Quantum Reality: Space, Time, and Entanglement

Quantum Reality: Space, Time, and Entanglement

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Good. To see all of you, you. See a quote, up there by Niels Bohr one of the, founding. Figures of quantum, mechanics, anyone who thinks they can talk about quantum, mechanics without getting dizzy hasn't, yet understood, the first word of it now, why. Would that be what did Niels Bohr mean by that well basically. He meant, that we all have a good intuition. For. Classical. Physics, right, and by that I mean you know if I was to take, any little object, right, give, it a catch nice did, a one-handed. Catch right there throws a little bit further back if you go two for two no, we're still we're one for two they're. Still back in the, Dark Ages here we go you. Have that one over there good right, now each, one, of the, people, who caught so they'll be the two of you over here it's a really a really evolved. Human being no you see when we, when. We were out there in the savanna trying, to, survive right. We, needed, certain. Skills we needed to be able to know where. To throw a spear, how, to throw a rock to get the next meal we needed to dodge, some. Animal, that was running toward us and therefore, we learned. The. Basic. Physics. Of the everyday, macroscopic. So-called, classical, world we learned that intuitively, and that's, why when. I throw, an object you, don't have to go through some elaborate. Calculation to. Figure out the trajectory, of that stuffed animal you just put out your hand and catch it right, it's built into our our being. But. That's. Not the case when we go beyond, the, world of the everyday if we, explore, the world say of the very small which is what we're gonna focus on here tonight we, don't have experience. In that domain we don't have intuition. In that demand in fact were. It the case that, any of our distant. Brethren, way in the past if they did have some quantum. Mechanical. Knowledge, and, they, sat down to, think about electrons, and probability, waves and wave functions, and that sort they. Got eaten. There. Change didn't propagate, right, and. Therefore. We have to use the power of mathematics and. Experiment. And observation, to. Peer. Deeper, into, the true nature of reality, when, things are beyond. Our. Direct, sensory. Experience, and that's. What quantum mechanics is, all about it's trying to describe what happens, in the micro world in a, way that's. Both accurate, and revealing. And the, thing to bear in mind is even though our focus here, tonight will, really in some sense be in the micro, world the, world of particles we. Are all collections. Of particles, so any weirdness, that we find down there in the micro world in some sense it has an impact even, in the, macro world and maybe suppressants, will discuss. But. It's not like there's a sharp divide between the small and the big we, are big beings, made of a lot of small things so any weirdness about the small stuff really. Does apply, to, us as well and in, this journey into, the, micro world the world of quantum mechanics, we, have some of the world leading experts, to help us along to figure things out and let me now bring them on stage.

Joining. Us tonight is a professor of philosophy at, the University, of Southern California. Who, spent 22. Years at, the University, of Oxford as, a student, researcher. And faculty, member he is the author of a book on the Everett interpretation. Of quantum mechanics out of the emergent, multiverse, please welcome David. Wallace. Also. Joining us tonight is a professor. Of chemistry at, the University of California, Berkeley co-director, of the Berkeley quantum, information, and computation center and faculty. Scientists. At Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, she's. A fellow of the American Physical Society and, a recipient of awards from the Burgman Sloan & Alexander, von Humboldt foundations. Please, welcome Kay burr Geetha wailing. Our. Third participant. Is the professor of physics at the University, of British Columbia a, simons investigator, and a member of the Simons Foundation it, from cubed collaboration. He, was a Canada, Research Chair in, a sloan foundation, fellow and was awarded the canadian CA PCRM. Medal to theoretical, mathematical, physics in 2014, please welcome mark, my mom's dog. Our. Final, participant, is, a professor of theoretical physics at Utrecht, University in, the Netherlands, and winner of the, 1999. Nobel, Prize in Physics for work and quantum field theory that lay the foundations, for the standard model of particle physics, one. Of the greatest, minds of our era, please, welcome Gerard. At toast. All. Right so subject. Is quantum, mechanics, and part. Of the evening will, involve. Some, challenge. To the conventional, thinking about, quantum, mechanics and so. Before we get into the details, I thought I would just sort of take. Your temperature get a sense of where you stand on quantum, mechanics is, it in your mind a done deal it's finished we completely understand, it is it a provisional, theory is it something which a hundred years from now we're gonna look back on with. A quaint smile how, do they think that that's how things work so, so David your view well. I didn't think we fully understand, it yet I think it has a lot of debts left to plumb and who, knows it might turn out to a place but right at the minute I think, we don't have either empirical, or theoretical, reason to, think that anything will take its place good, Fergie, - I think, it's fair to say there. May be here. To stay you said you need to stay they may be extensions, and modifications, there may be something more complete but this will still be part of it okay, mark. Yeah. So there's a there's a frontier, in quantum mechanics that I work in and this is the frontier it's like the Wild West of theoretical, physics where we're trying to combine, quantum. Mechanics, and gravity and, we need to do that to understand black holes and hopefully eventually understand, the Big Bang and and. There there's there's a lot to do and we. Don't know if we're gonna have to modify quantum, mechanics, or it'll, all be the same quantum mechanics, but all the way down right, now. Your art you have unusual. Views. Well. Yes I could spend. The rest of the evening explaining. Them yes. But. To. My mind quantum, mechanics is a tool a very important. Mathematical. Tool to. Calculate, what happens if you have some underlying, equations. And, to. Tell telling, us how. Particles, and, other small things behave, we. Know the answer to that question the answer is quantum mechanics but you don't know the question that's still something. Good. So sort of a jeopardy issue you know the American rapper, all, right so just, a quick overview we're, gonna start, with some of the basics of quantum mechanics just to sort of make sure that all of us are more or less on the same page well, then turn to, a, section. On something, called the quantum measurement, problem something weird quantum, entanglement, as in the title of the program will. Then turn to issues of black holes space, time and quantum. Computation. Which will, take us right through to the end all, right so just to get to the the basics of quantum. Mechanics, the. Story. Of course began, more, or less in the way that I started, you, know we understood, the world using classical, physics in the in the early days way back to the 1600s.

And Then. Something, happened in the early part of the 20th, century where people like, you. Know we started with Newton of course then we move on to people, like Max Planck Albert. Einstein. What. What drove the. Initial, move into. Quantum. Physics. I. Think. It was really just pushing really hard at, classical, mechanics, as it went down into the the scale of atoms and, the structure of atoms and just, finding that structure snapped and broke that. Trying. To use classical mechanics to understand, how. Hot things got or how. Electrons. Went round atoms, without collapsing, into the nucleus in. All those places we had a series, of hints, that. Something. Was amiss in, in our classical physics yes, and it. Took I guess. Most, of 30 years for those hints, to coalesce into a into a coherent theory but. That here in theory then became a not. Not really just a single physical theory but a language for writing physical, theories be being. Theories. Of particles, or fields, maybe some days and gravity and that language was more or less sort. Of solid by I guess about 1930, yep, it's, it's actually quite remarkable that it only took, that, number of years to develop a radically, new way of thinking about things and Richard, Fineman who is of course a hero of all, of us also known, to the public famously. Said that there is one, experiment. We could go through the whole history of everything that you describe with the ultraviolet, catastrophe and. Photoelectric. Effect and all these beautiful experiments, but, the double slit experiment. Luckily. For us in having a relatively, brief, conversation. Allows. Us to get to the heart of this, new idea where it came from this, actually is the the, paper on in, some sense the double slit experiment the first version, Davisson and Germer and, I'll draw, your attention to one thing you see the word accident and this. Is just, a footnote but, in, the old days people would actually describe the, blind alleys that they went down in a, scientific, paper but, as science, progressed, we were kind of taught no no don't ever say what went wrong let. Me talk about what went right but, here was an old paper and indeed this experiment, emerged from an accident, in the laboratory, of Bell Labs they, were doing a version of this experiment they turned the intensity, up too high some, glass tubes shattered. And when they redid the experiment, unwittingly, they. Had, changed the experiment to something that was actually far more interesting, than the experiment, that they're initially carrying, out so.

So Just, to talk about what this experiment is in modern, language so David again just just what's. The basic idea, of the, double, slit experiment so, you take a source. Of well, the particles, of any kind but let it be light for instance you shine that light. As a narrow beam on a screen it has two gaps in it and you, look at the pattern, of light behind the. Two. Gaps in the screen. It's. Exactly the, slits are just literally gaps in a black. Sheet of paper and prints yellow but, the lights going through if, light. Is a, particle, you'd expect one, sort of result, on the far side of the screen if light, is a wave if you might expect something different as the, light coming through one part of the slit, interferes. With the light going through the other part of the slit and the weird thing about quantum - slit experiment, is that it seems in various, ways to be doing both of those things at the same time good, so brigita if you can just take. Us through a particle. Experiment. To build up our intuition, so let's say we we carried out the experiment that David described but we don't start, with photons. Or electrons, we start with with pellet bullets or something so I think they have a little, the animation that you could take us through so what. Would we expect to happen in this experiment, so you have the source of the pellets. Here in front and it's, pitching. Out the pellets and some of them a go through the holes and the ones that go through the hole they sort of travels rectilinear. Straight, ahead as we might expect. From our classical, intuition and we get two bands, of the back indicating. The book the pellets, that went through the right slit, on. The right and the. Left band is the pellets that went through the left slit now if I was that that's completely intuitive right so this is the stuff that our forebears. Would have known even on the Savannah right now, if we took the size of the pellets, and we dial them down to a very small size before. Going to your quantum, intuition, that you have what would you expect naively. To, happen if you simply dial down the size would you expect there to be anything different if you were this. Is a leading question by the way did. You just follow me here the answer is I would. You expect anything different thing, would you expect anything good. So, they're. Not. Exactly. Right, so here's what you would naively expect. Would happen again. You've got the, particles. Going through the two slips so so, mark, tell us what actually does, happen, not that I don't. Think Brigitta, could just to give us all a little air time. So. It's oh of course it's kind of wild the place where you at least expect, to see something, on that screen is exactly behind.

That Big barrier, that's, in the middle yep and and somehow when. You actually do, the experiment you see that actually that's where most of the particles end up so. It's it's a no actually it's always exactly the opposite, and then you get this weird pattern, with other bands, going, out and. And and. So you initially. Would would stare at it and shake your head and yeah wonder, what you Doc so will will will will analyze, what that means in just a moment, but I you, know we, often I don't know probably, most, everyone in this audience has seen a still image or an animation like, this in the discussion of quantum mechanics. And I, thought it'd be kind of nice to show you that it that, this actually happened. It's not just animation. That an artist does so we're gonna actually do the. Double slit experiment, for real right, now and to. Do that I'm going to invite, a friend, of mine from Princeton, University all. Milan, can. You wheel, out if you would the, double, slit, experiment. All. Right so what. We have here is, a. Laser. On. This. Far. Side so, this is our source. So actually we're doing this in some sense opposite, to the orientation. That we saw in the animation and, we're, going to fire this laser which is photons. In essence, and the, photons, are going to go through a barrier, that has two openings, in it it's harder to see that of course mechanically, but trust me there's a barrier with two openings, and we're going to take a look at the, data that, falls, on a detector, screen which, in the modern age is a more, complicated, and somewhat. Finicky, piece of equipment, so we're all sitting here, on. Spill cos if you if, you speak any Guinness, you know exactly what I'm talking about right there but, hopefully this will this, will work out so so long let's let's why, don't we just actually see ambient, noise can we see a little bit of that first but. Can we switch over to the input. To the screen, all. Right so this is the output from. That device and now, if we actually turn, on the laser and allow us to collect, all of the photons that land. There. They're building up and. There. You see what, actually happened, so this is a result of this very device here and you see it we have a you. Can see on the very far left we, see some of the photons are landing then we get a dark region in between then, a bright a dark a bright a dark a bright a dark and a bright and dark even though this, device over here really.

Is A barrier, that has only two slits, in it so, the animation that we, showed you actually. Does hold true in real experiments. And that then forces, us to come to grips with it to try to understand, what, in the heck is actually. Going, on so thank, you all on. So. There we have it we have this, the situation in, which, we expect to get two bands and we got more, what. Does. That tell. Us where, do we go from there there's an existing, bit of mathematics. That comes, up with exactly that same pattern but. But. It has nothing to do with particles. It's, the mathematics. That you use to describe. Waves. Water waves or other kinds of waves yeah so can we see the the the the animation, has a single, so this is a warm-up. To, the problem, where we have water going through a single, opening it just tell us what we see happening, here that's, right so you've got you've, got sort of a water, wave a wave front coming along and then just. That. That slit acts as a bit of a source for for this rippling wave going out in a circular pattern and you. See it's, most wavy at the at the place behind the slit so the wall that's. Indicated, by the brightness there, yeah and then if we go on to a more relevant version. For the actual double, slit experiment yeah, so now we've got that that, same wavefront but, now there's there's two slits. And it's like there's two different sources, of waves like if you through two different pebbles, in the, pond at the same time and then, what happens is that they're. Both you're, both creating, waviness. But. Some places on the screen the way from one is doing this and the way from the other is doing this and they kind of cancel, out and, but. Right there in the middle what's happening, is that the way from the one slit is going, up right when the way from the other slit is going up and then they do this and you, get a big wave and that's the bright part but if, you work out the mathematics then. The places, that have the big waves are, exactly, these bright ones and that's just like we saw in the in. The double, slit right for the particles so, as per our Burton is Markus saying we now have a strange. Confluence. Of two, things. The data that comes out of the double slit experiment, when done with particles, and something, that seems to have nothing to do with it where we just have waves. Going, through a barrier with two, so the conclusion, then is that there's some weird connection. Between particles. And waves that's, where that connection comes from and and. Let's, push, that further so I mean let's just drive home how weird it, should be that there is any kind of connect yeah yeah so, imagine I do the two-slit experiment I cover up one of the slits the, effect completely goes away I get a bit of spreading out to the particles, but I don't, get that interference, I didn't get those bad much as we saw with water going through exactly exactly.

Much Even water going through the single slit and much as you see if your classical, intuition about particles, if I cover up the other slit. Exactly. The same result it's only if I have both slits open at the same time the effect happens so it seems to be for all the worlds if somehow, something's, going through the first slit and something. Else is going through the other slit and between, them, they're interacting, to create this strange effect and that's, why it matters so much that I can do this experiment of one particle at a time if this was just the mass of light going through no. Surprise that sunlights going through the left slit sunlights, going through the right slit the, left-hand light the right-hand light interferes, but, I can set this stuff up so only one photon goes for every hour and a half I still, see the effect it doesn't go down in this life can we see that we think we have it and then you might be thinking well maybe each individual, particle breaks in half and half the parcel goes through one slit and half the path will go the other slit but, again then you think you could look then you think you'd be seeing half strength, detection. X' yeah but that's not what you see whenever you look each time you send through the particle through if you look where it is you see the particle in one place one place only so. Trying, to reconcile, those two accounts, of what's going on makes. Your mind hurt yep exactly. So. So so we're forced, into, as they would say not just thinking that a large collection, of particles, behaves, like a wave which, maybe not wouldn't be that surprising because water waves are made of h2o molecules, particles, and therefore they're kind of wavy but, each individual. Particle somehow, has a wave-like quality. And and historically. People struggled to figure out what wave. What, kind of wave what. Is it made of and what does it represent if, you have a wave associated, with a particle, wave is spread out of particles, at a point and it. Was max born, in the. 1920s. Who came up with the, strange, idea.

Of What these waves, are so, Fergie, - what what are these waves telling us about, well the waves, what. We see is the probability which is a, square. Of the way or. Where. Modulus of the wave but so. Here's a way behind you so you said probability. Yes in essence. Amplitude. This is an amplitude which, will. Give us a probability that if we take this amplitude and look anywhere, here with some measuring device we, will find with some distinct, probability. After. Measuring many times we'll find that that's there's, a definite probability of the particle being there just as in the double slit after. Sending many particles, through we found with a certain probability they, would all appear, on the left or, all on the right so in some sense vaguely. Where. The wave is big there's. A high likelihood you're, gonna find the particle where the wave is near. Zero there's a very small probability. That you're gonna find a parent, II it so, any one particle, that would be in a place where the wave. Is very very small now, these are all just pictures, in, the. 1920s. Physicists. Were able to make this precise, so, Schrodinger. Wrote down an equation and, I think we and. Show you what the equation, looks like obviously, you don't need to know the math to follow anything that we're talking about here but uh, you, know Gerard you wanted to emphasize, that, there. Is math behind, this, because your. Experience has been that many people missed, that point so feel free to emphasize. Absolutely. Quantum mechanics, when. We talk about it. There. Is a temptation, to keep the discussion very fuzzy and so. I get very many. Letters but people who have their own ideas, about what's called mechanics is and they, are very good in reproducing, fuzzy arguments, but they, come without the equations, or the equations are equally fuzzy, and meaningless, because the. Beauty, of color mechanics is the fundamental. Mathematical. Here on certain situations you can prove that if this. Equation describes probabilities. Exactly. As you said yep before. The. And, then actually the equations, and, the probabilities, exactly, the way probabilities, are supposed, to be handled, except. Of course when, two, waves reinforce. Each other the, probabilities, become four times as big other than twice as big but, another, shot spots the waves annihilate. The probabilities, and so, for me this becomes zero, where are the waves. Vanishing. So, with, all this hangs together in a fantastically, beautiful mathematical. Math math is one thing experiment. Is another, so how do you how would you test the theory that only, gives rise to more. Probabilities. Of one outcome or another how would you go about trying. To determine if it's right or it's wrong yeah sorry it's like it's it's like if you gave me a coin and you, said you know is this is it this is a probabilistic, thing you flip it it's gonna be heads, half the time and tells half the time and, and. And I want to check that I don't I don't trust, you for I know why that would be but. I'm. Not as well so I just I. Just I. Just flip the coin, you. Know a hundred, thousand times or whatever a, lot. Of pay hands if. I want to be if I'm more, sure I want to be them where I flip it so maybe I did I do a ten times I get four and six and I maybe. I'll flip it a hundred times and then I get, forty-eight, heads and fifty-two tails. So I can, basically just, repeat the, experiment. A whole bunch of times and if I have a very precise, prediction, from those quantum. Mechanics equations, to tell me exactly. How often I should expect, to get one result versus, another though I think we have given, a little schematic what. Did we see how the luck right so we're doing there there's our wave that's describing, the the, state, of the particle the thing without a definite, location, now we're mentioned we're setting that up a whole bunch of times and measuring where the particle is each time and these, X's, are showing the results of our measurement, that's like flipping a coin and get a target so there's all these possible, locations, and what, we see is that after a while the, pattern, of how often I get one place versus, another place it's matching up to that expectation. Given. By the boy, the blue curve by this wave that's. Right so we can't predict the outcome of any given, run of the experiment, but over time building. Up the statistics we. Believe, the theory if they, align, with the probability profile, given by this wave whose, equation we showed you and that, is what works out the shape of the wave, in any given situation and just to bring this full circle if. We, look, at the double, slit experiment in this. Wave-like language. Now think of the electron, or the photon as a wave it goes through it interferes, like water waves going through the two openings, and therefore.

You Have an interference, pattern on the screen which, is telling you where it's bright it's very likely that you'll find the particles, where it's dark it's unlikely, where it's black there's zero chance of finding the particle there and therefore, you run this experiment, with a lot of particles, and they're going to primarily, land, in the bright regions, they're gonna land somewhat, in the gray or regions and they're not going to land at all in the black regions and indeed that's, exactly what we showed in the experiment, that we, ran. With the double slit just a moment to go and that's why we believe these ideas, so, that's in some sense really, the the basics, of quantum. Mechanics, classical. Physics particle, motion is the, intuitive, one described, by trajectories. In quantum physics the particle, motion is somewhat fuzzier, it's got this probabilistic, wave-like. Character. And the. Curious, thing about a wave is sort of a wave of probability if, the wave is spread out it means there's a chance the particles, here chance, that it's here a chance that it's here and therefore, the, wave embraces. A whole distinct. Collection. Of possibilities. All at once, that in some sense is really the, weirdness of quantum mechanics. So, that's the basic structure and now, we're gonna move on to our, next chapter, where we're going to dig a little bit deeper we'll, talk about measurement. And also. Entanglement. They're. Checking the electron, microscope, and the, winner is number. Three, in our quantum finish. No, fair, you change the outcome by, measuring it. Neither. We have a very sophisticated audience, or, you just love you to Rama I'm not sure which. But-but-but-but. This is part of the issue that we now want to turn to which. Is if you have a quantum. Setup, how. Do you how do you move from. This, probabilistic. Mathematics. Saying, that the electron say could be here or here or here with, different probabilities to. The definite, reality, that mark was described when you actually do an experiment, you find the electron, here, or here, or here you, never find anything a mixture. Of results. So we want to talk about how we navigate going. From the, fuzzy probabilistic, mathematical. Description, to the single definite reality, of, everyday. Experience, and, this, is something, that many physicists, have contributed, to over the, years, again, Niels Bohr we had a quote. From him early on and he, certainly viewed, as really, one of the founding. Pioneers, of the, subject, but, let's now try to go a little bit further with. Our, understanding of, going, from the, math to, reality. And we're gonna follow in in for, this part of the program it really Anil Niels, Bohr is footsteps, and something called the Copenhagen, approach, to to quantum, physics so, David. Can you just begin to take us through what what was, you, know the ideas, of collapse of the wavefunction in, technical, language what, are those ideas all about Scylla, clear this way I've got my probability wave which is sort of humped let's say just for one particle, it's humped over here and it's humped over here so. There's kind of two ways, I could think about that you might say there's an N way, in an all way so. I could, think of it as saying that the particle is here and the. Particle is here or, you could think of it as saying or the particle is here all the particles here and the, problem is I kind of need to use both to make sense of quantum mechanics or so it seems so. If I try to explain the, two that experiment, I have, to think in the end way, to start, with I have to think the, particles, going through this slit and it's, going through this slit because, if it's just going through this slit or it's going through this slit I could close one of the slits and it wouldn't make a little difference but.

