Materials engineering | Wikipedia audio article

Materials engineering | Wikipedia audio article

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The. Interdisciplinary field. Of material, science also, commonly, termed material, science and engineering is the design and discovery, of new materials, particularly, solids. The. Intellectual, origins of materials, science stem from the Enlightenment when researchers began to use analytical, thinking from chemistry, physics, and engineering to, understand, ancient phenomenological. Observations, in metallurgy, and mineralogy. Material. Science still incorporates, elements of physics chemistry and, engineering, as such. The field was long considered by academic, institutions, as a subfield of these related fields. Beginning. In the 1940s. Material. Science began to be more widely recognized, as a specific, and distinct, field of science and engineering and major technical, universities. Around the world created. Dedicated, schools of the study within either the science, or engineering schools. Hence the naming. Material. Science is a syncretic, discipline, hybridizing. Metallurgy, ceramics, solid-state. Physics and, chemistry it is. The first example, of a new academic discipline. Emerging, by fusion rather than fission many of the most pressing scientific. Problems, humans currently face are due to the limits of the materials, that are available in how they are used, thus. Breakthroughs. In material, science, are likely to affect the future of technology significantly. Material. Scientists. Emphasize, understanding. How the history, of a material, it's processing, influences, its structure, and thus the materials, properties and performance, the. Understanding. Of processing, structure, properties, relationships. Is called the section materials paradigm. This. Paradigm, is used to advance understanding, in a variety of research areas including, nanotechnology. Biomaterials. And metallurgy. Material. Science is also an important, part of forensic, engineering and, failure analysis, investigating.

Materials, Products, structures. Or components, which fail or do not function as intended, causing, personal, injury or damage to property, such. Investigations. Are key to understanding, for example the, causes of various, aviation, accidents, and incidents. Topic. History. The, material, of choice of a given error is often a defining, point, phrases. Such as Stone Age Bronze, Age Iron Age and Steel Age a historic, if arbitrary, examples. Originally. Deriving from the manufacture, of ceramics, and its putative derivative, metallurgy, material, science is one of the oldest forms of engineering, and applied science. Modern. Material, science, evolved directly, from metallurgy, which itself evolved from mining and likely, ceramics, and earlier from the use of fire a major. Breakthrough in the understanding, of materials, occurred in the late 19th, century when the American scientist, Josiah, Willard Gibbs demonstrated. That the thermodynamic. Properties related. To atomic structure, in various phases are related to the physical properties, of a material. Important. Elements of modern material, science, were products of the space race the understanding, and engineering, of the metallic, alloys and silica, and carbon, materials, used in building space vehicles, enabling, the exploration, of space, material. Science, has driven and been driven by the development, of revolutionary technologies. Such as rubbers, plastics. Semiconductors. And biomaterials. Before. The 1960s, and in some cases decades, after many eventual, materials, science, departments, were metallurgy, or ceramics, engineering, departments, reflecting, the 19th, and early 20th century. Emphasis, on metals and ceramics, the. Growth of material, science in the United States, was catalyzed, in part by the Advanced, Research Projects. Agency which, funded a series of University. Hosted laboratories. In the early 1960s. To, expand, the national program of basic, research in training, in the material, sciences. The. Field has since broadened, to include every, class of materials, including ceramics, polymers. Semiconductors. Magnetic, materials. Biomaterials. And nanomaterials, generally, classified, into three distinct, groups ceramics. Metals and, polymers, the. Prominent, change in material science, during the recent decades is, active usage of computer, simulations, to find new materials, predict, properties, and understand, phenomena. Topic. Fundamentals. A material. Is defined as a substance, most often a solid but other condensed, phases can be included that is intended to be used for certain applications.

