, dollars and 10 cents in purchasing. Power parity. Dollars, in 2016. According, to the World Bank, thanks to consistently. Strong economic. Growth that, peaked at over 8 percent in 2010, after. Slowing. To 4 percent per year in 2014. The economy, is expected, to return to an annual growth rate of more than 6 percent in the coming years 1. The. Economy. Remains dominated. By the services. Sector which contributed. Almost half, 48%. Of GDP. In 2013. The. Manufacturing. Sector, plays a modest, role in the economy contributing. 6%, of GDP. The. Top three export, products, in 2012. Were cotton forty, four point nine percent of exports, gold, in unwrought forms, twenty, nine point four percent and, gold in semi, manufactured. Forms. Five point four percent according. To the African, Development Bank. Burkina. Faso as, one of a handful, of West African, countries, which have raised public expenditure. On agriculture. To at least 10 percent of GDP the. Target, of the Maputo declaration. 2003. Which, was reasserted. In 2014. Burkina faso had, a population of. Seventeen, point four million in 2014. The. Country, is experiencing. Rapid, demographic, growth, 2.8. Percent in, 2014. Life. Expectancy. At birth was 56. Years in 2014. Just. 4.4. Percent of the population. Had access to Internet, in 2014. But two thirds of the population. 67. Percent, had a mobile, phone subscription. Burkina. Faso has, ranked, 181st. On the Human Development Index. 2013. And, 102nd. On the global, innovation index. 2015. Burkina. Faso as, a member, of both the Economic, Community of, West African. States ECOWAS. And the West African, economic. And monetary, union, waa EMU. Topic. Education. Topic. Enrollment. Trends. The, considerable, efforts, made in West Africa, to reach the Millennium, Development Goal. Of primary, education for. All are paying off with the average enrollment rate, having, risen from 88 percent, to 93, percent in, the sub region between 2004. And 2012. According. To the ECOWAS annual. Report, 2012. Enrollment. Has increased by, as much as 20, percent since. 2004. In four countries Benin. Burkina, Faso, Cote. D'Ivoire and Niger by 2012. Burkina, faso had, an 85, percent gross. Enrolment rate, for primary, education. This. Dropped to 26%, at, secondary, level and to 4.5%. At. Tertiary level. Since. 2009. Enrollment. Rates have increased from, 78. Percent, 20, percent and, 3.5. Percent. Respectively, in, burkina, faso. However. More, than half of children were still not completing. The primary, cycle, in 2012. Burkina, faso has, one of africa's highest levels. Of public expenditure. On higher education at. 0.9. 3 percent, of GDP in. 2013. According to the UNESCO, Institute for, statistics. This. Represents. 22, percent, of the education. Budget and, as up from, 0.7. 4 percent, of GDP. In 2006. 19. Percent of the education. Budget, University, student, rolls doubled, in Burkina Faso between. 2007. And 2012. Burkina. Faso has, one of the sub-regions, highest, ratios, of PhD. Students, one in 20 graduates, goes on to enroll in a PhD. The. Number of PhDs. In engineering fields. Remained, low 58. In 2012. But there had been none at all five years earlier. Burkina. Faso trains. A much greater number of PhDs. In the field of health than its neighbors. In 2012. One in three PhD. Candidates. In health sciences, was a women, compared, to about one in five in science, and engineering before. He died in December, 2013. Nelson. Mandela, a champion, of education lent his name to to, graduate, universities. Entrusted. With the mission of producing, a new generation, of Africa, focused, researchers. The African, Institutes, of science and technology, in Tanzania. And Nigeria. A third. Is planned for Burkina, Faso table. University. Student, enrollment, in burkina faso by, field in, 2007. And 2012. Source. Unesco. Science, report, towards, 2030. 2015. Table. 18.4. Table. West african. PhD. Students, by field of science, and engineering. 2007. And 2012, our closest, year. Source. Unesco. Science, report, towards, 2030. 2015. Table, 18. 5. Topic. Designated. Centers, of excellence. In 2012. The West African economic. And monetary, union. Waa, EMU, designated. 14, centers, of excellence in the region, this. Label entitles. These institutions. To financial. Support from waa. EMU, for a two-year, period. Four. Of these are in Burkina, Faso, International.
