Renewable energy policy | Wikipedia audio article

Renewable energy policy | Wikipedia audio article

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Renewable, energy commercialization. Involves. The deployment, of three generations, of renewable, energy, technologies. Dating, back more than 100, years, first. Generation, technologies. Which are already mature and economically, competitive include. Biomass. Hydroelectricity. Geothermal. Power and heat, second. Generation, technologies. Are market ready and are being deployed at the present time they include solar heating, photovoltaics, wind. Power solar, thermal power stations, and modern, forms of bioenergy. Third. Generation, technologies. Require, continued, R&D, efforts in order to make large contributions on. A global scale and include advanced, biomass, gasification hot. Dry rock geothermal, power and ocean energy as of. 2012, renewable. Energy accounts, for about half of new nameplate, electrical, capacity, installed, and costs are continuing, to fall public, policy, and political leadership helps, to level the playing field and drive the wider acceptance, of, renewable, energy technologies. Countries. Such as Germany, Denmark, and, Spain have led the way in implementing, innovative policies, which has driven most of the growth over the past decade, as of. 2014. Germany, has a commitment, to the energiewende, transition. To a sustainable, energy economy. And Denmark, has a commitment to 100%, renewable, energy by 2050. There. Are now, 144. Countries with, renewable energy, policy, targets. Renewable. Energy continued, its rapid growth in 2015. Providing, multiple benefits, there. Was a new record set for installed wind and photovoltaic, capacity. 64. Gigawatts, and 57, gigawatts, and a new high of three hundred and twenty nine billion, United, States dollars, for global renewables, investment, a key. Benefit, that this investment, growth brings is a growth in jobs, the. Top countries, for investment, in recent years were China Germany Spain. The United States Italy and Brazil. Renewable. Energy companies, include, BrightSource, Energy, First Solar, gyum essa GE Energy Gold, wind sign oval tar gray Trina, Solar. And, Yingli, climate, change concerns are also driving increasing. Growth in the renewable, energy industries. According. To a 2011 projection. By the IAEA, International, Energy. Agency solar, power generators. May produce most of the world's electricity within. 50 years reducing. Harmful greenhouse gas, emissions, renewable, power has been more effective in creating jobs than, coal or oil in, the United States. Topic. Background. Topic. Rationale. For renewables. Climate. Change pollution and, energy insecurity as, significant, problems, and addressing, them requires major changes, to energy, infrastructures. Renewable. Energy technologies. Are essential, contributors. To the energy supply portfolio, as they contribute, to world energy, security, reduce dependency. On fossil fuels, and provide, opportunities. For mitigating. Greenhouse gases. Climate. Disrupting, fossil fuels are being replaced by clean, climate, stabilizing. Non depletable, sources, of energy. Dot. The transition, from coal oil and, gas to wind solar, and geothermal energy. Is well underway in. The old economy energy was, produced, by burning something. Oil, coal, or natural gas, leading. To the carbon emissions, that have come to define our economy, the. New energy economy harnesses. The energy in wind the energy coming from the Sun and heat from within the earth itself. In. International. Public, opinion surveys. There is strong support for a variety of methods, for addressing, the problem of energy supply, these. Methods, include promoting, renewable sources. Such as solar power and wind power requiring. Utilities to, use more renewable energy and providing, tax incentives to, encourage the development and, use of such technologies. It. Is expected that renewable. Energy investments. Will pay off economically in, the long term EU, member countries have. Shown support for ambitious. Renewable energy goals in. 2010. Eurobarometer, pulled. The 27, EU member, states about the target, to, increase the share of renewable. Energy in the EU by 20% by, 2020. Most. People, in all 27. Countries either approved, of the target, or called for it to go further, across. The EU, 57%. Thought the proposed goal was about. Right and 16%. Thought, it was too, modest, in, comparison. 19%. Said it was too, ambitious. As of 2011 new, evidence has emerged that, there are considerable, risks, associated with, traditional energy, sources and the major changes, to the mix of energy technologies, is needed. Several. Mining tragedies, globally, have underscored, the human toll of the coal supply chain new. EPA initiatives. Targeting. Air toxics, coal ash and effluent, releases, highlight, the environmental. Impacts, of coal and the cost of addressing, them with control, technologies.

The. Use of fracking in natural, gas exploration is, coming under scrutiny with, evidence of groundwater, contamination. And greenhouse, gas emissions. Concerns. Are increasing, about the vast amounts, of water used, at Coal Fired and, nuclear power plants, particularly, in regions of the country facing. Water shortages. Events. At the Fukushima, nuclear plant, have, renewed doubts about the ability to operate, large, numbers, of nuclear plants safely, over the long term further. Cost, estimates, for next. Generation. Nuclear. Units, continue, to climb and lenders, are unwilling, to finance these plants, without taxpayer, guarantees. The. 2014. Re n 21, global, status report says. That renewable, energies, are no longer just energy sources but ways to address pressing social political, economic. And environmental. Problems, today. Renewables. Are seen not only as sources of energy but also as tools to address many other pressing needs including. Improving, energy security, reducing, the health and environmental impacts. Associated with, fossil and nuclear energy. Mitigating. Greenhouse gas. Emissions, improving, educational, opportunities. Creating. Jobs reducing poverty. And increasing. Gender equality. Renewables. Have entered the mainstream. Topic. Growth, of renewables. In, 2008. For the first time, more renewable, energy than conventional power. Capacity. Was added in both the European Union. And United States, demonstrating. A fundamental. Transition. Of, the world's energy markets, towards, renewables, according, to a report released by ren21. A global, renewable energy, policy, network based in Paris in. 2010. Renewable, power consisted. About a third of the newly built power generation, capacities. By the end of 2011 total. Renewable, power capacity worldwide. Exceeded. 1360. Gigawatts, are paid percent. Renewables. Producing, electricity, accounted. For almost, half of the 208. Gigawatts, of capacity added. Globally. During 2011. Wind. And solar photovoltaics. PV. Accounted. For almost, 40%, and, 30 percent, based. On ren21. S, 2014. Report, renewables, contributed. 19%. To our energy consumption, and 22% to, our electricity, generation, in 2012, and 2013 respectively. This. Energy consumption, is divided, as 9% coming from traditional, biomass 4.2.