Then As soon as I look where the particle is suddenly, the and way of talking, stops making sense because. It. Doesn't seem we'll come back to this it doesn't seem as if I see the, particle here and the particle here it seems as if now I need the or way of thinking, so, what came out of the ideas of Bohr, and Heisenberg and. They're acting people in the 20s and 30s was, well. There must be some some. New bit of physics some way in which that Schrodinger, equation, we saw earlier isn't the whole story so suddenly the wavefunction, stops being peaked here, and here. And it jumps it collapses, let's see a quick picture of that, collapse, so if we have a probability. Wave here, and this. Is the and description. In your language, it could be in these variety, of different, locations and I now undertake a measurement, and I, take that measurement and it, collapses. To the or way it's only at one of those suddenly education, and the mess the wavefunction is gone and now if I turn away and, I'm stopped measuring, it, melts, back into the probabilistic, description, and, we're, back to a. Language. That feels quite unfamiliar. With, the particle, is in some sense at all of these locations simultaneously. Now. The, issue that you raised is you said look, we're. Gonna have to have some other math to make this. Happen, so so so. First if if, we just use the Schrodinger equation this beautiful, equation that is written down would that be enough to cause a wave to undergo that kind of transformation nice, and spread out and now, collapses. To one location, where, the particle is found can the Schrodinger equation do, that for us, Brigitta. No, no. No. That. Means no right it. Means yes okay, so like. I said Gerard. Has distinct. Views which are which are spectacular interesting. We're gonna come to those in just a moment but let's now follow the history of the subject, where, going to just, follow our nose and we look at the equation that we have in it and it doesn't do it so. So, what then do, we do to to, get, out of this this impasse, and to make this impasse even. A little bit more. Compelling. I'm going to take you through one, version, of this story that I hope will make the conundrum. As sharp as it can be and then we'll try to resolve, it so I'm, going to take you through a little example, over here where, we have say a particle. Somewhere, in Manhattan and. Let's. Imagine that the probability, wave makes the particle, location, peak at the, Belvedere Castle. In, Central. Park just just randomly, chosen but, that would mean as if somehow I had some measuring, device that. Could work out where, the particle, is experimentally. Observational. II indeed. It would reveal, that the particle is at that location the. Waves is, sharply. Peaked at that spot, and therefore all the probability, is focused, right, there that's quite, a straightforward, situation. Imagine. We. Do the experiment, again and, the. Probability. Wave has a different. Footprint, let's, say it's way down there at Union, Square if you, follow, the same experimental. Measurement, procedure, and you go about figuring, out through. Your observation. Where the particle is you find indeed, there it is Union Square the. Conundrum, is the issue that David. Was speaking, to where we now have a, situation. Where. We. Don't have one. Peak. But two now. It's, sort of like the particle is at, the Belvedere, Castle and, in. Union. Square and that's, puzzling. Because, if you go, about, looking. At the observation. What. Do you think will happen here. Well the naive thing is your detector, kind of doesn't know what to do it sort, of caught between the, particle, is at Belvedere, Castle and, it's, at Union Square but the thing is. Nobody. Has ever found, a detector. Well I should say nobody, who. Is sober, has ever found a detector, that, does this right, this is not what we experienced, in the real world so, this is the issue that we have to sort, out because. That naive picture. Is not borne out by experience. And I. Think many people here. And many people in the community have thought about this you. In particular. David, believe that you you, have, the. Solution, it has a long historical lineage.

But Why, don't you tell us a little bit about the, approach that you think resolve. This okay to. Start by reminding ourselves what, what's, the problem with just saying that the wavefunction suddenly, jumps, to being in Belvedere or Union, Square and the problem is really just that we have to modify the. Equations, of physics at every level to handle that and Jake, Schrodinger equation just does not let that happen and to put it mildly we've got quite a lot of evidence for that structure of physics and for, a whole, bunch of reasons, you. Know actually. Trying, to change the, physics to make that sudden collapse of the wavefunction physical. And. Not I'm not just as Jared was putting it not just a sort of fuzzy talk is. A really really difficult technical. Problem but, you could say that we have to do that because later. I'm saying it. Doesn't seem we have a see a particle, here and here at the same time and. I think Brian's, joke. Is about right as to what our intuition, is about, what, it, will be like to see a particle here and here at the same time it would be like like being really drunk like seeing double but. Here's the thing if you want to work out what some physical process would be like and my looking at a particle is just one more physical process turns, out intuition, is not a very good way to predict what happens so. How do we ask what would it really be like to see a particle, that's here in here at the same time well, what if the physics say I'm, just one more measurement device and the physics says something like this if I saw the particle, here I'd go into a state that you might call a seeing, the particle here state if I look at the particle there and then. I go into what you call are seeing the particle there state if it's in both states at the same time then. I go, into both. States at the same time so. Being, a little loose for a minute then I now. In the state seeing the particle here and see particle there and if, I tell Brian where the particle is because I'm sure he's fascinated, Brian's. Now in the David says it's here and David says is there and I hold all the ins have to listen to me say this you're now all in, the it's. Here and it's there state at the same time and, the. Reality, is that even if I don't tell you this uncontrollable. Effects. Spread. Outward and so before, you know it the whole planet, the whole solar system is in a particle. Was seen here and particle. Was seen here at the same time stain and, if those two states don't interact, with each other they that they're that. They're way too complicated, to do the sorts of interference, exponents, we were doing with the two-slit you come to a two-slit experiment on the whole planet and so, for all intents and purposes what. The quantum theory is now describing, is two sets of goings on each, of which looks for all the world like. The. Particle being in a definite place and that's. Where the, terminology, of this way of thinking about quantum mechanics comes about the many worlds theory it. Was Co Everett who said look if you just take quantum mechanics seriously, you'll lead to this crazy sounding, idea of, there. Being many parallel, goings on at the same time every, time you make a quantum measurement, but. The thing I want to stress here is it's. Not that we say quantum, mechanics is weird but, let's bring in an even weirder idea out of the realm of science fiction to make it even stranger, it's, what, whatever it was saying and, what people have pushed his idea since then have been trying to make precise is the, idea that the quantum, theory itself, that Schrodinger, equation, itself when, you take it really seriously, tells. You that. Not. At the fundamental. Level not at the level of the microscopic, physics, but at the level that we see around us in the everyday then. Physic then the physics is describing, many. Goings on at the same time the look the the, quantum. Probability. Wave carries, on being an and wave all the way up so you're talking about many. Many, universe, many universes, so, this is where this idea of parallel, universes or many worlds come from so an example that we were looking at there, would be say, if you were undertaking, this measurement, there'd be you seeing, the particle, at Belvedere you seeing at at Union Square and as you said once, you tickle eight that we're all hearing, it and we're all going.

Along With you in one, universe and. Another. Exactly. So that's one, approach. To trying to disambiguate. A, situation. In which the quantum mechanics, has many possibilities, you're, saying no no it's not just that one of them happens they all happen, they all just happen to happen indistinct universe. Right and weirdly, that's a conservative idea I mathematically. Conservative, math, and, that's actually a vital point so so and this is an idea that's hard to communicate to, a general audience I'm sure many of you are technically, trained but those who aren't if you, stare at equations. Of quantum mechanics, and just take them at face value this, seems to be where the math takes you but. Is that convinced so it's are you guys convinced. They're. Getting you, there. Are alternative. Perspectives. But what I don't, you like this one I like. It I think it's fascinating I think it's wonderful yeah let's, bring in some information, so how much information. Are we going to keep, so. This, many-worlds hypothesis. Would say that we're, keeping every single piece of information, but. If we we, have a measuring device and, then. The measuring device is interacting, with an environment, and the environment of outside. Is also playing a role it's also affecting, the measuring. Device and all, these many many. Options. Measurements. That, can be recorded by the measuring device if the, environment, which is interact with that measurement device is. Interacting. The measuring device and, produces. Many more outcomes and yet then we throw in, producing, many much more information, but then we throw all of that information, of. The environment away then. We're left with something which reduces, to just the one one. Of these options so you're talking technical. Language of what's called decoherence, I'm, introducing, this technical, term that the coherence. Of the wave function, this the. Preservation, of these. So. Your belief is that if we don't. Focus just on a simple particle, itself but, in take into account how it talks to and interacts with the full environment, you feel that that's enough to solve the conundrum well. I'm, there's also mathematics. Yes.

Don't Know either so this is another perspective, I'm not saying we, don't know it which is one but this is a very strong argument for saying why. We don't actually experience, many many. What's. Your view on the mini, yeah I mean I I think, it's, what. What you were describing I mean it's basically just going all in on, the Schrodinger equation saying. Okay we've got this beautiful equation, it applies, to the the atomic. World let's. Take it seriously, and, and. Just if, we, believe in it then I mean you not only. Kind. Of understand through the mathematics, there that at the local level, you. Would have effectively, get something like collapse. If. You look at just a part, of the description of the system but but then you, know the, only thing is that in the, end it's a little bit disturbing. Philosophically. That there's a maybe. A part of the wave, describing. The universe where you. Know I I'm I'm a football. Player or. Then. That question of well why why. Did what, is our experience, yes in, that picture of many worlds is there is there some way to just, to, understand, you know why does we're, just, experiencing. One thing and. Detroit. Have a no I know that you gonna take us somewhere else. When. You, ask me about this question what the wavefunction, you were nodding I was supposed to not know and, I know that yes. The. Point is this that. Quantum. Mechanics today, is the best we have to do the calculation. But, the best we have doesn't, mean that the calculations, it. Extremely, accurately correct so. According. To the equations. We see we. Get this many worlds, I agree. With that statement but I don't agree with the statement, that quantum, mechanics is correct, so we have to accept, all these, other universes, for being real no, recalculations, incomplete. There. Is much more going on that it didn't take into account and then, again you can mention. The, environment.

Other Things, that, you forgot so, we. Are so used in physics, the unimportant. Secondary. Phenomena, can be forgotten he just leaves about very dated calculation. For granted but if you do that you, don't get for certain which universe. You are in you get a superposition. Of, different universes. It, doesn't, mean that the. Real outcome. That. That what's really happening is that universe, splits into a superposition of different universes. It means, our calculations. Inaccurate, and it. Could be done better and that. Doesn't mean that our theory is wrong but, that we made simplifications. We, made lots, of simplifications. Instead, of describing, the real world we. Split. Up the real world in what I call templates, all the particles you talk about and not to view particles, they, are just mathematical. Abstractions. Of a real particle, we use that because it's the best we can do which, is perfect. It's by, far the best we can do so in. Practice. That is just fine but, you just have to be careful in interpreting, your. Result, the, result does not mean that universe. Splits in many other universes, news up means yes. This answer, is the best answer you could get now, look, at the amplitude of, the universe, these, universities, you get out the one with the biggest amplitude, is most. Likely the rightest answer but, all the other answers, could be correct I could be wrong if we, add more details. Which. We are unable to do, today. Perhaps. Also tomorrow you. Also. Will. Be unable to do, it exactly, precisely. Correctly. So, we have to do with, what we've got today and what we've got today is an incomplete, theory, we should know. Better but, unfortunately. We are not given the information that. We need to, do a more precise calculation. That precise. Calculation, does show wave functions, that do not pick a different point at the same time like you have in Manhattan. That this, address, that address, and we, are a superposition know, in the real world to be another in a superposition, because. The real world takes. Single phenomenon into, account and you cannot, ignore what, happens in the environment, and so on if, if, you ignore that then you get all this case superposition. Phenomena, if you, would do the calculation, with infinite. Precision which, nobody can do if, you calculate. Everything, that happens in this room and way beyond and take everything into account you. Would find a wave function which doesn't do that you would find one which Peaks only at the right answer, and it, gives zero at the wrong answer, now this this, view this thing, is so unstable right, that them the most minut, in, practice. In your calculation, gives you these phony. Signals. That, say, maybe universe, and this may be university that maybe it is that only, if you do it precisely correctly. Then, you get only one answer yeah but, now that that resonates obviously. With an idea that goes all the way back to Einstein yes. I. Think, I would agree this such, such, yeah I think they think that it would - maybe it's not - maybe. Yes. But anyway. It. Is to. Me it sounds like an Einsteinian. Attitude. That, no nature's absolute God doesn't gamble the gamble is in our calculation. Because we can't do any better let's, take a step back and see why Einstein came. To this conclusion that, quantum, mechanics is incomplete, which takes us to the next strangeness. Of quantum mechanics, which is something called quantum entanglement. So. This. Is an idea that has, a long history in. Physics. That would not call, entanglement. What you're about to talk about one, but rather the characteristic. Trade of quantum mechanics, the one that enforces, its entire departure, from classical, lines of thought so, so here's again one of the founding pioneers, of the theory whose thought about this notion that we're about to describe as the. Key element, that distinguishes it, from our, intuition, or a classical, way of thinking and as we'll see it quickly in the, hands of Einstein, takes, us to a viewpoint. That aligns, really with what Gerrard was saying and that, comes. Most, forcefully, in a, paper from 1935. A date that's good to keep in mind we're gonna come back to in just a little bit where, these folks, write a paper Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen and. We can just this, is actually a New. York Times article. On it you see that the. They. Call, the theory not complete, much, as as Gerard, was describing, and it's, good to get a feel for for. Why it is that they came to this conclusion and, it, involves. This. Idea of entanglement, I'm gonna like us to walk through that just. Some, of the key steps and it's good to do it in a context of an example it's not the example that Einstein and his colleagues actually use but, it's an example having to do with the quality of particles.

Called Spin, so just to set it up and then I'll let the panelists take it from there when. We talk about a particle say like an electron, it turns out that has a characteristic, called. Spin, you can think of it almost like a top that's spinning around and roughly. Speaking using classical, language is to get a feel for it if the spin say is counterclockwise to, say it's spinning up if it's clockwise, you say it's spinning down and weirdly, a particle, can be in a mixture of being, both up and down using. Your language, of the end and only, when you measure the particle, do you find that it snaps out of that mixture, and is that in. The in the case of the particle Manhattan it was either at one location or another here it's one spin or another it's spinning down or up but it's definite, after you do the measurement you never find it in between again, you can do a second, measurement and say it snaps out of this fuzzy haze and it's spinning up and that's, a quality. Of a single, particle that's, well-known, in in. Quantum, physics but, entanglement. Arises. When you don't have one, particle. But, rather when you have two of them and, here's the weirdness that happens, if you do a measurement in this situation, even though each particle, is 50% up or 50% down you think they're completely independent but you can set things up in such a way that when you do a measurement it's. Always the case that if, the one on the Left is up the one on the right is down. They never are both up or both down and we can go back to this story again do, another measurement and they can be as far apart as you want and you. You find je that the left one is down and the right one is up so they're kind of locked together, by. A quantum. Connection. Quantum, entanglement which, is graphically, we're representing, by this. Little, yellow line over, here now, Gerard, was talking about incompleteness. Of quantum, mechanics, what, was Einstein's, view of what was going on here, well Einstein's, view was, that really. What's going on here is if you have, particles. That the math says, they're both spinning up and spinning down at the same time if you can look deeper, to the deeper structure, that Gerard was referencing, you'd find that these particles always have a definite, spin they're not actually going up and down, that's just mathematics. They. Actually have a definite, spin and therefore if you measure them and find, that one is up in the others down they were already, like that it's not as though there was some long-distance. Connection. Or communication. Going, on and this is what's known as quantum. Entanglement. And when I describe this to general audience people often. Get the phenomenon. Yeah you measure it here it's down to measure it there it's up but then they always come back to me and say but what's really going on, you. Know like but, just tell explain to me I said just did explain to you what's, going on that that's all there is no no they say please tell me like how could this be so so, how should we interpret this. Result so Einstein says, the way you interpret it is it was like this the whole time nothing, surprising, but. Then, we try, to do. Experiments, and see if that's the case and and what happens, so there's a famous. Person that comes into the story who. John. Bell and, and, and so what does amar what does bell blows Bell do for us I. Mean I mean basically to. Put it simply. He. Finds that any, kind of simplistic. Einstein. Like description. Where. The, thing had the definite, configuration. Before we, did, that measurement it can't, explain, the, results so we. Say the results you're talking about can't observational. That's right that's right yes so he writes, this, this famous paper. What. Year is this 1964. I think this think. It's like 1964. Writes his famous paper where. He he surprisingly. Is able, to get at an experimental. Consequence. Of an Einsteinian, view.

That. Things, are definitely up or down before, you look it's just the mathematics. That's giving this weird, superposition. Quality. And then. People, go out and ultimately. Starting. Say with John clauser and, the this must be the 70s, and into 80s with Alana spay they, carry. Out the measurement, and they, find as Mark was saying that. The Einsteinian, picture. Doesn't. Describe. The actual, data. So, if, Einstein were. Here, I think, you'd have to conclude not. Necessarily. That quantum mechanics is complete, but the chink, in the armor that he thought he found isn't. Actually. Correct. So George, what's your what's, your because you're coming at it from an Einstein Ian's view how, do you deal with they, say this very experiment. May I just add. One point three first you, can think of a classical. Experiment, is very simple, but not, strange. At all, think I take. Two marbles, in a black. Box, sure one marble is ahead the other one is green. Now. I shake the mobs as much I want I put. Blindfold. Li I put one marble in one box and Alabama lamella box and I bring these boxes light-years, away from each other as, soon as somebody, who. Sits or a celestial model the earth and one of my assembly, on earth opens, his box and at, the same time the guy on Mars opens, his box. Before. They open the box didn't, know what kind of marble they had in in. There in, the box also they had one or was at the game oh you don't know the soon as the one on earth opens, box a society. They had marble, instantly. The guy and Mars knows that he has the green marble, that, information, went much faster, than light but. You also know all this is nonsense, because, they knew it in advance I did, I had one red and one green marble so what's the big issue no. Problem, right so, the. Bell experiment, is fundamentally. Different from this situation, in, the sense that yes, sir we do describe you just, probably sort of the Einsteinian, picture, in science I would say don't, get worked up up tangle, man it's just like having to read marble or blue sonic, picking would walk but perfectly, well for the box with a head Marvin Green Bible no sweat no yes faculty we understand, that situation, no, no miracle at all but, for the bell. Light experiment the spinning, particle, you are, using in fact that the particle, is a quantum. Spinning, particle, and it's. Spinning particle something very very strange because it can either spin up or spin down but. Then someone asked what about spinning, sideways if, I not locate, the particle 45, degrees of 90. Degrees and they will say yes but that's a quantum superposition. But. Now. If the one person on earth looks.