Institute Of, water and environmental. Engineering higher. Institute. Of population. Sciences. International, center for research and development into, animal, husbandry in, subtropical zones, and the center for research in, biological, and, food science and nutrition in. April, 2014, the, World Bank launched, the African, Centers, of Excellence project. Eight. Government's, are to receive a total of almost 150. Million, dollars, in loans to fund research and training, at 19, of the sub-regions best universities. One. Of the selected, centers of excellence as the International. Institute of water and environmental. Engineering in. Burkina Faso, the. Association. Of African, universities, has received, World Bank funding, for the purpose, of co-ordinating. The project, and knowledge sharing among, all 19. Participating. Universities. Burkina. Faso will, be receiving, eight million, dollars, in loans the same amount as Benin Cameroon. And Togo. Nigeria. Will be receiving, 70, million dollars Ghana, 24. Million dollars, Senegal. 16, million dollars, in Gambia, 2 million dollars within the framework, of its policy, on science, and technology East, COP. OST. ECOWAS, intends, to establish. Several centers, of excellence of its own on a competitive. Basis. Topic. Trends, in science, policy, in January, 2011, the, government created, the Ministry of scientific. Research and innovation, up. Until, then management, of science, technology, and, innovation had. Fallen under the Department, of secondary. And higher education and. Scientific, research. Within. This ministry, the Directorate, General for, research, in sector, statistics. Is responsible. For planning a. Separate. Body the Directorate, General of, scientific. Research. Technology. And innovation, coordinates. Research. This. Is a departure, from the pattern, in many other West African countries. Where a single, body fulfills. Both functions. It. Is, a sign, of the government's, intention to make science, and technology. A development. Priority, in 2012. Burkina, faso, adopted, a national policy, for scientific. And technical, research, the strategic, objectives, of which are to develop R&D. And the application. And commercialization. Of research results. The. Policy, also makes, provisions, for strengthening, the ministry's. Strategic. And operational, capacities.
One. Of the key priorities, is to improve food security and, self-sufficiency. By boosting, capacity. In agricultural. And environmental, sciences. The. Creation, of a center of excellence at the international. Institute, of water and environmental. Engineering in. Wagga dugu within the World Bank project, cited, above provides, essential. Funding, for capacity. Building in these priority. Areas a dual. Priority. Is to promote innovative. Effective, and accessible, health systems. The. Growing number of doctoral, candidates. In medicine, and related, fields, as a step, in the right direction. The. Government, wishes to develop, in parallel. Applied, Sciences. And technology, and social and Human Sciences. To. Complement, the national, research policy the, government has prepared, a national, strategy to popularize, technology. Geez inventions. And innovations. 2012. And a national, innovation, strategy. 2014. Other policies. Also incorporate. Science, and technology. Such, as that on secondary, and higher education and. Scientific research. 2010. The national, policy, on food and nutrition, security, 2014. And the national, program for the rural sector, 2011. In 2013. Burkina. Faso passed, the science, technology. And innovation act. Establishing. Three mechanisms, for financing, research, and innovation, a clear, indication, of high level commitment. These. Mechanisms. Are the National, Fund for education. And research the, National Fund, for research, and innovation for. Development and the forum of scientific. Research and technological. Innovation. Funding. Comes from the National budget and various, annual, subsidies. 0.2. Percent of tax revenue, 1 percent of mining revenue, and 1 percent, of the revenue, from operating, mobile, phone licenses, the. Funds also benefit, from royalties. On sales from the results, of research in, the patent, license, agreement, concerning inventions. Funded, by the public purse. The. Creation, of national funds, for research and development as, one of the recommendations. Of EcoP, OST. The other most important, actors, in research, are the National, Center for scientific. And technological, Research, Institute, for the environment and, Agricultural, Research National. Agency for, biodiversity. National. Council, for Fito genetic, resources. Management, and the Technical, Secretariat for. Atomic energy. Responsibility. For technology. Transfer and the popularization. Of research, results falls to the national agency for the promotion, of research results and the national center for scientific, and, technological, research. Topic. Research. Trends. Topic. Financial. Investment. In research. Eko, ask countries, still have a long way to go to reach the African, Union's, target, of devoting, 1%, of GDP. To gross, domestic, expenditure. On research, and development GERD. Mali. Comes, closest. Zero point six six percent, of GDP. In 2010. Followed. By Senegal, zero, point, five four percent, of GDP. In 2010. And Ghana zero, point, three zero percent. Of GDP. In 2010. Burkina, faso devoted. Zero point, two zero percent. Of gdp, to research, in 2009. The. Strong economic growth, experienced. By the sub-region in recent years makes it harder to improve, the gerd gdp. Ratio since. Gdp. Keeps rising although, the government is the main source of research expenditure. In West Africa, foreign, sources contribute, a sizable, chunk in, Ghana 31. Percent, Senegal. 