Renewable energy commercialization | Wikipedia audio article
Renewable, energy commercialization. Involves. The deployment, of three generations, of renewable, energy, technologies. Dating, back more than 100 years. First. Generation, technologies. Which already mature. An economically, competitive include. Biomass. Hydroelectricity. Geothermal, power and heat, second. Generation, technologies. Are market ready and are being deployed at the present, time they include solar heating, photovoltaics. Wind, power solar, thermal power stations. And modern, forms of bioenergy. Third. Generation. Technologies. Require, continued. R&D, efforts in order to make large contributions. On a global scale and include, advanced, biomass, gasification, hot. Dry rock geothermal. Power and ocean, energy as of. 2012, renewable. Energy accounts, for about half of new nameplate, electrical. Capacity, installed, and costs are continuing, to fall public, policy, and political leadership helps, to level the playing field and drive the wider acceptance, of, renewable, energy, technologies. Countries. Such as Germany Denmark, and, Spain have, led the way in implementing. Innovative policies, which has driven most of the growth over the past decade. As of. 2014. Germany, has a commitment, to the energy when transition, to a sustainable energy economy. And Denmark, has a commitment, to 100%. Renewable energy, by 2050. There. Are now. 144. Countries with renewable energy, policy. Targets. Renewable. Energy continued, its rapid, growth in 2015. Providing. Multiple benefits. There. Was a new record set, for installed, wind and photovoltaic, capacity. 64. Gigawatts, and 57. Gigawatts, and a new high of three hundred and twenty nine billion, United, States dollars, for global renewables, investment. The. Key benefit, that this investment, growth brings is a growth in jobs, the. Top countries, for investment, in recent years were China Germany, Spain. The United, States Italy and Brazil. Renewable. Energy companies, include, BrightSource, Energy, first Sola the Meza GE, Energy called, wind sino volt our gray Trina, Solar Vestas, and Yingli climate, change concerns are also driving, increasing. Growth in the renewable, energy industries. According. To a 2011, projection. By the IAEA, International, Energy. Agency solar. Power generators. May produce most, of the world's electricity within, 50, years reducing. Harmful greenhouse gas, emissions, renewable, power has, been more effective in creating jobs than coal oil in the United States. Topic. Background. You. Topic. Rationale. For renewables. Climate. Change pollution and, energy insecurity. Are significant. Problems and addressing, them requires, major changes, to energy infrastructures. Renewable. Energy technologies. Are essential, contributors, to the energy, supply portfolio. As they contribute, to world energy, security, reduce, dependency. On fossil fuels, and provide, opportunities. For mitigating. Greenhouse gases. Climate. Disrupting, fossil, fuels are being replaced by clean, climate, stabilizing. Non depletable, sources, of energy. Dot. The transition, from coal oil and gas to wind solar, and geothermal energy. Is well underway, in. The old economy, energy was, produced, by burning something oil. Coal, or natural gas, leading. To the carbon emissions, that have come to define our economy, the. New energy, economy harnesses. The energy in, wind the energy, coming from the Sun and heat, from within the earth itself. In.
International. Public opinion surveys. There is strong support for a variety of methods, for addressing the problem, of energy supply, these. Methods, include promoting, renewable sources. Such as solar power and wind power requiring. Utilities to, use more renewable energy and providing. Tax incentives to, encourage the development and, use of such technologies. It. Is expected, that renewable. Energy investments. Will pay off economically, in the long term EU, member countries have, shown support for ambitious, renewable energy, goals in. 2010. Eurobarometer. Polled, the 27. EU member, states about the target, to, increase, the share of renewable. Energy in the EU by, 20%, by, 2020. Most. People, in all 27. Countries either, approved, of the target, or called for it to go further, across. The EU. 57%. Thought the proposed, goal was about. Right and, 16%. Thought. It was too. Modest, in. Comparison. 19%. Said was too. Ambitious as. Of. 2011. New evidence has emerged that there are considerable, risks, associated with, traditional energy. Sources and that major changes to the mix of energy technologies. Is needed. Several. Mining tragedies. Globally, have underscored, the human toll of the coal supply, chain, new. EPA, initiatives. Targeting, air toxics coal ash and effluent, releases, highlight, the environmental. Impacts, of coal and the cost of addressing, them with control, technologies. The. Use of fracking in natural, gas exploration, is, coming, under scrutiny with, evidence of groundwater, contamination. And greenhouse, gas emissions. Concerns. Are increasing, about the vast amounts, of water used at Coal Fired and, nuclear power plants, particularly, in regions of the country facing. Water shortages. Events. At the Fukushima, nuclear plant. Have, renewed doubts about the ability to operate, large, numbers, of nuclear plants safely, over the long term, further. Cost, estimates, for next. Generation. Nuclear. Units, continue, to climb and lenders, are unwilling, to finance, these plants, without taxpayer. Guarantees. The. 2014. Ren21. Global. Status report says. That renewable, energies, are no longer just energy sources but ways to address pressing social political economic, and, environmental. Problems. Today. Renewables. Are seen not only as sources of energy but also as, tools to address many other pressing, needs including, improving, energy security, reducing. The health and environmental impacts. Associated with, fossil and nuclear energy, mitigating. Greenhouse gas. Emissions, improving, educational. Opportunities. Creating. Jobs reducing, poverty and increasing. Gender equality. Renewables. Have entered the mainstream. Topic. Growth, of renewables. In 2008. For the first time more renewable, energy than conventional power. Capacity. Was added in both the European Union, and United States, demonstrating. Her fundamental. Transition. Are, the world's energy markets, towards renewables, according, to a report released by ren21. A, global, renewable energy. Policy, network based in Paris in. 2010. Renewable. Power consisted. About a third of the newly built power generation, capacities. By the end of 2011 total. Renewable, power capacity worldwide. Exceeded. 1360. Gigawatts, up 8 percent. Renewables. Producing, electricity, accounted. For almost, half of the 208. Gigawatts, of capacity added. Globally. During 2011. Wind. And solar photovoltaics. PV. Accounted. For almost 40, percent and 30 percent, based. On ren21. S 2014. Report, renewables, contributed. 19%. To our energy consumption. And 22, percent to our electricity, generation, in 2012. And 2013 respectively. This. Energy consumption. Is divided, as 9%, coming from traditional, biomass, 4.2. Percent as heat energy non, biomass, three point eight percent, hydroelectricity. And two percent electricity, from wind solar geothermal, and, biomass during. The five years from the end of 2004. Through 2009. Worldwide, renewable, energy capacity, grew at rates of 10 to 60 percent annually. For many technologies. While actual, production, grew one-point-two percent, overall. In. 2011. Un, under-secretary-general. Arkham. Steiner said, the, continuing. Growth in this core segment of the green economy is, not happening, by chance. The. Combination. Of government target setting policy. Support, and stimulus, funds is underpinning. The renewable, industries, rise and bringing, the much-needed, transformation.