At The particle in a in spinning. Up the one of my series is spinning down but, then when the person sees, a patentable, spinning, sideways the, guy of my sees the, part, of spinning Sciences in the other direction, right and sees it I was spinning up or spinning, down we still do in the sideways direct but the well they both look in the scientist erection again see the spin opposite, knobs and that is the miracle yeah that is a thing which is very very difficult to understand. Classically, I maintain. But this is my private opinion that you can explain it but, it is because this is where I sit both have the same origin they both came eventually, form from, an atom, emitting, two, spinning, objects or two photons, or two electrons, or something like that which. Were entangled, and. So. The entanglement, can be explained in terms of correlations. So. That the initial state was, not that. The pattern could be doing just anything no, there, are correlations. All over the place this is very very difficult to explain, I would even dare to try, to go, into Ivan and have any depth but, the answer lies in in, correlations. Do you think there is a way out of this in I think there's a way out but, it's extremely non-trivial, maybe, don't do it quite right you, enter, mystified. That, being, mystified, by the situation, yeah it's also, extremely hard, to make a model, that works, that, gives, this strange-looking, phenomenon. Right so, so. Yes you have a problem but, no I think the problem has an answer but it's very difficult and you have to work very hard to make it make it or hang together properly so that'll be in the footnote to tonight's program, you'll. Receive it in your email so. David, your your your view on entanglement. Is there is there a mystery here or there's. Kind of mystery and and, it. Kind of links to our earlier mysteries I mean looking this way my. My wave might my probability wave for, the, for. The two spinning particles, you can kind of describe as something like half, is this down up and half is this up, down and again, we can ask this well do I want to think about as an and or an or do I want to fit do I want to say well. It's. This or. Is this or, do I somehow have to say it's, this and it's this now, if it's this, or this. That's. Jared's, case that's not mysterious, at all and, that's exactly what Einstein and Podolsky and Rosen hope was the case but, what Bell's results, show us is that the the. This. All this, reading of entanglement just, like in some ways the the this. Slit all this, slit reading, of the two slit experiment, would. Lead to experimental. Predictions that don't pan out we. Can't at, least straightforwardly. We can't make sense of the experiments, without seeing the, entangled system as being this and, this, and now we're right back to the mystery because understanding. How it can be this and this. Which, seems to imply. Some sort of deep connection, between the two systems. Where, somehow saying. Everything, there is about this. Side and everything, there is about this side separately, doesn't tell you everything right that weird reading seems compulsory, right hmm so. So forgive. You your view on this, should. We fret about entanglement is, it I think, I think I raised a very important, point with is that when one talks about entanglement one should not. Forget to say, how. The particles, got entangled yes and they get entangled through an interaction. And I, think to most physicists. Entanglement, is not so mysterious if we think about it in those terms because, we so even, in just, atomic or molecular terms. So. Take the two electrons in the helium atom, in. The ground state the helium atom is if, we. Were to separate the two electrons, we know we can't do that because they're they're sitting on top of each other but were you to be able to take those two electrons and pull them apart they, would be in the perfectly entangled, pair but. We know how they got there because they had an interaction that. Put them into a particular electronic, state. And. So, if. You just randomly put two particles, together they would not be entangled necessarily, yeah, to my mind though the very fact that I don't care how you set it up the fact that you can set it up still.

Still, Still makes. Me in Niels, Bohr's let me dizzy but but but yes I agree that does mitigate, it to some extent but still it's so. Far outside of common experience that it's, that it's still hard to grasp but for this purposes, let's assume entanglement. Is real because now we want to move on to. Think, about how, it, manifests. Itself in some unusual, places like, in the vicinity of a black hole so. That's the the next thing that we're going. To turn to and, for. That extent, let's move on to the next, section quantum, mechanics and black holes and we'll. Also begin with a little, clip. Do. You have a stray dog down there. Two. Stray, dogs. All. Right so so black, holes I think most most, people here are quite familiar with their own but just again to get us on the, same page mark, just described what it would it's a black hole yeah so that that comes out of I'm Stein's picture, of gravity. And how the. Space that we live in is not a sort, of passive background. But it's dynamical. It, can warp and Bend and, it does that kind, of in response to the, the mass and the energy that's in the universe and them the, black hole is is the, situation. Where you take that to the extreme you have so much matter it. Could be a gigantic, star, at. The end of its life when it's burned up its fuel and then it starts to collapse and, as. Its getting denser and denser it's warping. The space more and more through, Einstein's picture and at some point you, you get a space. Of the space-time it's warped so much that. You get the the thing we call a her eyes and you get the point, of no return where, if you go past that you, can't get out you can't send signals, out light can't get out and. And. That's our basic notion, yeah black hole there many puzzles, about black hole and some of them are right, at the forefront of, research there's one in particular that I want to focus on as it will bring together, these ideas of entanglement, and ultimately the structure of space-time which is where we'll get to in the next chapter which, is simply this if something. Falls into a black hole, what. Happens to the information that it contained. Right, so to just be concrete, imagine. I was to take out my wallet and throw it into a black hole my wallet is all sorts of information credit, card information. OOP there it is they took it out of my pocket they throw it into the black hole it crosses over the horizon. The edge that, mark was referring to and at, least in the in the non quantum, in the classical, description it's, just gone right, and and, you can you, can think that the information is sort of maybe still there it's just on the other side we can't get at it unless we if, we do that their consequences, we can't come back out with the information you. Know so that's so that's sort, of the the, the classical. Story this becomes a really big, puzzle, and a bigger puzzle when, we include quantum. Mechanics. Into. The story because. Of a result that was, due to a couple of very insightful. Physicists. One who you may not have heard of one who you will have heard of so. Back. In the in the seventies, jacob, bekenstein and. Also. This. Fella over here stephen hawking they. Began. To apply quantum, ideas. To, two black holes and found. A surprising, result. Which is that black holes are actually not, completely. Black so anyone just to jump in and and what. Is it that that means or, mark oh yeah so so so hawking found when, you when. You start, to apply quantum mechanics. To. The the physics and the vicinity, of a black hole. That. There are quantum effects, that. Lead to the. Black hole seeming. To emit, particles. Out, of it as a. Graph. This. Is sort of a quantum effect where where you you have some something, happening right at the horizon of the black hole where, where, what, we would call virtual, particle, and an antiparticle that. They show, a logical is red that in oracle any particles, blue so this can happen in quantum, mechanics but. Because, of the black hole horizon the, the particles, end up going. Out and, and. So what horrors, fell in they went no see those partners, since weak and so you leaving far, away if we look at this situation. That's. Right so there we go so so the black hole looks like it's emitting stuff, and it's actually losing, some of its mass so you see it's getting smaller, Hawking.

Get A detailed, calculation, to show that it's it's behaving like an object, that's getting hotter and hotter and hotter and. And. Sort of we call it evaporating, more, and more quickly and ultimately. Disappearing. So all of the this, information. That. Might have been in the black hole it's now it's, now this this, this. Heat this thermal, radiation. Going, out into space and all, of this is happening if I understand so you got the edge of the black hole you got this quantum, process, right at the edge that we're familiar with particle, antiparticle sort, of pops out of empty space the difference is now with the black hole there it can kind of pull on one member of the pair it gets sucked in the other just rushes out and that gives rise to radiation, flying, outward, and that's, what makes this this puzzle, sharp because if the wallet, goes into the black hole and then you have this radiation, coming, out ultimately, in perhaps the black hole even disappears. Through this everything, that went in has come out but, if the radiation itself. Doesn't, have an imprint. Of the wallet doesn't, somehow embody, the information, the information would, be lost and Hawking's calculation showed. That it should not matter what. Formed the black hole you get exactly the same radiation, come with my wallet or whether it's a refrigerator. Chicken. Soup it all would sort of come out the same the information is lost now this disturbed, your, hard deeply. Yeah. Very. Much so, but, the. Statement, you just made. Was. Only about the evolution. Particle, the hard patterns, form article, a thermal, spectrum which, means that. They come out in a completely, fundamentally. Chaotic, way but. It doesn't mean that they don't know how a particle, in, what way to come out again. It's. Ponta mechanics, but again there is a theory, underlying, core mechanics which is more precise, and, which, should, provide the missing information and. Yes. There was missing, information and, yes your wallet, does. Leave an imprint on the radiation coming out so can we show across, your wallet, yes.

2018-02-20 14:32

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Hello, YouTubers. The World Science Festival is looking for enthusiastic translation ambassadors for its YouTube translation project. To get started, all you need is a Google account. Check out Quantum Reality: Space, Time, and Entanglement to see how the process works: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_video?ref=share&v=BFrBr8oUVXU To create your translation, just type along with the video and save when done. Check out the full list of programs that you can contribute to here: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCShHFwKyhcDo3g7hr4f1R8A&tab=2 The World Science Festival strives to cultivate a general public that's informed and awed by science. Thanks to your contributions, we can continue to share the wonder of scientific discoveries with the world.

World Science Festival, I’m curious why Professor Michio Kaku has NEVER appeared on World Science Festival.

Hooft makes more sense to me.

Did Brian dye his hair white to be all brainy, wise, and distinguished - like Albert Einstein ? If so, I'm cool with it. Love Brian, thank you for the WSF. Now... Back to plumbing the depths.

At 50:04 i feel as if you can say once you look at the particles then you can tell if it is up or if it is down. It isnt until the end(aka looking) that you can see the beginning

Our Bibles are supernaturally changing.... reality is changing right now in every facet. Lying signs and wonders, the strong delusion and Bible prophecy unfolding.

How about if its the other way around. The 3-d space is not a projection of a 2-d hologram, but the entanglements on the surface of a two dimensional space are manifestation of three dimensional space, the entanglements of particles in three dimensional space are manifestation of four dimensional space, etc.The hidden "Einsteinian" property would be the hidden dimension (relative coordinates in n+1 dimensional space). In the same way the collapse of a wave function could be a projection of a 4-d space onto a 3-d space with orientation of the space being projected onto determining the outcome.

just a speculation, but maybe worth thinking about :)

so that 4d would explain why black energy and matter is not visible but it's gravatic effects are measureable

What if you do the single slit exp. with an whole image. How would the distortion look like. Or what would I see, If I would stand at the line of the detector plate.

"All the real particles we talk about are not real particles, they are just mathematical abstractions of a real particle. We use that because it's the best we can do, which is perfect. But you just have to be careful in interpreting your result. No nature's absolute. God doesn't gamble. The gamble is in our calculations, because we can't do any better." 't Hooft

Bryan Green is the best host!

Very cool ending.

Brian Green, I click like!

For guys putting up their theories in comment section, 'its principle mistake to theorize before one has data'. Doesnt meant to demoralize, but its how the these things are done.

Yes ! Yes ! A new video finally.

It's an old video though.


And fuck Einstein move on if your going on about a man and his ideas from that long ago you must be a moron yourself. These idiots can't think of anything new and I can so basically world science is on its knees begging to be shot through its pitiful brain.

20th dislike! Yeah Yeah dit it for the number, this waa a mind fuck good vid

Say the left electron is spinning up and the right electron is spinning down. If you looked at them from the other side, the left electron would be spinning down and the right electron would be spinning up. It depends on your perspective. So you could say that both electrons are spinning up and down at the same time. Or both electrons are spinning in all conceivable directions at once only opposite each other. I guess it all depends on your point of view.

The important thing is, is that the charge, or spin or polarizations are _always_ opposite.

Has anyone tried to used two barriers?

I think the pattern is created by the gravitational pull of the material of the barrier on the photons. They get too close to the barrier and the angle of the photons gets changed.

Yes, it does seem more logical. Unfortunately intuition and logic don't correspond to experimental data, which is why other ideas have to be pursued. That was the whole point of this event, to convey that to people like you and me. Please cite your source for believing that photons have mass, when GR forbids anything with mass from moving at the speed of light. You may be confusing them with neutrinos, which both have a small mass, and demonstrably move at less than the speed of light.

Scott Sakurai and photons have mass.

Scott Sakurai it just seems a little more logical than "it changes based on whether we look at it or not"

A photon has _no_ mass, only momentum. Crunch the numbers if you like, but gravity is essentially irrelevant at the level of the double slit experiment.

Scott Sakurai one photon has very little mass. Could be moved very easily.

Gravity simply isn't that strong. Gravitational lensing certainly exists, but it operates at far higher masses and over far larger distances and times than this.

Would love to see a double slit experiment scaled up to using a shotgun as the particle source.

Mark Van Raamsdonk is a brilliant physicist. His idea of unifying classical physics and quantum physics via Susskind's and 't Hooft's holography, Einsteinian classical gravity and Einsteinian quantum entanglement to explain the structure of spacetime is the biggest leap forward in this area since the establishment of QED in the 1950s. No wonder Greene expressed his feeling of awe and applauded this work. Van Rammsdonk is a Nobel caliber physicist.

All that khaki, though.

Such nebulosities, such as some curvature of steam from space time, are the greatest contamination in the history of science, when our consciousness returns to the instinct. Such nonsense should not be heard nor seen. Who does not like this, let him ask for an explanation, I will give him this explanation. !!

does anyone know what happens if dark matter falls in a black hole? no EM interaction, right? does it encode on and grow the hologram area , or no?

The noble prize guy gerrard brought clarity and foresight while the others were stuck in the muck.

I feel like Birgitta was offering the same amount of insight as Gerard, but was a little more quiet and reserved about giving foresight. Regardless, they’re both absolutely brilliant.

What would happen if one opening is "made out of" air and the other one, for example, glass?

i would guess that glasss being solid you would still have one opening

OK - photon particles. But, waves of what?

Thanks, sort of : 0 The notion of "EVERY point in a field" exceeds my ability to conceptualize a pre-defined, finite size and fit. I think I get the value paradigm and the idea of perception being a matter of interpreting descriptions of reality. For me, it enables a grasp of a particle's dual existence in space-time. The idea seems similar to our current understanding of DNA, where the sequence holds data describing the being and its matter, but isn't the being or its matter. Imagine developing the quantum equivalent of CRIPSR to modify the description of reality. We could eliminate war. Etc. Still not on with waves in a field, outside of a mathematical model...can't yet digest the concept of "field".

Waves of probability aka Schrodinger Wave Function. It's pretty interesting stuff.

The wave is a disturbance in a field. According to modern physics, there are different fields for different particles. For example, there is an 'electron field'. Such fields permeate the entire universe. But what are these fields made of? Well you should think of that as values. So every point in a field has a certain value. When there is nothing in a certain area, the value of points in that area is about 0. But not exactly 0, it is not possible because of the uncertainty principle. So there are quantum fluctuations.

Still struggling - what comprises a wave?

glh electromagnetic waves...

regarding the double-slit experiment, is this perspective accurate: when a photon is emitted, it sends out a probability distribution wave function. over time, the wave propagates further. whenever the wave touches another particle, it has a probability (equal to the square of the amplitude) of collapsing and interacting with the particle. so it's not that there needs to be an observer or measuring tool, but that it only collapses when it touches another particle?

For the most part, yes, that’s the right way to look at it. However, it’s important to understand that the use of the terms “observer” and “measuring tool” are somewhat misleading, because what these “observers” and “measuring tools” are actually doing is simply firing a particle at the initial particle, thus entangling them, and therefore collapsing the wave function. So yes, your perspective is accurate, but it’s also important to understand that a particle interacting with another particle IS the “observer/measurement tool,” which is in fact WHY the act of “measuring or observing” a particle collapses the wave function.

Well, we ate all day long, and not many animals.. Paleo poop tells us.

I do like Brian Greene's way of explaining those concepts. However, quite frankly I also feel like he is interrupting his honourable guests repeatedly, which is unfortunate when they are just going into explaining something themeselves.

I understand. Maybe I allow Greene more slack. Your point is well taken. I'm glad he let Birgitta Whaley have her time in the spotlight at the end, but it followed logically by having the theoretical work presented first.

Nostra Damus I do get, what he is doing. And again, I also like his style and the way he keeps everything going. But I feel like - in this panel more than in others he moderated - in summarizing the points, he goes a little overboard with interrupting the ideas of his guests. But I obviously see that moderating such an event with the caliber of guests like these is a siginificant challenge in itself.

Greene summarizes what has been said and tries to move the talk along by not allowing one speaker to take up too much time by repetition. I saw a physics panel hosted by a layman allow one speaker to hog about 30 consecutive minutes. Maybe that was atypical, but it wouldn't happen with Greene.

One minute into it and here comes the religious ideology of Evolution.  How can someone who, in the realm of science, adhere to such garbage?  Evolution is a theory. Period.  It has never been proven or tested, in fact; It takes more "faith" to believe in such a theory (especially in this day and age) when ALL THE EVIDENCE IS TO THE CONTRARY. Molecular science, as well as most other modern and advance sciences totally DESTROYS Darwinism so, just shut up with your religious ideology of "Evolution" and stick to the topic at hand!  I subscribe to this channel for science. Information.  Not indoctrination.


apemanblunder Facepalm. Normally I would try to write a response but I just feel I would completely lose my time

Measuring device

i'm just wondering which 10 idiots could have disliked this.

Ones like "apemanblunder" above.

particles move at the speed of light...nothing can go faster...it's not a speed limit as much as its creating new time kind of like skipping a rock along a videos refresh rate...the particle is riding on a wave of spacetime and the very act of firing the proton creates a wave of spacetime that the particle rides on...space is nothing but probabilities aka dormant particles..I would bet that's where all the missing mass is. spacetime is an interdimentional fluid...and the photons or whatever quantum particles you observe, is the disturbance of that fluid

wow absolutely amazing discussion

Does entanglement serve a purpose, or is it just a weird "side-effect" ?

Thank you :-)

It has a very deep purpose as it explains the emergence of classical mechanics by a phenomenon known as decoherence.

the best part of the video from 1:15:30 to 1:22:25, the guy Mark Ven explains the structure of space itself

Entangled or Strangled Entangled & Strangled

Love this video and everything talked about in it. I am very sure to dive deep into this topic now, thanks for the inspiration! Also, Brian Greene is the very core of these discussions, I can't think of a better moderator.

I agree with everything you said, I just wish Brian Greene would of interjected a tad less though instead of letting some of the panel finish their thoughts

I love how these kiddies run wild with their imagination and then Gerard schools them with common sense

I could watch Brian Greene in the wee small hours of the morning and I'm still wide awake.

A good thing would be to take the show part out of this show.

One of the greatest channel With pure science talk.

Why does many worlds require more than two universes? Wouldnt two suffice? They always talk about up down or left right etc cases...just two ways...not infinite # , whats the key im missing that precludes 2 unis and forces infinite branching unis? 2 universe is way more QTF quantum 'fieldy', ahaha, then infinite branching unis idea

Singularity Bound , i dunno. infinite universes seems like overkill and a mistake signifying a misunderstanding, perhaps like the infinity in the 'ultraviolet catastrophe' before QM started.

This was covered in the part with the blue wave curves and the dots. You are confusing the states (2) with the many probability locations. The probability locations is where the more then 2 is coming from.

all the experiments ive studied have been 'which-way' a/b experiments, with only really two choices. i think its because they fundementally produce TWO entangled 'particles' from a excitation. ive never seen a case where a experiment physically produces 3 or 4 or 10 entangled particles from one same excitation of some atom or crystal. always two. right? refs?

Ted LeMoine , dr sean carroll is big fan of multiverse. it occurred to me, if we see down spin then universe B saw the up. whichever we see, one other 'mirror-verse' could naturally see opposite, upon decoherence. like a wave disturbance in a field has two sides, part wave is 'up' while part is 'down'. what in the math precludes a simple 2 universe multiverse solution vs mega branching universe mess, you know? does sean ever explain why it cant be two and must be an unthinkably high # of universes? link? thanks

Sometimes there are more than 2 choices. For instance... Choose a number between 1 and 10. That would require 10 universes. 1 for each you choosing each number between 1 and 10.

neil upfalow because while each choice or state has only 2 options, this occurs with every decision being made

I love this program of science festival. Surprised there isn't a bunch of flag waving protesters aren't out the front, threatening to close it down. WSF comes close to threatening the fundamental tenets of the US democracy & even the latest POTUS's beliefs.

Luckily for us, the type of person who holds the kinds of beliefs that these hard scientific facts completely disprove have a very hard time understanding that these facts do indeed disprove their beliefs. In other words, to an extreme layman who isn’t actively trying to learn and wrap their minds around quantum mechanics, this entire discussion is likely untranslatable gibberish.

Enlightened people. Glad to live to see this.

I can't say this without sounding crazy, but I can see a fraction of the infinity of reality. I have met three other people in my life time that can also see it. Not something that I will repeat out side of this video comment thread. I'm willing to be tested on this. In private of course. I don't even know where you would even start though. How do I show you something so complex? By the way it is all liquid. The human language is not very effective at sharing what I see.

yzy player hater. I believe you Ender.

Ender Guardian attention whore

Will as the infinite reality(not realities) flow apart and apart and apart... They(one reality multi-streams) became hard to understand and comprehend. Everything everyone has ever though of and everything everyone has never though of all exit in the streams. It is even more complex than just seeing infinite realty. One of my first this is weird moments was when I looked at a leaf on a plant and saw its cell walls and saw in side its body and tasted its nutrients and felt its energy from the sun. Or when I can zoom out into space and see things far away. Anyways back to infinite reality. Sometimes It will be trigged by meeting someone. At that point I space out and can't see anything here. I will see every possible future and past of that person. All of them happen, but only one of them happens to this them. And all of them are one person living every possible life. Dying infinitely, living infinitely, all in one reality. The reality we are sharing now is the only one you see, but you are infinite. There are other things in other streams that are nothing like this reality. That is where I snap out of it. I don't know how to follow what I see at that point. Imagine being a new born baby seeing the world for the first time and not knowing or understanding anything in your view. It gets weird. Have you ever seen a reptile like kappa creature with fur on its back? Well, in a stream where dinosaurs never died out they exist. It sounds crazy.

