Pseudohistory | Wikipedia audio article
Pseudo. History-- as a form of pseudo scholarship. That attempts, to distort or misrepresent. The historical, record often, using methods resembling. Those used in legitimate historical. Research, the. Related term crypto history-- is applied to a pseudo history, based upon or derived from the superstitions. Inherent, to occultism. Pseudo. His story is related to pseudoscience. And pseudo archaeology. And usage, of the terms may occasionally overlap. Although. Pseudo history comes, in many forms scholars. Have identified many. Features, that tend to be common in pseudo historical, works, one. Such feature as that pseudo his story is nearly always motivated. By a contemporary, political, religious. Or personal agenda. Pseudo. History also frequently. Presents, a big lie or sensational. Claims about historical. Facts, which would require the radical, revision rewriting. Of the historical, record. Another. Very common feature of pseudo history is the assumption that there is a conspiracy, among scholars, to, suppress the true. History. Works. Of pseudo history often rely, exclusively on, sources. That appear to support the thesis being, promoted while ignoring sources, that contradict, it many. Works of pseudo history treatments. Legends. And other unreliable. Sources as literal historical, truth while ignoring or, dismissing, evidence, to the contrary. Sometimes. A work of pseudo history may adopt a position of extreme skepticism, sometimes. Insisting, that there is really no such thing as historical. Truth and that any hypothesis. As just as good as any other many. Works of pseudo history conflate, mere possibility with, actuality. Assuming. That if something, could have happened then, it did. You. Topic. Definition. And etymology. The, term pseudo hystory was coined in the early 19th, century which. Makes the word older, than the related, term pseudo, scholarship, and pseudoscience, in. An attestation from. 1815. It is used to refer to the contests of Homer and Hesiod a purportedly, historical. Narrative, describing. An entirely fictional, contest. Between the Greek poets, Homer and Hesiod, the. Pejorative sense of the term labeling. A flawed or disingenuous. Work of historiography, is. Found, in another 1815. At a station. Pseudo. His story is akin to pseudoscience. In that both forms, of falsification, are, achieved using, the methodology, that purports, to but, does not adhere to the established, standards, of research for the given field of intellectual, inquiry to which the pseudoscience. Claims to be a part and which offers, little or no supporting, evidence for, its plausibility, writers. Michael Shermer and Alex Grubman define pseudo historias, the, rewriting, of the past for, present, personal, or political purposes. Other. Writers, take a broader definition, Douglas. Alton a historian. Of science contends. That when the history of scientific, discovery, is presented, in a simplified way with drama exaggerated. And scientists. Romanticized. This creates, wrong stereotypes. About how science, works and, in fact constitutes. Pseudo, history despite, being based on real facts. You. Topic. Characteristics. Robert. Todd Carroll has developed, a list of criteria to identify pseudo. Historic, works, he. States that. Pseudo. His story is purported, history, which. Treats. Myths legends. Sagas. And similar, literature, as literal truth is. Neither, critical, nor skeptical, in its reading of ancient historians, taking, their claims at face value and, ignoring, empirical. Or logical, evidence contrary, to the claims of the Ancients, is on, a mission not a quest seeking, to support some contemporary, political or, religious, agenda rather than find out the truth about the past, often.
Denies, That there, is such a thing as historical, truth clinging, to the extreme, skeptical, notion, that only what is absolutely. Certain can be called true and nothing is absolutely, certain so, nothing is true. Often. Maintains, that history is nothing but myth making, and that different histories, are not to be compared, on such traditional. Academic, standards, as accuracy, empirical. Probability. Logical. Consistency. Relevancy. Completeness. Fairness. Honesty, etc. But on moral, or political grounds. Is. Selective, in its use of ancient documents citing. Favorably, those that fit with its agenda and ignoring, or interpreting, away those documents. Which don't fit. Considers. The possibility, of something being, true as sufficient, to believe it is true if it fits with one's agenda. Often. Maintains, that there is a conspiracy, to suppress its claims because of racism atheism. Or ethnocentrism. Or because, of opposition to its political or, religious, agenda niklas good Rick Clark prefers, the term, crypto. History-- quote. He, identifies. Two necessary. Elements. As a, complete. Ignorance of, the primary, sources and the, repetition of. Inaccuracies. And wild claims other common, characteristics. Of pseudo history are, the. Arbitrary, linking, of disparate, events, so as to form in the theorists, opinion, a pattern. This is typically, then developed, into a conspiracy theory. Postulating. A hidden agent responsible, for creating and maintaining the, pattern, for. Example the, pseudo historical. The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail, links, the Knights Templar, the medieval, Grail romances. The Merovingian. Frankish, dynasty, and the artist Nicolas Poussin in an attempt, to identify lineal. Descendants, of Jesus. Hypothesizing. The consequences. Of unlikely, events, that could. Have. Happened there by assuming tacitly, that they did. Sensationalism. Or shock, value. Cherry-picking. Evidence, that helps the historical, argument, being made and suppressing, evidence that, hurts it. You. Topic. Categories. And examples. The, following are some common categories. Of pseudo historical, theory, with examples.
