Mitigation of global warming in Australia | Wikipedia audio article
Mitigation. Of global, warming involves, taking actions, to reduce greenhouse, gas, emissions and, to enhance sinks, aimed at reducing the, extent, of global, warming, this. Is in distinction, to adaptation to. Global, warming which involves, taking action, to minimize the effects of global, warming. Scientific. Consensus, on global, warming together. With the precautionary. Principle and, the fear of nonlinear, climate, transitions, is leading, to increased, effort to develop new technologies. And Sciences and carefully, manage others in an attempt, to mitigate global, warming. Carbon. Capture, and storage, CCS. For coal-fired power, stations. Has been put forward as, a solution, to rising, greenhouse gas emissions. However. CCS. Cannot, deliver in time to avoid dangerous, increases. In temperatures. As widespread, commercial. Use of CCS. Is not expected, before 2030. Following. The introduction, of government, mandatory, renewable, energy, targets, more opportunities. Have opened up for renewable, energy technologies. Such as wind power photovoltaics. And, solar, thermal technologies. The. Deployment, of these technologies. Provides, opportunities. For mitigating. Greenhouse gases. A carbon. Price was, introduced, on the 1st of July 2012. By the government, of Julia Gillard, with the purpose, of reducing Australia's. Carbon, emissions, it. Requires, large, businesses. Defined, as those with annual, carbon dioxide, equivalent emissions over. 25,000. Tonnes annually, to pay a price for emissions. Permits, the. Tax was scrapped by the Abbott, government in July 2014. In, what was a widely criticised. And highly publicized, move. You. Topic. Government. Policy. You. Some, components, of the government's, emissions, reduction, strategy, have been, the. Carbon, pollution reduction. Scheme, CPRS. Which, was a proposal, for an emissions, trading scheme, that would have established a market, in greenhouse, gas permits. The. Renewable, energy, target. Investment. In renewable, energy, technologies. And in the demonstration. Of carbon, capture, and storage. Action. On energy, efficiency. You. Topic. Carbon. Trading and emission, trading scheme. In, June 2007. Former. Australian. Prime Minister, John, Howard announced. That Australia. Would adopt a carbon trading scheme, by 2012. The scheme, was expected, to be the same as the counterpart, in United, States and European Union using. Carbon credits, where, businesses, must purchase a license, in order to generate pollution. The. Scheme received, broad criticism. From both the ALP and Greens the. Out believed, that the scheme was too weak as well as a bad political move by the government. The. Lack of clear target, by the government, for this scheme before the 2007. Federal election produced. A high degree of skepticism on. The willingness of the government, on mitigation, of global, warming in Australia. In, March. 2008. The newly elected Labour, government, of Prime Minister Kevin. Rudd announced. That the carbon pollution reduction. Scheme a cap-and-trade, emissions. Trading system would, be introduced, in 2010, however, this scheme was initially delayed, by a year to mid-2011. And subsequently. Delayed further until, 2013. In April, 2010, Kevin, Rudd announced, the delay the CPRS. Until after the commitment, period of the Kyoto Protocol. Which, ends in 2012. Reasons. Given were the lack of bipartisan. Support for, the CPRS. And slow international. Progress, on climate action, for the delay.
The. Federal, Opposition strongly. Criticised the delay as did community, and grassroots action groups, such as getup. You. Topic. Carbon. Taxation. Another. Method of mitigation, of global, warming considered. By the Australian. Government, as a carbon tax. This. Method, would involve imposing. An additional, tax on the use of fossil fuels, to generate, energy. Compared. To the CPRS. And cts, cts a. Carbon, tax would set the cost for all carbon, emissions, while the cap itself, would be left unattended, allowing. Free market, movements. This. Tax would primarily be, aimed to reduce the use of fossil fuels, for energy generation and. Also look to increase efficient. Energy use and increased, demand for alternative energies, a carbon, tax was introduced, by the government of, Julia Gillard, on the 1st of July 2012. It. Requires, businesses emitting. Over, 25,000. Tonnes of carbon dioxide, equivalent emissions. Annually, to purchase, emissions, permits, which initially, cost, $23. For one tonne of co2, equivalent. The. Tax was repealed by the Australian. Senate on the 17th, of July 2014. You. Topic. Coal. You. Reduction. In the mining, use and export, of coal as favored by environmental. Groups such as Greenpeace. The. Government, prefers to support, attempts, to develop so-called. Clean, coal, pollution. Mitigation. And in early, 2009. Had, support, from then opposition. Leader Malcolm, Turnbull for this according. To dr., mark Dyson, Dorf a senior, lecturer at the Institute, of Environmental Studies, at, the University of, New South Wales Australia, and. A former principal, research, scientist, with the Australian. Commonwealth Scientific and. Industrial Research. Organisation. CSIRO. The continent, produced about 200, million tonnes MT. Of carbon, dioxide equivalent. In 2004. Almost. All of the coal emissions were emitted by coal-fired power, stations. On top. Of this coal is responsible. For forty, two point one percent of Australia's. Greenhouse, gas emissions. Not counting export. Coal based on 2004. GHG. Inventory. Two. Forms of coal are mined in Australia, depending. On the region high, quality, black coal and lower quality Brown coal, black. Coal is mainly found in Queensland. And New South Wales and, is used for both domestic power, generation, and for export, overseas, it is. Normally, mined underground, before being transported, to power stations. Or export. Shipping, terminals. Brown. Coal is mainly found in Victoria, and South Australia and. Is of lower quality to, a higher ash and water content. Today. There are three open cut Brown coal mines in Victoria, used for base load power generation. Coal. Is the most polluting, of all fossil fuels and the single greatest threat to the climate. Every. Stage of coal use brings substantial. Environmental damage. Phasing. Out dirty unsustainable. Energy is one of the most important, elements to climate, change mitigation.