There. Are a myriad of materials, around us they. Can be found in anything from buildings, to spacecraft, materials. Can, generally be further divided, into two classes crystalline. And non-crystalline. The. Traditional, examples, of materials are, metals semiconductors. Ceramics. And polymers, new. And advanced materials. That are being developed include, nanomaterials. Biomaterials. And energy, materials, to name a few, the. Basis of material science, involves, studying the structure of materials and, relating, them to the properties, once. A material, scientist, knows about this structure, property, correlation they, can then go on to study the relative performance of, the material in a given application, the. Major determinants. Of the structure of a material and thus of its properties, are its constituent, chemical, elements, in the way in which it has been processed into its final form these. Characteristics. Taken, together and related, through the laws of thermodynamics and, kinetics govenor. Materials, microstructure. And thus its properties. Topic. Structure. As mentioned. Above structure. Is one of the most important, components, of the field of material, science. Material. Science examines, the structure, of materials from, the atomic, scale all the way up to the macro scale. Characterization. Is the way material, scientists. Examine, the structure of a material, this. Involves, methods such as diffraction. With x-rays electrons. Or neutrons, and various, forms of spectroscopy and, chemical, analysis, such as Raman, spectroscopy, energy. Dispersive, spectroscopy Ed's. Chromatography. Thermal, analysis, electron, microscope, analysis, etc structure. Is studied at various levels as detailed, below. Topic. Atomic. Structure. This, deals with the atoms of the materials, and how they are arranged to give molecules, crystals, etc, much of the electrical, magnetic and, chemical properties, of materials, arise from this level of structure, the. Length scales involved, are in angstroms. The. Way in which the atoms and molecules are, bonded and arranged is fundamental, to studying the properties and behavior of any material. Topic. Nanostructure. Nanostructure. Deals with objects and structures that are in the 1 to 100, nanometers, range in, many, materials, atoms, or molecules agglomerate. Together to form objects, at the nano scale this. Causes, many interesting, electrical, magnetic optical, and, mechanical properties. In. Describing. Nano structures, it is necessary, to differentiate, between the number of dimensions on the nano scale nano. Textured, surfaces, have one dimension, on the nano scale ie only the thickness of the surface of an object is between 0.1. And 100, nanometers. Nanotubes. Have two dimensions on the nano scale ie the diameter, of the tube is between 0.1. And 100, nanometers its, length could be much greater.

Finally. Spherical, nanoparticles, have three dimensions, on the nano scale ie the particle, is between 0.1. And 100, nanometers in each spatial, dimension, the. Terms nanoparticles. In ultrafine, particles. Ufp, often a used synonymously although, ufp can reach into the micrometer, range the. Term nano structure, is often used when referring to magnetic, technology, nano. Scale structure, in biology is, often called ultra structure. Materials. Which atoms and molecules form. Constituents. In the nano scale ie they, form nano structure, are called nano materials, nano. Materials, a subject, of intense research in the material, science community. Due to the unique properties, that they exhibit. Topic. Microstructure. Microstructure. Is defined as the structure, of a prepared surface or thin foil of material, is revealed by a microscope, above 25, times magnification. It. Deals with objects from 100, nanometers, to a few cm the. Microstructure. Of a material, which can be broadly classified into, metallic, polymeric, ceramic, and composite, can strongly influence physical. Properties, such as strength toughness, ductility, hardness. Corrosion. Resistance, height low temperature, behavior wear, resistance, and so on most. Of the traditional materials. Such as metals, and ceramics a micro, structured. The. Manufacture, of a perfect, crystal of a material, is physically, impossible, for. Example, any crystalline, material, will contain defects, such as precipitates. Grain boundaries, halt pet relationship. Vacancies. Interstitial. Atoms or substitutional. Atoms, the. Micro structure of materials reveals. These larger, defects, so that they can be studied with significant, advances, in simulation. Resulting, in exponentially, increasing, understanding, of how defects, can be used to enhance material. Properties. Topic. Macrostructure. Macrostructure. Is the appearance of a material, in the scale millimeters, to meters it, is, the structure of the material is seen with the naked eye. You. Topic. Crystallography. Crystallography. Is the science that examines, the arrangement, of atoms in crystalline, solids. Crystallography. Is a useful tool for material. Scientists. In single. Crystals, the effects of the crystalline, arrangement of atoms is, often easy to see microscopically, because, the natural shapes of crystals reflect, the atomic, structure, further. Physical properties, are often controlled, by crystalline, defects, the, understanding. Of crystal structures, is an important, prerequisite, for understanding, crystallographic. Defects. Mostly. Materials. Do not occur as a single, crystal but in poly crystalline, form ie as an aggregate of small crystals with different orientations. Because. Of this the powder diffraction method. Which uses diffraction, patterns of polycrystalline. Samples, with a large number of crystals plays an important, role in structural, determination.