Note. That not all theories. In a listed category, are necessarily, pseudo, historical. They are rather categories. Which seemed to attract pseudo historians. You. Topic. Ancient. Aliens, ancient, technologies. And lost lands. Immanuel. Velikovsky's. Books worlds, in collision. 1950. Ages in chaos. 1952. And earth in upheaval. 1955. Which became, instant. Bestsellers. Demonstrated. That pseudo history based on ancient mythology. Held potential, for tremendous financial. Success, and became models, of success for, future works in the genre in 1968. Erich von däniken, published, Chariots, of the Gods which. Claims that ancient visitors from outer space constructed. The pyramids, and other monuments. He. Has since published, other books in which he makes similar claims, these. Claims, have all been categorized, as pseudo history, similarly. Zecharia. Sitchin has, published, numerous books, claiming, that a race of extraterrestrial. Beings from the planet Nibiru known, as the Anunnaki visited. Earth in ancient times in, search of gold and genetically, engineered, humans to serve as their slaves, he. Claims that memories, of these occurrences are, recorded, in Sumerian, mythology. As well as other mythologies all, across the globe these. Speculations. Have likewise, been categorized, as pseudo history the ancient astronaut, hypothesis. Was further popularized, in, the United, States by The History, Channel television. Series, ancient, aliens. History. Professor, Ronald H Fritz observed, that the pseudo historical, claims promoted, by von Daniken, and the ancient, aliens program, have a periodic, popularity. In the u.s. in, a pop culture, with a short memory and, a voracious appetite. Aliens. And pyramids, and lost, civilizations. Are recycled, like fashions. The, author Graham Hancock has, sold over 4 million copies of books promoting, the pseudo historical, thesis, that all the major monuments. Of the ancient world including. Stonehenge, the Egyptian, pyramids and the moai of Easter, Island were built by a single, ancient super, civilization, which. Hancock, claims thrived, from, 15,000. To 10,000. BC and, possessed, technological. And scientific knowledge, equal, to or surpassing, that of modern civilization.