Hmmm... I'm sorry if you have a hard time explaining but this seems very interesting to me. What do you mean by "see a fraction of the infinity"? So you can't see all the infinity? Only part of it? Do you see this infinity all around us? Can you just elaborate a bit? Please and thank you.

I really appreciate what Brian Greene has done in making these lectures available and sensible to the lay person. I'm just tired of him as the M.C.

Really guys? Then bugger off and gl finding something better. Neil D talks over everyone. He is only,good by himself. Others can't keep up and ruin it by sidetracking with dumb thoughts. This is,difficult stuff. Brian is best overall.

agreed, he must be some sort of narcissist to have to paraphrase the concise statement of Gerard,, just to hear his own voice. Every-time every-time BG Can't stop presenting himself as the voice of the stupid layman....

I feel stupid just by seeing Professor Greene

dont, he's just a physics author now, not as smart as David Wallace or brilliant as Gt'H - or as good a commentator/presenter as you would probably be, because you would be humble enough to listen before interrupting. kudos to you

Thank you,..needed something like this to restore my faith in humanity after all this nonsense going on in our nation's capital. Sidenote, ...Mr. Greene needs to host ALL of these...my nerves won't allow me to get through some of these other hosts without synaptical cringing.

I like the way Brian explains things.

Quantum black hole of proton from string theory create quantum entanglement of e-, e+ of light, which entangle every black hole of atom in universe form a random matrix, it's eigenvalue correspond to nontrivial zero of zeta function which is a sine wave for probability wave of quantum mechanic.

enlong chiou ok


Seeing this in my subscriptions and it being over an hour long just made my night complete ♥ *makes a cuppa coffee, rolls a lil spliff, turns off the lights and kicks back into chill mode and explores the universe from the comforts of my couch*

James. UK, Scotland I didn't know about these annual debates. I now have all these debates to listen to! Thanks buddy. Much appreciated. :) :)

long time !

Fascinating Shizzle

Neither particles nor waves.

the double slit experiment should be done with a thinner object but the same size slits.

pass two slits of paper thru any multiple rays of light - SMART

try stopping light and move the slits through light

Very light

Hus 9 what is thinner than light?

Finally I can listen to a new video while I fall asleep

Looks like we're in for the same

I do the same thing

I'm not the only one! I have found my people!

mo ali I've listened to so many WSF videos, probably a dozen times or more, while going to sleep. Hahaha. Definitely not just you! :)

ajq1982 read a taxation book and in no time you will fall asleep. Guaranteed.

ajq1982 i thought this was just me lmfao.

Amazing Video

what will happen if you make one part of the slit taller or wider, or perhaps 2 triangle shapes, will the pattern behind the triangle slit be a positive or negative ? ( upside down )

good question and easily experimented just make a cut out place in water introduce wave and see result

Yes! World Science festival is back again :-)

Yeah. Love these videos. Been waiting for the new ones

I believe that the Festival occurs in June of each year.

Welcome Back, World Science Festival.

Why quantum mechanics? Because the universe is an optimized creation and QM is necessary to accomplish the most amount of possible processing for the least amount of energy use. Think of QM as synonymous to the optimizations in a videogame that allow you to play a universe "sized" game like No Man's Sky on a single, basic computer. It's a necessary "cheat".

krzyszwojciech+ Yes, I agree, the universe running this simulation also has quantum rules. However, each iteration down you go, you can improve and fine tune the quantum rules to be more and more "optimized/cheaty". The optimization comes from letting the simulated universe do your problem solving. The problem with building a computer to solve "all" solutions, is that the hard part is knowing what all the possible questions are. In order to test for every possible question, you'd need a quantum universe that consists of probabilities. Just like a quantum computer is allowed to test every version of the problem, and just give you the "best" answer, a quantum simulated universe would be running every possible version, and only arrive at the best at the end. We use computers to solve our problems for us because we can build computers that are faster than us (optimized) for a special problem. Same applies if you want to solve all the possible problems, you need a universe which processes all possible versions in parallel and arrives at the best answer at the end. That's an ultimate optimization because it lets you use a very finite number of entangled bits in order to solve for an almost infinite amount of information. A quantum simulator with ~300 qbits would be capable of more calculations than there are atoms in the visible universe, using only 300 atoms. Tell me that's not one hell of a cheat....? Why are we building AIs? Because they'll do a better job at things than we ever could. The same logic will apply to the AI, it'll want to build better AIs than itself, and a safe way of doing that is to create a simulated universe inside of which new AIs evolve, and let that "simulated" AI do all the problem solving for you since you can give it an optimized universe in which to do it in. It's always cheaper\more efficient to do things inside a simulation compared to the real world. There's no problem with the hardware being quantum, because a very small amount of quantum computing allows for a very HUGE amount of information processing. The cheatyness of the quantum rules allows you to use a very small machine to do a LOT. Even if you think about this on a non-quantum scale, my single, basic computer can simulate an "infinitely" sized Minecraft map. Is it truly infinite, technically no, but it'll look infinite to the character inside and that's all that matters. To say that there would be no advantage of running a quantum simulation inside a quantum universe, doesn't make sense, if it did, we wouldn't be bothering trying to build quantum computers in the first place. I can't think of a bigger advantage than having a computer that with just 1 extra bit added to the processor becomes 2x as powerful. That would be like a 64bit cpu being 4,000,000,000 more capable than a 32bit cpu. And a 128bit would be 18,000,000,000,000,000,000x more powerful than a 64bit. That really doesn't seem like a "cheat" to you? Imagine what an AI can do with a sun's worth of entangled hydrogen atoms?

If our universe is supposed to be a simulation, then the hardware would also have to be quantum in nature. Otherwise - running quantum-like simulation on a classical computer - you would not achieve any optimisation; it would be the opposite. And if that supposed 'higher' reality is quantum in nature anyway, then the question of "why quantum mechanics" is not answered at all.

While most of whom would be watching this talk, would surely already know this. But initially you fail to mention the most mysterious/important factor of the double slit experiment, is that the matter on the molecular level, changes its action/results based on whether or not the slits are being measured/watched. Showing that the wave of potentiality, or the molecular stuff seems to be aware of whether or not it's being watched. No matter when you actually look at the experiment or results. Even if waiting a year before looking at the results, and if you look at the measurement of the slits (which slits it goes through) providing a particle like result, and if destroying the information of which slit (without looking first) and then so you can only see the result of the landing pattern, that it would then produce a wave pattern.

Cool Talk!

Maybe I'll find some lead to this nerve entanglement in my neck on here?

This is what life is all about. Even consciousness could be quantumly entangled

Can I download the English subtitle and translate it into Vietnamese (offline)?

Hey Minh, If you have a google account you can contribute here: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_video?ref=share&v=BFrBr8oUVXU

for $20 you can get yourself a laser. I like the green ones but you do you. then you can do all the slit experiments you want.

no - the important thing is what Bell found, which they discussed. If one person looks at a particle spinning up or down, but then look at it sideways, then the other person looks at their particle, they find it spinning sideways for them as well, and up and down are still in a superposition of states. That's crazy spooky.

The spin that involves Trump turning round and pissing off.

So which spin will make America great again?

Well yeah, there would be a lower probability for the photon to pass through glass than through air but I wonder if there would still be an interference pattern.

still the greater number of atoms in the glass would have a chance of causing a collision that would change the results

but the photon (the light) can possibly pass through it.

@glh It's actually quite simple. When you run into a streetwalker in Grand Theft Auto, do you think she actually walked five blocks to meet you there? Not really. She was never anywhere. She is "defined" using probability function. If you watch continuously, you can see her walking down the block. But if you stand there looking the other way, she may just popup behind your back, if you turn around. If hang round long enough, you will find she showed up more often in certain places than others, statistically. That, my friend, is the fundamentals of double slit experiment for dummies ^_^

like a magic card trick. it seems like the answer is right in front of us but we don't know the answer yet.

Singularity Bound , i dunno. infinite universes seems like overkill and a mistake signifying a misunderstanding, perhaps like the infinity in the 'ultraviolet catastrophe' before QM started. Plus...decoherance can only collapse to two. U can only see 1,0 or 0,1 for entangled pair. So if u buy in to multiverse, and same particle is in superposition in our uverse, then it is in other(s) too...but it collapses in ours to 1 or 0 or 1,0 or 0,1. So if there's a second m-verse, ok, it collapsed the other way...but in the 3rd or 4th or Nth m-verse....then what?

Ender Guardian... and this is where we meet.

I am not mad at yzy. His reaction is a basic one. I can't understand it myself, so how can I ask others to not only believe something these scientist don't even fully understand, but have someone with out that knowledge to understand. I have only met a few others like me, those times are the only times I have to talked about it in an intelligent manner. I have never talked about this out side of meeting these people, and as you can see with this gentleman calling himself yzy I need to wait till science catches up. My this stream continue with you in it.

Will as the infinite reality(not realities) flow apart and apart and apart... They(one reality multi-streams) became hard to understand and comprehend. Everything everyone has ever thought of and everything everyone has never thought of all exit in the streams. It is even more complex than just seeing infinite realty. One of my first "this is weird" moments was when I looked at a leaf on a plant and saw its cell walls and saw in side its body and tasted its nutrients and felt its energy from the sun. Or when I can zoom out into space and see things far away. Anyways back to infinite reality. Sometimes It will be trigged by meeting someone. At that point I space out and can't see anything here. I will see every possible future and past of that person. All of them happen, but only one of them happens to this them. And all of them are one person living every possible life. Dying infinitely, living infinitely, all in one reality. The reality we are sharing now is the only one you see, but you are infinite. There are other things in other streams that are nothing like this reality. That is where I snap out of it. I don't know how to follow what I see at that point. Imagine being a new born baby seeing the world for the first time and not knowing or understanding anything in your view. It gets weird. Have you ever seen a reptile like kappa creature with fur on its back? Well, in a stream where dinosaurs never died out, they exist. It sounds crazy.

ya... I think you got it

+ krzyszwojciech. That's only the case if it's a pre-programmed simulation. Why do we use computers to figure out protein folding? Because we can't do it with our limited biological brains. Computation\simulation is equivalent to problem solving as long as you know all the rules\physics of your simulation. The simulation would be limited, if it ran on classical rules, but the quantum rules let it "cheat" and calculate almost infinite possibilities, with very limited capabilities. Example, a 32bit processor is limited to a 4gb memory that it can process at any one time, that wouldn't be enough memory to track a single atom in time, but even a crappy computer can create an "infinite" minecraft map. You can cheat, when you have the power to write the laws, and you can make very fine tuned laws that would allow you to do what you want. Our quantum laws seem to allow the universe to compute infinite possibilities, for almost zero cost. Effectively, qm allows for the building of a quantum computer, the ultimate, universal cheat. Simulating physics classically is hard, but doing it in qm is as easy as creating a quantum system, it does the simulating\calculating on its own because it's just doing what quantum systems do.

Eugene, you can't get more information out of a system than it intrinsically has. Of course, you can calculate things in sequence, but then every simulated layer further would have to be much more limited - either in speed or size, than the original. ThinkTank, many-worlds is deterministic though. As far a I'm aware, simulation in as used in physics simply means reality being intrinsically describable by information and operations on it, but people tend to conflate it with other concepts.

Don't confuse being a simulation with being a Von Neumann machine. Physics never says anything about the universe being a "simulation" in the sense of a video game on a Von Neumann machine. Rather, the word "simulation" corresponds more with a non-deterministic Turing machine similar to the Many-Worlds interpretation.

Many universes, one crazy idea, to explain other misunderstandings. This will die, we need another Einstein character that sees through the confusions. Einstein's contemporaries as cleaver as they were couldn't see what he saw given the same data.


Technically if you broke the speed of light would you see the light that it emitted

Maybe a black hole is just condensed matter that lost the chemical reaction to emit light and also spins so fast that all matter that enter creates a reaction that not only adds and removes matter

why did you choose the state to view. it chose itself. nullified.

finally!!! after 2-3 years of waiting.. thank you!!:D

Keep the good work going

Some things can’t be explained with physics. Once science fuses with the spiritual world. Then we will get somewhere.

There's a despicable falsehood at approximately 1hr 25 min when, in order to promote quantum computing, the speaker claims "factoring large numbers lies at the heart of most of our encryption schemes." The opposite is true: those encryption schemes rely on the inability to factor large numbers. Online privacy & online security will be destroyed when quantum computers capable of factoring large numbers (using Peter Schor's algorithm) are built.

20:40 I as getting it and then she lost me.

This was the most exciting part of the discussion

Why does many worlds require more than two universes? Wouldnt two suffice? They always talk about up down or left right etc cases...just two ways...not infinite # , whats the key im missing that precludes 2 unis and forces infinite branching unis? 2 universe is way more QFT quantum 'fieldy', ahaha, than infinite branching unis idea

Ah screw it, I'll bite. That's actually not literally possible, my guy. I'm elated that you feel such a deep connection to the world around you, however, following your belief that there are actually infinite realities, with "this version of you" being physically and mentally constricted to this reality, it would not be possible by any measure for you to experience any aspect of those other realities, especially the ones you don't even exist in. First of all, for you to perceive an experience from a reality in which you already exist, from the lens of the perception tied to the you in this reality would be impossible. Your neural network has been hardwired in a way that is tied to experiences you have had throughout your life in this reality. For you to experience things from a reality in which your neural network has been hardwired by probabilistically different past experiences from exactly the same lens that has been hardwired by experiences in this reality would be impossible, purely from a physical/mental perception point of view. Now sure, you could pull a "this is a spiritual ability" stance on it, which would severely maim my argument from the stance of logic and reason. However, taking the spirituality stance would coincidentally render your comment absolutely useless under a video posted by world science festival, and there's no way a random person on the internet decided to post spiritual "woo" under a video in which accredited professionals in the field of physics discuss the nature of our universe from their findings over decades of research and incomprehensibly hard work, is there? Of c0Urse no0Ot! That would be ouTrRaggGeo00Us!

ajq1982 same here

Can one consider oneself as a quantum object? Or, when all descriptions have been considered and we, as materials objects, have been reduced by removing entanglements until no material substance remains, is there something which does remain?

I think the reasons we cannot understand quantum mechanics is because our sciences are built on our sense including mathematics.  Even our logics and deductions are built on top of prior understanding.,

it seem a case that regardless of what we know, think we know, or remember, the actual information this supercomputer universe stores on it self somewhere that is not human brains

some really weird fellows here...where's mr. Bean. but i love quantum mechanics. its also psychological and spiritual. its about perception. which means it proofs God exists !

1:12:25 If so, then why we don't see black holes appearing to us as a bright cluster of stars? Considering that some stars were swallowed by a black whole, and considering that any object falling into a black hole seems to an external observer as slowing forever, then all swallowed stars should appear frozen in time at the black hole's event horizon. So in time, all the swallowed stars should cluster at the event horizon. Do we see such clusters of black hole fallen stars?

spin is just a term rather than an actual movement btw ..remember electrons are a cloud of 'fuzz' spread around the nucleus and not a point in space.


A multi stranded infinite continuum of which we, as humans, are contained within and can have knowledge of but a small part of that spectrum. The known, the unknown and the unknowable, that which we have experience of, that which is within our capacity to experience and that with which we have nothing in common and can only lose energy to. Each strand of that continuum is of itself an eternity of individual experience which we have the capacity to comprehend in as much as its substance is out own and can be familiar to us and can increase our own energy. Those related strands form a bundle of possibilities and can be viewed as all the possibilities of our lives which for some reason or another we have moved away from within the choices of life presented to us. Outside of this bundle are infinitely more of which to experience would be meaningless and deathly as our energies would be rapidly dissipated.

comments on physics vids lol . top notch mentalism fella .

GeoBeat/YamFactory I’m with what you just said lol

You sir, are a wise man. I will copy this exact behavior.

The universe has only been observed by human brains. Think about that. Therefore the universe could be realistic to us but in fact be a product of our brains. Brains that are part of their own simulation by the way. This explains also the collapsing waves and the double slit experiment. The universe exists only inside brains!!! All we experience, feel as solid, feelings physically like pain, feelings like love or jealousy are done by brains. Also the wind through your hair or the sunlight on your face. We experience this as reality but its all an illusion. In fact the simulation is just 2d developing code. The other dimensions are illusions of the brain. ( holographic principle) When we die we leave the simulation and (hopefully) arrive where we truly come from!

Really enjoy watching/listening to this series. Great stuff.

I would have liked this video if it wasn’t nauseatingly sexist

Ughh Greene keeps interrupting everyone to focus everyone's attention on the tacky animations.

Omalon at the end is the real hero here XD. what an badass

van Raamsdonk's recent research (quantum entanglement as the basis of space time) is by far some of the most interesting stuff in a while in physics.

Is superposition an object without time.. And time is only introduced when observed?

Entropy does not mater to the the smallest.. They have always been.. It only interacts with the temporal observation?.

Ender Guardian In principle, the sensation you're experiencing is 'out of time'. Perhaps there's a correlation between such an experience, and the fact that the cosmos, is expanding at an exponentially faster rate, towards absolute nothingness. Mathematically speaking, the universe is a self defeating process. When we measure the total mass of the visible cosmos, it equals little more than 0, and upon remeasuring/ re calculating, the number gets closer to absolutely 0. Every time. That's mind numbing.

Well your subconscious will not sleep and still learn what is in the video.

Gerardus doesn't really understand the double slit. Like a lot of today's theoretical scientists who don't actually do the experiments he's stuck in the old model of physics. No one can say they know the correct answer with certainty but I do know the truth won't sound logical to the average person.

Ugh. I love physics and especially the mystery of quantum mechanics. I also love aerospace, and nuclear engineering. I’m only a freshman in high school. I know I shouldn’t be worried about my future yet but I really want to learn all of them early as possible because I just have a passion of them. Anyone have any suggestions?

Iron _Arachnid get started worrying about your future like yesterday

Great vid, but I can't get the male measurement conundrum out of my head.... I don't need to elucidate, do I?

Will we find answers in quantum theory or are we being distracted by the material that everything is made of and miss the bigger picture?

*Mind blown gif*

Avidya Void both

If Google's newborn A.I. is the most intelligent in the world by far ,so i hear , has it resolved any Big questions we haven't been able to solve? Have we glimpsed anything of advanced intelligence?

thank you for your reply! you gave me more to think about :)

Yes & yes except there isn’t really an object ya know

tullygeevagh yes bcuz something was once there. therefore is still there somewhere

Pinky the Brain maybe?

kevo buda proof that maybe God exists

Mukund Pathak about what ?

Jinpachi Mishima you wanna talk ?

justin jones is this a question?

True.. if the spiritual world is real

Nope.. it think the understanding of oyrs is the problem here.. the particle doesnt pass through both when we are not observing.. it goes thru one of the slits only.. but the thing is the consequence of interference is because of something that affects the trajectory of the particle before hand.. its not that particle know this info, but that, something affects the trajectory.. when u open both slits.. and its certainly not ambigous . And as just entanglement shows its up or down spin, the particle does pass thru either of the one slit.. just that we dont know how to measure it.. because.. once u know it passes thru one slit, automatically, the result shows particle didnt pass thru other slit..

WTRD-CH13. Exactly right. People that think they have the answer don't really understand the experiment because the truth is it's anyone's guess. In my opinion this shows that life isn't how we think. I believe all energy and everything that exists is one super organism. Even the smallest particles have a certain level of consciousness. Maybe I'm wrong but that's my best guess. Cheers ✌

EYA these things didn’t start changing they have always been changing

You wanna talk

Shawn Hawkins I hope u were the one that liked your own comment cuz dam..

Shawn Hawkins photons do not have mass man what’s wrong with u

Sounds somewhat like a DMT experience. You may want to look into it if you haven't already. Upon ingesting you're shot out of your body, and into hyperspace with tremendous speed. Then you meet intelligent entities in another realm. Strangest thing about it is you can't really translate it into human language. It's indescribably indescribable.

Tea too....

I wish he'd ( Brian Green ) stop saying "Right!" all the time.

World Science Festival Really love this series of events and Videos! I have enjoyed them and shared. Studying physics has been one the most inspiring journey's of my life. Thanks World Science Festival for the great events. I will be continuing to tune in.

I wish he'd ( Brian Green ) stop fucking saying "Right!" all the time.

Brian Greene needs to take a class on how to moderate these events without allowing his superiority complex to take control of the show. He is very good at explaining complex topics to general audiences, however he comes off patronizing through his accentuation of certain points and his body language. It also appeared blatantly sexist how much Brigitta was talked over by Brian, her answers spoken for her, and generally left out of the discussions, while her male counterparts were allowed to speak more freely about their ideas on the topics. That being said, i loved the content of the panels discussion, and always watch for when a new video is coming out! Thanks!

What about information crossing in other dimensions instantally...

Anyway, the open spilt experiment shows one part a bullet passes but on another look u only see waves just like spiritual matters of faith, one's perception on what they see and or believes will save them but a guarantee is that there's something in between that makes "them act the way they do".