Of Our global energy system, Within, Reach. He. Added renewable. Energies, are expanding. Both in terms of investment, projects. And Jie graphical, spread, in. Doing, so they, are making an increasing, contribution. To combating, climate change, countering. Energy, poverty and energy, insecurity. According. To a 2011, projection. By the International. Energy Agency solar. Power plants, may produce most, of the world's electricity within. 50 years significantly. Reducing. The emissions, of greenhouse gases. That harm the environment. The. IEA has said photovoltaic. And, solar thermal. Plants. May meet most of the world's demand for electricity, by, 2060. And half of all energy, needs with wind hydropower. And biomass, plants, supplying, much of the remaining generation. Photovoltaic. And. Concentrated. Solar power together. Can become the major source, of electricity. In. 2013. China, led the world in renewable, energy production with, a total, capacity of. 378. Gigawatts, mainly, from hydroelectric, and, wind power as of. 2014, China, leads the world in the production and use of wind power solar, photovoltaic, power, and Smart Grid technologies. Generating. Almost as much water wind, and solar energy as, all of France and Germany's, power plants, combined. China's. Renewable, energy, sector, is growing faster, than its fossil fuels and nuclear power, capacity. Since. 2005. Production. Of solar cells, in China has expanded, 100, fold as, Chinese. Renewable, manufacturing has. Grown the costs of renewable, energy, technologies. Have dropped. Innovation. Has helped but the main driver of reduced, costs, has been market, expansion see, also renewable, energy, in the United, States for US figures. Topic. Economic. Trends. Renewable. Energy technologies. Are getting cheaper through technological, change, and through the benefits of mass production and market competition, a 2011.
IEA, Report said. A portfolio. Of renewable, energy, technologies. Is becoming, cost competitive. In an increasingly. Broad range of circumstances in. Some, cases providing. Investment. Opportunities. Without the need for specific, economic, support. And, added. That cost. Reductions. In critical, technologies. Such, as wind and solar are, set to continue, as of. 2011. They have been substantial. Reductions, in the cost of solar and wind technologies. The. Price of PV modules, per megawatt, has fallen by 60% since. The summer of 2008. According, to Bloomberg, New Energy Finance, estimates. Putting, solar power for the first time on a competitive. Footing with the retail, price of electricity in. A number of sunny countries. Wind. Turbine, prices, have also fallen, by 18%, per megawatt, in the last two years reflecting. As with solar fees competition. In the supply chain. Further. Improvements. In the levelized cost of energy for solar, wind, and other technologies. Lie ahead posing, a growing threat to the dominance, of fossil, fuel generation sources, in the next few years. Hydroelectricity. And geothermal, electricity, produced. At favourable, sites are now the cheapest, way to generate, electricity. Renewable. Energy costs, continue to drop and the levelized cost of electricity, LCOE. Is declining, for wind power solar, photovoltaic, PV. Concentrated. Solar power CSP. And some biomass, technologies renewable. Energy is also the most economic, solution, for new grid connected, capacity. In areas, with good resources, as the. Cost of renewable, power Falls the scope of economically, viable, applications. Increases. Renewable. Technologies. Are now often the most economic, solution, for new generating. Capacity. We're oil fire generation. Is the predominant. Power generation. Source, eg, on islands, off-grid and in some countries, a lower cost renewable. Solution, almost, always exists, today as. Of. 2012, renewable. Power generation, technologies. Accounted, for around half of all new power generation, capacity additions. Globally, in. 2011. Additions, included, 41, gigawatt, GW. Of new wind power capacity 30. Gigawatts of PV, 25. Gigawatts, of hydroelectricity. Six gigawatts, of biomass. 0.5. Gigawatts, of CSP, and 0.1. Gigawatts, of geothermal, power. Topic. 3 generations. Of technologies. Renewable, energy, includes, a number of sources and technologies. At different, stages of commercialization. The. International. Energy Agency IEA. Has, defined, three generations. Of renewable, energy technologies. Reaching, back over 100 years, first generation, technologies. Emerged, from the Industrial, Revolution at. The end of the 19th, century and, include hydropower, biomass. Combustion, geothermal. Power and heat these. Technologies. Are quite widely used, second. Generation, technologies. Include, solar heating, and cooling wind, power modern, forms of bioenergy and solar, photovoltaics. These. Are now entering, markets, as a result, of research development. And demonstration, RD&D. Investment. Since the 1980s. Initial. Investment, was prompted, by energy, security, concerns, linked, to the oil crises of the 1970s. But the enduring, appeal of these technologies.
Is Due at least in part to environmental, benefits. Many. Of the technologies. Reflect, significant. Advancements. In materials. Third-generation. Technologies. Are still under, development and include, advanced, biomass, gasification by. Refinery, technologies. Concentrating. Solar thermal power hot, dry rock geothermal. Power and ocean, energy. Advances. In nanotechnology may. Also play, a major role. First generation, technologies. Are well established second. Generation, technologies. Of entering markets, and third generation. Technologies. Heavily, depend on long-term research, and development, commitments, where the public sector has a role to play. Topic. First, generation. Technologies. First. Generation. Technologies. Are widely used in, locations. With abundant, resources, their. Future, use depends, on the exploration. Of the remaining resource, potential, particularly, in developing countries and on overcoming challenges related. To the environment and social acceptance. Topic. Biomass. Biomass. For heat and power is a fully mature technology. Which offers a rainy disposal, mechanism, for municipal, agricultural. And industrial organic. Wastes. However. The industry has remained relatively, stagnant, over, the decade to 2007. Even, though demand for biomass, mostly, wood continues, to grow in many developing, countries. One. Of the problems, of biomass, is that material, directly, combusted. In cook stoves produces. Pollutants, leading, to severe health and environmental. Consequences. Although, improved, cookstove, programs, are alleviating, some of these effects. First. Generation. Biomass, technologies can. Be economically. Competitive but, may still require deployment. Support to overcome public. Acceptance, and small-scale issues. Topic. Hydroelectricity. Hydroelectricity. Is the term referring, to electricity. Generated. By hydropower, the, production, of electrical, power through the use of the gravitational, force of falling or flowing water, in. 2015. Hydropower. Generated, sixteen. Point six percent of the world's total electricity. And seventy percent of all renewable electricity. And, is expected, to increase, about 3.1, percent each year for the next 25. Years. Hydroelectric. Plants, have the advantage, of being long-lived. And many existing, plants, have operated, for more than 100. Years. Hydropower. Is produced, in, 150. Countries with, the asia-pacific region generating. 32. Percent of global hydropower. In 2010. China. Is the largest hydroelectricity. Producer. With. 721. Terawatt-hours of. Production, in 2010. Representing. Around 17%, a, domestic, electricity, use, there. Are now 3 hydro electricity, plants, larger than 10 gigawatts the Three Gorges Dam in China a, type u dam across the brazil paraguay border, and gooery dam in venezuela. The cost. Of hydroelectricity. Is low making, it a competitive source, of renewable electricity. The. Average, cost of electricity, from, a hydro, plant larger. Than 10 megawatts, is 3 to 5 US cents per kilowatt hour. Topic. Geothermal. Men hate. Geothermal. Power plants, can operate 24. Hours per day providing. Base load capacity. Estimates. For the world potential, capacity for geothermal, power generation. Vary widely ranging, from, 40 gigawatts by 2020. To as much as 6,000. Gigawatts, geothermal, power capacity. Grew from around 1 gigawatt, in, 1975. To almost, 10 gigawatts in, 2008. The. United, States is the world leader in terms of installed capacity, representing. 3.1. Gigawatts, other. Countries. With significant. Installed, capacity, include, the Philippines, 1.9. Gigawatts, Indonesia. 1.2. Gigawatts, mexico. 1.0. Gigawatts, italy, 0.8. Gigawatts, iceland. 0.6. Gigawatts, japan. 0.5. Gigawatts, and new zealand, 0.5. Gigawatts, in. Some, countries, geothermal, power accounts, for a significant. Share of the total electricity. Supply, such, as in the Philippines, where geothermal. Represented. 17%. Of the total power mix at the end of 2008. Geothermal. Ground source heat pumps. Represented. An estimated, 30 GW. Th of installed, capacity at. The end of 2008. With other direct uses, of geothermal heat, ie for, space heating agricultural.