41. Percent and Burkina, Faso, 60. Percent. Topic. Human. Investment, in, research. In, 2010.
Burkina, Faso counted. 48, researchers. In full-time, equivalents. Per million, inhabitants. This. Compares, with 39, per million in Ghana 2010. And Nigeria. 2007. And. 361. Per million in Senegal, 2010. In. Burkina. Faso almost. Half of researchers. 46%. Are employed, in the health sector table. Researchers. Full-time. Equivalents. In burkina, faso, 2010. Source. Unesco. Science, report, towards, 2030. 2015. Table, 18. 5. Topic. Research. Output. When, it comes to scientific. Publications. West, Africa, has not progressed, as quickly as the rest of the continent, since 2005. Output. Remains low with, only Gambia. And Cabo, Verde publishing. More than 50 articles, per million inhabitants in, 2014. The. Figure, for burkina faso was, 16, per million inhabitants. The. Average, for sub-saharan. Africa, was 20, and the global, average was. 176. Per million inhabitants, of, note is that burkina. Faso counts. Among the top closest. Collaborators. For the following, West African, countries, Cote, d'Ivoire Mali. Senegal. And Togo. Between. 2008. And 2014. The, top collaborators. For scientists. From burkina, faso came, from France the United, States the, United Kingdom, Belgium. And Germany. Topic. Regional. Science and, Technology. Policy. Burkina, faso as, a member, of the Economic Community, of West African, states, ECOWAS. In. 2011. ECOWAS, adopted. A policy on, science, and technology East. Co P OST. Co. P OST. As an integral, part of the sub-regions, Development, blueprint, to 2020. Entitled. Vision, 2020. Vision. 2020. Proposes. A roadmap, for improving. Governance. Accelerating. Economic, and monetary, integration and, fostering, public-private. Partnerships. It. Endorses. The planned harmonization. Of investment, laws in West Africa, and suggests. Pursuing, with vigor the creation, of a regional Investment. Promotion agency. Countries. Are urged to promote, efficient, viable, small and medium sized enterprises and. To expose, traditional. Agriculture. To modern technology. Entrepreneurship. And innovation. In order to improve productivity, EcoP. OST. Provides, a framework for member, states wishing, to improve, or elaborate, for the first time their own national policies. And action, plans for science. Technology. And innovation. Importantly. EcoP. OST. Includes, a mechanism for monitoring, and evaluating, the policies. Implementation. An aspect, often, overlooked, EcoP. OST. Advocates. The development. Of a science, culture in all sectors of society including. Through. Science, popularization, the. Dissemination, of, research results. In local, and international journals. The commercialization. Of research results, greater, technology, transfer. Intellectual. Property, protection. Stronger. University. Industry ties, and the enhancement, of traditional. Knowledge. Topic. Regional. Research, centers. Burkina. Faso hosts. The African, biosafety, Network, of expertise. It, is also a member of several regional. Research centers, which have been set up since, 2010. Topic. Center, for renewable energy, and energy efficiency. The, United, Nations industrial, development. Organization. UNIDO, established. The ECOWAS center for renewable energy. And energy efficiency east. Sea' reee, in Praia the capital, of cabo verde in 2010. The. Center has been established, within the United, Nations, sustainable, energy, for all program. The. Mission, of the center is to create favourable, framework, conditions for, renewable, energy and energy efficiency, markets. In the 15, member states of ECOWAS. Since. Its founding, there has been growing external. Demand for its services, to other centers, in sub-saharan. Africa, will seek to replicate. The EC, reee, model. One. Will be established. By UNIDO in the east african community to, serve Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania. And. Uganda, a second. Will serve the 15, member states of, the southern Africa, Development, Community, both. Centers, should be fully operational by. 2014. Other, centres, are being established within. The same network in the Caribbean, and Pacific. Topic. West-african. Biosciences. Network. From. 2005. Onwards the, new partnership, for Africa's, development set, up four networks, within the African, Biosciences.