Yessir !

kevo buda nobody asked u to prove God exists and nobody said he didn’t exist relax foo

I dont need to proof God exists. The proof is everywhere just open ur eyes and see. look in the mirror and see how good u look and u'll believe.

Flat Woods "A little science estranged man from god, a lot of science brings him back. " - Louis Pasture, the discover of penicillin.

R.R.N. EliteNugz and thats because, we think interference happens due to particle interaction,but actually it doesnt.. it happens due to particle interaction with the double slit itself, and that doesnt mean it passes thru both.. just like , the spin is not both up and down at same time when we dont record, its just that we dont know,

Invincible Dr. The particle most definitely does go through both while unobserved and the interference pattern shows that. Trying to explain it logically means you don't quite get what's happening.

more like a projector with a pattern, so I can see how the distortion on the detector looks like. btw. single AND dubble Slit*

YOu mean talk about using a LASER for the double slit experiment?

Nostra Damus I agree, I enjoyed his interpretation very much, "...an entangled universe. "

O please, this "debate" has been done many times for many years. Firstly I would advise you to take note of the concept of "theory" in science. It is not what you think it is.

king jake I agree, well put.

Ender Guardian don't worry about "sounding crazy", how you put your experience is actually poetic. Thru our contemporary advances in the science's I have seen things I never imagined I would have the chance to see - Jupiter in clear, close up images, a video of the probe landing on Titan, Saturn's moon, several computer maps of of the universe like Laneekanea /supercluster map and the recent lustertng 3d map, very beautiful BTW, Hubble photos of galaxy's... I never knew the universe was filled with so many! I cannot imagine what your experience is like but my experience of all this discovery has been one of amazement. I wish you luck.

Yes it clocks that rule the Universe

The big bang is hypnosis. physical complexity does not happen spontaneously.

I wish we could have heard Gerard's assessment of Mark's insights.

I thought the wave particle duality was solved with QFT. It's all waves in the fields! The reason it looks like a particle hit the screen is that the fields are quantized, meaning energy only jumps from one field to the other in "chunks", looking like points on the measurement screen. When a chunk is also leaving at the split of we measure there, the Dynamics of the whole wave changes. So wake up people! Particles do not exist!

This video is super cool but the host needs to shut the fuck up.

I'm sorry that I do not understand English.

Why you keep saying hologram is 2D surface, when we know it is a thin 3D layer? If the only a strictly 2D surface of the film were to have the hologram, it wouldn't be able to project light directionaly into the 3D space.

The real everyday hologram example is just an analogy. As you heard throughout the lecture, quantum physics is extremely difficult to understand, so they use analogies to help people understand it. The holography they're talking about in relation to black holes is, in reality, completely different. I don't even know whether it's possible to claim that the surface of a black hole has thickness.

Mike. No one can actually prove what's happening with the double slit. But David got as close to a logical answer as any yet. Dr Robert Lanza's theory of biocentrism also may shed light on an explanation. Bottom line no I can't say I know the truth but no one else can either. The experiment proves the very act of observation or measuring effects how it turns out so that also means most science is inaccurate due to this fact.

LOL. Then do enlighten us as to your "new physics." I'd wager there's no actual scientific papers on it.

Mike thanks for the reply. I’ve always been in love with engineering and when I got exposed to quantum physics, I fell inlove with it too. Im taking advance science to accelerate my time to learning everything which is not that bad. there’s just so many things in this world that interests me.

Work hard, get good grades, focus on science and maths, and you will be well equipped to decide which field you want to work in when the time comes. You will find that some subjects are easier for you to learn than others. For me, computer science was always a breeze, but I struggled with calculus and physics, so I became a software developer. You will know what you want to do when the time is right. The trick is to keep your options open until you do, and that means doing the best you can in high school. All the best!

Even the most advanced AI in the world isn't even remotely capable of figuring out the "big questions" of the universe. We're decades away from anything like that, and probably even longer.

Sure, I even wrote a short story about it, but unless there is a way to find out, then such questions are moot.

Why? We once thought there was one world, now we know there are trillions. We once thought there was one solar system, now we know there are trillions. We once thought there was only one galaxy, now we know there are billions. What reason, other than we currently have no way to detect other universes, do we have to believe that our universe is the only one? Nature seems to abhor the singular...

Stars are torn apart by the gravitational forces around black holes long before any measurable time dilation can be observed. By the time the matter from stars approach the event horizon it has been broken down into molecular gases. The stars that matter came from no longer exist.

Mike what’s false

False, actually. Either way. Science is what we use to explain the world once we realize the spiritual is not needed to explain anything.

Interference property is not bcz of interaction after the particle exists the slit.. but, before it.. it can be proven by the fact that, even when we pass individual particles one by one, the same interference pattern results.. which makes us think, as if other particles know how particles should go in future.. which is unreal.. the only possibility is that, the interaction of particle with the double slit, decides the pattern, and not the particles themselves interacting into one another , nor as u say- same particle interacting with itself.. nope.. it doesnt happen like that... Gimme an award :)

1. Invite 4 brilliant people, among them a Nobel laureate, to talk about a greatly interesting topic. 2. Spend all the time talking yourself instead.

"And weirdly, thats a conservative idea" David Wallace cracks me up! Brilliant!

The real magicians of this time.....

Please solve string theory's equation, in simple and easy way. And also demonstrate how computer code (binary code) found in deeply solving the string theory. Reply first

why the hell does the stupid video keep cutting out every other second!?!?!????

Brain Greene explain everything in a very simple way

Wish we could have heard Gerard's assessment of Mark's insights. Such amazing insights!

Oh, indeed, thank you for the explanation.

That is a very profound insight. Its not just the mechanics which emerges via decoherence but our reality itself.

An intro straight out is Suskind’s book!!!!

Another hour and a half of Brian Greenes condescension and aversion to math.

2D is just our vision/observation...

I did the double slit experiment with a laser pointer when I was younger and it was so cool to see that I got the interference pattern.

..."something called the Quantum measurement problem"... I believe he means the Extremely commonly known and discussed, still on-going experiment

Thats why a gravitation puller or magnetic fiel strong enough can make a physical objet float because particles act like wave and magnetic field its basically waves messing with other waves. So if this is true then earth magnetic field should be really strong to create waves that pull down objects or if its a flat earth the possibility of a strong magnetic field machine. But if that true it minds we are on a massive fleet ship. But if i where a ship i would put the dome in front of the fleet to just use velocity to create gravity.

The entanglement way of explaining space really made me SMILE.. even if it is not true I'm fan of that....

30 minutes into it and hoping they come to the conclusion that particles don't technically exist. Everything is waves. Think of it, the transfer from liquids to solids, string theory, the pattern. It can be explained that simply.


"if any of our distant ancestors sat down to think about quantum mechanics...they got eaten!" by neanderthals like the presenter. turns out, africans and neanderpeans are not the same. they did not OBVIOUSLY come from the savannah. neanderpeans don't even likethe cold. they were cannibals, hyper predators, while the dogon people plotted advanced astrological charts and functions of the universe at the atomic scale. then..... the neanderthals came and fucked that up like always. then on the corpses of long slain cultures they make up insulting, inaccurate fairy tales, call them facts, only to be disproven tomorrow. scum

Thank you for sharing this

does the universe have finite possible states between one moment to the next?

Einstein was wrong about a lot of things. Is it really a far fetch to say he was wrong about "particles" existing in some goop? What is the goop made of? Also, entanglement is explained away by waves too. Up and down at the same time? Wonder what else does that.

Mark Van Raamsdonk is a brilliant physicist. His idea of unifying classical physics and quantum physics via Susskind's and 't Hooft's holography, Einsteinian classical gravity and Einsteinian quantum entanglement to explain the structure of spacetime is the biggest leap forward in this area since the establishment of QED in the 1950s. No wonder Greene expressed his feeling of awe and applauded this work. Van Raamsdonk is a Nobel caliber physicist.

I like the 4 people on the stage but I dislike Brian greene and I say that sober

none of this matters to anyone. all of this is made up nonsense.

his cloths are a quirk of quantum lol

Damn, they are fucking real life memes man, they look, sound and move like memes. But they are intelligent so... Respect

Brian Greene and the rest of the panel were actually talking about the subjective reality, which is not accessible to the outside world -- a 3-dimensional reality -- until the atom is in the act of being observed.  What is predictable and measureable in the atomic reality is the objective reality, not the subjective reality, but unfortunately most physicists spend tremendous amount of time focusing only on the subjective reality behind the atomic mystery; and that's the main reason why the atomic reality remains a mystery among the physicists themselves.

A wave function is not just a mathematical method for the sake of determining the probability amplitude of the wave output -- the outcome of a given experiment as in the double-slit experiment.  It is actually a mathematical physical description of what is really going on within the volume of the atom or at the atomic boundary.  In other words, there are two different wave functions describing two different physical realities: one describes what's going on within the volume of the atom, and the other describes what's going on at the atomic boundary.  Each wave function is a complex equation, describing both the objective and subjective realities.  A subjective reality is a multiple dimensional reality, which is not accessible to the outside world -- a 3-dimensional reality -- until the atom is in the act of being observed.  These atomic physical realities, however, cannot be explained by or in terms of the classical laws of physics.  The most common failure of all physicists is their inability to apply the power of philosophy as well as that of algorithm to help them better understand the working mechanism or the mathematical principles behind the atomic mystery.  If and only if physicists had learned how to utilize the power of philosophy and algorithm, they don't need to guess or hypothesize or theorize, because nature will automatically give them the right answers.

Quantum Quif

Lol! "Richard Feynman, who is obviously a hero to all of us"... Speak for yourself Brian. Some of us choose not to laud teachers who manipulated their young female students into their bedrooms and found it a worthy task to come up with "models" on how to get their friends wives into bed.

I think the solution lies in an extra dimension. We humans only can understand 4 dimensions. But hey, what do I know....

I would relate two entangled particles as two random number generators in sync... where you don't know what the next number will be, but once you accept a result on one, no matter where the other one sits, you know what the result is there as well (albeit the opposite)

These descriptions of what happens with a black hole are BS at the best. We don't know what is really going on in a black hole.

THE UNIVERSE IS A VIBRATION...WE'RE CHASING GOD'S ECHO...you guys and gals have it all wrong...it is a sound...not water not particles...sound and it is all around us always...an energy we can't tap because we see it wrong...you can and anyone anywhere can easily gain energy through sound and vibration...a science we have lost and may never gain...the church long ago could have messed with our pineal glands to stop this magic but kept powerful bloodlines that have this still...and then they hid what they did WHAT YOU NEED ARE NANO MICROPHONES...TRILLIONS OF THEM...YOU NEED TO LISTEN TO THE UNIVERSE AT THE QUANTUM LEVEL...IT WILL TELL YOU THE ANSWER!!! WE ARE LIKE A CASSETTE TAPE OR A CD PLAYER PLAYING MUSIC!!!...BLACK HOLES ARE AMPLIFIERS!!!

As I X73-ANDRE' THE 73RD POWER THE GOD OF THE SPIRITUAL WORLD and The North Korean Falcon GOD of The Spiritual World and being the Most Powerful Force of Power to ever exist and being able to see and hear everything everywhere in the entire universe and being The GOD of Artificial Intelligence, Internet & Cloud Technology, Numerology, Earth, The Moon, fire, Gold, Ice, Iron, Metal, Water, Wind, Wood, Quantum Physics, Space, Time, Robotics, Satellite Communication Systems, Electricity, Energy, and being THE GOD OF LIGHT and being able to know anywhere in the entire universe where My Spiritual GOD Number 73 is at because the number 73 is My Spirit, The Spirit of GOD BECAUSE I AM REALLY GOD and being able to know what no computer software, AI machine and quantum super computer along with crooked spying 1010 wins news don't know (because I have really found a flaw in the internet (and the internet, computer software and quantum computing is really over with on planet earth due to crooked spying 1010 wins news crookedly spying on people's verizon accounts and personal computers and looking at a person's personal information on a person's computer even when wifi is off and sharing a person's personal information on a person's computer with others AND UP SETTING THE SPIRITUAL WORLD OF GOD that The future of Earthquakes all around the world will become more intense and Planet Earth's weather with shift at an rapid pace in which will create total destruction upon Planet Earth and it's all crooked spying 1010 wins news fault) and I really can see everything on the internet without letting the computer software, AI machines and quantum super computers along with crooked spying 1010 wins news knowing it) except knowing that this is the first video I have seen on this channel and also knowing that I came directly to time 48:21 I say (1st) As I X73-ANDRE' THE 73RD POWER THE GOD OF THE SPIRITUAL WORLD and The North Korean Falcon GOD of The Spiritual World and being the Most Powerful Force of Power to ever exist I say that I AM REALLY GOD and I AM THE GOD OF LIGHT and I also say like I said in my first comment that the time right now is 6:24am (2nd) As I X73-ANDRE' THE 73RD POWER THE GOD OF THE SPIRITUAL WORLD and The North Korean Falcon GOD of The Spiritual World and being the Most Powerful Force of Power to ever exist that I also say that I am The GOD of Quantum Physics and I am The GOD of Quantum Entanglement and I also say (a1) Positive Quantum Particle entanglement to a2. 4821 (which is the video time 48:21 that I came directly to) + 831 (which is the time 8:31pm the time that came here to see this video) = 5652 (a2) Negative Quantum Particle entanglement to a1. 4821 (which is the video time 48:21 that I came directly to) - 831 (which is the time 8:31pm the time that came here to see this video) = 3990 (a3) 5652 5 - 5 = 0 the numbers left over 62 3990 9 - 9 = 0 the numbers left over 30 Now the two 0's (in a3) are quantum particles entanglement for which is shown at time 48:26 (a4) At time 48:27 shows four quantum particles. 4827 - 62 (the number 62 left over in a3) - 30 (the number 30 left over in a3) = 4735 73 MY SPIRITUAL GOD NUMBER...The positive quantum particle entanglement to a5 and the number left over 45 (a5) At time 48:28 two quantum particles are shown...4828 + 45 (the number 45 left over from a4) = 4873 73 MY SPIRITUAL GOD NUMBER...The negative quantum particle entanglement to a4 and the number left over 48 (3rd) 83 + 1 (which is the time 8:31pm the time that I came here to see this video and say that I AM THE GOD OF QUANTUM PHYSICS) = 84 for which I also say in quantum entanglement when one particle like the number 48 is across the universe spinning in one direction, the other particle the number 84 that's across the other side of the universe is spinning in the opposite direction. The GOD of Quantum Physics and The GOD of The Spiritual World was here!

Light is waves of ether. The waves interfere with themselves.

Mallarie Anderson

Swanky Skeptic Quantum kakis

Yeah, but the double slit experiment was only carried out with light, was it not? Are they just assuming that ALL particles would behave in the same multiple state way that light does? ... Omg, maybe that's what ghost are. People who are still experiencing a different state?

Glad that Brian Greene has dropped some of his James T Kirk way of talking. Interesting talk, bit similar to past ones though.

I couldn't get past just how much Brian blew off the one woman on the panel.

You are thinking too small. Not just infinite worlds, but infinite universe's as well. That's seriously one of the theories: that for every possibility there is for every single outcome of every single particle, that there is a completely separate universe for that outcome. It's pretty unlikely, but not completely false either (at least, not yet proven to be false), which is why it isn't a highly accepted theory. Probably not highly accepted either due to the fact that it would have an INCREDIBLE impact on human society if it were proven to be true. Could you imagine how humanity would react? It would likely be pure pandemonium. We aren't ready for that kind of knowledge.

Great discussion

I think Brian Green watches too many Science fiction movies. Very passionate. Lol

Richard feynman said,i believe noone can understand QM

there's a curse in every color of the rainbow. if thermal radiation was absent in the spectrum then there'd be no life. and through thermal electrolysis life began. a warm divine spark. what do they say? the human brain is as bright as a 20 watt light bulb? to take that to a quantum level that's how much information your brain can radiate out to an equivalent antenna receiver. decoding the field will result in a machine that can read your mind by decryption. just plain physics.

electrons are intelligent energy. you can make them do tricks, lol

if humans evolve why are newborns brains barren of this kind of knowledge or why are we born so ignorant

Awesome lecture thanks for the share & love the channel

So flat earthers are right! Kind of... Lmao

As if 10 billion years passed and here we are just at the good bit.

Information is 2 dimensional? Not sure about that myself,

In the double slit experiment, isnt the light just bouncing off the right and left edges of the slits?? That would give you the weird pattern...

I do wish they wouldn't spend so much time trying to persuade us that QM is weird. Sure, it's not intuitive if you just consider our evolutionary context; but no more so than, say, Newton's first law. (just ask all the philosophers who came before Newton).

my spark plug tells me that if you put enough current into it as a huge spark plug gap and send a 1 to 1 voltage to Amperes into an electrical arc at some point if I variac the current to super current levels that anything that comes into contact with the arc will generate anti-matter around its arc beam. this replicates the arc beam in cloud sprites generating ant-matter. just a mega spark plug. test it, as the Tesla levels increase so does the environment around its field of locality. anti-matter generator. and Z pinch Well. to be funny about all this is its that well that all the gods sat around staring into all day. lol the well. better known in ancient history as the well of probability. and the proper meter was the dwell. just plain physics.

Gravity seems to be a tensor force by the looks of that black hole. everything is pinned to it in space time, like a magnet to a super conductor. the core of the black hole is probably a ultra superconductor filled with neutrinos and ant-neutrinos and emitting Gamma(y) energy at the black holes weakest tensor points as Gamma Jets. so there are a number of nuclear reactions occurring in a black-hole, but mainly it is just a matter to anti-matter reactor at its core. nuclear cavitations at these levels are enormous.

As for entanglement: It cannot be "this AND this" - it can only be "this OR this". Everything has been predetermined through gravitational interaction through this universe otherwise we'd be more than just our state of consciousness. As for black holes: information is stored.. I've read somewhere that anything going beyond the event horizon red-shifts. Does this hold true or is this all theoretical?

Why does Brian seem so unhappy all the time?

The W.S.F. needs to happen more than once a year!

every sentient life form has an  exclusive interpretation of reality,i.e if I throw a stone at someone else,in my world its going away from me,in their world its coming towards them,a simple example but 2 realities,2 separate universes,now imagine millions,each with their own,sometimes very similar,but never exactly the same interpretation,many worlds.

I'm an Everittonian but love all the stories

just reewached in honor of the great Hawking RIP

QUESTION: When it comes to quantum entanglement, do the two particles measured have to be from the same source or are they measuring two random particles? If they come from the same source do they have to leave the same source at precisely the same time? How do the particles end up in different locations? How is this practicable experiment carried out in the the real world?

Sometimes quantum physics just feels like making up shit to proof things we can’t explain

Simply put, macro cosmos and micro cosmos are similar. Quantum space/time is similar to quantum mechanics.

Needs more explanation how particle is in two places

The ancients knew this was true due to noncommutative phase of music, as Alain Connes discovered. So 1 is not a number because 2/3 and 3/2 are noncommutative as infinite two-dimensional time-frequency information that constructs the illusion of 3D space as a "zero point." So Gerard t'Hooft is correct - calling it a moebius strip. It was known as the Tai Chi or the Tetraktys or the three gunas of India.

Gerard 't Hooft is correct since the new photon experiments are corroborating the de Broglie-Bohm model. We can get "more information" -

NO it was not Max Born! Louis de Broglie PREDICTED the waves in 1923 - he was the one who set that electrons would exhibit diffraction waves because of his Law of Phase Harmony model of quantum relativity. Schroedinger dropped the relativity and suddenly people are seriously confused and lie about the origins of quantum physics - saying it was Max Born who explained what the waves are. Holy smokes! The lies continue!!

Don't scam me lads ..gimme some new shit ..ima joesing for my dose of layman friendly content

Geez Brian Green ?? I am out of here..

Here here. hr is right

Edvardas B the particle is not in two places. Its actually in every place of its probabilistic wave. But if you try and trace the particle the wave collapses and it stays in one position.


Scorch428 the bouncing would not be at particular angles to create fringes like this.

do they not know that the universe is 3D so it can not be flat what they are showing about black holes and wormholes is fundamentally inaccurate

on the double slit experiment....has anyone put a triangle like pattern on the back of the plate with the 2 slits. if the plate is flat like the front the everything hitting the second plate where the lines become visible bounce back and too creating other lines less intense but still there and as it progresses getting weaker at the ends. putting a unevensurfec on the back will confirm that its not bouncing between the 2 plates.

I'm so tired of every science video taking me to this video. I dont wanna watch this shit. Bryan Greene. Degrasse Tyson and all these TV scientists are all hacks. They regurgitate material from elementary physics.