Drying And other uses reaching, an estimated 15. GW. Th as of. 2008. At least 76. Countries use direct geothermal energy, in, some form. Topic. Second-generation. Technologies. And generation, technologies. Have gone from being a passion, for the dedicated, few, to a major economic, sector in countries, such as Germany, Spain. The United States, and Japan. Many. Large industrial, companies, and financial, institutions are, involved, and the challenge is to broaden the market base for continued, growth worldwide. Topic. Solar heating. Solar. Heating, systems, are well known second-generation. Technology. And generally, consist of solar thermal collectors. A fluid, system to move the heat from the collector, to its point of usage, and the reservoir or tank for heat storage, the. Systems may be used to heat domestic, hot water swimming. Pools or homes and businesses. The. Heat can also be used for industrial process. Applications. Or as an energy input for other uses such as cooling equipment in many warmer, climates, as solar heating, system, can provide a very high percentage, 50, to 75, percent of domestic hot water energy, as of. 2009. China. Has 27. Million rooftop, solar water heaters. Topic. Photovoltaics. Photovoltaic. PV. Cells. Also, called, solar cells convert, light into electricity. In. The 1980s. And early 1990s. Most. Photovoltaic, modules. Were used to provide remote area, power supply, but from around, 1995. Industry. Efforts have focused increasingly, on, developing, building, integrated photovoltaics. And, photovoltaic, power. Stations for. Grid connected, applications. Many. Solar photovoltaic, power, stations have. Been built mainly, in Europe as of. July 2012, the largest photovoltaic, PV. Power, plants, in the world of the angwa calientes, solar project, USA. 247. Megawatts, Karen, Kerr solar park India. 214. Megawatts, Golmud, solar park China 200. Megawatts, per ovo solar park Russia 100. Megawatts, Sonia photovoltaic, power. Plant Canada, 97. Megawatts, Brandenburg. Brest solar park Germany, 91, megawatts, solar, park fin out our Germany, eighty four, point seven megawatts, Mont Alto de, Castro, photovoltaic, power, station, Italy eighty four, point two megawatts a Quebec solar park Germany, eighty three, point six megawatts, sent, in both solar park Germany, eighty two megawatts, finsterwald, solar, park Germany eighteen, point seven megawatts. Alcott Nico voz solar park Russia 80 megawatts. Lop buri solar, farm Thailand, seventy, three point one six megawatts, row, Vigo photovoltaic, power, plant Italy, 72. Megawatts, and the libros, photovoltaic, park, germany seventy, one point eight megawatts there are also many, large plants, under construction. The. Desert sunlight solar, farm, under construction, in Riverside County. California and. Topaz solar farm, being built in San Luis Obispo County, California, are both five hundred and fifty megawatt solar parks, that will use thin-film, solar photovoltaic, modules. Made by First Solar the. Blythe solar power project. Is a five hundred megawatts, photovoltaic, station. Under construction ruction in Riverside, County California. The. California. Valley solar, ranch CBS. R is a 250. Megawatt MW. Solar, photovoltaic, power, plant which, is being built by Sun power in the Chara's Oak Lane northeast, of California. Valley, the. 230. Megawatts, Antelope, Valley solar, ranch is, a first solar photovoltaic, project. Which is under construction, in the Antelope, Valley area. Of the Western, Mojave Desert. And due to be completed, in 2013. The. Mesquite, solar project, is a photovoltaic, solar, power plant, being built in Arlington, Maricopa. County Arizona owned, by Sempra, generation. Phase. 1 will have a nameplate, capacity of. 150. Megawatts. Many of these plants are integrated, with agriculture. And some use innovative, tracking, systems, that follow the sun's daily, path across the sky to generate, more electricity than. Conventional. Fixed mounted, systems. There. Are no fuel costs or emissions, during operation. Of the power stations. Topic. Wind, power. Some. Of the second-generation, renewables. Such as wind power have, high potential, and have already realized, relatively. Low production, costs.