Percent As, heat energy non, biomass, three point eight percent hydroelectricity. And two percent electricity. From wind solar, geothermal and. Biomass during. The five years from the end of 2004. Through 2009. Worldwide, renewable, energy capacity grew at rates of 10 to 60 percent annually. For many technologies. While actual, production grew one-point-two percent, overall. In. 2011. Un under-secretary-general. Arkham, steiner said the, continuing, growth in, this core segment of the green economy is. Not happening by chance. The. Combination. Of government, target setting policy. Support, and stimulus, funds is underpinning, the renewable, industry's, rise and, bringing the much-needed transformation. Of our global, energy system, within, reach. He. Added renewable. Energies, are expanding. Both in terms of investment, projects. And geographical. Spread. In doing, so they, are making an increasing, contribution. To combating, climate change, countering. Energy, poverty, and energy insecurity. According. To a 2011, projection. By the International. Energy Agency solar, power plants, may produce most, of the world's electricity within. 50 years significantly. Reducing, the emissions, of greenhouse gases. That harm the environment, the. IEA has said photovoltaic. And, solar thermal, plants. May meet most of the world's demand, for electricity, by, 2060. And half of all energy, needs with wind hydropower. And biomass. Plants, supplying, much of the remaining generation. Photovoltaic. And, concentrated. Solar power together. Can become the major source, of electricity. In. 2013. China, led the world in renewable, energy production with, a total, capacity of. 378. Gigawatts, mainly, from hydroelectric and, wind power as of. 2014. China leads the world in the production, and use of wind power solar, photovoltaic power. And Smart Grid technologies, generating. Almost as much water wind, and solar energy as all of France and Germany's, power plants, combined. China's. Renewable, energy, sector, is growing faster, than its fossil fuels and nuclear power, capacity. Since. 2005. Production of solar cells in China has expanded, 100, fold as Chinese. Renewable, manufacturing has. Grown the costs of renewable, energy technologies. Have dropped. Innovation. Has helped but the main driver of reduced, costs, has been market expansion, see also renewable energy, in the United States, for US figures. Topic. Economic. Trends. Renewable. Energy technologies. Are getting cheaper through technological. Change and through the benefits of mass production and market competition, a 2011.

IEA, Report said. A portfolio. Of renewable energy. Technologies. Is becoming, cost competitive. In an increasingly, broad range of circumstances in. Some, cases providing. Investment, opportunities. Without the need for specific. Economic support. And, added. That cost, reductions. In critical, technologies. Such, as wind, and solar are, set to continue, as, of. 2011 there, have been substantial reductions. In the cost of solar and wind technologies. The. Price of PV modules, per megawatt, has fallen by 60% since, the summer of 2008. According to Bloomberg, New Energy Finance, estimates. Putting, solar power for the first time on a competitive, footing with the retail price of electricity in. A number of sunny countries. Wind. Turbine, prices, have also fallen, by 18%. Per megawatt, in the last two years reflecting. As with solar fierce competition in, the supply chain, further. Improvements. In the levelized cost, of energy for solar wind, and other technologies. Lie ahead posing, a growing threat to the dominance, of fossil fuel generation sources. In the next few years. Hydro. Electricity, and, geothermal electricity, produced. At favourable, sites are now the cheapest, way to generate, electricity. Renewable. Energy costs, continue to drop and the levelized cost of electricity LCOE. Is declining, for wind power solar, photovoltaic, PV. Concentrated. Solar power CSP. And some biomass, technologies, renewable. Energy is also the most economic, solution, for new grid connected, capacity, in areas with good resources, as the. Cost of renewable, power Falls the scope of economically, viable applications. Increases. Renewable. Technologies. Are now often the most economic, solution, for new generating, capacity, where. Oil-fired. Generation. Is the predominant, power generation. Source eg, on islands, of, grid and in some countries a lower-cost, renewable, solution, almost, always exists. Today, as. Of, 2012, renewable. Power generation technologies. Accounted, for around half of all new power generation capacity. Additions. Globally, in. 2011. Additions, included, 41, gigawatt, GW. Of new, wind power capacity 30. Gigawatts of PV 25, gigawatts, of hydroelectricity. 6 gigawatts, of biomass. 0.5. Gigawatts, of CSP and 0.1. Gigawatts, of geothermal power. Topic. 3 generations. Of technologies, renewable, energy, includes, a number of sources and technologies. At different, stages of commercialization. The. International. Energy Agency, IEA. Has defined, three generations. Of renewable, energy technologies. Reaching, back over 100 years, first generation, technologies, emerged, from the Industrial, Revolution at. The end of the 19th, century and include hydropower, biomass. Combustion, geothermal. Power and heat these. Technologies. Are quite widely used, second. Generation, technologies. Include, solar heating, and cooling wind, power modern, forms of bioenergy, and solar photovoltaics. These. Are now entering, markets, as a result, of research development. And demonstration. RD&D. Investments. Since the 1980s. Initial. Investment, was prompted, by energy, security, concerns, linked, to the oil crises, of the 1970s. But the enduring, appeal of these technologies. Is due at least in part to, environmental, benefits. Many. Of the technologies, reflect, significant. Advancements. In materials, third, generation, technologies. Are still under, development and, include advanced biomass, gasification by. Refinery, technologies. Concentrating. Solar thermal power hot dry rock geothermal, power and ocean energy. Advances. In nanotechnology may. Also play a major role first. Generation. Technologies. Are well established second-generation, technologies. Are entering markets, and third generation, technologies. Heavily, depend, on long term research and development, commitment, where the public sector, has a role to play. Topic. First, generation. Technologies. First, generation, technologies. Are widely used in, locations, with abundant, resources, their. Future use depends, on the expiration, of the remaining resource, potential, particularly, in developing countries and on overcoming, challenges related. To the environment, and social acceptance. Topic. Biomass. Biomass. For heat and power is a fully mature, technology. Which offers a ready disposal, mechanism, for municipal, agricultural. And industrial organic. Wastes, however. The industry has, remained, relatively, stagnant, over the decade to 2007. Even though demand for biomass, mostly, wood continues, to grow in many developing, countries, one. Of the problems of biomass, is that material, directly, combusted. In cook stoves produces, pollutants, leading, to severe health and environmental, consequences.