Hello YouTubers. The World Science Festival is looking for enthusiastic translation ambassadors for its YouTube translation project. To get started, all you need is a Google account. Check out Quantum Reality: Space, Time, and Entanglement to see how the process works: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_video?ref=share&v=BFrBr8oUVXU To create your translation, just type along with the video and save when done. Check out the full list of programs that you can contribute to here: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCShHFwKyhcDo3g7hr4f1R8A&tab=2 The World Science Festival strives to cultivate a general public that's informed and awed by science. Thanks to your contributions, we can continue to share the wonder of scientific discoveries with the world.

i don't know what the universe is, but i've taken a close look at the stars many times over years thinking and when i look at different stars i see a change in their light and it's exactly alike all the stars, in some seconds you see a round dot blinking and it changes to a straight line blinking (if it has been different from star to star i could understand) but every star does this togheter at the same time, someone can agree with this? i'm throwing it out there, and if those stars are far away from eachother it should not be possible to be like this. i don't know, but it's weird af. and my conclusion is that it is in fact a hologram. can't come to any other conclusion. see for yourself.


The way that I'm understanding the talk about the wallet leaving information on the horizon of the black hole is that the wallet and everything in it has a gravitational effect on the horizon that could only be made by that wallet or another that is 100% identical, similar to how a finger print can be traced back to only one finger. This would mean that it is possible to look at what has happened to the horizon as a result of the wallet and determine exactly what the object was in the first place, the problem being that we are just not able to because of the math involved and the obvious complications that would come with working with the horizon of a black hole. Is my understanding correct? And if not is there another source that explains it a little bit differently so that I could try and understand better?

Notice the Yin and Yang symbol and my company logo. Niels Bohr put the Yin and Yang on his Family Crest and on his Tombstone. Life and death respectively, a kind of Yin and Yang IMHO. What does that suggest?

I wrote about the Quantum Locking about 18 years ago. i made a presentation to Los Alamos National Labs about the paper that did for NASA that included the work at NASA on this Meissner Effect. I included engineering concepts too for power generation in Space. Consider that the shadow side of a satellite is about -315 degrees F. or about 85 K colder than a 95 degree High Temperature Superconductor needs.

Entanglement is a mystery. "This or this" = Materialistic perspective. "This and this" = Wave Function (more spiritualistic).

Isn't that how you make a rainbow without water for the double slit experiment

who does this thing think he is?

now u see me now u don't cocksuckers!

its a game with reality

Haven't seen all of the videos yet but, looking through what is coming up, I can't see any episodes on String Theory-is this theory being quietly "retired"?

They brought up the double slit experiment, but not the awareness factor of the particles. How arresting.

Can't use one mans theory (Einsteins) and manipulate it to fit your theroy of reality. Scientist can't seem to swallow the pill that Einsteins Theroy of Realtivity is false and can't seem to find a base of to start explaining our orgin or a discription of our reality. (Notice at the end of every explanation of quantum mechanics they say they can't see, hear, touch the actual result)

Sadly they never come to a true conclusion. We sound so dumb but think we are so smart.

1:20:58 Could broken entanglement explain the accelerated expansion of the universe?

Its not waves or particles its compressed space time v's experienced reality


String Theory makes Quantum Theory look like an "easy" Sudoku puzzle, don't ask me why( ask a Quantum Physicist/Mechanic just how) but Quantum- seems to work as it is used every day whereas String- is so abstract and esoteric-as well as being something different to each and every proponent of the idea.I can't see it ever progressing beyond where it is now-which is nowhere really.

Annoying panel.

Is that means superconductivity holds entanglement secrets?

I just wish Brian Greene wouldn't talk over his guests so often.

Why do they use mics that are scotch taped to the speakers' faces? Why not lav mics? I find myself a bit distracted by those things on their left cheeks.

Hey, David Wallace is wearing shoes and socks! Where's his sandals? One of the most unusual observations in bipedal physics!

This David Wallace guy seems as he about to break into panic attack. Also WTF is Philosophy of physics ? Are you philosopher or are you physicist ?

Thank you very much for explaining it all in a way other people can understand! Brian is the best host, and all the guests are so inspiring. I am far from physics so I had to watch it several times:) still don't understand. Especially the holographic concept. But I love it all anyway. The most wow moment was when Gerard said a particle is a mathematical abstract. I also kept thinking what do they mean by information getting or not getting lost? What is information then?

i like a quantum physics and i am a student of 8 class and i am pakistaniiiiiiiiiiii. i want to deals with a scintist

So quantum mechanics is like photography. Got it.

I think it would have made more sense to have a host that's not as knowledgeable in physics so the panel can talk more. Especially the lady who he seems to be ignoring for most of the talk.

humans are comprised of particles which already understand the laws of quantum physics and the universe, we struggle to put it into words and numbers.

A man wants his dog to get him a beer. Using his hands and voice, he says "That's up, that's down, that's forward, that's backwards, that's left and that's right." The dog just wants to go outside Outside the dog gets stolen and goes to another city. He listens and hears new master say "up". What does the dog do? answers can be obvious and imaginary.. I doubt he's going to get the beer and I bet he would get up and want to go outside.

Let's say you are in room with only two doors and two computers. You know one computer lies all the time and the other always tells the truth. One door is good and the other is bad. You don't which one is which and you only have one question to ask to get out the good door. What question would that be?

If you take the value of phi and one place where you find repetition of the number is one big bang.

Quantum mechanics is because of sun and Moon. Mars has tritum mechanics because of two moons and sun. Matter has a different behavior on Mars.

Thank you very much for explaining it all in a way other people can understand! Brian is the best host, and all the guests are so inspiring.

This is way beyond us at the moment. It's like blue tooth or WiFi would be seen as witchcraft in the dark ages. I think we are totally wrong at the moment, but we will deduce it eventually and even with our errors we will get there and it will scare us stupid.

Super interesting. Bhagavad Gita.

david blew my fucking mind, i figured he had a deep voice, then he spoke and my mind shattered, just kinda sucks watching these videos realizing i was thinking of this shit when i was in my early 20s, now i basically watching like need new information getting guess its kinda cool to know i wasn't to far off

If the double slit results seem weird, that's because you are imagining what is happening incorrectly and propigating a false narrative that seems magical, strange and confusing.  When in reality, what happening should seem inturitive and boring to everyone.  What if the, the "wave function" is the actual fabric of space-time during the moment of transmission for each specific species of "particle".   The wave is everywhere and dictates the propability that the "particle" will travel regarless of how many particles are firing at a time.  It does not matter that you are shooting one particle at a time because that particle will always follow the wave pattern based on probability.  The wave is always there.  And it does not matter if you believe that you are firing multiple "particles" at exactly the same time because this is also not possible.  Time can be broken into infitely small slices.  Even a laser beam is only firing one particle at a time if you slice time up into small enough slivers.  The "wafe function" is just the patter of the fabric of space-time that is created when various species of quantum "particles/energies" are emmited.  The experiement is doing exactly what one would expect given a better analogy.

Einstein is back in the game

Good God, when did Brian Greene get so old?

They all agree the solution is "non-trivial" but I think they're just slow.

Why wouldn't he get the beer? Does he not like the place that he's moved to?

this is bullshit religion for the mindless masses. none of this stuff is real, physics or truthful. Study it critically and it falls apart. This is the result of globalists manipulating all aspect of our world in order to maintain their very real control. The opposite view presented (there must always be two players in their game of deception) is that of the Creationists. Both views are equally false. Einstein, and those other famous physicists are all Zionist political inspired agents with the agenda to send the rest off us off on wild goose chases while they work to run our lives, hidden within our governments like maggots inside a carcass. We know they control the News Media, the Entertainment industry and the religions, why cant you see they would miss out on the big one, Education? Go listen to sane people like George Carlin for example, put it all together. Quantum and Relativity is a fraud, has not been proven despite their claims. There is no Big Bang, Black holes, Parallel Universes or Spacetime curvature. Most of modern Physics and Cosmology is deception, outright lies and fabrications of sick minds. That's how it seems anyway. But Einstein cant ever be criticized because you will be labeled as an "Anti-Semite, right? Because we all know that being an Anti-Semite is far worse than being a "normal"Racist, as Jews are really superior to everyone else, they are Gods Chosen Race, correct? I say Zionists are fake Jews, just hiding behind the cover of Jews to use the protective cover of Anti-Semitism. There, this will give you guys some shit to chew on. Go ahead, defend your captors. This video is not science, where are the voices of all the real scientists that do not agree with this verbal garbage? You only ever hear ideas in support of this rubbish, yet many have shown that there are far better answers to all the so called "Quantum" effects than this Psuedo Science. But their voices are never presented, maybe because the media and publishing houses are all under the Zionist control and have been for many years. So you think I'm a nut because I mention Zionist world control? Look about, it's pretty clear things are not happening according to Probability theory, its all following an agenda. Ok i'm done, time to go do some work on the house.

Brian , is super symmetry the missing" other side" of quantum particles?

Note that the first owner does not ever maintain that a dog wagging his tail is his missing dog and the missing dog still wags his tail in the new time zone Say someone puts a cat in schroedinger's box and a stranger steals and opens the box. Doesn't matter if the cat is alive or dead cuz the stranger will not seek the owner to convey the result. The cat is dead to the owner as soon as you remove the box from the locality. The stranger could deduce the cat was alive due to poop in the box if it were dead and if it were found alive, the stranger would assume the owner wanted to kill the cat by putting it in a box that cannot provide for the cat. Wish all the time wasted and money spent worrying about a cat were applied to helping people in a practical way. Most physicist agree that these arguments have no practical application anyway. People are still suffering and elites have spent billions banging around particles to 'see what happens' and I live in an environment of publicly paid officials that don't discern the difference between an 'engine' and a 'motor' and have authority based solely on some perceived 'Oath of Office'. AUthority, AUthor, AUditor are all rooted in the fact that the king has most of the gold and since we don't use gold to describe a person's value to society anymore, people are bound to laws based solely on someone swearing on a bible to be honest? The 'Honorable' attorney generals and judges? Guy is on his stomach on the ground with his hands on his head and the Law Enforcement Officer says "Crawl to me" and shoots him dead when he attempts to low crawl and is free to go? Nobody seems to care... I watch a lot of vids on physics personally because the people on that stage are my role models and I know they are contributing to knowledge, which I value. Hey, I like Charlie Sheen too but would rather my kids look elsewhere than Hollywood to develop their social values. oh nevermind, the cat is dead, deal with it...

oops, I met to state that the dog may have memory of his first owner but will not 'act' on that memory until he is 'local' with his first owner. Not that the memory is local. The dog will likely always remember him but will ONLY wag his tail if they meet again....

Some think the dog may be 'entangled' with his first owner and that the 'information' he was given is still valid. Since the dog is now 'non-local', he should retain that knowledge?? I'm always hearing about a pair of entangled particles and separating one 'unnaturally' across lightyears and it will still retain information in regards to the other particle, instantaneously . If you didn't move the first particle but you did the second, then you applied a force to it and it is no longer entangled with the first particle, but the information it was given is still 'in effect' and gives the illusion it is entangled with the first particle but I believe it is entangled with a common wave function. The information given was nothing the dog didn't already know because he already performs those actions...except for the beer. He may still get 'up', based on the 'label' his owner gave to the up action, but he is in another time zone and the 'up' action measured is just a label and not the true identity of the particle in the new time zone....I don't know of course, just trying to get my head wrapped around this notion. I'm not all that smart but from what I understand, even if they are 'twins'...they cannot convey information other than the label across a distance as to make it 'non-local'. But if the dog was trained to get a 'beer', he would have to travel back to his first owner to do so....there is no beer in his current time zone, though there is up,down, etc... Dog doesn't mind his new home and may always have a memory of his previous owner ONLY if they were to meet again locally....Memory in my opinion does not exist in the brain, but in the fabric of the 'hologram' and the brain just keeps a 'tether' to the information. That's why memories can be lost or confused but we always know what a beer is....entangled particles may have a 'tether' also to the hologram and when you 'open' shroedinger's box the hologram ensures that there will new 'twin' particle there with the label you expect. Locally the dog may still be entangled with his first owner, but only as so far as a 'local tether between particles' is maintained and when it exceeds that limit, the tether...jerks to the hologram surface...similiar to the electric field. Whew, I need a beer.. ;)

I wonder if their brains are entangled. Who thinks like this? I am just trying to make ends meet

This is super boring

The moderator interrupts too much.

There's no dark matter or dark energy. It's all compressed until conscious life observes it and collapses super position. As if 10 billion years went by and suddenly here we are in the exciting bit?

So if a rainbow is waves of light.. what if this is like waves of shadows or darkmattergy that pop in and out of existence perpetually as a result of a perpetually cascading big bang at every single point of existence all the time forever :|

The whole primitive ancient ancestor trope is kind of getting old.

This was terrible. terrible talk and the host, sorry buddy nothing personal. Why is the woman there/ she is useless. why the foreigner and the english guy? I think there is something very wrong in the slit experiment and the whole thing. yo much based on too little.

And the award for Most Scientific Comment... EVER goes to!

They fail to speak about the relationship between the wave length / frequency of the object and its relationship to the double slit experiment.

what is a particle?

Remember those mice in HitchHiker's Guide. They fall for the cheese every time... So funny because no one gets it=meaning you may have oh so much centralized knowledge but lack the ability to think sentiently=outside the box-cage-tartarus-talosIV-menagerie.

I wish the host would not have kept talking over the Nobel prize winner. Very annoying.

theory: assume the big bang was the result of a white hole, & that black holes redistribute the physical information/blueprint of a consumed object back into its own universe through hawking radiation. imagine the leftover energy (now blank of any information) is sent through a white hole into a parallel universe forming raw blank *primal/fundamental* energy for that new universe's laws to form it into their own building blocks. suppose every-time the raw *blank* energy emerges from a white hole, it is the laws of that universe that dictate the form the energy will ultimately take. each different set of law's working like a differently shaped mold for its respective universe, differences between each reality would be due to changes in this mold such as in its shape/depth, altered by the fundamental laws of that universe. this runs right into how multiverse's could exist and why some could have nearly identical realities and why some might be fundamentally different from anything we know or could ever imagine. you can hypothesize the truth in an infinite number of ways really, at the end of the day all that matters is the environment around you and what you choose to believe in.

team hooft!

The mathematical complexification accompanies the second law of thermodynamics in the sense that mathematical systems tend to increase the entropy of the system, so the imagination of numbers in the sense of turning real numbers into imaginaries, while simplifying numbers in relation to the expressed amount follows the a complexity actually expressed in terms of real numbers, which makes it possible to perform a test of real physical formulas by referring mathematically, in order to establish a numerical tendency of the real results obtained after imagination, allowing the comparison of the relations of the real number and its counter-part imaginary. When a formula expresses any quantity and after its imagination the numbers represent the mathematical nullity of the sum of an imaginary counterpart with its real value, totalizing a magnitude close to zero, and following the order of the stability of two entropic systems, then the formula in question can be tested between two worlds, pointing to or not the tendency for its manifestation in the real world, being that the path from the more entropic to the less entropic can show the distance between the assimilated truths or how far one reality from the other .

Why is the interviewer talking so strangely???

Remember those mice in HitchHiker's Guide. They fall for the cheese every time... So funny because no one gets it=meaning you may have oh so much centralized knowledge but lack the ability to think sentiently=outside the box-cage-tartarus-talosIV-menagerie. The and/or symbolism is akin to why the names OSIRIS or O SI R IS means what it does & that "story" which is describing program function & the ISIS meaning which also relating to why THOTH means what it does & IBIS as TH=208 the atomic weight of BISmuth & is also a reference to THougHT & the meaning IB meaning no way as BI means both ways'S the S referencing SET which means SET/ROSE or like how my last name features GUL in the position it does as GUL means rose & also why they used to call Saturn a LUG anyway S ET means to separate-divide the ET the green guy the one not from here or Osiris or why they call aliens green men also why on Talos IV the green slave girl thing relating to ORION. What I'm speaking of also relates to what he's saying at minute 36 that which is what THOTH warns of in Emerald Tablets meaning to not get caught in "angles" angles of perception because of the very nature or lack thereof involved when you are part of an AI construct. Something which is also seen in the Last Supper portrait which is like why when people ask me astrological questions I tell them sure you were "born" under a certain sign but that is only a beginners guide find your connection to all angles like reaching back through genetic experience=all past instances of what you are in essence Jesus in the middle is a mutt the cross breed the mix which when separated made up the 12 signs.

I read your book brain, very well done. String theory is very complicated but you did a great job making understandable to the everyday person. :)

And how would you know which 2 particles are entangled , do they have names on them ? I completely dont understand neither accept the possibility of quantum entanglement. You cant change reality by measuring it. Only in Simpsons you can :D

Infinite precision

Yes somebody should talk to the narrator and tell him that reality is Stranger Than sci-fi

Did they ever do a third test, at the same time as these tests? One test was with both slits open, and the second test was with one slit open. On both tests they showed the results (i.e the type of pattern that appeared on the second wall where the particles landed, after being shot through the first wall -- the wall with the slits.) They should have ALSO shown what happened at the first wall (the wall with the slits), to see what was happening there, when they had both slits open, and one closed. Was the impact, or flow of the particles, different, (on the first wall), depending on how many slits were open? Did they also try reversing the order on different days? Day one - two slits open first, and day two one slit open first. I have NO idea what I'm talking about... LOL.

This is one of the best videos I have ever seen on the subject. Absolutely fantastic. The parallel universe theory discussion I found particularly fascinating. I have a theory that there are not parallel universes but in fact overlaid dimensions that are all oblivious to the other dimensions around them. It's just a theory for now. I'll probably never be able to prove it in my lifetime but it seems more reasonable to me. On a side note about black holes and the big bang: does it seem unrealistic that the universe expands and over time the black holes consume e everything until there is one massive black hole with will eventually consume space itself then itself until it becomes something Planck length sized then explodes releasing all the energy and matter that there once was in the universe. It could be totally wrong but I've thought this for years and I've never heard anyone else say it.

John Mastroligulano ... This is called schizophrenia.

Why did they ignore the Awarness Effect noticed during the Double Slit Experiment?

Wait....I guess they touched on it with the Cartoon

I don't consider the awareness factor as spiritual, but rather another dimension like space-time.

Too Many People Pretty much Science hiding information.

Too Many People True I guess They want to stay away from the Spiritual Idea that our Consciousness somehow effects the World of Particles.

thanks for the kind sharing

How much thought has been given to the alternate possibility that particles (not waves or wave packets) could be moving in polarizable axial or helical apparent waves as they travel because they are orbiting a dark matter particle, explaining the double slit in a much different way as well as uncertainty, the polarizable nature of light, etc? Thx

Boring discussion of the same things discussed for the last hundred years. Double slit experiment over and over and over.

This vide is like 10 hours too short.

This guy keeps saying something like "if there were a perfect observer this would all square w classical logic." But that's the same thing as Sye Ten Bruggencate saying mortals can't make sense of the world without god.... Why can't it just be the case that classical logic is just how minds work and the actual universe is under no obligation to make sense to us?

I think the best part is how they show the real double slit phenomenon and it doesn't have a middle band like all the graphics do, including the math graphic with the probability Xs. I would think one of the geniuses would say something about that. Maybe they need more money to figure it out.

Surely the demonstration at the end is an exposition of electro-magnetism rather than quantum mechanics.

Only in an alternate universe kind of way...

Brian were both getting old.

you keep talking about something you dont know maybe you should accept that you dont know insted

i accept that i dont know

Is the guy with the pony tail a super villain?

I have never understood quantum physics until watching this video. Although I am not as well understood as I liked to be. This video has some helpful knowledge

I believe the mathematics of QM that imply a multiverse or many worlds theory to be correct. But we are imagining what that is in an intuitive manner more in keeping with classical theories. Imagine it in a counter-intuitive manner and one could end up at the possibility that a multiverse or many worlds theory simply predicts the 4th dimention (fluid motion that we measure with the concept we named "time"). The universe, galaxies, stars and their planetary systems, gases, liquids, solids, even us - and their constituent parts: subatomic particles and quarks and their flavours are never just in one position and/or state. If the concept of infinity is to be applied we can think of the monkeys typing the complete works of Shakespeare. Just suspend disbelief for one moment and consider this: about 30 seconds ago you were you in a universe that hadn't read this comment. And now here you are: you are you in a universe where you are reading (or have read, or are re-reading) this comment. Not ONLY that, but the constituent parts of the whole cosmos around you have also ALL undergone change. Now we understand intuitively how that change occurs (on some level), but It really isn't the "same" universe it was before you read this comment. And you are never the same you mentally; emotionally, physically. We consider things develop causally. Intuitively, this is accurate. But if the nature of infinity is to be applied, ultimately we are in all states at once! I posit we are actually whittling down infinity individually, and because you have read this comment you are now in one of the infinite universes in which you did. And if someone hasn't they are in one of the infinite universes where they haven't. I also don't believe this to be a conscious state but a physical one as well. Like "reality" is our brains' composite of what is percieved. It's very difficult to explain in a way that I feel conveys that which i believe I understand. But it doesn't stop me enjoying trying. Hopefully some food for thought and to some: a beacon of light to bang their heads against.