Today. Coal supplies almost, one-quarter, of the world's energy brown. Coal is by far the most polluting, and is currently used in Victoria. In, order to have significant. Effects, on greenhouse gas emissions. There needs to be a replacement of coal energy, with gas within Victoria. You. Topic. Carbon. Capture, and storage. The, red Guillard, government, stated, support, for research into carbon, capture, and storage CCS. As a possible, solution to rising, greenhouse gas emissions. CCS. As an integrated, process made, up of three distinct, parts carbon. Capture, transport. And storage, including. Measurement, monitoring. And verification. Capture. Technology. Aims to produce a concentrated. Stream of co2, that can be compressed, transported. And stored. Transport. Of captured, co2 to, storage, locations. As most likely to be via pipeline. Storage. Of the captured, carbon as the final part of the process, the. Vast majority of, co2, storage. Is expected, to occur in geological. Sites on land or below, the seabed. Disposing. Of waste co2. In, the ocean, has also been proposed, but, this method has been largely discounted, due to the significant. Impact co2. Would, have on the ocean ecosystem. And legal constraints, that effectively, prohibit, it however, according, to the Greenpeace, false hope report, CCS. Cannot, deliver in time to avoid a dangerous increase. In world temperatures. The. Earliest, timeframe, for deployment of CCS is, not expected, before 2030. And global, emissions need, to start falling well before, that. The report, also states, that CCS. Wastes, energy and uses, between 10 to 40%, of the energy produced, by a power station, it. Also, asserts that CCS. Is expensive. Potentially. Doubling, plant costs, and is very risky as permanent, storage cannot, be guaranteed. You. Topic. Nuclear. Energy. In terms. Of resources aside, from its strong production, of low-cost, coal, and natural gas, Australia. Has approximately 40%. Of, the world's uranium, deposits, and is considered, to be the second, largest producer of uranium behind. Canada. Nuclear. Technology. Offers, significant. Generation. Capability. Claiming. That it is carbon, free some, claim that increased, reliance, on nuclear power could reduce greenhouse gas, emissions which, cause global warming, others.
Dispute, This claim pointing. Out that large amounts, of fossil fuels are burned to construct, operate. And maintain these, facilities, other perceived. Problems, include, that enriched uranium, can also be used as a nuclear weapon, prompting, security, issues such as nuclear, proliferation. Also. Nuclear, waste requires, extensive, waste, management. Because it can remain radioactive for. Centuries the, only nuclear reactor, in Australia, is currently located at, Lucas, Heights and it has had leaks of water into heavy water since its completion reducing. Public confidence, in nuclear power plants, in Australia. You. Topic. Renewable. Energy. You. Renewable. Energy technologies. Currently contribute. About 6% of Australia's. Total energy. Supply, and some eight percent, of Australia's. Electricity. Supply with hydroelectricity. By, far the largest single, contributor, the Australian. Government has announced a mandatory renewable. Energy, target, mr, et to ensure that renewable, energy obtains. A 20%. Share of electricity supply, in Australia. By 2020. To. Ensure this the government, has committed that the Mr ET will increase, from nine thousand, five hundred gigawatt, hours to forty five thousand, gigawatt, hours by 2020. After. 2020. The proposed ETS. And improved efficiencies. From innovation, and in manufacture. Are expected, to allow the mr, ET to be phased out by 2030. Following. The introduction, of government, mandatory, renewable, energy, targets, more opportunities. Have opened up for renewable, energies, such as wind power photovoltaics. And, solar, thermal technologies. The. Deployment, of these technologies, provides. Opportunities. For mitigating. Greenhouse gases. At the end of 2006. Australia. Had, 817. Megawatts, MW of. Installed wind. Power capacity, mainly. In South Australia, a. 154. Megawatts. 420. Million dollars, solar, photovoltaic, power, station, is planned for Victoria. Initiatives. Are also being taken with ethanol fuel and geothermal energy. Exploration. You. Topic. Wind, power. Wind. Farms, are highly compatible, with agricultural. And pastoral land, use while. They span approximately, 25, hectares, per megawatt, of installed, capacity only. About one to three percent of that land is actually, taken up with their towers, access, roads and other equipment. Wind. Turbines, are also extremely, efficient. A large, wind turbines, convert, about 45. Percent of the wind passing, through the area swept, out by the blades into electricity, by comparison, modern, coal-fired. Power, stations. Convert, to electricity, only, thirty five percent, of the energy stored. In coal. According. To some experts wind. Energy at appropriate, sites, is