Although, Improved, cookstove, programs, are alleviating, some of these effects, first. Generation. Biomass, technologies, can be economically. Competitive but, may still require deployment. Support to overcome public. Acceptance, and small-scale issues. Topic. Hydroelectricity. Hydroelectricity. Is the term referring, to electricity, generated. By hydropower, the production, of electrical, power through the use of the gravitational, force of falling, or flowing water in. 2015. Hydropower, generated, sixteen, point six percent of the world's total electricity. And, seventy percent of all renewable electricity, and, is expected, to increase about 3.1, percent each year for the next 25, years. Hydroelectric. Plants, have the advantage, of being long-lived, and many existing plants, have operated, for more than 100, years. Hydropower. Is produced, in 150. Countries with, the asia-pacific region, generating. 32. Percent, of global hydropower. In 2010. China. Is the largest hydroelectricity. Producer. With, 721. Terawatt-hours of. Production, in 2010, representing. Around 17% of domestic electricity, use, there. Are now 3 hydro electricity plants, larger, than 10 gigawatts the Three Gorges Dam in, China, etai Phu dam across the brazil paraguay border, and Guri dam in, venezuela, the. Cost of hydroelectricity. Is low making, it a competitive, source, of renewable electricity. The. Average cost of electricity, from, a hydro, plant larger. Than 10 megawatts, is 3 to 5 US cents per kilowatt hour. Topic. Geothermal. Power and heat. Geothermal. Power plants, can operate 24, hours per day providing. Base load capacity. Estimates. For the world potential, capacity for geothermal, power generation, very widely, ranging from, 40 gigawatts by 2020. To as much as 6,000, gigawatts, geothermal, power capacity. Grew from around 1 gigawatt, in 1975. To almost 10 gigawatts in, 2008. The. United States is the world leader in terms, of installed capacity, representing. 3.1. Gigawatts, other. Countries, with significant. Installed, capacity, include, the Philippines, 1.9. Gigawatts, Indonesia. 1.2. Gigawatts, mexico. 1.0. Gigawatts, italy, 0.8. Gigawatts, iceland. 0.6. Gigawatts, japan. 0.5. Gigawatts, and new zealand, 0.5. Gigawatts, in. Some countries, geothermal. Power accounts, for a significant, share of the total electricity supply, such, as in the Philippines, where, geothermal, represented. 17 percent of the total power mix at the end of 2008. Geothermal. Ground source heat pumps. Represented. An estimated, 30 GW, th of installed, capacity at. The end of 2008. With other direct, uses, of geothermal heat ie for, space heating agricultural. Drying and other uses reaching. An estimated, 15 GW, th as of. 2008. At least 76. Countries use direct, geothermal energy in some form. Topic. Second, generation, technologies. Second. Generation, technologies. Have gone from being a passion, for the dedicated, few, to a major economic sector. In countries, such as Germany Spain. The United, States and Japan, many. Large industrial, companies, and financial institutions are. Involved, and the challenge is to broaden the market base for continued, growth worldwide.

Topic. Solar, heating. Solar. Heating, systems, are a well-known second-generation, technology. And generally consist of solar thermal collectors. A fluid, system to move the heat from the collector, to its point of usage, and the reservoir or tank for heat storage the. Systems may be used to heat domestic, hot water swimming. Pools or homes, and businesses, the. Heat can also be used for industrial, process, applications. Or as an energy input for other uses, such as cooling equipment in many warmer, climates, a solar heating, system, can provide a very high percentage, 50, to 75, percent of domestic, hot water energy. As of. 2009. China has 27. Million rooftop, solar water heaters. Topic. Photovoltaics. Photovoltaic. PV. Cells, also called, solar cells convert, light into electricity. In. The 1980s. And early 1990s, most. Photovoltaic, modules. Were used to provide remote area, power supply, but from around 1995. Industry. Efforts have focused increasingly. On developing, building, integrated photovoltaics. And, photovoltaic power, stations for. Grid connected, applications. Many. Solar photovoltaic, power, stations have. Been built mainly, in Europe as of. July 2012, the largest photovoltaic, PV. Power, plants, in the world are the AG WA Caliente, solar project, USA. 247. Megawatts, chair anchor solar park India. 214. Megawatts, Golmud, solar park China, 200. Megawatts, per ovo solar park Russia 100. Megawatts, Sanya photovoltaic, power, plant Canada. 97. Megawatts, Brandenburg. Bridge solar park Germany 91, megawatts, solar, park fin out our Germany, eighty four, point seven megawatts, montalto die Castro, photovoltaic, power, station, Italy eighty four, point two megawatts, Edgar Beck solar park Germany, eighty three, point six megawatts. Sefton Berg solar park Germany, eighty two megawatts finsterwald. Solar, park germany 80 point, seven megawatts or cottony covo solar park russia 80 megawatts, the berry' solar farm thailand, seventy three point one six megawatts, row, Vigo photovoltaic, power, plant Italy. Seventy two megawatts and the libros, photovoltaic, park germany seventy, one point eight megawatts there are also many, large plants, under construction, the. Desert sunlight solar farm under construction. In Riverside County. California and. Topaz solar farm being built in San Luis Obispo County California are, both five hundred and fifty megawatt solar parks, that will use thin-film, solar photovoltaic, modules. Made by First Solar the. Bligh's solar power project, is a five hundred megawatts, photovoltaic, station. Under construction in. Riverside County. California, the. California Valley, solar, ranch CBS. R is a 250. Megawatt MW. Solar, photovoltaic power, plant which is being built by Sun power in the Carrizo, Plain northeast. Of California. Valley the. 230, megawatts, Antelope, Valley solar, ranch is, a first solar photovoltaic, project. Which is under construction, in the Antelope Valley area. Of the Western, Mojave Desert. And due to be completed in, 2013. The. Mesquite solar project, is a photovoltaic, solar, powered plant being built in Arlington, Maricopa. County Arizona owned, by Sempra generation, phase. One will have a nameplate capacity of. 150. Megawatts, many of these plants are integrated, with agriculture. And some use innovative, tracking, systems, that follow the sun's daily, path across the sky to generate, more electricity than conventional. Fixed mounted, systems, there. Are no fuel costs or emissions, during operation. Of the power stations. Topic. Wind power. Some. Of the second generation renewables. Such as wind power have, high potential, and have already realized, relatively. Low production, costs. Wind. Power could become cheaper, than nuclear power global. Wind power installations. Increased, by thirty five thousand, eight hundred megawatts, in 2010, bringing, total installed, capacity up. To one hundred and ninety four thousand, four hundred megawatts, a twenty, two point five percent increase. On the one hundred and fifty eight thousand, seven hundred megawatts, installed at, the end of 2009. The. Increase, for twenty ten represents investments. Totaling forty seven point three billion euros, 65. Billion United, States dollars, and for the first time more than half of all new wind, power was, added outside, of the traditional markets. Of Europe and North America mainly. Driven by the continuing. Boom in China which accounted, for nearly half of all of the installations. At sixteen thousand, five hundred megawatts.