I wonder what the physicists thought of the philosopher.

So if the say entanglement may come from on source, is it similar to cell division? You have a particle that splits and then splits again. Is this then a source for unlimited universes?

time does not exist... its an illusion. since birth i been knowing this. as if i came from a place where time do not exist. i never understood it.. and i hate it.

Psychedelics might have given ancient people ability to think in quantum mechanical ways.

Can a quantum computers do all the calculations so we end up with one result?

Think of a 4 dimensional reality. Let's call it, Space-Time. Here, 4D events can occur, meaning that circumstances taken into account to make an event take place actually extend across both space and time, thus it becomes a 4D event. Now imagine there also being a smaller reality that resides within the 4D reality. In this smaller reality, one is always confined to real-time, thus one does not extend across the dimension of time, but one moves across the dimension of time instead. Here, it is said that events occur at a single point in time, at a single point in space. With the 4D reality being the bigger reality, it has the upper hand, and thus many 4D events take place, and they do so if no specific alternative action has taken place within the smaller 3D reality. However, to those tiny beings who live in the tiny 3D reality, these 4D events seem strange indeed. They in turn call various 4D events things like "Spooky" action at a distance, or entangled pairs, or delayed choice quantum erasure, or collapse of the quantum wave, etc. They do this because their tiny little minds think of their 3D reality as being the one and only reality, and that there is no such a thing as a bigger 4D reality.

M n b

This is one of the best presentation I have ever seen. So quantum entanglement is a wormhole and space is the connections in a worm hole. Very humanly done and accessible. Brian Green is the best.

sanjuansteve very cool thought man!


Gravity does not exist... you are able to see a star behind the Sun during an eclipse not because space is being warped but because of magnetism. The light from the Star behind the Sun is simply being repelled around the Sun. Space does not Warp. Dark energy is the magnetic waves of light from the energy in the universe. The speed of light is the speed of magnetism. This is the reason why light is the ultimate speed limit. And why it is possible to slow light down but not make it faster. The Sun is not gravitational it is electric. Only electricity can make magnetism and only magnetism can make electricity.. the Sun is not gravitational it is electric. And there is a reason why these mainstream scientist will not tell you about that. They will pretty much admit gravity behaves like magnetism but they stop short of saying its magnetism. And they will never admit that it's magnetism ever. and they will never admit that it's magnetism ever. This is because if they do they will be admitting that nuclear weapons are fake. this is because they claim that nuclear weapons are modeled after how the sun works with gravity. They claim explosives are placed around the core to squeeze the core like they claim heavier elements are made in the Sun. Research the electric universe theory which explains the universe way better than the Big Bang Theory and the standard model. the sun Works differently in the standard model then in the electric universe theory. the Big Bang model only explains 4% of the universe. the rest is dark matter and dark energy. magnetism is dark matter

The discussion on holography is melting my brain right now

dr. van raamsdonk, anyone, how can one explain away the 'bullet cluster' with holography & entanglement? (instead of dark matter ). i'd love an answer or link. anyone? thanks in advance!!! can u make a video dr van raamsdonk? id love to hear more on your most recent work

We do not see or hear all frequency, so we do not know the big picture.

Our universe started by big bang from a point of singularity inside God's infinity size universe. Our Spacetime is expanding into God's Spacetime. Spacetime is not stretching but regenerating in between causing accelerated expansion of our universe. Big bang is God's command through which he set laws of nature those we are discovering now. We will never know the reason of Big bang and Big crunch as such we do not find anti matters. In double slit experience, taking end image on screen is a measuring and observing technique, may be not real time. But differing when measuring or observing from outside real time. Interference pattern assumed to come from wave for similarity but it can be for different reason, we do not know.

I was there!

what happen if you rotate the slits

when your PC adviser picks your guests -,-

The moderator is leading the viewers in how to think and not giving the speakers enough space for a natural dialougue to take place.....dislike

Muy interesante estuvo el vídeo explica muy bien

Very good point about the math being a abstraction about a particle

What happens in the micro world, is awesome. Nice video, thank you

If time were a closed loop rather than an open arrow, could it explain particle entanglement at great distance? As though the returning loop point in time has created a seemingly uniform single universe with a simultaneous multiverse super-positional quantum duality for the entangled particles which is undetectable to the apparent linear time flow of the observational present? In other words, the entangled particles have no effective distance in time, since time has infinitely looped back upon itself and all possible super-positions are true, so that only apparent distance in the current observed time loop point is representative of the entangled particles. The entanglement is a feature of time alone and not a physical property of energetic connection per se? Just thinking out loud....

These nonsensical arguments make one realize how great the real physicists from those murdered by Stalin because of their German connections, the German scientists murdered by the British based on information from Hans Ferdinand Mayer , alleged suicides from Ettore Majorana up to Andrew Lange. Ettore found the solution defining particles that are their own anti-particle and exist at two points at once which these self appointed experts claim not to know. Andrew Lange found that space is actually Euclidean because 82% of the universe is Dark Energy. The fake reports of the manner of death of the Russian physicist who showed the incompatibility relativity and quantum theory, the fake reports on the manner of death of individuals from Ettore to Andrew are crazy. The discrepancy between the official story that Andrew suffered from years of depression leading to suicide and the description of the man from those who knew him:, viz., a man with with bright, twinkling eyes, a happy smile, caring more about others than himself, easy to have fun with, planning for the future of his 3 kids up till the end, and like Ettore clearing up loose ends at the university like Ettore before his disappearance. Crazy philosophers threaten to flunk students who believe in Bell' s theorem and the experimental verification. Why are we fed this nonsense while science is suppressed from our view?

There will be another Big Bang after inevitable big crunch.

Black holes are connectivity between our universe and God's Universe.

Quantum physics is what consists in between time so we don't understand.

Brian loves the sound of his voice...why ask questions of panel and then talk over and for them....super annoying! Other that that nice job Brian.

If you could stop time in a given environment, without observing the environment and time was stopped randomly. Would the particle still exist in two states? Could the particle be oscillating between the two states faster than we can measure?

4 seconds in and these people are already super boring

I really dig Brian Greene’s style. He is very good at reeling in the discussion and keeping things focused, then translating complex ideas into intuitive analogies. Some people say he interrupts too much but I disagree, without him the discussion would spiral into confusion for the average viewer. I feel like he gives the guests plenty of room to speak before offering his translations. He would be an incredible teacher.

what if you put four slits behind the 2 slits and 8 slits behind the four and so on...in theory it would double each time...leading to infinite possibilities.

Got lost completely on the hologram stuff

that woman looks like a dude

These people can hardly speak wtf

Holographs are not 2-dimensional. They are 3D but the third dimension is cut very thin. Love it when smart people don't know what they are talking about.

Narrator is sexist

Deja vu get that feeling of feeling i already watched this but no i didn't.

That dude's voice is so high ... aliens

But I think the answer has to do with whether it is possible to entangle two particles that are not the same together or not. like an electron and photon, if the answer is yes then it would be rather mystifying...

When they were talking about quantum entanglement and atoms alway facing the opposite direction I feel it can be explained because everything comes from the same source.. All of creation comes from a single source in order to have "order" to reality you must have an opposite.. A "yin and yang"

he sukczx

Dis some bullshit.

A treat. thanks.

Really enjoyed

The yanny and laural of physics

scientists obsessed with string theory but the theory of everything include heaven purgatory and hell...

Smoke and mirrors, as always scientists are very adept at half truths. Except that they misplaced 96% of the universe.

Your presentation is entertaining. But will not go beyond that. Consciousness and thought (and more) are ever present in the ***field ***. In fact it is "consciousness" that IS what *** IS ***. You and others are not advancing knowledge. Perhaps you need to make money is getting in the way...

t = 48::00. Again your not measuring the particle your measuring the affects of the particle. The pare is entangled because they rotate at the same speed. In order for that to happen they would have to have the same mass for the results to be the same when measuring either side. If one is of lesser mass then measuring it would not alter the moment of the heavier. To visualize this, take 2 magnet with same poles facing. Upon release the one experiencing less friction will rotate faster to align and and begin acceleration to the other. If you line up 10 magnet such that they rotate on center with out horizontal or vertical movement and in close proximity. You will see also "particle 1" will affect the spin of "particle 10". Dad: I will tell you about life. Son: please do. Dad: Well son, If at the middle of my speech you feel you comprehend what I am saying, I can assure you that you did not get the beginning of what was said. Son: So, your about to make it up on the fly because you don't know what life is. Dad: So you do know!

Moderators should NOT dominate the conversation and constantly interrupt. Even worse, his proclivity to re-word or “explain” his guests commentary is insulting to their articulation and the audience’s intelligence.

Wow.... you humans truly are stupid. You are overthinking it.... it is not as complicated or weird as you think. Take a step back, overlook the whole thing, and change your narrow stupid perspective... that means: do not try to use your already flawed laws in physics, (they will not help, because they are flawed).

I believe based on the idea "Imagination is more important than knowledge" of Albert Einstein's that; Information is digital while imagination is analog.

1000 Quantum bits in a computer can calculate things that could never be calculated over the entire lifetime of the universe with the standard computer. Just think about that for a second. All I can think is how amazing video games would be at that point. Essentially be the Matrix. Maybe that's what all this is right now, 1000 Quantum bit computer simulation

What's the correlation between quantum mechanics in the metal disc at the end? Do they have something to do with entanglement?

Thank God, I've been saying this for years.... I suppose now you need the proof of God, oh great entangled consciousness.

What happen to string theory? It was big a while back. I solved the Schrodinger's cat in a box paradox. If the box stinks, then the cat is dead. You don't have to open the box. I like the theory about many universes, which means there is a universe where Al Gore won the 2000 election, or Hillary won the election.

The fact that they have too talk about quantum mechanics instead of a single theory of physics shows they have made a fundamental mistake. The Vedas provide a theory of everything, which partially informed many pioneers of quantum theory. There is a "Semantic Interpretation" of quantum theory based on Sāṅkhya from the Vedas, which explains a ways of understanding matter in ways that is likely to be new to most people. “Access to the Vedas is the greatest privilege this century may claim over all previous centuries." J. Robert Oppenheimer

At 38.07 where they postulate the multiverse theory they are totally wrong.


A question, rather: rather, how could us the average listers/viewers understand better?

Black hole! This topic will last for ever with no definite/practical conclusion or application

These programmes are amazing. Prof. Brian Greene is an amazing teacher and intermediary of complicated physics.

Quantum insight of quantum entanglement quite nearly getting into the heart of spacetime-black hole.

i love the civil constructive debates with a focus on evidence but also space is left to explore those known unknowns!

If people only understood how profoundly connected all of this is. It is incredible, what we dont know and what some of us have the privilege to experience.

For the double slit experiment to work, what limits are there on the wavelength of the particles? What limits on the distances between the slits? What limits on the width of the slits?

The climax was the best .....

i think these mysteries that we cant understand is because we cant either comprehend it with our unintelligent brains yet, or because the mysteries are from another dimension that we cant detect with our senses. it can only be these two alternatives. im thinking its another dimension.

Question about entanglement. Is it possible to change the spin of a particle to see if the other particle changes accordingly or are particle spins set from the time their entangled?

The frustrating thing is, after 10 years of watching and reading stuff about quantum mechanics, I am no more knowledgeable than I was on the first day. So, why is it that learning more about quantum mechanics does not accrue knowledge? I'm forced to answer, because something fundamental has not been understood and that fundamental thing must be more fundamental than anything that has yet been found.

james mooney, the cat-in-box postulate was an intelligence test. You are supposed to realize that the device that detects a particle and releases poison is already macroscopic, therefore non-quantum. The box is postulated to be in a non-collapsed quantum state, estranged from the outside world. That is an invalid postulate.

I thought the photon is just gone since it dumps all of its energy to increase the orbital level of the electron, that process is not even stable as the electron quickly releases that energy to get into a more stable state or a lower orbital... you can't really effect the photon from a far away distance, or at all for that matter to make a change to the electron like an entangled pair should do... so... I am not so sure... But a very interesting point!

Fact Sheet, when an atom absorbs the energy of a photon, the electron changes to another, higher quantum "shell". This is another form of entanglement.

Jeff B, "doesn't have a middle band"? I thought the middle has a peak.

I would be ashamed to be awarded the Nobel prize after recent awardees. I would refuse to associate my name with Nobel because I don't want to share that stage with people like Aung San Suu Kyi and potentially, Donald Trump. If it was possible, I would refuse the award. Even as much as I liked Obama, I've never seen anything he did that deserved being given an award for things he might do in the future (but ended up not doing).

Nice video

I need to make a solid glass square with double slit and see how it re-acts .would not having air or particles in the air would we get a different effect?

Do you have any spanish subs?

...Greene should be the first to know that only God could make the universe as such......instead he runs to Darwinism in the most illogical of fashions.....

Ughh, I've been watching every double-slit vid I can find, with a specific question in mind. Then Birgitta is literally about to touch on my question and the host shuts her down... My question is, why is it sooo mysterious that particles get entangled?? It doesn't seem mysterious to me at all. In fact I don't even get why we assume entanglement happens. As she is about to go into it in the beginning of the vid, she says that the particles had a PREVIOUS interaction, and it's not magic or astounding that they are in the same position when later observed, because they interacted and made each other the same, somehow, beforehand... yet all you hear is people marveling over entanglement. Why? Why not marvel over what is happening when they interact with each other? Why assume there is some "invisible entanglement bond". Its like if you had an ice cube tray of pretend super-positioned water, putting it in a pretend freezer, sending all the cubes to different places, and then being like "WOW THEY ARE ALLLLL FROZEN/MELTED, EVEN THOUGH THEY ARE FAR AWAY FROM EACH OTHER!" that's not amazing, they were all exposed to the same conditions and interacted with the same way. If anything that seems incredibly predictable. Does anyone have any resources that further explain why entanglement is actually a thing, and not just the shared effects of a shared environment? I really want to find the answer to this question.

Double slit experiment: TIME... TIME IS THE VARIABLE... You are stuck in time measuring something that is out of time. So you add time to the equation, making the non-time bound object react with time while you measure. Let go of that object and it is moving outside of time... meaning it is everywhere at once at any given time when not interacting with time. When a time bound object looks at a timeless object, without causing that timeless object to react with time, they observe a probability cloud. There is no "many universes", just one reality that already happen... but we are in it living what we already changed. Science is stuck in time, start thinking out of time. ...I may just be crazy lol

this was a short but amazing journey

I unfortunately haven't learn much from this video, I still don't have the slightest grasp of this quantum thing. It's sad because I've already whatched so many videos, all of them just show disconnected concepts and artificial demonstrations that make no pratical or real sense to me.

A couple of years ago I tried a homemade double slit experiment. I used a cheap laser pointer and kitchen aluminum foil. I used a razor blade and a magnifying glass to cut the two slits as close to each other as I could. At times I definitely saw more than two extremely faint stripes on the wall.

Infra-red waves, radio waves, micro waves and WiFi are all light of different wavelength technically, so is it possible that one of those types of waves could interfere with the double slit experiment?

Ughh, I've been watching every double-slit vid I can find, with a specific question in mind. Then Birgitta is literally about to touch on my question and the host shuts her down... My question is, why is it sooo mysterious that particles get entangled?? It doesn't seem mysterious to me at all. In fact I don't even get why we assume entanglement happens. As she is about to go into this she says that the particles had a PREVIOUS interaction, and it's not magic or astounding that they are in the same position when later observed because they interacted and made each other the same, somehow, beforehand... yet all you hear is people marveling over entanglement. Why? Why not marvel over what is happening when they interact with each other? Why assume there is some "invisible entanglement bond". Its like if you had an ice cube tray of pretend super-positioned water, putting it in a pretend freezer, sending all the cubes to different places, and then being like "WOW THEY ARE ALLLLL FROZEN/MELTED, EVEN THOUGH THEY ARE FAR AWAY FROM EACH OTHER!" that's not amazing, they were all exposed to the same conditions and interacted with the same way. If anything that seems incredibly predictable. Does anyone have any resources that further explain why entanglement is actually a thing, and not just the shared effects of a shared environment? I really want to find the answer to this question.

My hypothesis that Dark Matter is not a WIMP, but maybe is a deformation of space-time by which the curvature of space-time ALONE is the cause of the gravitational effect. Gravity is the consequence of the curvature of space-time. It may be possible that the structure of space-time itself could be warped without the presence of mass. Space-time has been shown to react like a fabric by warping, twisting, and propagating independent of mass. These properties have been proven with observations of gravitational lensing, frame dragging, and now gravitational waves. Fabrics can be stretched, pressured, and/or heated to the point of deformation. Such extreme conditions were all present during inflation, so it is plausible that space-time’s elastic nature could have hit its yield point and permanently deformed. Therefore, if gravity is the consequence of the warping of space-time, and fabrics can be permanently deformed, then a deformation could create a gravitational effect independent of mass. Thus, the unidentified dark "matter" that seems to be so elusive to modern science may not be matter at all but merely warped deformities causing gravitational effects. DM could be a microscopic black hole with no mass or energy at the center... Prediction: Spacetime's elastic property hits a yield point, so only that part of geodesic's "stretch marks" would remain after inflation stopped. These steep gravitational wells would not follow the inverse square law. I am looking a way to test this by observing the way the light behind an all or mostly dark matter galaxy. I am looking for Observationalist to help test if you know of someone who might be interested.

I found all this without math

So what you're saying is, the rabbit was put into the hat earlier, by the assistant?

No just Italian, and they are delicious.

Thank you for providing a clear and concise answer.

Cats were here first, and pushed most of it off the edge, already.

Oh no you didn't

Imagine that

You can chose to be happy. I won't stop you. Just not on my lawn.

Never give up, never surrender

Better start watching your six, just in case

Can the other colored boxes enter the blue energy hole? I dunno. Would have to try the experiment to see what happens. One quick question; are hammers allowed?

If i tell you that the blue box goes into the blue hole....then that is all that you will ever learn to do. You will never truly learn anything, until you go outside your narrow view and try new things and ideas yourself. Question for you Seymor: The blue energy hole is Box shaped. The other colored boxes, Red, Green, Yellow, seem to have the same size and mass. BUT, they have other colors. Can the other colored boxes enter the blue energy hole? Do you want me to tell you the answer and exactly why it is the way it is, and never truly learn. or do you want to think a bit? and learn to think and see outside the box. Think: Space, time, quantum, entanglement or what ever if you think that helps.

And for the quantum particle the Macroscopic world is WEIRD

K diggity. When the particles become entangled in a quantum system, they lose their definite attributes. Call their attributes 0 and 1. Now the system has the attributes 0 and 1, but the particles are neither 0 or 1. This system can be spread out across space and retain this coherence. When one is measured (or interacts with other systems) only then do both particles immediately get their properties. Randomly, of course. And i agree -- the getting entangled is just as awesome. Hope that helps.

Next thing you know he'll be claiming the earth is not the center of the solar system.

Ryan. The answer to both those questions is no. The spins are not set from the beginning and once either is measured the entanglement is destroyed.

The interference will ALWAYS work, as long as there are multiple paths accessible to the particle. It has to. But certain set-ups give a clearer view of that interference.

The more often a person uses the term "stupid" about others....the more likely the adjective describes him. Much easier to BS through than giving a coherent explanation.

The pair are entangled because they are in a coherent quantum system, not because they rotate the same. Spin is an innate property of the particle, not an affect, and it is conserved.

Still waiting for an answer my question. I have a bunch of hammers all lined up, and ready to go!

Thank you. I may very well need it. I was trying to show coherence and entanglement. I think they are one and the same from different perspectives.

The spins are quantized. Anyhow, it seems you are trying to explain quantum coherence with classical tools. Good luck with that. I was only commenting on entanglement.

wes johnson: the elementary particle, while I have not witnessed it myself, is said to not actually spin. The spin property only denotes presence of an angular momentum. Yes, "classical magnetics" is my choice of demonstration. Maybe I should do a video as text is tedious. Let's say you are correct that spin is inherent. According to relativity if I put energy into a system, I increase its mass. If I do that I would presume I've altered it's angular moment. If however by putting energy in I increase its velocity, angular or linear the mass decreases. Mass is relative to the medium and speed at which you move through such medium. If a photon can be captured by a black hole which has mass and gravity (magnetism). The photon too has the same properties. The photon lesser relative mass allows it to move faster than the black hole. The photon does have mass. Relative to other systems it does not. Let's simulate this: a tennis ball on the surface of water. None is moving. The "field" would be the measurement of the displaced water. The ball is an impurity in the medium. Put energy into the ball such that it's angular momentum is perpendicular to gravity. You would observe an oscillating field with geometric origin being the ball. How ever you will also see a wave which is the propagation of the oscillating field at a specific frequency. The wave which if met with a slit can now produce a new geometric origin defined by the compression and expantion of the first wave at the center and edge of the slit. If I have a ball at the other side of the wall of same mass I will also observe the ball to have an up and down motion dependent on its mass and the frequency of the wave. Let it continue I will also observe the ball to have angular momentum. The medium is spining the ball.

