Is heating the future of Cooling? | Cooling United Live

Is heating the future of Cooling? | Cooling United Live

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Hi everyone and welcome to this session  on is heating the future of cooling   the building industry is responsible  for about 36% of co2 emissions   and about 50% of energy is is consumed by either  heating or cooling in our buildings today.   With renewables and decarbonization  strategies from governments from   states from cities, we we have to look at how  we we decarbonize the heating and the cooling   industry and that's why we're talking  today about bringing those two together.   My name is Jonas Hamann and i have with me today  Matilde Kaae Pedersen who's going to explain a bit   in a bit about how we see it  from a Danfoss perspective.   And I have with me uh Kevin Lane who will who  will talk about it from the IEA's perspective   and dive a bit more into to these numbers that  i just mentioned Kevin he's a policy analyst   at the international energy agency with a  focus on energy efficiency he has more than   25 years experience in the field and he has  an education in statistics and climatology.   He is amongst other things worked on on the  cooling synthetis report and he works for   the Montreal Protocol the energy efficiency task  force so Kevin with that i'll leave it to you.

Okay thank you for that kind introduction Jonas.  I'd like to take this opportunity to say good   afternoon and welcome to all the delegates as  well. I hope you're well in this strange time   with this our economic and health crisis going  on at the moment but what i'd like to talk to   you today is more about the climate imperative.  We have and talk about the role of heat pumps  

within heating and also cooling. If we look at  the world today we're currently emitting something   like 30 to 33 gigatons of carbon at the moment and  from energy related emissions and if we want to be   on a path towards reaching our Paris climate goals  we basically need to decarbonize by the middle   towards the end of this century. And at the  moment our emissions are probably still going up.   However, there are policies in place that we  expect might stabilize some of these emissions   and that's one of our scenarios that we run.  However, if we want to reach our sustainable  

development goals and also access to clean cooking  and access to energy across the world so the   sustainability development goals we run something  called our sustainability development scenario.   And to get there we're going to need a whole range  of measures to get there ranging from increasing   the use of efficiency renewables and other  measures such as material efficiency and the like.   So it's not going to be just one technology  or measure that'll get us there. There'll be  

a whole suite of them. And at the IEA we track  these clean energy developments in our track   and clean energy progress report. Here we track  something like 46 technologies and one of those is   heat pumps and here specifically we're looking at  heat pumps for heating in buildings which consume   a significant part of the energy and responsible  for a lot of emissions around the world. However,   heat pumps are also used in other sectors as  well whether that's um appliances in industry   and transport as well but the focus initially  is just going to be on heat pumps in buildings.   And at the moment when we look at all  these different technologies most of   them are off track in terms of meeting  our sustainable development goals. If we look at heat pumps for heating around the  world we already have a technology that's already   quite effective so if we look at it compared  to say a a very efficient gas condensing boiler   a heat pump's already going to be more effective  in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. In fact  

probably 90 percent around the world is probably  more carbon efficient to use a a heat pump.   If you'd asked this question 10 years  ago that figure would have been about 50   so in those last 10 years  our electricity plies become   more or less carbon intensive and heat  pumps have become more efficient as well. So if we look at heat pumps around the world so  it is one of our key technologies for buildings   at the moment they selling in the order of  millions so quite a low level at the moment   and a lot of them will be in places like  the U.S and northern hemisphere and some   of these have been driven primarily through  government programs so in China say there's a   coal to electricity conversion programs  to try to get this cleaner energy in for   cleaner air reasons. In the us it's been driven  by federal tax cuts to try and install more ground  

source heat pumps. So there are heat  pumps are becoming more important   but still quite a low level. Importantly the  efficiency of them are also rising as well so   they're quite magical products and that  you put maybe one unit of energy in   and you're getting three four maybe even more  energy coming out of them in the form of heat   so um the performance of them is increasing so  that's the special part about heat pumps. However,   we need to do more too we need to sell more of  them and make still make them even more efficient.   If we to look in our sustainability scenario going  up to 2050 and beyond so by 2070 we basically need   maybe a third or more of all the heating in  the world to be coming from heat pumps. That   might be different in different parts of  the world so the united states might be a   bigger proportion than say India where  maybe more renewables might be used.  

So why isn't the uptake of heat pumps happening  more quickly and well there's probably a few   reasons the typical ones are that's at the moment  the upfront cost is still quite expensive although   it can be repaid by lower running costs. But the  life cycle cost is still relatively high also   we have split incentives so that say a landlord  might be buying the equipment and the tenant might   be paying for the electricity bill so there's  different incentive to install these heat pumps.   Also there's probably older buildings there's  the skills required to put these in and perhaps   importantly i think we're missing opportunities  by looking at heating and cooling separately.   This is recognized by a lot of policy makers  and i suppose some of the typical responses are   to provide regulations to mandate more efficient  equipment going in and also to provide information   so you have these maps minimum energy performance  standards and also labels to help consumers.  

And one of the interesting ones Canada is already  looking for a minimum efficiency of 100 efficiency   for heating equipment which effectively means  you have to have a heat pump for your heating.   There are other options of course one of them is  to maybe classify heat pumps as a renewable heat   which will allow other options maybe tax rebates  on the fuel and similar. There are other fiscal   measures that could happen maybe some of  them is removing the subsidies on fuels.  