China. Now has forty. Two thousand, three hundred megawatts. Of wind power installed. Wind. Power accounts, for approximately nineteen. Percent of electricity generated. In Denmark 9%, in Spain and Portugal and, six percent in Germany, and the Republic, of Ireland in. Australian, state of South Australia, wind power championed. By premier Mike Rann, 2002. To 2011 now comprises. 26%. Of the state's electricity, generation, edging, out coal-fired, power at. The end of 2011 South, Australia, with 7.2. Percent of, Australia's, population had, 54, percent of the nation's installed, wind power capacity, wind power share of worldwide electricity. Usage, at the end of 2014, was, 3.1. Percent these are some of the largest wind farms, in the world as, of. 2014, the wind industry in the USA, is able to produce more, power at lower cost by using taller, wind turbines, with longer blades capturing. The faster, winds at higher elevations. This. Has opened up new opportunities and. In Indiana Michigan, and Ohio the, price of power from wind turbines, built 300, feet to. Feet above the ground can, now compete, with conventional. Fossil fuels like coal, prices. Have fallen to, about 4 cents per kilowatt hour in some cases and utilities, have been increasing. The amount of wind energy in their portfolio, saying it is the cheapest, option. Topic. Solar, thermal power, stations. Solar. Thermal power, stations. Include, the, 354. Megawatt, MW. Solar energy, generating, systems, power plant in the u.s. sol nova solar power station, spain, 150. Megawatts, andis all solar power station, spain 100. Megawatts, Nevada, solar one u.s., a 64. Megawatts PS, 20, solar power tower Spain, 20, megawatts, and the PS 10 solar power tower Spain, 11, megawatts, the. 370. Megawatt C vamper solar power facility, located, in California's. Mojave Desert. Is the world's largest solar, thermal power plant project currently under, construction, many. Other plants are under construction or planned mainly, in Spain in the USA, in. Developing, countries, 3 World Bank projects, for integrated, solar thermal combined. Cycle gas turbine. Power plants, in Egypt, Mexico, and Morocco, have been approved. Topic. Modern, forms, of bioenergy. Global. Ethanol production for, transport, fuel tripled, between 2000. And 2007. From 17, billion to more than 52. Billion liters while biodiesel. Expanded, more than tenfold from less than 1 billion to almost 11. Billion liters. Biofuels. Provide, 1.8. Percent of, the world's transport, fuel and recent estimates, indicate, a continued. High growth the. Main producing, countries, for transport, biofuels, of the u.s. Brazil and the EU Brazil. Has one of the largest renewable energy, programs, in the world involving, production, of ethanol fuel from sugarcane and ethanol now provides, 18%. Of the country's automotive. Fuel as a. Result, of this and the exploitation of, domestic, deepwater, oil sources, Brazil, which for years had to import a large share of the petroleum, needed, for domestic, consumption, recently. Reached complete, self-sufficiency. In liquid fuels. Nearly. All the gasoline sold in the United, States today is mixed with 10 percent ethanol a mix known as e 10 and motor vehicle, manufacturers. Already produce, vehicles, designed to run on much higher ethanol, blends, Ford. Daimler, Chrysler and, GM, are among the automobile, companies that, sell flexible, fuel cars trucks, and minivans, that, can use gasoline, and ethanol blends, ranging, from pure gasoline up to 85% ethanol, e85.

The. Challenge, is to expand, the market for, biofuels, beyond, the farm states where they have been most popular to date the. Energy Policy Act of 2005. Which, calls for 7.5. Billion US gallons 28. Million cubic, meters of biofuels. To be used annually by 2012, will also help to expand, the market the growing ethanol, and biodiesel industries. Are providing, jobs in plant construction, operations. And maintenance mostly. In rural communities. According. To the Renewable, Fuels Association. The. Ethanol industry, created. Almost. 150, 4,000. US jobs, in, 2005. Alone boosting, household, income. 5.7. Billion dollars, it. Also contributed. About 3.5. Billion dollars, in tax revenues, at the local, state, and federal levels. Topic. Third, generation. Technologies. Third generation renewable. Energy technologies. Are still under, development and, include advanced biomass, gasification by. Refinery, technologies, hot dry rock geothermal, power and ocean energy, third. Generation, technologies. Are not yet widely demonstrated. Or have limited, commercialization. Many. Are on the horizon and, may have potential, comparable, to other renewable, energy technologies. But still depend, on attracting, sufficient, attention and, research and development funding. Topic. New, bioenergy. Technologies. According. To the International, Energy Agency, cellulosic. Ethanol by, refineries, could allow biofuels. To play a much bigger role in the future than organizations. Such as the IEA previously. Thought. Cellulosic. Ethanol can, be made from plant matter composed, primarily of inedible, cellulose, fibers, that form the stems and branches of, most plants, crop. Residues, such as corn stalks wheat straw and rice straw wood waste and municipal solid, waste are, potential, sources of, cellulosic, biomass. Dedicated. Energy, crops such. As switchgrass are, also promising, cellulose, sources, that can be sustainably. Produced in, many regions. Topic. Ocean. Energy. Ocean, energy is all forms, of renewable energy, derived from the sea including wave, energy, tidal, energy river, current, ocean, current energy offshore. Wind salinity, gradient, energy, and ocean thermal gradient, energy the Rance tidal, power station. 240. Megawatts, is the world's first tidal, power station, the. Facility, is located on, the estuary of the Rance River in Brittany, France. Opened. On the 26th. Of November, 1966. It is currently operated, by electricity de, France and is the largest tidal, power station, in the world in terms of installed capacity. First. Proposed, more than 30 years ago systems. To harvest, utility scale electrical. Power from ocean waves have recently, been gaining momentum as, a viable technology. The. Potential, for this technology is, considered promising, especially on west facing coasts, with latitudes, between 40, and 60, degrees in. The United Kingdom for, example the Carbon Trust recently, estimated the, extent, of the economically, viable offshore, resource, at 55, terawatt-hours, per, year about 14%, of current national demand, across. Europe, the technologically. Achievable, resource has been estimated to, be at least 280. Terawatt-hours. Per, year in. 2003. The US Electric, Power Research Institute. EPRI, estimated. The viable resource in, the United, States at, 255. Terawatt, hours per year 6%, of demand. There. Are currently nine projects, completed. Or in development, off the coasts of the United Kingdom. United, States Spain, and Australia, to harness the rise and fall of waves, by Ocean Power Technologies, the. Current maximum power output is, one point five megawatts, Reedsport. Oregon, with development, underway for 100. Megawatts, Coos Bay Oregon. Topic. Enhanced. Geothermal systems. As of. 2008. Geothermal. Power development, was underway, in more than 40 countries partially. Attributable, to the development, of new technologies. Such, as enhanced, geothermal systems. The. Development, of binary cycle power plants, and improvements, in drilling and extraction, technology.