Wind. Power could become cheaper, than nuclear power global. Wind power installations. Increased by thirty five thousand, eight hundred megawatts, in 2010. Ringing, total, installed capacity up. To one hundred, and ninety four thousand, four hundred megawatts. A twenty, two point five percent increase, on the one hundred and fifty, eight thousand, seven hundred megawatts. Installed at, the end of 2009. The. Increase, for twenty ten represents, investments. Totaling, forty, seven, point three billion euros, 65. Billion United. States dollars and for the first time more than half of all new wind power was, added outside of the traditional markets. Of Europe and North America mainly. Driven by the continuing. Boom in China which accounted, for nearly half of all of the installations. At sixteen, thousand, five hundred megawatts. China. Now has forty. Two thousand, three hundred megawatts. Of wind power installed. Wind. Power accounts, for approximately nineteen. Percent of electricity generated. In denmark nine percent, in Spain and Portugal and six percent in Germany, and the Republic, of Ireland, in. Australian, state of South Australia, wind power championed. By premier Mike Rann, 2002. To 2011 now, comprises, twenty, six percent of the state's electricity. Generation, edging, out coal-fired, power at the. End of 2011, South, Australia, with 7.2. Percent of, Australia's, population had. 54. Percent of the nation's installed, wind power capacity, wind power share of worldwide electricity. Usage, at the end of 2014. Was, 3.1. Percent these are some of the largest wind farms, in the world as of. 2014. The wind industry in the USA, is able to produce more, power at lower cost by using taller wind turbines, with longer blades capturing, the faster, winds at higher elevations. This. Has opened up new opportunities and. In Indiana Michigan, and OH I owe the, price of power from wind turbines, built 300 feet, to 400, feet above the ground can, now compete, with conventional. Fossil fuels like coal. Prices. Have fallen to, about four cents per kilowatt hour in, some cases and utilities, have been increasing. The amount of wind energy in, their portfolio, saying, it is their cheapest, option. Topic. Solar, thermal power, stations. Solar. Thermal power, stations. Include, the. 354. Megawatt, MW. Solar, energy, generating. Systems, power plant in the US Seoul Nova solar power station, Spain. 150. Megawatts, and a Seoul solar power station, Spain, 100. Megawatts, Nevada, solar one u.s., a 64. Megawatts, PS, 20, solar power tower Spain, 20, megawatts, and the PS 10 solar power tower Spain, 11, megawatts. The. 370. Megawatts, Ivanpah, solar power. Facility. Located, in California's. Mojave Desert. Is the world's largest solar, thermal power plant, project, currently under, construction. Many. Other plants, are under construction or planned mainly, in Spain and the USA, in. Developing. Countries, three World Bank projects, for integrated. Solar thermal combined. Cycle gas turbine. Power plants, in Egypt Mexico, and Morocco, have been approved. Topic. Modern, forms, of Oh energy. Global. Ethanol, production for, transport, fuel tripled, between 2000. And 2007. From 17, billion to more than 52, billion liters while biodiesel. Expanded, more than tenfold from less than 1 billion to almost 11, billion liters. Biofuels. Provide, 1.8. Percent of, the world's transport, fuel and recent, estimates, indicate, a continued. High growth, the. Main producing, countries, for transport, biofuels. Are the u.s. Brazil and the EU Brazil, has one of the largest renewable, energy, programs, in the world involving. Production, of ethanol fuel, from sugarcane and ethanol, now provides, 18%.
Of The country's automotive. Fuel as a. Result, of this and the exploitation, of, domestic, deepwater, oil sources, Brazil, which for years had to import a large share of the petroleum, needed for domestic, consumption, recently. Reached complete, self-sufficiency. In liquid, fuels. Nearly. All the gasoline sold in the United, States today is mixed, with 10% ethanol emits, known as e10 and motor vehicle, manufacturers. Already produce, vehicles designed, to run on much, higher ethanol, blends. Ford. Daimler, Chrysler and, GM are among the automobile, companies that sell flexible, fuel cars trucks, and minivans, that can use gasoline and ethanol blends. Ranging, from pure gasoline up to 85%, ethanol. E85. The. Challenge, is to expand, the market for biofuels, beyond the farm states where they have been most popular to date the. Energy, Policy Act, of, 2005. Which calls for 7.5. Billion US, gallons 28. Million cubic, meters of biofuels. To be used annually, by 2012. Will also help to expand, the market the growing ethanol, and biodiesel industries. Of providing, jobs in plant construction, operations. And maintenance mostly. In rural communities. According. To the Renewable, Fuels Association. The. Ethanol industry created. Almost. 150, 4000. US jobs in, 2005. Alone, boosting. Hold income, by, 5.7. Billion dollars. It. Also contributed. About 3.5. Billion dollars, in tax revenues, at the local, state, and federal levels. Topic. Third-generation. Technologies. Third, generation renewable. Energy, technologies. Are still under, development and, include advanced, biomass, gasification by. Refinery, technologies, hot dry rock geothermal. Power and ocean, energy, third. Generation, technologies. Are not yet widely demonstrated. Or have limited, commercialization. Many. Are on the horizon and, may have potential, comparable, to other renewable, energy, technologies, but still depend on attracting, sufficient, attention and, research, and development funding. Topic. New bioenergy. Technologies. According. To the International. Energy Agency, cellulosic. Ethanol by, refineries. Could allow biofuels. To play a much bigger role in the future than organizations. Such as the IEA previously. Thought. Cellulosic. Ethanol can, be made from plant matter composed, primarily of, inedible. Cellulose, fibers, that form the stems and branches of, most plants. Crop. Residues, such as corn stalks wheat straw and rice straw wood waste and municipal solid. Waste are potential, sources of cellulosic, biomass. Dedicated. Energy, crops such, as switchgrass are also promising, cellulose, sources, that can be sustainably. Produced in, many regions. Topic. Ocean. Energy. Ocean. Energy is all forms of renewable energy. Derived from the sea including wave, energy, tidal, energy river, current, ocean, current energy offshore. Wind salinity, gradient, energy and ocean thermal gradient, energy the ron's tidal, power station. 240. Megawatts, is the world's first tidal, power station. The. Facility, is located on, the estuary of the Rance River in Brittany, France. Open. On the 26th. Of November. 1966. It is currently, operated, by electricity de, France and is the largest tidal, power station, in the world in terms of installed capacity. First. Proposed, more than 30 years ago systems, to harvest utility-scale, electrical. Power from ocean waves have recently, been gaining momentum as, a viable technology. The. Potential, for this technology is, considered, promising, especially on, west facing coasts, with latitudes, between 40, and 60, degrees, in. The United Kingdom for example the, Carbon Trust recently. Estimated the extent, of the economically, viable offshore, resource at 55, terawatt-hours, per, year about, 14%.
Of Current national, demand, across. Europe, the technologically. Achievable, resource has been estimated to, be at least 280. Terawatt-hours. Per, year in. 2003. The US Electric, Power Research Institute. EPRI, estimated. The viable, resource in the United, States at. 255. Terawatt, hours per year 6%. Of demand. There. Are currently nine projects, completed, or in development, off the coasts of the United Kingdom, United States, Spain, and Australia to harness the rise and fall of waves, by Ocean Power Technologies. The. Current maximum power output, is 1 point 5 megawatts, Reedsport Oregon. With development, underway, for 100, megawatts, Coos Bay Oregon. Topic. Enhanced. Geothermal systems. As of. 2008. Geothermal. Power development. Was underway, in more than 40 countries partially, attributable, to the development, of new technologies. Such, as enhanced geothermal systems. The. Development, of binary cycle, power plants, and improvements, in drilling and extraction, technology. May enable enhanced geothermal, systems. Over a much greater geographical. Range than, traditional. Geothermal. Systems. Demonstration. EGS, projects, are operational. In the US Australia Germany. France, and the United Kingdom. Topic. Advanced. Solar concepts. Beyond. The already, established solar. Photovoltaics, and, solar thermal power technologies. Are such advanced, solar concepts. As the solar updraft tower, or space-based, solar power, these. Concepts, have yet to if ever be commercialized. The. Solar. Updraft tower, sut, is a renewable, energy power plant for, generating electricity from. Low temperature solar, heat. Sunshine. Heats the air beneath a very wide greenhouse, like roof, collectors, structure, surrounding. The central base of a very tall chimney, tower the. Resulting, convection, causes, a hot air updraft, in the tower by the chimney effect, this. Airflow drives, wind turbines, placed, in the chimney updraft, or around the chimney base to produce electricity. Plans. For scaled up versions, or demonstration. Models will allow significant. Power generation, and may allow development, of other applications. Such as water extraction, or distillation, and agriculture. Or horticulture. A more. Advanced, version of a similarly, themed technology. Is the vortex engine Avenue, which aims to replace large, physical chimneys. With a vortex, of air created, by a short of less expensive structure. Space-based. Solar power, SBS P is the concept, of collecting, solar power in space using, an SPS. That. Is a solar, power, satellite. Or a satellite. Power, system. For, use on earth it, has been in research, since the early 1970s. SB. SP would differ from current, solar collection, methods, in that the means used to collect energy, would reside on an orbiting, satellite instead. Of on Earth's surface. Some. Projected, benefits of such a system, are a high collection. Rate and a longer collection, period due, to the lack of a diffusing atmosphere. And night time in space. Topic.