Most. Materials, have a crystalline, structure but some important, materials, do not exhibit regular, crystal, structure. Polymers. Display, varying, degrees of crystallinity and many a completely, non crystalline, glass. Some, ceramics, and many natural materials. Are amorphous not, possessing, any long-range order, in their atomic Arrangements the. Study of polymers, combines, elements of chemical, and statistical, thermodynamics to. Give thermodynamic. And mechanical, descriptions. Of physical, properties. Topic. Bonding. To, obtain a full understanding of the material, structure, and how it relates to its properties, the material, scientists, must study how the different, atoms ions and, molecules are, arranged, and bonded to each other this. Involves, the study and use of quantum chemistry or quantum, physics. Solid-state. Physics, solid-state chemistry, and, physical chemistry also involved, in the study of bonding, and structure. Topic. Properties. Materials. Exhibit, myriad properties, including, the following. Mechanical, properties see strength of materials. Chemical. Properties see chemistry. Electrical. Properties, see electricity. Thermal. Properties, see, thermodynamics. Optical. Properties, see optics and photonics. Magnetic. Properties, see magnetism, properties, of a material determine. Its usability, and hence its engineering, application. You. Topic. Synthesis. And processing. Synthesis. And processing involves. The creation of a material, with the desired micro, nano structure, from. An engineering standpoint a material, cannot be used in industry, if no economical, production, method for it has been developed thus. The processing, of materials is, vital to the field of material, science. Different. Materials, require different processing. Or synthesis, methods, for, example, the processing, of metals has historically, been very important, and is studied under the branch of material, science named, physical, metallurgy. Also. Chemical, and physical methods, are also used, to synthesize other, materials, such as polymers, ceramics thin, films etc as of. The early 21st, century new, methods are being developed to synthesize, nano materials, such as graphene. Topic. Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics. Is concerned with, heat and temperature, in their relation, to energy and work it. Defines, macroscopic, variables such. As internal energy entropy, and pressure that, partly describe, a body of matter or radiation it. States, that the behavior, of those variables, is subject, to general constraints, common to all materials. These. General, constraints, are expressed in the four laws of thermodynamics. Thermodynamics. Describes. The bulk behavior, of the body not the microscopic, behaviors, of the very large numbers, of its microscopic, constituents such. As molecules, the. Behavior, of these microscopic, particles, is described, by and the laws of thermodynamics are, derived from statistical. Mechanics. The. Study of thermodynamics is, fundamental, to material, science it. Forms the foundation to, treat general phenomena, in materials, science and engineering including. Chemical, reactions, magnetism. Polarizability. And elasticity. It. Also helps, in the understanding, of phase diagrams, and phase equilibrium. Topic. Kinetics. Chemical. Kinetics is the study of the rates at which systems, that are out of equilibrium, change under, the influence, of various forces. When. Applied to material, science it, deals with how a material changes. With time moves from non equilibrium to, equilibrium State. Due to application of, a certain field it.

Details The rate of various processes, evolving, in materials, including, shape size, composition, and structure. Diffusion. Is important, in the study of kinetics, as this is the most common mechanism, by which materials. Undergo change. Kinetics. Is essential, in processing, of materials because. Among other things it details, how the microstructure, changes. With application, of heat. Topic. In research. Material. Science has received much attention from, researchers, in most. Universities many. Departments, ranging from physics to chemistry to Chemical, Engineering along with material, science departments, are involved in materials, research. Research. In material, science, covers a broad range of topics the, following non-exhaustive, list highlights. A few important, research areas. Topic. Nanomaterials. Nanomaterials. Described, in principal, materials, of which a single unit is sized in at least one dimension between, 1 and 1000, nanometers, 10 - 9 meter but is usually 1 to 100, nanometers. Nanomaterials. Research takes a material, science, based approach, to nanotechnology using. Advances, in materials metrology and synthesis, which have been developed in support of micro fabrication, research. Materials. With structure, at the nano scale often, have unique optical electronic. Or mechanical properties. The. Field, of nanomaterials. Is loosely organized, like the traditional, field of chemistry into, organic carbon based, nano materials, such as fullerenes and inorganic, nanomaterials. Based on other elements such, as silicon. Examples. Of nano materials include fullerenes carbon, nanotubes, nano crystals, etc. Topic. Biomaterials. A biomaterial. Is any matter surface, or construct. That interacts, with biological. Systems, the study, of biomaterials. Is called biomaterials. Science, it, has experienced. Steady and strong growth over its history with many companies investing, large amounts, of money into developing, new products. Biomaterial. Science encompasses, elements, of medicine biology chemistry, tissue, engineering, and material, science. Biomaterials. Can be derived either from nature, or synthesized, in a laboratory using, a variety of chemical, approaches, using metallic, components, polymers, bio ceramics, or composite, materials, they. Are often intended, or adapted, for medical applications, such as biomedical. Devices which perform, augment, or replace, a natural, function, such. Functions, may be benign, like being used for a heart valve or, may be bioactive. With a more interactive functionality, such, as hydroxyl, apatite coated. Hip implants. Biomaterials. Are also used, everyday in dental applications surgery. And drug delivery for. Example, a construct, with impregnated. Pharmaceutical. Products can be placed into the body which permits the prolonged release of a drug over an extended period of time, a biomaterial. May, also be an autographed, allograft or, xenograft, used as an organ transplant material.