Initiative, The. West African. Biosciences. Network has its hub at the senegalese, Institute, for agricultural. Research in, Dakar, the. Other networks, are the southern african, network for Biosciences. Based, at the council for scientific, and, industrial, research in, Pretoria, South Africa. The northern Africa. Biosciences. Network based at the National, Research Center in Cairo Egypt and, the Biosciences. Eastern, and Central Africa. Network based at the International. Livestock Research, Institute. In Nairobi, Kenya. Topic. African. Institutes. For mathematical. Sciences. There, are five African, Institutes. For mathematical. Sciences, these. Are situated, in Cameroon, essed 2013. Ghana, esthe 2012. Senegal. East, 2013. South, Africa. Esthe 2003. And Tanzania. Esthe 2014. The. One in Senegal, teaches, in both English, and French each. Institute. Provides, academic, programs, in basic, and applied mathematics. Including. Cosmology. Finance. And computing, as well as, interdisciplinary. Fields, like bioinformatics. Each. Also, provides, Community Services, the first Institute. Was the brainchild of South, African, cosmologists. Neil Turok, it. Is planned to develop 15. Centers, of excellence across, Africa, by 2023. Within. The next Einstein initiative. And named inspired, by the idea, that the next Einstein could, come from Africa. The. Project, is supported by, numerous governments. In Africa and, Europe as well as the Government, of Canada. Topic. West, Africa. Institute. The, West Africa, Institute, was established in. Praia Cabo, Verde in 2010. To provide the missing link between policy. And research, in the regional, integration process. The. Institute, as a service, provider, conducting. Research for regional, and national public. Institutions. The private sector. Civil, society and. The media the. Think-tank also. Organizes. Political. And scientific, dialogues. Between policymakers. Regional. Institutions. And members of civil society. Topic. Global. Health security agenda. The, Ebola epidemic in. 2014. Highlighted. The challenge, of mobilizing, funds, equipment. And human resources, to manage a rapidly, evolving health, crisis. In. 2015. The United, States of America, decided to invest 1 billion dollars, over the next five years in, preventing, detecting and, responding to, future, infectious, disease outbreaks, in 17, countries within, its global health security agenda. Burkina. Faso as, one of these 17. Countries, the. Others are in Africa Cameroon, Cote, d'Ivoire, Ethiopia. Guinea, hen, yya Liberia. Mali, Senegal. Sierra, Leone. Tanzania. And Uganda, in Asia, Bangladesh. India. Indonesia, Pakistan. And. Vietnam. Topic. Sources. This, article, incorporates text. From, a free content, work, licensed. Under CC by. Saw iGo 3.0. Unesco. Science, report, towards, 2030. 471. To, 497. UNESCO, UNESCO, publishing. To. Learn how to add open licensed text to Wikipedia, articles, please, see Wikipedia adding. Open licensed, text to Wikipedia. For.