He. First advanced, the full form of this argument, in his 1995. Bestseller. Fingerprints. Of the Gods which one popular, acclaim but, scholarly, disdain. Christopher. Knight has published, numerous books, including urals. Machine 2000. Expounding. Pseudo historical, assertions, that ancient, civilizations possessed. Technology. Far more advanced, than the technology, of today the, claim that a lost continent, known as Lemuria, once existed, in the Pacific, Ocean has likewise, been categorized, as pseudo history. You. Topic. Anti-semitic. Pseudo, his story. You. The, protocols, of the learned Elders, of Zion as, a fraudulent work, purporting, to show a historical. Conspiracy for. World domination, by, Jews, the. Work was conclusively. Proven, to be a forgery, in August 1921. When, The Times revealed, that extensive, portions, of the document were directly, plagiarized. From Maurice Jolie's. 1864. Satirical. Dialogue, the dialogue in, hell between, Machiavelli. And Montesquieu, as well as Herman goat cheese 1868. Anti-semitic. Novel, Biarritz the hazhar theory, as an academic fringe. Theory, which postulates. That the bulk of European, Jewry are of Central Asian Turkic, origin, in. Spite of mainstream. Academic consensus. This theory, has been promoted, in anti-semitic, and anti scientist, circles, alike arguing. That Jews are an alien element. Both in Europe and in Palestine. Holocaust. Denial, and genocide, denial, in general, are widely categorized. As pseudo history, major. Proponents. Of Holocaust, denial, include. David Irving and others who argue that the Holocaust, pallidum, or Armenian, Genocide, and other genocides, did, not occur or were exaggerated. Greatly. You. Topic. Alternative. Chronologies. An alternative. Chronology. As a revised, sequences. Of events, which deviates, from the standard, timeline, of world history accepted. By mainstream scholars, an. Example. Of an alternative. Chronology. Is Anatoly. Fomenko 'he's new chronology which, claims that recorded, history actually. Began around the year 1000. AD and, all events, which allegedly, occurred, prior to that point either never really, happened, at all or are simply inaccurate retellings. Of events, that happened later, another. Slightly, less extreme example. Is the new chronology of david roll which, claims that the accepted, timelines, for ancient egyptian. And Israelite, history are wrong. You. Topic. Historical. Falsification. In, the 8th century a forged, document known, as donation. Of Constantine. Which supposedly, transferred. Authority, over Rome and the western part of the Roman Empire to the Pope became, widely circulated. In. The 12th, century Geoffrey. Of Monmouth, published, the history, of the kings of Britain a pseudo, historical, work purposes. Of. The British people the. Book synthesizes. Earlier Celtic mythical, traditions, to inflate the deeds of the mythical, King Arthur the. Contemporary, historian. William of newburgh wrote, around 1190. That it is, quite clear that everything.
This Man wrote about Arthur, and his successors. Or indeed, about his predecessors. From Vortigern onwards. Was made up partly, by himself, and partly, by others. You. You. Topic. Historical. Revisionism. The, Shakespeare, authorship question. As a fringe theory, which claims that the works attributed to, William Shakespeare were. Actually, written by someone other than William Shakespeare, of stratford-upon-avon. A. Similar. Revisionist. Fringe theory, as the Christ myth theory, which claims that Jesus of Nazareth never. Existed, as a historical. Figure and that his existence was invented, by early Christians, this. Argument currently. Finds very little support among scholars and, historians of. All faiths and has been described, as pseudo historical. Confederate. Revisionists. Aka, Civil. War revisionists. Lost. Cause of the Confederacy. And NiO Confederates. Argue, that the Confederate, States of America's, prime motivation. Was the maintenance of states rights and limited government rather than the preservation, and expansion of, slavery. You. Topic. Ethnocentric. Revisionism. Most, Afric. Ie pre-columbian. Africa, America's, contact, theories, see ancient Egyptian, race controversy. Ideas, have been identified as pseudo historical. Alongside, the, indigenous. Aryans. Theories. Published, by Hindu nationalists. During, the 1990s. And 2000's. The. Crypto. History. Developed. Within Germanic, mysticism. And Nazi occultism, has likewise, been placed, under this categorization. Among. Leading Nazis, Heinrich, Himmler is believed, to have been influenced, by occultism, and according, to one theory developed. The SS base at Wellsburg, in accordance, with an esoteric plan. The son language, theory, as a pseudo, historical, ideology. Which argues, that all languages, are descended, from a form of protists. The. Theory may have been partially devised in order to legitimize Arabic. And Semitic loanwords, occurring, in the Turkish language by, instead, asserting, that the Arabic and Semitic words were derived from the Turkish ones rather than vice-versa a large number of nationalist. Pseudo historical, theories deal, with the legendary, 10 Lost Tribes of ancient, Israel, British. Yisrael ism also, known as Anglo Yisrael ism the most famous example. Of this type has been conclusively.