Renewable. Energy industry. Total. Investment, in renewable, energy reached, 211. Billion dollars in 2010, up from, 160. Billion dollars in 2009. The. Top countries, for investment, in 2010, were, China. Germany, the United States Italy and Brazil. Continued. Growth for the renewable, energy sector is, expected and promotional, policies, helped the industry weather the 2009. Economic, crisis, better than many other sectors. Topic. Wind, power companies. As of. 2010. Vestas, from denmark is the world's top wind turbine, manufacturer. In terms of percentage, of market volume and sino volt from china is in second, place, together. Vestas. And sign oval delivered, ten thousand, two hundred and twenty eight megawatts, of new wind power capacity in, 2010, and their market, share was twenty, five point nine percent. GE. Energy USA. Was in third place closely. Followed by Goldwyn, another, Chinese, supplier. German. Enecon ranks, fifth in the world and is followed in sixth place by Indian, based sauce LAN. Topic. Photovoltaic. Market. Trends. The. Solar PV market has been growing for the past few years. According. To solar PV, research, company, PV in sites worldwide, shipment. Of solar modules in 2011. Was around 25, gigawatts. And the shipment year-over-year growth was, around 40, percent, the. Top 5 solar module, players in 2011. Interns a Sun Tech First Solar Yingli, Trina and Sonnen the. Top 5 solar module, companies, possessed. 51.3%. Market. Share of solar modules, according, to peep in sites market, intelligence report. The. PV, industry has, seen drops in module prices since, 2008. In. Late 2011, factory. Gate prices for crystalline, silicon, photovoltaic, modules. Dropped below the $1, per w mark the. $1.00 per W installed, cost is often regarded in the PV industry as, marking, the achievement, of grid parity for PV, these. Reductions, have taken, many stakeholders. Including, industry, analysts, by surprise and perceptions. Of current solar power economics. Often lags behind reality. Some. Stakeholders still, have the perspective that Solar, PV remains too, costly on an unsubsidized. Basis, to compete with conventional. Generation, options. Yet. Technological. Advancements. Manufacturing. Process, improvements, and industry. Restructuring mean. That further price reductions, are likely in coming, years. Topic. Non, technical, barriers, to acceptance. Many. Energy, markets, institutions. And policies have been developed, to support the production and use of fossil fuels. Newer. And cleaner technologies. May offer social and environmental benefits, but, utility, operators, often reject, renewable, resources, because, they are trained to think only in terms of big conventional. Power plants. Consumers. Often ignore, renewable, power systems, because, they are not given accurate, price signals, of electricity. Consumption. Intentional. Market distortions, such as subsidies, and unintentional. Market distortions, such as split incentives, may work against, renewables. Benjamin. K Sava call has argued, that some. Of the most surreptitious. Yet powerful, impediments. Facing, renewable, energy, and energy efficiency in. The United, States are more about culture, and institutions. Than engineering and, science. The. Obstacles, to the widespread. Commercialization. Of renewable, energy technologies. Are primarily, political not. Technical, and there have been many studies which, have identified. A range of non, technical. Barriers, to. Renewable, energy use these, barriers, are impediments which put renewable, energy at a marketing, institutional. Or policy, disadvantage. Relative to other forms, of energy, key. Barriers, include. Difficulty. Overcoming established. Energy systems, which includes, difficulty. Introducing. Innovative energy systems, particularly, for distributed, generation, such, as photovoltaics, because. Of technological lock-in. Electricity. Markets, designed for centralized, power plants, and market, control by established, operators, as the. Stern review on the economics, of climate change, points, out national. Grids are usually, tailored, towards, the operation.
Of Centralized, power plants. And thus favor their performance. Technologies. That do not easily fit into these networks, may struggle to enter, the market, even if the technology itself. Is commercially. Viable. This. Applies to distributed. Generation, as, most grids are not suited, to receive, electricity. From many small sources. Large. Scale renewables. May also encounter, problems, if they are sited in areas, far from, existing, grids. Lack. Of government, policy, support, which includes the lack of policies, and regulations supporting. Deployment, of renewable, energy technologies. And the presence, of policies, and regulations hindering. Renewable, energy development, and supporting, conventional. Energy development. Examples. Include subsidies. For fossil fuels, insufficient. Consumer, based renewable, energy incentives government. Underwriting, for nuclear plant accidents, and complex, zoning, and permitting processes, for renewable, energy. Lack. Of information dissemination. And consumer, awareness. Higher. Capital cost of renewable, energy technologies. Compared, with conventional energy. Technologies. Inadequate. Financing, options, for renewable, energy projects. Including, insufficient. Access to affordable financing. For project, developers, entrepreneurs, and consumers. Imperfect. Capital, markets, which includes, failure, to internalize, all costs, of conventional energy AG, effects. Of air pollution risk, of supply disruption. And failure, to internalize, all benefits, of renewable energy. Age a cleaner, air energy security. Inadequate. Workforce, skills and training which includes, lack of adequate scientific. Technical, and manufacturing. Skills required, for renewable, energy production lack, of reliable, installation. Maintenance and, inspection. Services, and failure, of the educational. System to provide adequate training in new technologies. Lack. Of adequate codes, standards, utility. Interconnection. And net metering guidelines. Poor. Public perception, of renewable, energy, system aesthetics. Lack. Of stakeholder. Community, participation. And cooperation in. Energy, choices and renewable, energy projects, with such a wide range of non-technical, barriers, there is no silver. Bullet solution. To, drive the transition, to renewable, energy so. Ideally, there is a need for several. Different types of policy, instruments. To complement, each other and overcome, different, types of barriers a policy, framework must, be created, that will level the playing field and redress the imbalance a, traditional, approaches, associated. With fossil fuels the. Policy, landscape must. Keep pace with broad, trends, within the energy sector, as well as reflecting, specific, social economic. And environmental priorities. Some. Resource rich countries struggled. Move away from fossil, fuels and have failed thus far to adopt regulatory. Frameworks, necessary. For developing, renewable energy. Eg Russia.