May Enable enhanced geothermal, systems. Over a much greater geographical. Range than, traditional. Geothermal. Systems. Demonstration. EGS, projects, are operational. In the US Australia Germany. France, and the United Kingdom. Topic. Advanced. Solar concepts. Beyond. The already established solar, photovoltaics, and, solar thermal power technologies. Are such advanced, solar concepts. As the solar updraft tower, or space-based, solar power these. Concepts, have yet to if ever be commercialized. The, solar. Updraft tower, sut, is a renewable, energy power plant for, generating, electricity from, low-temperature solar, heat. Sunshine. Heats the air beneath a very wide greenhouse, like roofed collector, structure, surrounding, the central base of a very tall chimney tower the. Resulting, convection, causes, a hot air updraft, in the tower by the chimney effect this. Airflow drives, wind turbines, placed, in the chimney updraft, or around the chimney base to produce electricity. Pans. For scaled up versions, of demonstration. Models will allow significant. Power generation, and may allow development, of other applications. Such as water extraction. Or distillation, and agriculture. Or horticulture. A more. Advanced, version of a similarly themed technology. Is the vortex engine Avenue, which aims to replace large, physical chimneys, with a vortex, of air created, by a shorter, less expensive, structure. Space-based, solar power, SBS P is the concept, of collecting, solar power in space using an SPS. That. Is a solar. Power satellite. Or. Satellite. Power system. For. Use on earth it, has been in research since, the early 1970s. SB. SP, would differ from current solar collection, methods, in that the means used to collect energy would reside on an orbiting, satellite instead. Of on Earth's surface, some. Projected, benefits of such a system, or a higher collection, rate and a longer collection, period due to the lack of a diffusing atmosphere. And night time in space. Topic. Renewable. Energy, industry. Total. Investment in, renewable, energy, reached, 211. Billion dollars in 2010, up from, 160. Billion dollars in 2009. The. Top countries, for investment, in 2010, were, China. Germany the United States Italy, and Brazil continued. Growth for the renewable, energy sector is expected, and promotional, policies, helped the industry weather the 2009. Economic, crisis, better than many other sectors. Topic. Wind power companies. As. Of. 2010, Vestas, from Denmark is the world's top wind turbine, manufacturer. In terms of percentage, of market volume and sign oval from China is in second place together.

Vestas. And sign oval delivered, ten thousand, two hundred and, twenty eight megawatts, of new wind power capacity, in 2010, and their market share was twenty, five point nine percent. GE. Energy USA. Was in third place closely. Followed by gold, wind another Chinese supplier. German. Enecon, ranks, fifth in the world and is followed in sixth place by Indian based sauce lon. Topic. Photovoltaic. Market. Trends. The, solar PV market has been growing for the past few years. According. To solar PV, research, company, PV, in sites worldwide, shipment. Of solar modules in 2011. Was around 25, gigawatts, and the shipment year-over-year growth, was, around 40, percent the. Top 5 solar module, players in 2011. Interns a Sun Tech First Solar Yingli, Trina and Sungmin, the. Top five solar module, companies, possessed. 51.3%. Market. Share of solar modules, according, to peeve insights market, intelligence report. The. PV industry has. Seen drops in module, prices since 2008. In. Late 2011, factory. Gate prices for crystalline, silicon, photovoltaic modules. Dropped, below the $1, per W mark the. $1.00 per W installed, cost is often regarded in the PV industry as, marking, the achievement, of grid parity for PV these. Reductions have taken, many stakeholders. Including, industry, analysts, by surprise, and perceptions. Of current solar power economics, often lags behind reality. Some. Stakeholders still, have the perspective that Solar PV remains too, costly, on an unsubsidized. Basis, to compete with conventional, generation, options, yet. Technological. Advancements. Manufacturing. Process, improvements. And industry. Restructuring mean. That further price reductions, are likely in coming years. Topic. Non technical, barriers, to acceptance. Many, energy, markets, institutions. And policies, have been developed, to support the production and use of fossil, fuels, newer. And cleaner technologies. May offer social, and environmental benefits, but. Utility, operators, often reject, renewable, resources, because, they are trained to think only in terms of big conventional. Power plants. Consumers. Often ignore renewable, power systems, because, they are not given accurate, price signals, about electricity. Consumption. Intentional. Market, distortions. Such as subsidies, and unintentional. Market, distortions. Such as split incentives. May work against, renewables. Benjamin. K Sava call has argued, that some. Of the most surreptitious. Yet powerful, impediments. Facing, renewable, energy, and energy efficiency in. The United, States are more about culture, and institutions than. Engineering, and science. The. Obstacles, to the widespread, commercialization. Of renewable, energy technologies. Are primarily political, not technical, and there have been many studies which, have identified.

A Range of non technical, barriers, to. Renewable, energy use, these, barriers, are impediments which put renewable, energy, at a marketing, institutional. Or policy, disadvantage. Relative, to other forms, of energy, key. Barriers, include. Difficulty. Overcoming established. Energy systems, which includes, difficulty. Introducing. Innovative energy, systems, particularly. For distributed, generations, such as photovoltaics, because. Of technological lock-in. Electricity. Markets, designed, for centralized, power plants, and market, control by established, operators, as the. Stern review on the economics, of climate change, points, out national. Grids are usually, tailored, towards, the operation, of centralized, power plants, and thus favor the performance. Technologies. That do not easily fit into these networks, may struggle to enter the market, even if the technology itself. Is commercially. Viable, this. Applies, to a distributed. Generation, as, most grids are not suited, to receive, electricity. From many small sources. Large, scale renewables. May also encounter, problems, if they are sited in areas, far from, existing, grids. Lack of government, policy, support, which includes the lack of policies, and regulations supporting. Deployment, of renewable, energy technologies. And the presence of policies, and regulations hindering. Renewable, energy, development, and supporting, conventional. Energy development. Examples. Include subsidies. For fossil fuels, insufficient. Consumer, based renewable, energy incentives government. Underwriting, for nuclear plant accidents, and complex, zoning, and permitting processes, for, renewable, energy. Lack. Of information dissemination, and consumer, awareness. Higher. Capital cost of renewable, energy, technologies. Compared, with conventional energy, technologies. Inadequate. Financing, options, for renewable, energy projects, including, insufficient, access to, affordable financing. For project developers, entrepreneurs and. Consumers. Imperfect. Capital, markets, which includes, failure, to internalize, all costs, of conventional, energy eg. Effects, of air pollution risk, of supply disruption, and failure, to internalize, all benefits, of renewable energy, eg cleaner, air energy, security. Inadequate. Workforce, skills, and training which includes, lack of adequate scientific. Technical, and manufacturing. Skills required, for renewable, energy production, lack of reliable, installation. Maintenance and, inspection. Services, and failure, of the educational, system to, provide adequate training in new technologies. Lack. Of adequate codes, standards. Utility. Interconnection. And net metering guidelines. Poor. Public perception, of renewable, energy, system, aesthetics. Lack. Of stakeholder. Community, participation. And cooperation, in energy choices and, renewable, energy projects, with such a wide range of non-technical, barriers, there is no silver. Bullet solution, to, drive the transition, to renewable, energy so. Ideally, there is a need for several, different types of policy, instruments, to complement, each other and overcome, different, types of barriers a policy, framework must, be created, that will level the playing field and, redress the imbalance of, traditional, approaches, associated. With fossil fuel. The, policy, landscape must, keep pace with broad, trends, within the energy sector, as well as reflecting, specific, social economic. And environmental priorities. Some. Resource rich countries struggle, to move away from fossil fuels, and have failed thus far to adopt regulatory. Frameworks, necessary, for developing, renewable energy, eg Russia. Topic. Public, policy, landscape. Public. Policy, has a role to play in renewable, energy commercialization, because. The free-market system has, some fundamental limitations. As the.