Refuted, By mainstream, historians using. Evidence from a vast array of different fields, of study. You. Topic. Racists, Udo his story. Josiah. Priests, and other nineteenth-century, American. Writers wrote pseudo historical, narratives, that portrayed, African, Americans, and Native Americans. In an extremely, negative light. Priests. First book was the wonders of nature and, Providence, displayed. 1826. The book is regarded, by modern, critics as one of the earliest works of modern American, pseudo history. Priests. Attacked, Native Americans, in American, antiquities and, discoveries, of the West, 1833. And, african-americans. In slavery, as it relates to the Negro, 1843. You. Topic. Pre-colombian. Transoceanic. Contact. Theories. Most, theories, of pre-columbian, transoceanic. Contact. Excluding. The Norse colonization. Of the Americas. And other reputable, scholarship. Have been classified as pseudo, history including. Claims that the Americas, were actually, discovered, by Arabs, or Muslims. Gavin. Menzies is book 14, 21 the year China discovered, the world which, argues, for the idea that Chinese, sailors, discovered, America, has also been categorized, as a work of pseudo history. You. Topic. Psychohistory. Psychohistory. Is, an amount, of psychology. History and, related, social sciences. And the humanities, it. Examines, the why, of history. Especially the, difference, between stated, intention, and actual, behavior, it. Works to combine the insights, of psychology. Especially, psychoanalysis. With. The research methodology. Of the social sciences, and humanities, to understand, the emotional, origin, of the behavior, of individuals. Groups, and Nations, past and present. Mainstream. Historians, have, categorized, it as pseudo, history--. You. Topic. Religious. Pseudo his story. The, Holy Blood and the Holy Grail. 1982. By Michael, Baigent Richard. Lee and Henry, Lincoln as a book which purports, to show that certain historical, figures, such as Godfrey, of bouillon and, contemporary. Aristocrats. Are the lineal descendants, of Jesus. Mainstream. Historians have, widely panned the book categorizing. It as pseudo history-- and pointing, out that the genealogical. Tables used in it are now known to be spurious. Nonetheless. The, book was an international. Bestseller and, inspired, Dan Brown's best-selling mystery. Thriller novel, The Da Vinci Code although, historians, and archaeologists. Consider, The Book of Mormon to be an anachronistic, invention. Of Joseph, Smith many members of the Church of Jesus Christ of, latter-day saints LDS. Church believe that it describes, ancient, historical events, in the Americas. Another. Example, of religious, pseudo history as the thesis, found in the writings of David Barton and others asserting. That the United, States was, founded as an exclusively. Christian, nation. Mainstream. Historians, instead. Support, the traditional, position which, holds that the American, Founding Fathers intended, for church and state to be kept separate, searches for knows arc have also been categorized, as pseudo history in her books starting, with the witch cult in Western, Europe, 1921. English, author Margaret, Murray claimed, that the witch trials in the early modern period were. Actually, an attempt, by Chavan astute Christians, to annihilate, a secret, pagan, religion, which she claimed worshipped, a Horned God, Marie's. Claims have now been widely rejected by, respected, historians, nonetheless. Her, ideas, have become the foundation myth for modern Wicca a contemporary. Neo-pagan. Religion. Belief. In Marie's alleged, witch cult is still prevalent among, Wiccans but is gradually, declining. You. Topic. Hinduism. The, belief that ancient, India was technologically. Advanced, to the extent, of being a nuclear power as gaining popularity in, India. Emerging. Extreme, nationalist. Trends, and ideologies. Based on Hinduism in, the political, arena promote, these discussions. Vasudev. Dev nanny the Education, Minister, for the Western state of Rajasthan, said, in January 2017. That, it was important, to understand. The scientific, significance of. The. Cow as it was the only animal, in the world to both inhale, and exhale oxygen, in. 2014. Prime Minister Narendra Modi told, The Gathering of doctors, and medical staff, at a Mumbai hospital. That the story of the Hindu god Ganesha showed, cosmetic, surgery existed. In ancient India, many. New-age, pseudo, historians, who focus, on converting mythological. Stories, into history are well received, among the crowd, Indian. Science, Congress ancient. Aircraft controversy. As a related, event when captain, anand j bois des retired, principal, of a pilot, training facility, claimed, that aircraft more, advanced, than today's versions, existed, in ancient India, at the Indian Science, Congress.
You. Topic. As a topic. Of study. You. Topic. Undergraduate. Pseudo, his story is offered, as a course in liberal arts settings, one example being, in Claremont, McKenna College. You. Topic. See, also. Black, Egyptian, hypothesis. List. Of pseudo historians. Pseudo. Scientific metrology.