Rolf Landua: Once Upon a Try at CERN with Google Arts & Culture | Talks at Google
Please, join me in welcoming Ralph to Google thank you. Thanks. For having me so. It's about once upon a try which. Sounds a little bit like once. Upon a time, which. Is usually. The beginning of fairy tales in in some, way I'm, telling you a story of a fairy tale namely, how. Humankind. Has sort of always been curious, about its. Origins, and what's. Happening. Around it what are these little. Twinkling. Lights they in the sky you know and they try to find out and, in. This tradition, I mean CERN is, still, working. Very hard and trying to find out what actually is the origin, of our, universe how, it evolved, and what, are the particles how are they related to space and time and, all. This we, are trying to bring together with Google. To. The, general public and so, today I will talk about three. Things first. World for those who might not exactly, know what, CERN is I will give a short overview about, what we, are how. We are financed. What. We are doing and what. Are our instruments. The, second part will, then be our collaboration. With, Google arts and culture which, is I think really. Very. Useful, collaboration. Of two giants, in their respective fields, you know IT and, in particle. Physics and then, I will sort of in the end give you a little, bit the the highlight of our collaboration, and overview about the Big Bang. Augmented. Reality app. Which, you can download for. Free from, Google. Store or from the. Apple. Store. And. I. Talked also a little bit about the. Challenges. Which you have in such a collaboration, and, and. Of course the outcome so. Lets me start with CERN and the LHC, first, of all you see the beautiful landscape, around Geneva, which. Of course is a big, motivation to, work there as. You see the Mont long lake, and all these places and then you see these little. Yellow line which. Haven't yet painted, on the surface but. It shows you where the LHC, tunnel is actually, and now, if i zoom in, you will see that it's about, a hundred meters underground. It's. 27. Kilometers, long so about 16 miles, and. It's in this tunnel and there's this high-tech, instrument. Which we call the Large Hadron Collider, which. Is an. Accelerator. Which accelerates, particles to, 99.9999. $9.99. 1%. Of the speed of light and then, trains them into collision in for interaction, points, I'll.
Talk About that in a minute little, bit more now, what, you have to know about CERN in a few, lines is it's already quite, an old institution. It's 65, years old, it. Is funded. And paid by. 23. Member states in the original. 1954. It was just 12 now we have. 23. Plus, 8 associate. Member States from practically. All over the world our. Budget is about 1.2. Billion. Dollars. 1.1. Billion euros, and we, have a staff of 2,500, people mainly. Actually. Engineers, and, technicians. Some. Physicists, but not so many because. Usually. Our physicists. Come from outside we have a very big international collaboration. Of. 13,000. Scientific. Users which come from 110. Different countries, so, it is probably something, like the UN of science, you know the. CERN. Well. In. A nutshell the only thing you really have to understand. About the physics of CERN. Is, that, you. In, particle, collisions, you create. A. State, of matter which is so hot and so. Energetic. That has, such a high energy density that. It resembles. A, little bit the, state of the entire universe, after, about a. Trillionth. Of a second so, after, the Big Bang you, know so that is basically the, key of what, we are doing so we, are transforming, the energy, is in the movement. In the kinetic energy of the particles, into the, mass of new particles which we create at that very moment so, in each collision, which you see now we. Create something like five hundred or thousands new. Particles, which were not there, before and which. Now some, of which are made. Really. New, for us for example the Higgs boson about, which I will talk, in a minute or it might be that it contains also particles, which we don't even know yet and, they. Might. Or. Probably. Have, some. Very important, information about, the very early universe, now. In a nutshell, you, see the CERN is made out of accelerators. Very small ones which, start, basically, the acceleration, chain and then bigger ones and even bigger ones until we go to the LHC, and you, see the last part, of it when we inject, particles. From the super proton synchrotron into, the LHC. And, after about 20 minutes they have an energy which is high, enough and they start to collide for. Something like 12 hours the beams collide and then. We sort of reject, new beams and in each of these collisions, of which we have about a billion, per second you. Produce these new particles, so you can imagine what kind of data rate we have it's about a petabyte per, second and, this. Is then. Digested. By huge, farms, of computers, and the LHC. Computing grid. Speaking. About the. Results. What. We have found out is the universe actually is, built. In a pretty simple, way it's, if, you know what, a quark is and what an electron, is then. You're already in good shape because, taking. These little, Lego blocks and, you can build from two up quarks and one down quark, you can build a proton, and two down quarks and an up quark is a neutron, you, can build a nuclei with, the electrons, you can have the atoms and with atoms you can build molecules and you. Are cat at home and the. C and C is here and whatever the whole world. Is made out of these particles, now. For, us the most important, one is of course the proton. You see in this animation the, three quarks and the gluons which, are exchanged between but. That's not the important, part which I want to talk about, the. Important part is that we have discovered in the same way as Sun is now doing. Collisions. It's very very high energy we, have discovered that. They. Are more than the particles, actually we, need in this university, exist I mean there are sort of replications. Of this. Family, of up and down quark and electron, it's neutrino. Three. More I mean there are three families in total, and all. These particles have been discovered, over the last sixty. Years some of them very close to here at Stanford, some, of them at, Fermilab, and, recently. More. Of them at CERN, and. The. Latest, one was the discovery of the famous Higgs, boson, which, is also, part of our little. Exhibit. Which I'll show in a minute now. The. Question is after. We have discovered, all these particles, and we've grouped them in a nice sort, of kind of a periodic, table of particles.