the most economical. Of all renewable, energy, sources other than large-scale. Hydroelectricity. You. Topic. Bioenergy. Bioenergy. As energy, produced, from biomass, biomass. As, material, produced by photosynthesis. Or as an organic by-product. From a waste stream, thus. It can be seen as stored solar energy, in terms. Of reducing, greenhouse gas, emissions, biomass. Offers, four different types of contribution. Solid. Liquid and gaseous biofuels, can, substitute, for fossil fuels, in the generation, of electricity and useful, heat. Liquid. And gaseous biofuels, can, substitute, for oil in transportation. Biomass. Can be used in place of many greenhouse intensive. Materials. Biomass. Can be converted to biochar. An organic, charcoal, that greatly, enhances, the ability of soil to sequester carbon, sustainable. Energy expert, Marc Dyson, Dorf suggests. That bioenergy. Could produce 39, percent, of Australia's, electricity. Generation. You. Topic. Solar. Heat, and electricity.
Solar, Heat, and electricity, together. Have the potential for supplying, almost, all of Australia's, stationary, energy, with. Suitable government, policies. Particularly. At the state and local levels solar, hot water could, cost effectively. Provide the vast majority, of hot water systems, in Australia, and make considerable. Reductions, in residential, electricity. Consumption, although. Solar. Electricity, is still expensive, its, potential. Scale of application. Is huge in its prospects, for further substantial. Cost reductions. Are excellent. You. Topic. Energy. Efficiency. The, most important, energy-saving. Options, include, improved, thermal insulation, and building design super, efficient, electrical, machines, and drives and a reduction, in energy consumption. By vehicles, used for goods and passenger, traffic. Industrialized. Countries, such as Australia. Which currently, use energy in the least efficient, way can reduce their consumption, drastically. Without the loss of either housing, comfort, or amenity. Increased. Energy efficiency. Of buildings had, the support, of the former, leader of the Federal Opposition, Malcolm. Turnbull. You. Topic. Biochar. Biochar. Has been promoted, as a technique, for mitigation of global, warming the. Former, leader of the Federal Opposition, Malcolm. Turnbull brought biochar. Into the political debate, by announcing, that burying, agricultural. Waste was one of three under invested, areas, that his mitigation, strategy, was committed, to opening, up publications. And interest groups which track the fledgling, Australian. Industry, are divided, over the suitability, of biochar, to the economy. Bryan, Chui of the Australian. Financial Review, has, said it is yet to be proven commercially. Viable. Friends. Of the Earth Australia. One of the larger environmental. Lobby groups, is fundamentally. Opposed to biochar, calling, it part. Of a series, of false solutions. To climate change. Which. Will be based, on large-scale, industrial. Plantations, and, will lead to the acquisition, of large tracts, of land furthering. The erosion, of indigenous. Peoples, and community, rights while, not adequately, addressing. The climate crisis. Green. Left weekly, has published several editorials. Supporting, the development of, a large-scale biochar. Industry. You. Topic. Ref, forestation. Reforestation. And, revegetation. Were promoted, by malcolm turnbull as a favored option for reduction, of net greenhouse, gas emissions. You. Topic. Renewable. Energy, targets. An expanded. Renewable, energy, target, was passed by the Australian. Parliament on, the 20th, of August, 2009. To ensure that renewable, energy achieves. A 20%. Share of electricity, supply in Australia. By 2020. To. Ensure this the federal government has, committed that the Mr et will increase, from nine thousand, five hundred gigawatt, hours to forty five thousand, gigawatt, hours by 2020. The. Scheme lasts, until 2030. You. Topic. Pathways. For climate, change mitigation. You. Topic. Greenpeace. Energy, revolution. Greenpeace. Calls for a complete energy, revolution. There, are some fundamental aspects. To this revolution. Aimed is changing, the way that energy is produced distributed. And consumed, the. Five principles. Of this revolution. Are. Implement. Renewable, solutions, especially. Through decentralized. Energy systems. Respect. The natural limits of the environment. Phase-out. Dirty, unsustainable. Energy sources. Create. Greater equity in the use of resources. Decouple. Economic. Growth from the consumption, of fossil fuels other goals, of the energy, revolution are. Renewable. Energy, 40%. Of electricity, provided. By renewable, sources by 2020. Coal-fired. Power, will be phased out entirely, by 2030. Using. Electricity, for the transport, system and cutting consumption of fossil fuels, through efficiency. The energy, revolution report. Also looks at policy, suggestions. For the australian, government in regards, to climate change. Policy.