Topic. Electronic. Optical, and magnetic. Semiconductors. Metals and, ceramics are, used today to form highly complex systems, such as integrated, electronic, circuits, opto electronic devices, and magnetic, and optical mass, storage media, these. Materials. Form the basis of our modern computing. World and hence research into these materials, is of vital importance. Semiconductors. Are a traditional, example, of these types of materials, they, are materials. That have properties, that are intermediate between conductors. And insulators. Their. Electrical, conductivities. Are very sensitive, to the concentration. Of impurities, which allows the use of doping to achieve desirable, electronic, properties. Hence. Semiconductors. Form the basis of the traditional, computer. This. Field also includes, new areas, of research such as superconducting. Materials, spintronics, meta, materials etc, the. Study of these materials. Involves, knowledge of material science and solid-state, physics or, condensed, matter physics. Topic. Computational. Materials, science, and engineering. With, continuing, increases, in computing, power simulating. The behavior, of materials has, become possible this. Enables, material, scientists. To understand, behavior and mechanisms, explain, properties, formerly poorly understood and, even to design new materials, efforts. Surrounding, integrated, computational. Materials engineering. Are now focusing, on combining computational. Methods with experiments, to drastically, reduce the time and effort to optimize materials, properties for a given application, this. Involves, simulating, materials, at all length scales using methods, such as density functional, theory molecular, dynamics, Monte, Carlo algorithm dislocation. Dynamics. Phase field models finite, element method and many more. Topic. In industry. Radical. Materials, advances, can drive the creation of new products, or even new industries, but stable industries, also employ material, scientists. To make incremental, improvements, and troubleshoot, issues with currently used materials. Industrial. Applications, of material, science include, materials, design cost-benefit. Trade-offs, in industrial, production of materials, processing. Methods casting, rolling, welding, ion implantation, crystal. Growth thin film deposition sintering. Glassblowing, etc, and analytic, methods, characterization. Methods such, as electron, microscopy x-ray. Diffraction. Calorimetry, nuclear. Microscopy, ATF IB Rutherford, backscattering Neutron. Diffraction small, angle x-ray scattering si. Excess etc. Besides. Material. Characterization. The material, scientist, or engineer also, deals with extracting. Materials, in converting, them into useful forms. Thus. Ingot casting, foundry, methods blast furnace, extraction, and electrolytic. Extraction, are all part of the required knowledge of a materials, engineer, often. The presence absence, or variation. Of minut quantities, of secondary, elements and compounds in, a bulk material will. Greatly affect the final properties, of the materials, produced, for. Example, Steel's are classified, based on 1/10 and 1/100. Weight percentages, of the carbon and other alloying elements, they contain, thus. The extracting, and purifying, methods, used to extract iron in a blast furnace can affect the quality of Steel that is produced. Topic. Ceramics. And glasses. Another. Application of material, science is the structures, of ceramics, and glass typically, associated, with the most brittle materials.