Is That, it have. You finished. Can. We now put the final formula on a t-shirt and say that's it you know that is the world formula, actually. You. Need a big t-shirt. You. Need a pretty big t-shirt, this is the sort, of the formula, which, describes, the interaction of, all these particles. That we know of it's. On the one hand a fantastic, achievement because. There, hasn't been one single experiment, which, could not be described, actually, by. This formula. Whatever. The Lagrangian, you call it of the standard model you can simplify it a little bit we cheat and put, it on a t-shirt but in principle. This simplified, formula is just a cheat because it contains basically, all the elements of the formula. On the left so, with. Other words the. Standard model cannot be the final answer we know that there is more to it we, know that there is for example dark, matter dark energy and, all these, things and. Well. The, job is not done yet, but, when. Talking about, the, evolution. Of the universe and how, it came about, we. Have understood, believe. At least the, main. Steps. The main evolution, and we see that the, laws of nature which were sort of coming into existence, in, the very very first moments, in the first trillionth of a second you know and, of. The universe they, basically. Made, that all these particles, together they. Self assemble, in, it's like a big self assembling Lego game so, the options. And the down box make protons, and neutrons, then you have nucleosynthesis. The, helium and then. After. 380,000. Years the universe is cold enough in order to atoms, can form and, then, a few, billion. Years later even. Sort of stars and produce. Heavy elements, you know which later on then yeah. Go into star solar systems, and planets and, finally. Life. Intelligence. And consciousness, so. These, are the big steps and that is basically well understood, by, the two pillars of general, relativity, which describes, the big sort. Of expansion, of space and, the dynamics, of space-time, and, the standard model which are the actors the particles, which then produce sort. Of tangible, outcomes. Okay. Now that. Is basically the end of my particle, physics. Lecture. And I go back to our, collaboration. Between CERN, collaboration. And between. CERN and Google arts and culture, so. Once upon a tri is this journey of, invention. And discovery where. Not, only CERN but also NASA and. More. Than 100 museums, around the world have. Created, huge websites, and. Websites. And these websites, contain, some. Of the inventions, and discoveries that. We, have done at CERN, now. Why did, CERN agree on that, and was, very positive, about it because. The, world's, cultural heritage, online, we, consider ourselves as, being, part of this cultural heritage you know science, is not a different, part of culture. You know science is culture. So that's, the first thing secondly, our big. Goal is that everything, that we are we, discovered, at CERN has, to be made public to, everybody. And in, a way that they can understand, it so to, partner with Google and bring these discoveries, online, and for free to everybody is of course exactly. Our. Street, then. The focus on science and technology is.