Stern Review points. Out in. A liberalized, energy, market, investors. Operators. And consumers, should face the full cost of their decisions, but. This is not the case in many economies, or energy, sectors, many. Policies, distort, the market, in favor of existing, fossil fuel technologies. The. International, solar energy, Society has stated that historical. Incentives. For the conventional. Energy resources, continue, even today to bias, markets. By burying, many of the real societal. Costs, of their use. Fossil. Fuel energy systems. Have different production. Transmission. And end-use costs, and characteristics. Than do renewable, energy systems, and new promotional, policies, are needed to ensure that renewable. Systems develop. As quickly and broadly as is socially, desirable Lester. Brown states, that the market does, not incorporate, the, indirect, costs, of providing goods. Or services. Into prices, it does not value nature's, services, adequately, and it does not respect, the sustainable. Yield thresholds. Of natural, systems. It also favors the near-term over the long term thereby, showing limited, concern, for future generations. Tax. And subsidy shifting, can help overcome these problems though. Is also problematic, to combine different international, normative. Regimes, regulating. This issue. Topic. Shifting. Taxes. Tac shifting, has been widely discussed, and endorsed, by economists, it, involves, lowering income, taxes, while raising levies, on environmentally. Destructive activities. In order to create a more responsive, market, for. Example a tax on coal that included, the increased, healthcare costs, associated, with breathing, polluted air the costs of acid rain damage and the costs of climate disruption. Would encourage investment. In renewable, technologies. Several. Western, European, countries, are already shifting, taxes, in a process, known there as environmental. Tax reform, in 2001. Sweden. Launched, a new 10-year environmental. Tax shift designed to convert 30 billion kroner 3.9. Billion dollars, of income taxes, - taxes, on environmentally. Destructive activities. Other. European, countries, with significant. Tax reform, efforts of France Italy, Norway, Spain. And the United Kingdom, Asia's. Two leading economies, Japan, and China are, considering, carbon, taxes. Topic. Shifting, subsidies, just as there is a need for tax, shifting, there is also a need for subsidy. Shifting. Subsidies. Are not an inherently, bad thing as many technologies. And industries emerged. Through, government, subsidy, schemes, the. Stern Review explains. That of 20 key innovations, from the past 30 years only one of the 14, was funded entirely by the private, sector and 9 were totally publicly, funded, in. Terms of specific, examples, the internet was the result, of publicly, funded links among computers, in government, laboratories and, research institutes. And the, combination. Of the federal tax deduction. And the robust state tax deduction, in California. Helped to create the modern wind power industry Lester. Brown has argued, that a world facing, the prospect of economically, disruptive.

Climate Change can no longer justify subsidies. To expand, the burning of coal and oil, shifting. These subsidies, to the development, of climate, benign energy, sources such as wind solar. Biomass, and, geothermal power. Is the key to stabilizing. The earth's climate, the. International, solar energy, society advocate. Leveling, the playing field by, redressing, the continuing, inequities, in public, subsidies, of energy technologies. And R&D. In which the fossil fuel and nuclear power, received, the largest share of financial, support some, countries, are eliminating. Or reducing climate. Disrupting. Subsidies, and Belgium France and Japan have, phased out all subsidies, for coal, Germany. Is reducing. Its call subsidy, the, subsidy, dropped from five point four billion dollars, in 1989. To 2.8 billion dollars, in 2002. And in the process, Germany, lowered its coal use by 46, percent, China. Cut its coal subsidy, from, 750. Million dollars in 1993. To 240. Million dollars in 1995. And more recently, has imposed, a high sulfur, coal tax, however. The, United States has been increasing, its support for the fossil fuel and nuclear industries, in, November, 2011 an IEA, report entitled. Deploying, renewables 2011. Said subsidies. In green energy technologies. That were not yet competitive, are justified, in order to give an incentive to investing, into technologies, with clear environmental. And energy security benefits. The. IEA s report, disagreed, with claims that renewable, energy technologies. Are only viable through, costly, subsidies, and not able to produce energy reliably. To meet demand a fair and efficient, imposition, of subsidies, for renewable, energies, and aiming at sustainable, development, however require, coordination. And regulation, at a global level as subsidies. Granted, in one country can easily, disrupt industries, and policies, of others thus underlining, the relevance of this issue at the World Trade Organization. Topic. Renewable. Energy, targets. Setting. National renewable, energy, targets, can be an important, part of a renewable energy policy. And these targets, are usually defined as a percentage, of the primary energy and/or, electricity. Generation, mix, for. Example the European Union has prescribed, an indicative, renewable, energy, target, of 12%, of the total EU energy mix and 22%, of, electricity, consumption, by, 2010. National. Targets for individual, EU Member States have also been set to meet the overall target other. Developed, countries, with define national, or regional targets. Include, Australia, Canada, Israel, Japan Korea. New Zealand, Norway Singapore. Switzerland. And some US states national. Targets are also an important, component of, renewable, energy, strategies, in some developing, countries. Developing. Countries with, renewable energy, targets, include, China India, Indonesia, Malaysia. The, Philippines Thailand. Brazil Egypt. Mali and South Africa, the targets. Set by many, developing, countries, are quite modest, when compared, with those in some industrialized. Countries, renewable, energy targets, in most countries are indicative and, non-binding, but they have assisted government, actions, and regulatory, frameworks, the. United, Nations Environment, Program, has suggested, that making renewable energy, targets, legally, binding, could be an important, policy tool, to achieve higher, renewable, energy market, penetration.