Bonding. In ceramics, and glasses uses, covalent, and ionic covalent, types, with silicon, oxide silica, or sand as a fundamental. Building block. Ceramics. Are as soft as clay or as hard as stone and concrete. Usually. They are crystalline, in form most, glasses, contain a metal oxide fused, with silica, at high, temperatures, used to prepare glass the material, is a viscous liquid the. Structure, of glass forms, into an amorphous state upon, cooling, windowpanes. And eyeglasses are important, examples, fibres. Of glass are also available, scratch. Resistant, Corning, Gorilla Glass is a well known example, of the application of material, science to drastically, improve the properties, of common components. Diamond. And carbon in its graphite, form are considered, to be ceramics. Engineering. Ceramics are known for the stiffness, and stability under, high temperatures, compression. And electrical, stress. Alumina. Silicon, carbide, and tungsten, carbide are, made from a fine powder of their constituents. In a process, of sintering with a binder, hot. Pressing provides, higher density, material, chemical. Vapor deposition can. Place a film of a ceramic on another material, care. Mazar ceramic, particles, containing, some metals the, wear resistance, of tools is derived from cemented, carbides, with the metal phase of cobalt, and nickel typically, added to modify properties. Topic. Composites. Filaments. Are commonly used for reinforcement in, composite, materials. Another. Application, of material, science in industry, is making composite, materials, these, are structured, materials, composed, of two or more macroscopic, phases. Applications. Range from structural, elements, such as steel reinforced, concrete to, the thermal insulating, tiles, which play a key an integral, role in NASA's, Space Shuttle thermal. Protection system, which is used to protect the surface of the shuttle from the heat of re-entry into, the Earth's atmosphere. One. Example is, reinforced, carbon-carbon, RCC. The light gray material, which withstands, reentry temperatures, up to one thousand, five hundred and ten degrees Celsius two, thousand, seven hundred and fifty degrees, Fahrenheit, and protects, the space shuttles wing leading edges and nose cap. RCC. Is a laminated, composite, material, made from graphite rayon cloth and impregnated, with a phenolic resin after curing. At high temperature, in an autoclave, the laminate is pyrolized to convert the resin to carbon impregnated with, fir fuel alcohol, in a vacuum chamber and cured pyrolyzed to convert the fir fuel alcohol, to carbon to. Provide oxidation. Resistance for, reusability, the outer layers of the RCC, are converted, to silicon carbide.

Other. Examples. Can be seen in the plastic. Casings. Of television, sets cell, phones and so on these, plastic, casings, are usually a composite, material made up of a thermoplastic matrix such, as acrylonitrile butadiene, styrene, ABS in which calcium carbonate. Chalk talc, glass fibers, or carbon, fibers, have been added for added strength bulk or electrostatic, dispersion. These. Additions, may be termed reinforcing. Fibers or dispersants. Depending, on their purpose. Topic. Polymers. Polymers. Are chemical, compounds made, up of a large number of identical, components linked, together like chains, they. Are an important, part of material, science, polymers. Are the raw materials the, resins used to make what are commonly called plastics, and rubber, plastics. And rubber are really the final product created, after one or more polymers, or additives, have been added to a resin during processing, which is then shaped into a final form, plastics. Which have been around and which are in current widespread, use include, polyethylene. Polypropylene, polyvinyl. Chloride. PVC, polystyrene. Nylons, polyesters. Acrylics. Poly urethanes, and polycarbonate, sand also rubbers, which have been around a natural rubber styrene, butadiene rubber, chloroprene. And butadiene, rubber. Plastics. Are generally classified as commodity, specialty. In engineering, plastics. Polyvinyl. Chloride, PVC is. Widely used in expensive, and annual production quantities, are large it. Lends itself to a vast array of applications from. Artificial, leather to electrical, insulation, and cabling packaging, and containers. Its. Fabrication. And processing, is simple and well established the. Versatility, of PVC. Is due to the wide range of plasticizers, and other additives that it accepts, the term. Additives. In, polymer. Science refers, to the chemicals, and compounds added, to the polymer base to modify its material, properties. Polycarbonate. Would be normally considered, an engineering, plastic, other examples, include peak, ABS, such. Plastics, are valued for the superior, strengths, and other special, material, properties, they. Are usually not used for disposable, applications. Unlike commodity, plastics. Specialty. Plastics, and materials, with unique characteristics, such, as ultra-high strength electrical, conductivity electro. Fluorescence, high thermal, stability etc. The. Dividing, lines between the various, types of plastics, is not based on material, but rather on their properties, and applications. For. Example polyethylene, P. Is a cheap low friction polymer, commonly, used to make disposable. Bags for shopping and trash and is considered, a commodity plastic. Whereas medium-density. Ethylene, mdpe. Is used for underground gas and water pipes and another variety called, ultra-high molecular weight, polyethylene. UHMWPE. Is an engineering, plastic, which is used extensively as the glide rails for industrial, equipment, and the low friction socket, in implanted, hip joints. Topic. Metal, alloys. The, study of metal alloys is a significant, part of material, science of all. The metallic, alloys in use today the alloys of iron steel, stainless. Steel cast. Iron tool steel alloy, steels make up the largest proportion both, by quantity, and commercial, value I am, a Lloyd with various, proportions of carbon, gives low mid and high carbon, Steel's an iron. Carbon, alloy is only considered, steel if the carbon level is between 0.01. Percent and, 2.00 percent, for. The Steel's the hardness and tensile strength, of the steel is related, to the amount of carbon present, with increasing, carbon levels also leading to lower ductility, and toughness, heat. Treatment, processes such as quenching, and tempering can, significantly change, these, properties, however, cast. Iron is defined, as an iron carbon, alloy with more than 2.000, percent, with less than six point six seven percent carbon.