Topic. Public. Policy, landscape. Public. Policy, has a role to play in renewable, energy commercialization, because. The free market system has, some fundamental, limitations. As the. Stern Review points. Out, in. A liberalized, energy, market, investors. Operators. And consumers, should face the full cost of their decisions, but. This is not the case in many economies, or energy, sectors. Many. Policies, distort, the market in favor of existing, fossil fuel technologies. The. International, solar energy, society, has stated that, historical. Incentives. For the conventional. Energy resources, continue. Even today to bias, markets. By burying, many of the real societal. Costs, of their use. Fossil. Fuel energy systems. Have different production. Transmission. And end use costs, and characteristics. Than do renewable, energy systems, and new promotional, policies, are needed to ensure that renewable. Systems develop. As quickly and broadly as is socially, desirable Lester, Brown states, that the market, does, not incorporate, the, indirect, costs, of providing goods, or services, into prices, it does not value nature's, services, adequately, and it does not respect, the sustainable. Yield thresholds. Of natural, systems. It. Also favors. The near-term over the long term thereby showing limited, concern, for future generations. Tax. And subsidies, shifting, can help overcome these problems though. Is also problematic, to combine different international, normative. Regimes, regulating. This issue. Topic. Shifting. Taxes. Tax. Shifting, has been widely discussed and, endorsed, by economists, it, involves, lowering income, taxes, while raising levies, on environmentally. Destructive activities. In order to create a more responsive, market, for. Example a tax on coal that included, the increased, healthcare costs, associated, with breathing, polluted air the costs of acid rain damage, and the costs of climate disruption. Would encourage investment. In renewable, technologies. Several. Western, European, countries, are already shifting, taxes, in a process, known there as environmental. Tax reform, in 2001. Sweden. Launched a new ten-year environmental. Tax shift designed, to convert 30 billion kroner 3.9. Billion dollars, of income taxes, - taxes, on environmentally. Destructive activities. Other. European. Countries, with significant. Tax reform, efforts of France Italy, Norway, Spain. And the United Kingdom. Angels. - leading economies, Japan, and China are, considering, carbon, taxes. Topic. Shifting, subsidies, just as there is a need for tax shifting, there is also a need for subsidy. Shifting. Subsidies. Are not an inherently, bad thing as many technologies. And industries emerged, through government, subsidy, schemes, the. Stern Review explains, that of twenty key innovations, from the past thirty years only one of the 14 was funded entirely by the private, sector and 9 were totally, publicly, funded, in. Terms of specific, examples, the internet was the result, of publicly, funded links among computers, in government, laboratories, and research institutes. And the, combination. Of the federal tax deduction. And a robust, state tax deduction, in California, helped to create the modern wind power industry Lester. Brown has argued, that a world facing, the prospect of economically, disruptive, climate change, can no longer justify subsidies. To expand, the burning of coal and oil, shifting. These subsidies, to the development, of climate, benign energy, sources such as wind solar. Biomass. And geothermal power. Is the key to stabilizing, the Earth's climate. The, International, solar energy, society advocates. Leveling, the playing field by redressing, the continuing, inequities, in public, subsidies, of energy technologies. And R&D in which the fossil fuel and nuclear power, received, the largest share of financial, support some, countries, are eliminating. Or reducing climate. Disrupting. Subsidies, in Belgium, France, and Japan have, phased out all subsidies, for coal. Germany. Is reducing, its coal subsidy, the, subsidy, dropped from five point four billion dollars, in 1989. To 2.8, billion dollars, in 2002.
And In the process, Germany, lowered its coal use by 46. Percent, China. Cut its coal subsidy, from, 750, million dollars, in 1993. To, 240. Million dollars in, 1995. And more recently, has imposed a high sulfur, coal tax, however. The, United, States has been increasing, its support for the fossil fuel and nuclear industries, in November, 2011 an IEA report entitled. Deploying. Renewables, 2011. Said subsidies. In green energy technologies. That were not yet competitive, are justified, in order to give an incentive to investing. Into technologies. With clear environmental. And energy security, benefits, the. IEA s report, disagreed, with claims that renewable, energy technologies. Are only viable through, costly, subsidies, and not able to produce energy reliably. To meet demand, a fair and efficient, imposition, of subsidies, for renewable, energies and aiming at sustainable, development, however, require, coordination and, regulation. At a global level as subsidies. Granted, in one country can easily disrupt, industries, and policies, of others thus underlining, the relevance, of this issue at the World Trade Organization. Topic. Renewable. Energy, targets. Setting. National renewable energy, targets, can be an important, part of a renewable, energy policy. And these targets, are usually, defined as a percentage, of the primary, energy and/or, electricity. Generation, mix, for. Example, the European Union. Has prescribed, an indicative, renewable, energy, target, of 12%. Of the total EU energy mix and, 22%. Of electricity, consumption, by, 2010. National. Targets for individual, EU, Member States have also been, set to meet the overall target. Other. Developed. Countries, with defined, national, or regional targets. Include, Australia Canada Israel. Japan Korea. New Zealand, Norway Singapore. Switzerland. And some US states national. Targets are also an important, component of, renewable, energy, strategies. In some developing, countries. Developing. Countries with, renewable energy, targets, include, China India, Indonesia Malaysia. The, Philippines Thailand. Brazil, Egypt, Mali and South Africa, the target, said by many developing, countries, are quite modest when compared, with those in some industrialized.