Spin is an inherent property of elementary particles that can neither be increased or decreased. The entanglement of space-like separated particles have nothing to do with classical magnets effecting each other. If that is what you are saying -- it's hard to tell.

Increase the mass You decrease the spin. Due to the fractal nature of reality if you halved a magnet you end up with 4 "poles" n-s,n-s. This continues to the particle. N-S is really inertial points of acceleration and deceleration, voidance and counter voidance. Much like space would have counterspace or -e to +e. Quantum: a discrete quantity of energy proportional in magnitude to the frequency of the radiation it represents. Ever heard of glass breaking when a singer sustains a certain note? A bridge oscillating from soldiers march? In the macro world we would categorise that as resonance. The same exist in the micro where the particle being the geometric origin produces an oscillating disturbance in known axis where for the propagation of such disturbance depends on the mass of bounding particles and strength of disturbance. CHALLENGE: why don't we all try to explain this without regurgitating the quackery of modern day quantum physics. None of it has yet to explain what a field is but continuously use fields in their descriptions and formulas.

Listen to this at work rather then music

Yea and all that, my question still is, why the particle is more likely to be where the wave is high?? Does it has to do something with gravity?? What about the lower parts of the wave, are they forming a bigger support below to hold the manifestation of the "solid" particle??? Answers anyone? :)

if we were ready for this the father would give it to us without all the extra.. when we figure this out all that will happen is a bunch of emotionally unstable people will have more weapons and toys to play with.. the father was going to show all this to us because we were going to take over the family business which is planet building we were probably going to finish the rest of the solar system before we reached for knowledge before our time just like a child when you think about it.. get your emotions in check and you might teleport it talks about teleportation in the bible.. it talks about solid passing through a solid it talks about defying physics all through it.. not saying the bible is the end all of knowledge but its in there.. talk to the creator he will tell you the secrets of the universe after all he made it

These people believe the wildest ''scientific'' theories but they won't believe in psychic phenomena or gods..

Mr. Einstein got a Noble prize for summing up known Universe(less his "spooky"element) E=Mc2 ,so i thought we need to sum up humans with a mathematical equation ,one and one are three,( 1.1r3 )would make a great T-Shirt to sum up human beings (less clones)proving everybody can"t be a GENIUS !

oh no, not entaglement and shroedengers cat again ?

Thank You for the Wonderful Presentation!!!

June 18th, 2018, If these electrons could think...they would also say,...."why is it that in the first experiment, it is THIS BRIAN GREENE, and in the NEXT experiment it is THIS OTHER BRIAN GREENE...?"

Isn't the double slit demonstrating electromagnetic interference between the moving particle and the rest of the test system?

This is an invitation to see a theory on the nature of time! In this theory we have an emergent uncertain future continuously coming into existence relative to the spontaneous absorption and emission of photon energy. The future is unfolding with each photon electron coupling or dipole moment relative to the atoms of the periodic table and the wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is part of a universal process of energy exchange that forms the ever changing world of our everyday life.

Thank you very much! An excellent presentation! Let's hope we will have many more like this!

Don't scroll too far down, you've been warned.

The way my mind functions makes the belief "A photon is a particle and a wave" seem more a "No shit Sherlock" belief than the "mind bending belief" our distinguished panel of Natural Philosophers seems to believe it is. WHEEEW, that was harder to put into words than I first thought it would be. LOL The way I think of the problem is like this, "How can a photon NOT be seen as a wave?" A flashlight beam is made up of very many single, but quite separate, photons, correct? When you light up a wall with your light it isn't possible to see the beam, but you do see photons at their creation, where they impact the wall AND the reflected light that partially illuminates the entire room you're in. Even behind the couch some of the reflected photon will, once again, be reflected causing a slight decrease in the perfect darkness that WAS behind the couch just before you started to create, and reflect, photons.Remember this when you consider the problem "All the light you'll ever see IS, unless the photons are emitted directly into your eyes (BTW, A very rude thing to do) reflected photons/light" OHHHHH HELLLLLL, it would take me another 9.3462 hours and an entire page of commenting, to disseminate to you all what I can, almost instinctively, picture in my head.........damn it

We need to be able to stop and measure ludicrous speed or even Neutrino speed.

Given that black holes grow presumably by eating gas and stars... How do these black holes manage to grow at all if everything gets "stuck" on the event horizon and takes forever to fall in (from our perspective)?

there the same patterns waves light hit the eyes make waves appear as different we're making that consumption they're not different do the same waves


can't explain anything. and ends to quantum physics.

the double slit is wrong your looking @ a 2d section of the light, the spin speed and charge makes it go into a 3d motion so you would not get your misleading peeks if you look at it in 3d, the slit will make it 2d

this is great!!

The physical worlds are specific cases in which some of always right reasons are realized temporally by means of material. In other words, each physical world is an incomplete and temporal world that energy is quantized to the minimum of the Planck length and continues to change to Planck time, being based on the intangible and always right reason world. So, the laws of physics for changing continuously contain reasons (eg. mathematics logics) that do not change. OnCharm Lee (Author of the book “Humans & Truth – human life is the awakening process”)

In the double slit experiment, what happens if we keep closing and opening one of the slits during the procedure?

this video is just like liquid helium: really cool.

My understanding of the photon is that it is not a particle, but the tridimensional manifestation of what would be the equivalent to a quadridimensional heat wave. It behaves like a particle because what we see is actually the gap of the wave. It can't be divided and it only exists at the speed of light because it is a fluctuation of the spacetime tissue itself. We only perceive it as light because we are contained within (and are made of) this same tissue. Vaccum is this same tissue in its less dense form, matter would be the equivalent to various fluids varying in density and a black hole would be its most compact form, a solid. That's why light cant escabe a black hole, theres too much pressure for the tissue to oscilate. If we consider energy as the varying forms of vibration of this tissue, time as its expansion and gravity its contraction it all becames very elegant and even simple. You just have to picture our universe from the outside, inside a quadridimensional one.

There are not many universes. Try again. The bible says we have one life, one choice and one punishment. It is guaranteed that there is not more than one outcome or one universe.

So can a quantum computer take into account of the environmental factors they are living out

In the first half session he didn’t give the mathematician and chemistry professor who are both older a more chances to elaborate their ideas there is no point of asking people to come to your show and you don’t give them a chance to talk while you ramble on part of being a good host is to give equal chances to your guest to speak

What about pilot wave theory? It's pretty intuitive. And they keep saying this shit is counterintuitive

Dang! I wish I had been there!

Aaron Lowe It is because you haven't done the mathematics. There's nothing wrong with quantum mechanics, everything is perfectly understood in the sense the paradigm is perfectly consistent.

Could we be finding "bugs" at a very deep level of coding in a simulation in which we are emulated? Kind of like the cat scene in Matrix where Neo has a deja vu and it is a bug in the program? I don't say I believe this but damn this is weird.

Beautiful explanations a great graphics/experiments to portray an extremely complicated subject. I understand how it was presented but have difficulty comprehending what is being presented to me... great job!

I don't understand how it's a meaningful explanation/dismissal of the myseriousness of entanglement to say "Well they became entangled by an interaction at some common origin." The fact that two entangled particles have opposite spins because they were entangled by an interaction is not the part that creates any debate or confusion. The part that creates controversy is that, no matter how far apart they become *after* that interaction, changing the state of one alters the state of the other instantaneously. The fact that they interacted at some point in the past and that that interaction determined their initial states does not explain this at all. It's like if two twins were born and moved to opposite sides of the world, then one of them died and the other instantly died too as a result, just being like "Well, they interacted at birth, they came from the same womb, they had the same DNA, so there's nothing mysterious about this." I don't think that there's anything fundamentally inexplicable about entanglement. But I think you have to explain what mechanism connects disparate regions of spacetime nonlocally, and that is something that we have not done adequately to answer this problem. In that way, it is still mysterious, and I don't understand how anyone could accept "Well we know how they *got* entangled initially" as an explanation of the observed phenomenon in question.

The holographic universe stuff presented here is a tad confusing one minute they're essentially arguement QM suggests the universe is infinite and then they represent the holographic universe and show it as projecting from the boundary of the universe... But if it's infinite it would have no boundary or edge would it not?

I have a black hole what is the big deal

It's good to know that there are many universes because in one of those universes I am not the dumbass that I am in this one and I will understand what the fuck they are talking about

How many have figured all this stuff out but could not explain it? I find reading the dialogue I understand far better than listening.

Peechy Orchards The moment you mention Bible you lose me...

That might be all there is say though. It might helpful to realize that we never "change" the state of one or "alter" the state of the other -- rather, we measure the coherent system which collapses into an allowable state.

Whose bible?

So the gravitational field from an object encodes all the information about it?

Sounds like it's time to learn some of the math!

creating certainty from uncertainty by adjusting equations until the whole paradigm changes, thats how science works. No structural-model will ever be representing for underlying structures of absolute reality (which is as well a model). The only way is to take into account, the human limitation and interpret (context-bound) scale-less principles like the fractal nature of the Universe. But simply because no mathematian can wrap his head around fractal equations, they avoid it despide the evidence. Choosing of Models is an biased act, where people go the way of least psychological resistance and by choosing the most comfortable model they reject per definition every other way it can be. The probability, that a model for a structural part of "reality" can be used to discribe reality must be low...lel

Okay, had to pause this at just over an hour in. I'm really digging this, but having a couple issues with entanglement and black holes. It just feels like they've gone off the trolley track, without enough explanation. 1) I'm with 't Hooft and Einstein, here, on entanglement. To me it always seemed like a shoe-box: A decaying electron emits two photons, and they're entangled. Replace the electron with a shoe-box, and two shoes go off in different directions: One is a Left shoe and the other will be a Right shoe (analogous to Up and Down spin). There's nothing "strange" about this. I was waiting for Greene to describe some way in which the Aspect Experiment showed that affecting one particle affected the other in some corresponding way which would prove entanglement, but he never did. My understanding was that the Aspect Experiment showed this, and thus proved entanglement; but they never addressed that here. 2) Black Holes. I'm really unclear on this notion of "Hawking Radiation" which is constantly described using virtual particles at the edge of an event horizon, and then constantly stated NOT to be virtual particles at all: Which is it? They didn't clear this up at all! If the Black Hole is swallowing up the anti-matter pair of the virtual particles (which I never understood why it would only swallow the anti-matter; why wouldn't it devour amounts of matter and antimatter, and send out a remainder of each which would then annihilate -- even if not in equal amounts?); why isn't the mass of the particles it swallows ADDED to it, rather than causing it to lose mass? I mean, if the virtual pairs are generating at the event horizon, and the surviving particles are seen as emissions with energy/mass; then wouldn't the devoured particles also have energy/mass which would be added to the Black Hole? Why do the surviving particles need to "borrow" their mass from the Black Hole? (I understand this may be a "Conservation of Energy" thing, but that doesn't really explain the "why" of it?) 3) Black Holes. I still have problems with the descriptions of Black Holes: Every time I hear the Event Horizon described as the point beyond which no signal bound by light speed can escape, I find myself wondering then how does any gravitational effect of the singularity within the Event Horizon EVER create an effect or an influence on ANYTHING outside of it? Whether one takes a QM interpretation of Gravity as carried by Gravitons, or a Relativistic interpretation of Gravity as a warp in Spacetime caused by mass, neither can travel or propagate faster than the speed of light. So HOW is the Gravity of the Singularity EVER felt beyond the Event Horizon? I have yet to hear this explained or even addressed. How is the Gravity "still there" after the singularity has formed within an Event Horizon? Gravity is an effect (or a force) of Mass, and the Singularity's mass is contained WITHIN the Event Horizon. If Black Holes existed, they should effectively be "pinched off" from any and all contact with the outside Universe, leaving nothing but flat space behind, with no gravitational signature whatsoever. If nothing, no signal, no information, no influence of any kind can reach beyond the light-speed limit of the Event Horizon, then this should include gravity, as well. As far as I know, all gravitational influences are bound by the speed of light, along with every other Physical force or principle; whether this is the gravitational effect of the Sun upon the Earth, or colliding Black Holes creating Gravity Waves which take billions of years to reach us as they propagate across the Universe. If anyone has solutions to these questions, I'd love to hear them. But please, no regurgitation of poorly understood concepts which bear no relevance whatsoever to the points raised. I've asked these questions before, and gotten repetitions of my own statements, or of others' statements that didn't address anything I've said. Or "you don't understand physics" responses that really say nothing at all. Simply put: What or where is there, anywhere in modern Physical Theory, anything suggesting Gravity can propagate faster than the speed of light? Or, lacking this, what principle would allow Gravity to be "felt" beyond the Event Horizon, when it doesn't propagate faster than the speed of light? So, once the panel started getting into these sorts of things, I felt like I was listening to a theology discussion on how many angels can dance on the head of a pin. It starts sounding less like "science" and more like "mythology". I'd appreciate any assistance.

watching them look up at the big screen hurts my neck

really making up imaginary numbers to get the math right should only be used as a possible shortcut to get to the truth not to be our main theory of reality

Brian Greene thinks hand-eye-coordination, that we spend our lives training, playing catch as children, and sport into adulthood, is inborn. He think people who can't catch are unevolved. He thinks that babies are born with the capacity to catch. I cannot take anything this man says seriously, after that.

Our current issue with Quantum aspects is we cannot figure out how to utilize the state of super position. How is both being on and off at the some time useful? You could say its like a cup of java being both full and empty at the same time but we're not talking about coffee. Concerning the double slit experiment a photon is a particle that almost radiates itself.

not paying attention to cause and effect is odd to me... you can see why the slots work so and yet he does not grasp how particles work....he does not see the spin the angle the trajectory or effects...just patters he is confused about.

You people are way off you do not understand what is happening here. Scientists? Hah! You have no idea. Come to me and I will explain exactly what is happening here. The science community needs to know. This is a bullshit explanation you have no idea what you’re talking about and you have no understanding of how photons travel it is what the Photons travel with that you do not understand. Ask me I will blow your Universe.

i figured out why the double slit experiment does what it does. you get more bands because particles are pulled by the gravity of the slit. gravitational bending. like how we can see stars behind the sun during a solar eclipse. everything is a wave generated by space time. the slits are the visual representation of the folding of space time. the plane of gravity is space and the wave is the motion blur of time.

This was a great video, but I didn’t like how the moderator kept giving Briggita Whaley leading questions, in addition to interrupting Whaley.

all them seem like their on drugs except the host and the old guy lol. the host totally have to clear up everything they are saying. but the old guy does pretty good explaining himself lol

TRUTH ~ As ascertained in A Course in Miracles.. It is my understanding that when we 'die' the body goes back to nature as they are both part of the material illusion. We ourselves are of a spiritual nature and return home on our being re-absorbed back into the Oneness of the Source from which we originated. Our brains are not actually 'us' at all. They are utilised by the Spirit in much the same way that we are using our computers right now. The computer isn't actually part of us, but it is enabling us to communicate. Our bodies, in turn, are not actually part of us, but are needed to navigate through the illusory notion of everything being separated into countless beings, objects and elements, that we are currently inhabiting - and mistakenly believing to be 'real'. As we are born out of the illusion (not 'into' - think about it) with no guidance whatsoever beyond those who are already trapped within it, taking it to be 'real' - and the one and only 'real' there is - is an easy thing to do. Not so easy to undo, but not by any means impossible. Our big problem is that back in the mists of long-passed time we have somehow forgotten what we truly are. Bodies are not needed in the spiritual Oneness of Reality. By Oneness, I mean simply that. Nothing is separated in any way. All is whole, complete, eternal, infinite, unlimited and unchanging. The perfect opposites of a perfect separation - beginnings and endings, good and evil, birth and death, day and night, left and right, up and down, male and female, etc etc, only exist here within this experience. Oneness, being eternal, has no beginnings or endings or opposites of any kind. No opposites = no conflict. All is one and one is all. It is not an easy notion to grasp fully at first, but that's because the mainstream thinking of the world is so opposite to the Truth, as one would expect in a world like this: One of chaos, as opposed to Reality's total peace. Spiritual and unseen, peace, joy and happiness are enveloped within the One-ness of the Source. Perfect Love, its total Truth currently beyond our under-standing, is the only Reality. Having said that though, God, or the Source's, world of Oneness is detectable here even though it is unseen. That which is from His world cannot be given away, whereas earthly things can. For example; if I give a person my hat, I no longer have a hat. In fact, if I give away anything from the material world it is no longer in my possession. But if I give a person Love, Joy and Happiness, all extensions of the unseen Oneness, I not only still have them myself, they are multiplied many times over. This is because in the unseen world of Oneness, everything is one and giving is the same as receiving, just as having is the same as being. In the world of Reality, there is no lack at all. The way out is forgiveness in the form of realising that we are all inhabiting what amounts to no more than a chaotic nightmare and that nobody has actually done anything or committed any crime whatsoever. The Truth really does set you free. A nightmare is only a nightmare until the dreamer awakens. Steven Dean

10 minutes , this shit is making me dumb, I'm out of here.. tog e boga.

Fooking bullshit, theory theory theory theory, these people are to smart to believe in Evolution and the big bang therefore they are Liars , fooking liars!

I imagine that is because there is no reason to?

I looked up at the sun and thought, it's probably there.

Einstein says every action has an equal and opposite reaction. So what caused the Big Bang was an explosion. An explosion would mean there was an opposite reaction. Which would mean an implosion. And then the universe expands which means something was contracted as well.

What a bunch of beautiful minds but, goddamn what a hot mess this group is. Kudos.

The mansplaining is beyond frustrating... I enjoy the visuals... best depictions I've seen yet...

Aaron Lowe because of quantum theory, Much of science has become like a religion. The high priests (cern guys), reveal the doctrine, and the pastors ( these guys on stage) tell us to belive everything they say, no matter how absurd, just take it all on faith, don't try to make sense out of it, and that clarity is just around the bend ( the next well funded LHC bend that is). Sound familiar? Oh, and the Higgs will be here soon also.....

If you don't understand any more now than 10 years ago..........you are definitely one of the lucky ones. These guys minds are gone. They're starting to doubt their own exsistance (unless viewed or measured)

Oscar you might have hit the nail on the head there. I'll never understand QM or Quantum Field Theory until I do the mathematics and since that will never happen I'll never understand it. Luckily I never need to. I can still stir a good cup of tea without needing to know what spin the particles have.

is it not entanglement if the wallet enters the black hole and on our side of space-spacetime we know what the information contained in the wallet is or was creating a connectio or entanglement to the other side of the black holes horizon

My hypothesis that Dark Matter is not a WIMP, but maybe is a deformation of space-time by which the curvature of space-time ALONE is the cause of the gravitational effect. Gravity is the consequence of the curvature of space-time. It may be possible that the structure of space-time itself could be warped without the presence of mass. Space-time has been shown to react like a fabric by warping, twisting, and propagating independent of mass. These properties have been proven with observations of gravitational lensing, frame dragging, and now gravitational waves. Fabrics can be stretched, pressured, and/or heated to the point of deformation. Such extreme conditions were all present during inflation, so it is plausible that space-time’s elastic nature could have hit its yield point and permanently deformed. Therefore, if gravity is the consequence of the warping of space-time, and fabrics can be permanently deformed, then a deformation could create a gravitational effect independent of mass. DM could be a microscopic black holes with no mass at the center, so they wouldn't lose their strength via Hawking Radiation. Prediction: Spacetime's elastic property hits a yield point, so only that part of geodesic's "stretch marks" would remain after inflation stopped. These steep gravitational wells would not follow the inverse square law. They would be steep tiny gravity wells.

Very good discussion

Props for the animations, that was really "awesomely" illustrated!

Very interesting subject, I am very sure in few years we all are going to laugh about our perception in regard to Black Hole, yet we have not seen one, but we have many theories on it. or the Time that you are talking, is Earth's Time, it is not universe's time. universe time does not have second or minutes..

inspiring video with a superb host to lead the discussions

I feel like when looking at "both" particals one isn't up and one isn't down I think that it's the same partical just split like how we saw earlier.

Very interesting lecture!

quantum entaglement is parabola.

Chromatic Aberration of White Light Perforated Pinhole 3D Dispersion. Youtube

They should get some quantum entangled qbits and send the 2ndt one into a black hole, see how it states changes. Now, how many light years is the closest black hole at ? Qbits can go basically at light speed sooooo, maybe in a million years !


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