Of Course something also what we very. Much like because as you know STEM subjects, and inspiration, of young. People. Is a very important, issue nowadays. And. Finally. Talking. About the Big Bang and bringing it in augmented, reality, into. Your pocket you know and you can't look at it when you whenever you have, a bit of time I think it's a very nice idea so. Being. Myself. Very. Much engaged in education at. CERN this, collaboration, was perfect. And therefore Google. And CERN we, are strong partners I think and there, are many future. Opportunities, to collaborate again, in this way. Now. I tell, you a little bit about a story, about our collaboration so, that's how it started about, a. Little. Bit more than two years ago Michael, fern Harbor from, Hamburg. Actually had, of global, strategy. Strategic engagement, you, know was. Contacting. Me you know and he came to Sarah and we discussed it a little bit you know and he was saying, we would love to explore how CERN and Google could create an innovative, and high-end experience, together. And. So that's what we did and. The. First mail he sent to me showed, me that it's a good idea actually to talk about CERN. And, what. Actually Sun is because clearly you know there, are many rumors, and there are many sort of conspiracy. Theories. And what, are these people, doing you, know and are, they opening. The portal. To another dimension and. There are été coming, out and so on and so on so Michael. Is. Very, positive. Way I think he'd, probably googled, what's, Ernest and. I came. Up with a few questions for, example who, invented the Internet well, my, notes where it wasn't us because he. Probably meant the World Wide Web but, he, said, intermittent. And was something else, what, is antimatter, I said yeah ancient, the demons we worked on ancient demons, together with Ron Howard so we've, watched this film. Dark. Matter yeah I wish I knew what it was you know what. Is it a Mandela, effect I googled that I has. Something, to do with something, you've seen before don't. But, it which is not true. What, is the CERN portal I told you conspiracy. Theories, you know and so we need to demystify it, what, is the Higgs boson very interesting, question, what. Is the CERN supercollider well. It's a Large Hadron Collider and, where. Is it not, far from my office. What. Is the expose on I think, I've seen this question, just before. What, is the god particle, it's the Higgs boson and so, on and so on so anyway, so in.
The End I said yeah let's now, fix, with. The team from Google arts and culture in Paris and in. Long on all the questions which were and so. They. Are fantastic team very, nice people very professional. So, I worked with Google, Institute. In Paris in London and. Finally. Sort of there was the company which did all the animations. Nexus, company, in London which. Clearly. Lloris again, and I am and I, mean it was really very nice collaboration, we have and, these, are the list of topics which we did 10, things you didn't know about CERN, that was something straight forward because there are many things people don't know about CERN a, stroll. Through CERN's, underground, we, used the existing Street view from. Which. Zurich, Google, Zurich had done already 2012. But which was not so, much used. The. Strange world of antimatter my own past history, you know I could bring it in that's, probably why this part is the most boring part of the whole. Website. You know because when you know too much about the subject it's not good. Of course the bird of the birth, of the worldwide web you, are all interested, probably I mean the World Wide Web is probably one of the reasons why we are here now and, of. Course that was a tricky subject because, you, see very, often Tim. Berners-lee is is of course still a very good friend of ours you know and so on but he. Has of course, the insider view of exactly, how the development, of the World Wide Web. Went ahead and, that is not exactly, how it's always described, in the sort, of in the public you know and where the relations, with his supervisor and the super. As a certain management at that time was, maybe a little bit more strain than it sort of appears in this history so it was a tricky and sensitive, way to how to phrase, all these different, things but, I think we succeeded the. Hunt for the Higgs boson I will show you in a second, the. How we sort, of framed. That story so. That you can sort, of relive, a little bit this, whole saga, which, started in 1964. And ended in 2012. And then. We. Have a large photo collection, of hundreds. Of thousands of photos. And. When sort of Google Perry, said oh we need this photo collection, I said, this will be daunting, because, our. Captions. And so on are not very, perfect, and, so. Anyway. I think we managed to get something and of course the hero project, is the Big Bang augmented, reality. So. Now, we went, on to work and the Google team was full of ideas and, and. Came up with his lots and lots and lots of suggestions but. There. Was a bottleneck, and the bottleneck, is this, person, which. Was. Sitting. There sort of trying to get all. These ideas. Into. Some content, which sort. Of could be sort, of not only shown to the general public but was also defendable. Towards. My colleagues you know because if something. Sort of is wrong yes, I mean there's. Always scientists. Which I made. A mistake here you know how can you do that, anyway. So, the outcome is. You. Can explore, CERN, from, home.