Countries, Renewable, energy targets, in most countries are indicative, and non-binding, but they have assisted government. Actions, and regulatory, frameworks. The. United, Nations, Environment, Program has suggested, that making renewable energy. Targets, legally, binding, could be an important, policy tool to achieve higher, renewable, energy, market penetration. Topic. Leveling, the playing field. The. IEA has identified. Three, actions, which will allow renewable, energy, and other clean energy technologies. To more, effectively, compete, for private, sector capital. First. Energy, prices, must appropriately. Reflect, the true. Cost of energy. EGS through carbon pricing. So that the positive and, negative, impacts, of energy production and consumption, are fully taken, into account. Example. New UK, nuclear, plants, cost 92. Pounds and 50 pence per megawatt, hour whereas. Offshore, windfarms in the UK are supported, with 74. Euros and 20 cents per megawatt, hour at, a price of 150. Pounds in 2011. Falling, to 130. Pounds per megawatt, hour in, 2022. In. Denmark, the price can be 84. Euros per megawatt hour. Second. Inefficient. Fossil fuel, subsidies. Must be removed while ensuring. That all citizens, have, access to affordable energy. Third. Governments. Must develop policy. Frameworks, that encourage, private sector, investment. In lower carbon, energy options. Topic. Green stimulus. Programs. In. Response, to the global financial, crisis. In the late 2000s. The world's major governments, made green, stimulus. Programs. One of their main policy, instruments. For supporting, economic recovery. Some. 188. Billion dollars, in green stimulus, funding, had been allocated, to renewable, energy and energy efficiency to. Be spent mainly, in 2010. And in 2011. Topic. Energy. Sector, regulation. Public policy, determines, the extent to which renewable. Energy re is to be incorporated. Into a developed, or developing countries. Generation. Mix, energy. Sector regulators, implement, that policy thus. Affecting, the pace and pattern of reinvestments. And connections, to the grid energy. Regulators. Often have authority to carry out a number of functions, that have implications for the financial. Feasibility of, renewable, energy, projects. Such. Functions, include, issuing, licenses setting. Performance standards. Monitoring. The performance of regulated, firms determining. The price level and structure, of tariffs, establishing. Uniform systems. Of accounts, arbitrating. Stakeholder, disputes, like interconnection. Cost allocations. Performing. Management, audits developing. Agency, human resources, expertise. Reporting. Sector, and Commission activities, to government, authorities and coordinating. Decisions, with other government, agencies. Thus. Regulators. Make a wide range of decisions that affect the financial, outcomes, associated. With reinvestments. In. Addition, the sector regulator, is in a position to give advice to the government regarding the full implications. Of focusing, on climate change or, energy security, the. Energy, sector regulator, is the natural, advocate, for efficiency, and cost containment, throughout, the process of designing and implementing, reap allah sees, since. Policies, are not self implementing. Energy, sector regulators, become a key facilitator. Or blocker of renewable, energy investments. Topic. Energy. Transition. In Germany. The. Energy, when German, for energy transition. Is the transition, by Germany, to a low-carbon. Environmentally. Sound reliable, and affordable energy, supply. The. New system, will rely heavily on renewable. Energy particularly. Wind photovoltaics. And, biomass. Energy, efficiency, and energy demand, management. Most. If not all existing. Coal-fired generation. Will need to be retired, the. Phase-out, of Germany's, fleet of nuclear, reactors, to be complete, by 2022. Is a key part of the program legislative. Support for the energy wind was passed in late 2010. And includes greenhouse, gas GHG. Reductions. Of 80 to 95. Percent by, 2050. Relative, to 1990. And a renewable energy target, of 60 percent by 2050. These. Targets, are ambitious, the, Berlin based Policy, Institute Agoura, energy, when noted, that while, the German, approach is not unique, worldwide, the, speed and scope of the energy, when dar exceptional.
The. Energy, wind also seeks a greater transparency, in, relation, to national, energy policy formation. Germany. Has made significant. Progress on, its GHG. Emissions, reduction, target achieving. A 27. Percent decrease, between, 1990. And 2014. However. Germany. Will need to maintain an, average GHG. Emissions, abatement, rate of 3.5. Percent, per annum to, reach its energy when goal equal, to the maximum historical. Value thus far Germany, spends 1.5. Billion euros, per annum on energy, research, 2013. Figure, in an effort to solve the technical and, social issues, raised by the transition. This. Includes, a number of computer, studies that have confirmed the feasibility, and, a similar cost relative, to business, as usual and given that carbon, is adequately, priced of the energy, wind. These. Initiatives, go, well beyond European, Union, legislation, and the national, policies, of other European, states, the. Policy, objectives, have been embraced by the German, federal government, and has resulted in a huge expansion. Renewables, particularly. Wind power. Germany's. Share of renewables, has increased, from around five, percent in, 1999. To twenty two point nine percent in, 2012. Surpassing. The OECD. Average of, 18 percent usage, of renewables. Producers. Have been guaranteed, a fixed, feed-in tariff for 20 years, guaranteeing, a fixed income. Energy. Cooperatives. Have been created, and efforts, were made to decentralize. Control, and profits, the. Large energy companies have, a disproportionately. Small share, of the renewables, market, however. In some cases poor. Investment, designs have caused bankruptcies. And low returns, and unrealistic, promises. Have been shown to be far from reality. Nuclear. Power plants, were closed and the existing, nine plants will close earlier than planned in 2022. One. Factor, that has inhibited, efficient, employment, of new renewable energy, has been the lack of an accompanying, investment. In power infrastructure. To bring the power to market, it. Is believed. 8300. Kilometres of power lines must be built or upgraded, the. Different, German states have varying, attitudes, to the construction, of new power lines. Industry. Has had their rates frozen, and so the increased, costs, of the energy, wind have been passed on to consumers who, have had rising, electricity bills. Topic. Voluntary. Market, mechanisms. For renewable, electricity. Voluntary. Markets, also referred to as green power markets, are driven by consumer, preference. Voluntary. Markets, allow a consumer. To choose to do more than policy decisions, require, and reduce, the environmental impact, of their electricity. Use. Voluntary. Green Power products, must offer a significant. Benefit, and value to buyers to be successful. Benefits. May include zero, or reduced, greenhouse gas emissions, other pollution, reductions.
Or Other environmental, improvements. On power stations. The. Driving factors, behind voluntary. Green electricity, within the EU are the liberalized, electricity. Markets, and the res directive. According. To the directive, the EU member states must ensure that the origin, of electricity, produced, from renewables. Can be guaranteed and, therefore, a guarantee. Of origin, must. Be issued article, 15. Environmental. Organizations. Are using the voluntary, market to create new renewables, and improving sustainability of. The existing, power production, in. The, US the main tool to track and stimulate, voluntary, actions, is greenie program. Managed, by center for resource solutions, in, Europe. The main voluntary. Tool used by the NGOs, to promote sustainable. Electricity, production is ACO energy label. Topic. Recent. Developments. A. Number. Of events in 2006. Pushed renewable, energy up the political agenda including. The u.s. midterm, elections, in November which confirmed, clean energy as a mainstream issue. Also. In, 2006. The Stern Review made, a strong, economic case, for investing in, low-carbon, technologies, now and argued, that economic growth need, not be incompatible with, cutting energy consumption. According. To a trend analysis, from the United, Nations Environment, Programme, climate, change concerns coupled with recent, high oil prices, and increasing, government support, are driving increasing, rates of investment, in the renewable, energy and energy efficiency, industries. Investment. Capital flowing into renewable, energy reached a record 77. Billion dollars, in 2007. With the upward trend continuing. In 2008. The. OECD. Still, dominates, but there is now increasing, activity from, companies, in China, India and Brazil. Chinese. Companies, were the second largest recipient of, venture capital, in 2006. After the United, States in. The same year India, was the largest net buyer of companies, abroad main, in the more established, European markets, new government, spending, regulation. And policies. Helped the industry weather the 2009. Economic crisis. Better than many other sectors. Most. Notably, US, President, Barack Obama's, American, Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Of 2009. Included. More than seventy billion dollars in direct spending and tax credits for clean energy and associated. Transportation. Programs. This. Policy, stimulus combination. Represents. The largest federal commitment, in US history for, renewables, advanced, transportation and, energy conservation, initiatives. Based. On these new rules many more utilities, strengthen, their clean energy, programs. Clean. Edge suggests, that the commercialization. Of clean energy will help countries around, the world deal, with the current economic malaise. Once. Promising, solar energy, company Solyndra. Became involved in a political, controversy, involving. US President, Barack Obama's. Administration's. Authorization. Of a five hundred and thirty five million dollars, loan guarantee, to the corporation. In 2009. As part of a program, to promote alternative energy.