Stainless. Steel is defined as a regular, steel alloy with greater than 10% by weight alloying, content, of chromium nickel. And molybdenum are typically also found, in stainless steels. Other. Significant. Metallic alloys are those of aluminium titanium, copper. And magnesium, copper. Alloys have been known for a long time since the bronze age while the alloys of the other three metals have been relatively, recently, developed, due. To the chemical, reactivity of these metals, the electrolytic, extraction. Processes, required were only developed, relatively, recently, the. Alloys of aluminium titanium. And, magnesium are, also known and valued for their high strength, to weight ratios, and in the case of magnesium their ability, to provide, electromagnetic. Shielding, these. Materials, are ideal for situations where, high strength to weight ratios, are more important, than bulk cost such as in the aerospace industry and certain, automotive, engineering, applications. Topic. Semiconductors. The, study of semiconductors. Is a significant, part of material, science a, semiconductor. Is a material, that has a resistivity, between, a metal and insulator, it's. Electronic, properties, can be greatly altered through intentionally, introducing, impurities or. Doping, from. These semiconductor. Materials, things such as diodes, transistors, light-emitting, diodes, LEDs. And analog, and digital electric. Circuits, can be built making the materials, of interest in industry. Semiconductor. Devices have replaced thermionic, devices. Vacuum, tubes in most applications. Semiconductor. Devices are manufactured, both as single discrete devices and as integrated, circuits ICS, which consists of a number from, a few to millions of devices, manufactured. And interconnected, on a single, semiconductor substrate, of all the semiconductors. In use today, silicon, makes up the largest portion, both by quantity, and commercial, value mono. Crystalline, silicon, is used to produce wafers, used in the semiconductor and, electronics, industry. Second. To silicon, gallium arsenide, gallium 3, arsenide, is the second most popular, semiconductor. Used due. To its higher electron, mobility, and saturation, velocity compared. To silicon, it is a material, of choice for high-speed electronics. Applications, these. Superior, properties, are compelling reasons to use gallium 3, arsenide, circuitry, in mobile phones satellite.

Communications. Microwave, point-to-point, links, and higher frequency. Radar systems, other. Semiconductor. Materials, include germanium, silicon, carbide, and gallium, nitride, and have various applications. Topic. Relation. With other fields. Material. Science evolved. Starting. From the 1950s. Because, it was recognized, that to create discover. And design new materials one, had to approach it in a unified, manner thus. Material. Science and engineering emerged. In many ways renaming, and or combining, existing metallurgy. And ceramics, engineering, departments, splitting, from existing, solid-state, physics research, itself, growing into condensed matter physics, pulling in relatively new polymer, engineering, and polymer science recombining. From the previous, as well as chemistry, chemical engineering mechanical, engineering and, electrical, engineering, and more, the. Field is inherently, interdisciplinary and, the material, scientists. Engineers must, be aware and make use of the methods of the physicist, chemist and engineer the. Field thus maintains, close relationships. With these fields, also, many, physicists, chemists. And engineers also, find themselves working, in material, science. The. Field of material, science and, engineering is, important, both from a scientific, perspective as, well as from an engineering, one when. Discovering, new materials, one encounters, new phenomena, that may not have been observed before, hence. There is a lot of science to be discovered, when working with materials. Material. Science also provides, a test for theories in condensed, matter physics. Materials. Are of the utmost importance. For engineers, as the usage of the appropriate, materials, is crucial, when designing systems as a. Result, material. Science is an increasingly, important, part of an engineer's education. Topic. Emerging. Technologies, in material, science. Equals. Equals see also.

2019-07-09 16:34

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