Suggestions. Of the report include. Legislate. A greenhouse, gas reduction, target of greater than 40 percent below 1990, levels by, 2020. Establish. An emissions, trading scheme that delivers, a decrease, of our emissions, in line with legislated. Interim, targets. Legislate. A national, target, for 40% of electricity, to be generated, by renewable energy, sources by 2020. Massively. Invest, in the deployment of renewable, energy, and strongly regulate, for energy, efficiency, measures. Establish. An immediate, moratorium on. New coal-fired power, stations. And extensions, to existing coal-fired. Power, stations. And phase-out, existing, coal-fired power, stations, in Australia by, 2030. Set. A target of 2% per, year to reduce Australia's. Primary energy demand. Ensure. Transitional. Arrangements for. Coal dependent communities, that might be affected, by the transition. To a clean energy economy. Redirect. All public subsidies, that encourage the use in production of fossil fuels, towards, implementing, energy efficiency, programs, deploying, renewable, energy, and supporting, the upgrading, of public transport, infrastructure. Develop. A highly trained green workforce. Through investment. In training programs and apprenticeships. You. Topic. Climate. Code read the case for a sustainability. Emergency. Climate. Code red states, that the key strategies, for cutting greenhouse gas, emissions, to zero are resource, efficiency, backed up by the substitution, of renewable, energy, for fossil, fuel sources, the. Report, cites ultra efficient, technologies. And synergies, and wind power as ways in which to tackle the climate change, problem within Australia. Climate. Code red also has an outline for a rapid, transition, to a safe climate economy, this. Plan includes. Having. The building capacity, to plan coordinate, and allocate, resources for. High-priority, infrastructure. Projects. And to invest sufficiently in, the means to make safe climate producer. And consumer goods. Fostering. Research, and innovation, to produce develop. And scale up the necessary, technologies. Products. And processes. National. Building and industry, energy efficiency, programs, including. Mandatory and enforceable, minimum, standards, for domestic, and commercial buildings. And the allocation, of public resources, to help householders. Especially. Those with limited financial, capacity. To reduce energy use. The. Rapid construction of capacity. Across a range of renewable, technologies. At both a national and micro level to produce sufficient, electricity. To allow the closure, of the fossil, fuel-fired, generating. Industry. The. Conversion, and expansion, of Australia's. Car industry, to manufacture. Zero emission, vehicles, for public and private transport. The. Renewal, and electrification, of, national, and regional train, networks, to provide the capacity to shift all long-distance. Freight from road and air to rail. Providing. Safe climate expertise. Technologies. Goods, and services, to less developed, nations to support their transition, to the post carbon world. Adjustment.
And Rescaling, programs, for workers communities. And industries affected. By the impacts, of global warming, and, by the transition. To the new economy. You. Topic. Garnet. Climate, change review. You. Topic. Green, paper. 2008. You. Topic. Solutions. There, are a number of ways to achieve, the goals outlined above, this. Includes, implementing, clean, renewable. Solutions, and decentralizing. Energy, systems. Existing. Technologies. Are available to use energy effectively, in ecologically. Including, the use of solar wind, and other renewable, technologies. Which, have experienced. Double-digit. Market growth globally, in the last decade, a large section, of the scientific. Community believed that one of the real solutions. To avoiding dangerous, climate, change lies in renewable, energy, and energy efficiency, that can start protecting the climate today. Technically. Accessible renewable. Energy, sources such as wind wave. And solar, are capable, of providing six, times more energy, than the world currently, consumes, as, coal. Is one of the highest emitters, of greenhouse gases. Closing, coal power stations is, one of the most powerful tools, for carbon emission, reduction. You. Topic. Economic. Impact. The, economic, impact of a 60%, reduction of, emissions, by 2050. Was modeled in 2006. In a study commissioned, by the Australian. Business Roundtable on, climate, change. You. Topic. See, also. Adaptation. To global warming in Australia. Contribution. To global warming, by Australia. Effects. Of global, warming on Australia. Solar. Hot water in, Australia.