Growth The. Company ceased all business, activity, filed for chapter 11 bankruptcy, and, laid off nearly all of its employees in early September, 2011 in, his the 24th, of January, 2012. State, of the Union address. President Barack. Obama, restated. His commitment, to renewable energy. Obama. Said that he will, not walk away from, the promise of clean energy. Obama. Called for a commitment, by the Defense, Department, to purchase, 1,000, megawatts, of renewable energy. He. Also mentioned. The long-standing Interior. Department, commitment, to permit 10,000. Megawatts of renewable energy. Projects, on public land in 2012. As of 2012, renewable. Energy plays a major role in the energy mix of many countries globally. Renewables. Are becoming increasingly, economic. In both developing, and developed countries. Prices. For renewable, energy technologies. Primarily. Wind power and solar power continued. To drop making renewables, competitive. With conventional energy, sources. Without. A level, playing field however, high, market, penetration of. Renewables, is still dependent on robust, promotional. Policies. Fossil. Fuel subsidies, which are far higher than those for renewable, energy remain, in place and quickly need to be phased out United, Nations secretary-general, ban, ki-moon has, said that renewable. Energy has, the ability, to lift the poorest, nations to new levels of prosperity in. October. 2011 he, announced, the creation of, a high-level group to drum up support for energy access energy. Efficiency, and greater use of renewable, energy, the. Group is to be co-chaired, by candy, yum Keller the chair of UN energy and Director, General, of the UN Industrial, Development Organisation. And Charles, Holliday, chairman, of Bank of America worldwide. Use of solar power and wind power continued. To grow significantly in, 2012. Solar. Electricity, consumption. Increased. By 58 percent to, 93. Terawatt-hours. TWh. Use. Of wind power in 2012, increased. By 18 point 1 percent to. 520. 1.3. Terawatt-hours. Global. Solar and wind energy installed. Capacities. Continued. To expand, even though new investments. In these technologies. Declined, during 2012. Worldwide. Investment. In solar power in 2012, was. 140. Point four billion dollars, an 11, percent decline from 2011. And wind power investment. Was down 10.1. Percent to, 80 point, 3 billion dollars, but. Due to lower production costs for, both technologies. Total, installed, capacities. Grew sharply, this. Investment, declined, but growth in installed capacity, may again echo in 2013. Analysts. Expect the market to triple by 2030. In, 2015. Investment. In renewables, exceeded, fossils. Topic. 100%. Renewable, energy. The. Incentive, to use 100%. Renewable, energy for electricity transport. Or even total, primary energy supply, globally. Has been motivated. By global, warming and other ecological as. Well as economic, concerns. The. Intergovernmental. Panel on, Climate Change, has said, that there are a few fundamental. Technological. Limits to integrating. A portfolio, of renewable energy. Technologies. To meet most of the total global energy demand. In. Reviewing. 164. Recent, scenarios, of future renewable, energy, growth the report noted that the majority expected. Renewable, sources to supply more than 17%. Of total energy by 2030, and, 27%. By, 2050. The highest forecast, projected. 43%. Supplied, by renewables, by 2030, and, 77%. By, 2050. Renewable. Energy use has grown much faster than, even advocates, anticipated. At the, national, level at least 30, nations around the world already, have renewable, energy, contributing. More than 20%. Of energy, supply. Mark.
Said Jacobson, professor. Of civil and environmental engineering, at, Stanford University. And director of its atmosphere and, energy program says, producing. All new energy, with wind power solar, power and hydropower, by 2030. Is feasible and existing, energy supply, arrangements, could be replaced by 2050. Barriers. To implementing, the renewable, energy plan is seen to be primarily. Social, and political not. Technological. Or economic. Jacobson. Says that energy costs with a wind solar water, system, should be similar to today's energy costs, similarly, in the United, States the independent. National Research, Council, has noted, that sufficient. Domestic, renewable, resources, exist, to allow renewable. Electricity, to, play a significant. Role in future, electricity. Generation, and, thus help confront, issues related. To climate change, energy, security, and the escalation, of energy, costs, renewable, energy is an attractive, option, because, renewable, resources, available. In the United, States taken, collectively can. Supply, significantly. Greater amounts, of electricity, than, the total current, or projected. Domestic, demand. The. Most significant. Barriers, to the widespread implementation, of. Large-scale renewable, energy. And low-carbon. Energy strategies. Are primarily, political and, not technological. According. To the 2013, post-carbon. Pathways, report, which reviewed, many international, studies, the key roadblocks, are climate, change denial the fossil, fuels Lobby political. Inaction, unsustainable. Energy consumption. Outdated. Energy infrastructure. And financial. Constraints. Topic. Energy. Efficiency. Moving. Towards, energy sustainability. Will require changes, not only in the way energy is supplied but in the way it is used and reducing. The amount of energy required, to deliver various. Goods or services, is essential. Opportunities. For improvement, on the demand side of the energy equation are, as rich and diverse as, those on the supply side and often, offer significant. Economic benefits as, sustainable. Energy economy, requires commitments. To both renewables, and efficiency. Renewable. Energy, and energy efficiency are. Said to be the twin, pillars of. Sustainable. Energy policy the, American, Council, for an energy-efficient. Economy has, explained, that both resources, must be developed in order to stabilize and reduce carbon dioxide, emissions. Efficiency. Is essential, to slowing the energy demand growth so, that rising, clean energy, supplies, can make deep cuts in fossil, fuel use, if. Energy, use grows too fast renewable. Energy development, will chase a receding, target. Likewise. Unless, clean energy, supplies come online rapidly, slowing, demand growth will only begin to reduce total, emissions, reducing. The carbon content, of energy sources is also needed. The. IEA has stated, that renewable, energy and energy efficiency, policies. Are complementary. Tools for the development, of a sustainable energy. Future and should be developed, together instead, of being developed in isolation. Topic. See, also. Topic. Lists. Topic. Topics. Equals.
Equals, Equals people.