We, Have five nice, stories, I think and, a, big photo collection, on the. Google Arts and Culture website. The. One I don't speak, about more. Is the birth of the World Wide Web because, it's pretty straightforward you, can explore, the antimatter, website, you know which contains, basically, overview, about all the experiments. Which are done at CERN and, on antimatter, in the antimatter, facility, then. You have a stroll through the sands and the crawl spaces and. The, website, about ten things you probably didn't know about CERN, I will. Show you just to give you an idea. How. These websites. Have been constructed. How the exhibits, sort of tell. The story I will give you an overview about the. Discovery. Of the Higgs boson, it's, a gripping story because it starts, in 1964. When some. Scientists. Who Nova and nobody at that time had heard before Peter Higgs in in Scotland, came up with an idea about. How. Elementary. Particles, which are basically, points, you know how, they can obtain. Property. Which we call mass you know will you push them and they resist and how, can that be you know when when they are sort of a point you know how can the point resists, your, force and the idea was that maybe. Our universe since. The very beginning of the universe is filled, with a, field which. Encompasses, everything, and this field has, a finite. Value and, interacts. With these, particles, so basically, like in a super. Fluid. In a frictionless, liquid, where, you can float, and nothing, happens but once you want, to change your momentum in one or the other way this. Sort of medium. Around it inter says no. Resists. At least this change of the momentum and, that's what we call mass about. That was pure, theory in 1964. But. Little, by little it became kind. Of the one of the most important, parts of missing. Parts of the so-called standard, model and, over fifty years people try to find the. Excitation, of that field which is the Higgs boson and try, to prove. That this theory. Was correct, or not. And. So in the 4th of July 2012. CERN. In the auditorium, made a big announcement and that's, where the story starts, and then, we flash back basically. To 1964. And showed, how well. First. Of all people. Were bit frustrated, about not, finding, this Higgs boson, but as they went along, there. Was a competition between. The, US and Europe in. Building the biggest super, collider in the world and, then. The, u.s. decided, not to build the super collider and I'll show you the the some, of the excerpts, from the press, from the Senate. And Congress discussions. At that time and then, finally the LHC, was, approved and it took about 20 years to build it and to get, it working and so. That's the whole story and of course it ends then with a big discovery. Yeah. Today, is a special. Day that's our director general because we had two presentations. From the two experiments Atlas and CMS. On. Their update, on a search, for certain particle, Atlas, is very pleased, to present here, today. Updated, results on standard mode the leak search is kind of nervous for some reason I'm not sure zooming in this region this is what you see. And. Now there, is a flashback to 1964. You see the papers, but Peter Higgs and, some. Others and then, of course in the 80s the, run for the super collider which was announced by Ronald Reagan the. Superconducting. Supercollider is, the doorway to, that new world of quantum change of, quantum, progress, for science and for our economy. And, then. At that time, the cost. Had risen and there was a heated discussion in the conquest in the Senate. Should. We abandon or even, delay the, superconducting. Supercollider the. Pure pians will build the world's largest smasher. And they'll. Reap the harvest of spin-offs, that, will be an outgrowth of this project, you, may get nothing. You. May get nothing out of this. It. Would be a shame. For, a great nation, to. Shrink from this intellectual. Adventure. Then. Leon Lederman was. Quite frustrated, and wrote the book about the. Goddamn. Particle, which was then called the god particle because the editor didn't, want this is what you see one, and then despite, twenty years later. Maybe. One, well. The. Whole story is about 15 minutes long so I have no time to show everything to you but I think it's worthwhile digging, into all these different stages.
Of The discovery. So. Now. That brings me to the third chapter of, my talk which is the. Story. About the, Big Bang. Now. You. Know that our, universe is about 13.8. Billion years old and it has gone through several stages, now. We. Wanted, to create a. Little. App which is not, sort. Of too. Complicated. Which, tells the story of the universe and sort. Of goes. Exactly, together. With the whole concept of Google. Arts and culture namely. Taking. One, big work of art and showing. Every. Single pixel of it now, the universe, is a big word of a big, work of art you know it's kind of a 10. To the 80 pixel, sort, of, work. Which. We sort, of try, to understand, and we try to understand, how did, it sort of evolved. Into. The stage it is today so, it is something, which, might. Also inspire, young people to sort, of help us to find out more of these mysteries, of which there are many remaining. And. Finally. For myself I think, it is also important. To give, people. The. Possibility, to look at this and to. Put. Themselves into a cosmic, perspective you. Know because, clearly it's, a very important, message I think to many of us nowadays especially, nowadays, to. Take. Into account that, we exist only for about a hundred thousands. Of the age of the universe we. Are all the same species and, have, the same origin and we, live just on this tiny little planet into a giant you're in a giant universe and I think these are all messages, which sort. Of somehow. Contained. In this little app you know now, if you look at this picture. Which is very often shown you know you, see that, physicists. Have dominated, a little bit the evolution, of the universe you know there's always sort of like, a big bang and then suddenly there's a star, and the galaxies, and all, the rest is basically about astrophysics. But particle, physicists, like me they, say hey we, are there at the very beginning you know what, happened in the very first seconds, you know because that is basically when all the decisive, the. Parts. Of the universe were, made. So. The. Challenge was to take all these books on the early universe, gravitation. Standard model and put, them into seven. Minutes. 