Topic. Leveling. The playing field. The, IEA has identified, three, actions, which will allow renewable, energy, and other clean energy technologies. To more, effectively, compete, for private, sector capital. First. Energy, prices, must appropriately. Reflect, the true. Cost of energy, eg. Through carbon, pricing, so that the positive and, negative, impacts, of energy production and consumption, of fully taken, into account. Example. New UK, nuclear, plants, cost 92, pounds and 50 pence per megawatt, hour whereas. Offshore, windfarms, in the UK are supported, with 74. Euros and 20 cents per megawatt, hour at, a price of 150. Pounds in 2011. Falling, to 130. Pounds per megawatt, hour in, 2022. In. Denmark, the price can be 84, euros per megawatt hour. Second. Inefficient. Fossil fuel, subsidies. Must be removed while ensuring. That all citizens, have access to, affordable energy. Third. Governments. Must develop policy. Frameworks, that encourage, private sector investment. In lower carbon, energy options. Topic. Green, stimulus. Programs. In, response, to the global financial crisis. In the late 2000s. The world's major governments, made green, stimulus. Programs. One of their main policy, instruments, for supporting, economic recovery, some. 188. Billion United, States dollars, in green stimulus, funding, had been allocated, to renewable, energy and energy efficiency to. Be spent mainly in 2010, and in 2011. Topic. Energy. Sector, regulation. Public. Policy, determines, the extent to which renewable. Energy Bri is to be incorporated. Into a developed, or developing countries. Generation. Mix, energy. Sector regulators, implement, that policy thus. Affecting, the pace and pattern of reinvestments. And connections, to the grid energy. Regulators. Often, have authority to carry out a number of functions, that have implications for, the financial, feasibility of, renewable, energy projects. Such. Functions, include, issuing, licenses setting. Performance standards. Monitoring, the performance of regulated, firms determining. The price level and structure, of tariffs, establishing. Uniform systems. Of accounts, arbitrating. Stakeholder, disputes, like interconnection. Cost allocations. Performing, management, audits developing. Agency, human resources, expertise. Reporting. Sector, and Commission activities, to government, authorities and coordinating. Decisions, with other government, agencies. Thus. Regulators. Make a wide range of decisions that affect the financial outcomes. Associated. With reinvestments. In. Addition, the sector regulator, is in a position to give advice to the government regarding, the full implications. Of focusing, on climate change or, energy security, the energy. Sector regulator, is the natural, advocate, for efficiency, and cost containment, throughout, the process of designing and implementing, Rapala, seas since. Policies, are not self implementing. Energy sector, regulators, become, a key facilitator, or blocker of renewable, energy, investments. Topic. Energy. Transition. In Germany. The. Energiewende, German. For energy transition, is the transition, by Germany, to a low-carbon. Environmentally. Sound reliable. And affordable energy, supply, the. New system, will rely heavily on renewable, energy particularly. Wind, photovoltaics. And, biomass. Energy efficiency. And energy demand, management, most. If not all existing. Coal-fired generation. Will need to be retired, the. Phase-out, of Germany's fleet of nuclear, reactors, to be complete, by 2022. Is a key part of the program legislative. Support for the energiewende, was, passed in late 2010, and includes greenhouse, gas GHG.

Reductions. Of 80 to 95, percent by, 2050. Relative, to 1990. And the renewable energy, target of 60 percent by 2050. These. Targets, are ambitious, the, Berlin based Policy, Institute Agora, energiewende, noted. That while, the German approach is not unique worldwide, the, speed and scope of the energiewende, are, exceptional. The. Energiewende, also. Seeks a greater transparency, in, relation, to national, energy policy formation. Germany, has made significant. Progress on, its GHG, emissions, reduction, target achieving. A 27, percent decrease. Between 1990. And 2014. However. Germany, will need to maintain an, average GHG. Emissions, abatement, rate of 3.5. Percent, per annum to reach its energiewende goal, equal, to the maximum historical. Value thus far Germany, spends 1.5. Billion euros, per annum on energy, research 2013. Figure in an effort to solve the technical and social issues, raised by the transition, this. Includes, a number of computer, studies that have confirmed the feasibility, and a similar cost relative, to business, as usual and, given that carbon, is adequately, priced of the energiewende. These. Initiatives, go, well beyond European, Union legislation, and the national policies, of other European states. The. Policy, objectives have been embraced by the German, Federal Government and has resulted in a huge expand, of renewables, particularly. Wind power. Germany's. Share of renewables, has increased, from around five percent in, 1999, to twenty two point nine percent in 2012, surpassing, the OECD. Average of, 18 percent usage, of renewables. Producers. Have been guaranteed, a fixed, feed-in, tariff for 20 years, guaranteeing, a fixed income energy. Cooperatives. Have been created, and efforts, were made to decentralize. Control, and profits the. Large energy, companies have, a disproportionately. Small share, of the renewables, market. However. In some cases poor. Investment, designs have caused bankruptcies. And low returns, and unrealistic, promises. Have been shown to be far from reality.

Nuclear. Power plants, were closed and the existing, nine plants will close earlier, than planned in 2022. One. Factor, that has inhibited, efficient, employment, of new renewable energy, has been the lack of an accompanying, investment. In power infrastructure. To bring the power to market, it. Is believed. 8300. Kilometres, of power lines must be built or upgraded, the. Different German states have varying, attitudes, to the construction, of new power lines. Industry. Has had their rates frozen, and so the increased, costs, of the energiewende have, been passed on to consumers who, have had rising, electricity bills. Topic. Voluntary. Market, mechanisms. For renewable, electricity. Voluntary. Markets, also referred, to as green power, markets, are driven by consumer, preference. Voluntary. Markets, allow a consumer. To choose to do more than policy decisions, require, and reduce the environmental impact, of their electricity, use. Voluntary. Green power products must offer a significant. Benefit and value to buyers to be successful. Benefits. May include zero or reduced, greenhouse gas emissions, other pollution, reductions. Or other environmental. Improvements. On power stations. The. Driving, factors, behind voluntary. Green electricity, within, the EU of the liberalized, electricity. Markets, and the res directive. According. To the directive, the EU member states must ensure, that the origin of electricity, produced, from renewables, can be guaranteed and, therefore a guarantee. Of origin must. Be issued article. 15. Environmental. Organizations. Are using the voluntary, market to create new renewables, and improving, sustainability. Of the existing, power production, in. The US the main tool to track and stimulate, voluntary, actions, is greenie program. Managed, by center for resource solutions, in. Europe the main voluntary, tool used by the NGOs, to promote sustainable. Electricity production. Is eco energy label. Topic. Recent. Developments. A number. Of events in 2006. Pushed renewable, energy, up the political agenda including. The u.s. midterm, elections, in November which confirmed, clean energy, as a mainstream issue. Also. In 2006. The Stern Review made, a strong, economic case for investing in, low-carbon, technologies, now and argued, that economic growth need, not be incompatible with, cutting energy consumption. According. To a trend analysis, from the United, Nations Environment, Programme climate, change concerns coupled. With recent, high oil prices and, increasing government's supporter, driving, increasing, rates of investment, in the renewable, energy and energy efficiency, industries. Investment. Capital flowing into renewable, energy reached a record 77. Billion United, States dollars, in 2007. With the upward trend continuing. In 2008. The. OECD. Still, dominates, but there is now increasing, activity from, companies, in China, India and Brazil, Chinese. Companies, were the second largest recipient of, venture, capital, in 2006. After the United, States in. The same year India, was the largest net buyer of companies, abroad mainly, in the more established, European markets. New government spending, regulation. And policies, helped the industry weather the 2009. Economic crisis. Better than many other sectors, most. Notably, US, President, Barack Obama's. American, Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Of 2009. Included. More than 70, billion dollars in direct spending and tax credits for clean energy and associated. Transportation. Programs, this. Policy, stimulus combination. Represents. The largest federal, commitment in US history for, renewables, advanced, transportation and, energy conservation, initiatives. Based. On these new rules many more utilities, strengthen, the clean energy programs. Clean. Edge suggests. That the commercialization. Of clean energy will help countries around, the world deal, with the current economic malaise. Once. Promising, solar energy, company Solyndra. Became involved in a political controversy, involving. US President, Barack Obama's. Administration's. Authorization. Of a 535, million dollars loan guarantee, to the corporation. In 2009. As part of a program, to promote alternative energy. Growth the. Company, ceased all business, activity, filed, for chapter 11 bankruptcy and, laid off nearly all of its employees in early September, 2011 in his the 24th, of January, 2012, State of the Union address, President Barack. Obama, restated. His commitment, to renewable energy, Obama. Said, that he will, not walk away from the promise of clean energy. Obama. Called, for a commitment, by the Defense, Department, to purchase, 1,000, megawatts, of renewable energy. He. Also mentioned. The long-standing Interior. Department, commitment, to permit 10,000. Megawatts of renewable energy. Projects, on public land, in 2012, as of 2012, renewable, energy plays a major role in the energy mix of many countries, globally. Renewables. Are becoming increasingly economic.

In Both developing, and developed countries. Prices. For renewable, energy technologies. Primarily. Wind power and solar power continued, to drop making renewables, competitive. With conventional energy, sources, without. A level, playing field however, high market, penetration of, renewables, is still dependent on robust, promotional, policies. Fossil. Fuel subsidies, which are far higher than those for renewable, energy remain, in place and quickly need to be phased out United, Nations secretary-general, ban ki-moon, has, said that renewable. Energy has the ability, to lift the poorest nations, to new levels of prosperity. In. October, 2011 he, announced, the creation of, a high-level group to drum up support for, energy access energy. Efficiency, and greater use of renewable, energy the. Group is to be co-chaired, by candarian Keller the chair of un energy and Director General of the UN Industrial, Development Organisation, and, Charles, Holliday, Chairman a Bank of America worldwide. Use of solar power and wind power continued. To grow significantly, in 2012. Solar. Electricity, consumption. Increased. By 58 percent to, 93, terawatt-hours. TWh. Use, of wind power in 2012, increased. By eighteen point one percent to, five hundred and twenty one point three terawatt-hours. Global. Solar and wind energy installed. Capacities. Continued. To expand, even though new investments. In these technologies, to kind during 2012. Worldwide. Investment. In solar power in 2012, was, 140, point four billion dollars, an 11 percent decline from 2011. And wind power investment. Was down 10.1%. To, 80 point three billion dollars but. Due to lower production costs for, both technologies. Total, installed, capacities. Grew sharply, this. Investment, decline but growth in installed, capacity, may again occur in 2013. Analysts. Expect the market to triple by 2030, in, 2015. Investment. In renewables, exceeded, fossils. Topic. 100%. Renewable, energy. The. Incentive, to use 100%, renewable. Energy for electricity, transport. Or even, total primary energy supply, globally. Has been motivated, by global, warming and other ecological, as well as economic, concerns, the.

Intergovernmental. Panel on Climate Change, has, said that there are few fundamental. Technological. Limits to integrating, a portfolio, of renewable energy. Technologies. To meet most of the total global energy demand, in. Reviewing. 164. Recent, scenarios, of future renewable, energy growth the report noted that the majority expected. Renewable, sources to supply more than 17, percent of total energy by, 2030, and, 27. Percent by, 2050. The highest forecast projected. 43, percent supplied, by renewables, by 2030, and 77. Percent by, 2050. Renewable. Energy use has grown, much faster than even advocates, anticipated. At, the national, level at least 30, nations around the world already, have renewable, energy, contributing. More than 20%. Of energy supply. Mark. Z Jacobson. Professor, of civil and environmental engineering, at, Stanford University. And director of its atmosphere, and energy program, says producing, all new energy with wind power solar, power and hydropower, by 2030, is feasible and existing, energy supply, arrangements, could be replaced by 2050. Barriers. To implementing, the renewable energy plan as seen to be primarily. Social, and political not. Technological. Or economic. Jacobson. Says that energy costs with a wind solar water, system, should be similar to today's, energy costs, similarly, in the United, States the independent, National Research Council, has noted, that sufficient. Domestic, renewable resources. Exist, to allow renewable. Electricity, to, play a significant. Role in future electricity. Generation, and, thus help confront, issues related, to climate change, energy, security. And the escalation, of energy, costs, renewable, energy is an tractive, option, because, renewable, resources, available. In the United, States taken, collectively can, supply significantly. Greater amounts, of electricity, than, the total current, or projected, domestic, demand. The. Most significant. Barriers, to the widespread implementation of. Large-scale renewable energy. And low-carbon, energy strategies. Are primarily political and, not technological. According. To the 2013 post-carbon. Pathways, report, which reviewed, many international, studies, the key roadblocks, are climate, change denial, the fossil fuels Lobby political, inaction, unsustainable.

Energy Consumption. Outdated, energy infrastructure. And financial, constraints. Topic. Energy. Efficiency. Moving. Towards, energy sustainability, will require changes, not only in the way energy is supplied but, in the way it is used and reducing. The amount of energy required, to deliver various, goods or services, is essential. Opportunities. For improvement, on the demand side of the energy equation there, is rich and diverse as, those on the supply side and often, offer significant. Economic benefits, a sustainable. Energy economy. Requires commitments. To both renewables, and efficiency. Renewable. Energy, and energy efficiency are. Said to be the twin. Pillars of. Sustainable. Energy policy the, American, Council, for an energy-efficient. Economy has explained, that both resources must, be developed in order to stabilize and, reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Efficiency. Is essential, to slowing the energy demand growth so that rising, clean energy, supplies can make deep cuts in fossil, fuel use if. Energy, use grows too fast renewable. Energy development, will chase a receding, target. Likewise. Unless, clean energy supplies come online rapidly, slowing, demand growth will only begin to reduce total emissions, reducing. The carbon content of energy sources is also needed. The. IEA has stated, that renewable, energy and energy efficiency policies. Are complementary. Tools for the development, of a sustainable energy, future and should be developed, together instead, of being developed in isolation. Topic. C also. Topic. Lists. Topic. Topics. Equals. Equals, equals people.

2019-10-07 05:03

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