13.8. Billion years compressed, in seven minutes now. Without. Being too scientific of course so if we put it into the entertainment, section but, it should also be a little bit emotional, I had, to leave out some complex, paths which are maybe too. Complex and sometimes we even, don't know the answer so maybe that's the part where our young, generation. Can help how, do you visually. Represent, everything, is a big question and finally. Also we wanted a very, nice voice and famous. Speaker so I contacted. Tilda Swinton and she was happy to do. The voice of them at, least in the English so, in the script what we have we have the Big Bang itself at least sort of from certain. Tiny, moment, after the beginning the. Particle, creations, the, protons and neutrons form the, lightest nuclei form, the, atoms come about and, so on and so forth, the first stars and the nucleus entities after, about 200. Million years stars, explode, and produced nebulae and then, the, solar system, in the earth form something. Like 9 billion years after the Big Bang what. Was very important, for me and for my, colleagues and everybody, I think who is in this field is that. The timing is correct, you know because the, timing is very tricky because the. Times at the very beginning are extremely, short and then, sort, of become extremely, long so you have to make, sure that we are not losing people. So there's a little timer which, runs along the opponents. And you. Can see that later, on, now. Of, course a temperature of universe is also very important, and now when after. I set what is in the app you, ask yourself what is not in the app and there's a lot of things which is not in the app for. Example things, which we really, believe. We understand, but not, so well you know for example the very first stage, of the universe which is called inflation when space and time didn't. Contain much except, some. Kind, of faults energy we call it some in flatten field which nobody has ever seen. But maybe, it existed. Why. Did the antimatter, disappear, how, did the, Higgs boson field, come along. What. Is the. Least. Um seven problem, horizon. Fredman I mean there are kind of lots of different details. Which, were too complicated to put in and of course the dark matter and the dark energy question you know what keeps the galaxies, together and why, is the universe accelerating, faster, suddenly. After, six, seven billion years of its existence we.
Don't Know that and that's some, of the part which we try, to understand also, the size of the universe you know we know the observable, universe has, a diameter of something, like ninety billion, light years nowadays, but, we don't know if the real universe is maybe ten, to the ten times bigger it could be you, know so we don't know that, okay. Then step two was to find all the visuals you know we don't know how particle, looks like so we have to represent it with some. Kind of little smarty. Sphere. You know a green and blue, representing. Color, charge is the electric charges and so on and then. Of course when. You go into the astrophysics. Fortunately. We have big pictures, from Hubble and from a ESO and from VLT. Which, give us an idea for example about how protoplanetary. Discs actually look like. Then. I've always, nitty-gritty. Details, where you fight, with the animators, about how they. Have to present certain paths. And how do, we get more action at the beginning, is, the trans background. Opaque and transparent, background. Temperature the. Nuclei, have, to be spherical and. Not linear. These are all little, things but, they are very important, in order to give a good authenticity. You know and we thought about the timing for, a long time so, there, were many many many versions from. The, very beginning, you know Nexus, this is the company they were in a good mood and as. We go went along you know you, know we. Were it's version, number 88. As the launch date approached, you know and so, we had to work me. SEC we worked in. Batches. You know and. But. It was really in the end I think everybody. Was very happy with, the result and so I just show you the announcement. Of that you, know because I don't have time to show you all the seven minutes and. So that is basically our little publicity. Announcement. En masse of the voice the moments when tiny spec packed with energy suddenly, expanded. Giving birth to space and time. The. Stars collapse, and, experiment, as giant. Super, nervous planets. Form and our solar system, is born. 13.8. Billion, years, after, the Big Bang you. Too could be a part of the next big discoveries. So. You are Cordy. Invited to download, the Big Bang a our app, it. Has been downloaded already quite a lot so we were quite successful before. I left on holidays we were close to 300,000. Downloads about. Yeah, so, that we, hope that we are getting, to 1 million soon. We. Got lots of positive feedback. Like. I've only been through the first chapter but I'm already certainly, learning cosmology. Will never be the same or it's absolutely, incredible. So as. I said it's something. Which we, quite. Proud of and we hope that this, will sort of be, the, start of a. Long and good. Collaboration. Between CERN. And Google. Arts and culture as, I said it allows people to explore, CERN what, we are doing it's from home and also. To. Learn more about the, evolution of the universe so. Google. Arts and culture will come to sign in in a week or two and we, will sort of continue, we'll discuss, how we continue, to collaborate on arts and science thank, you very much. You.