And that'll provide a level playing field and also  make it more cost effective to install heat pumps.   In the current climate perhaps one of the most  interesting one are COVID recovery packages.   So governments are spending lots of money  to try and boost the economy and i think   efficiency particular is one of the key areas  that governments are looking at. So efficiency   is very useful because it's a clean energy but  also generates a lot of jobs maybe 15 jobs for   every 1 million dollar invested. Whereas fossil  fuels would be substantially less so it's one area   where governments are very keen to try and spend  some of their money. So if you look at the eu  

green recovery package there's maybe 750 billion  and a third of that maybe is going to go to   clean energy. I think we have a  great opportunity in the short term   and incumbent on us to try and make sure that  some of these technologies are coming through.   Importantly we should also be trying  to set targets whether that's through   nationally determined contributions  or national cooling plans to try and signpost where we'd like to go to  in these types of technologies.   And of course as well as the technology there's  also building codes which can be used to make the   fabrics of the buildings better  so we require less heating. So   most countries around the world are  improving their building codes to make   sure that you can have a better fabric  of the building but that might also   imply that you may need more heat  pumps in the buildings as well.

Okay so um i've talked mainly about heat pumps for  space heating however they can be used in a whole   range of other applications as well and on  the top right you can just see a typical   vapor compression cycle that's used in  a a refrigerator or an air conditioner   and just to briefly explain what it is basically  putting refrigerant into a loop which is going   clockwise in this diagram. You put a little bit  of electricity into a compressor that compresses   your refrigerant and that raises the temperature  of that refrigerant as it's going around then to   the right hand side that refrigerant goes over  some very large coils and these with an electric   fan can then push off the hot air to the outside  of a building if it's a seamless unit or inside a   building if it's for heating. That then cools down  a little bit and once it goes through an expansion   valve the refrigerant will cool down even further  as it expands. And again it goes through some   a big set of calls evaporator coils and that can  then be blown off with a fan as well so you blow   the cool air off and that warms it up and it goes  back to the compressor again so this cycle just   goes round and round. So it's used in multiple  applications so the obvious ones are refrigerators   so there's maybe a billion or more of these in the  world in space cooling there's already about two   billion air conditioning units in the world  and by 2050 there could be say six billion.   So compared to the millions of heat pumps air  conditions are substantially greater in the   stock and this is where a lot of the development  will happen they're improving in efficiency and   their costs are also falling all the time.  In the residential sector we see heat pumps  

becoming more common and they might use about  half the electricity of a conventional dryer.   In industrial sectors as many uses it can be  used in so perhaps say water heating and pulp   manufacturing and actually lots of water eating  and drying process across all of this industry.   A nice example is pasteurization where you're  both heating and cooling during the different   processes so you've got very good opportunity  for moving heat around with heat pumps to try and   do that very very efficiently. But importantly  there's also two big areas of district heating   can also make use of such technology and  especially heat recovery I think there's a   very large potential there for greater  development of heat pump technology.

So in conclusion just like say we have a climate  imperative which is to try to substantially reduce   our energy-related CO2 emissions .So within that  we'll need a whole host of technologies but heat   pumps have got a huge role to play for heating  of buildings and we'll need to deploy them a much   greater level even at higher efficiencies and the  way we're going to do this is basically through   from a government perspective of better  regulations more information and also financial   incentives. I would also highlight then from  this the takeaway message is that heat pumps are   really a key technology for heating but actually  there's a whole host of other applications and   one or two of which you'll hear about shortly. So  at this point i'd like to hand back to you Jonas. Thank you very much for that presentation Kevin  and i thought it was very interesting to hear   about the the outlook that you have  on decarbonization for for 2050   and what part that heat pumps play  in that picture. I heard you saying   that the technology is ready and that we have  many different applications for the technology.   But what i also noticed was that you  mentioned that for heating and cooling from   a policy perspective we have to look at them  separately but from a technology perspective   we have to start thinking them more and more  together and i think that's quite interesting.  

I think it's also very good to hear you know that  you're focused on upskilling and and creating jobs   and you also say that heat pumps will play or  renewable energies will play a quite important   factor in this and so on. On that note and  on the exact note that you mentioned about   using the waste heat from processes i think that  is an excellent segway to our next presenter   Matilde Kaae Pedersen. Matilde she has been  with Danfoss for more than 13 years and   she has held a very a long range of different  positions within product management in relation   to compressors in relation to heat pumps and  system solutions or condensing units and today   Mathilde is the global director for refrigeration.  So with that Mathilde, i'll leave it to you.   Thank you Jonas so yeah very interesting Kevin and  i think i'll be echoing some of your messages as   well here but the yeah. Is heating the the future  of cooling i think we have already seen that for   years the cooling players so both for components  and units they have been going into this sector   and especially in the residential sector we have  seen a lot of the heat pump manufacturers actually   coming first from the cooling world moving into  heat pumps and for sure also for the components.   And now with the development of this district  heating and the way that it is changing which   we will look at at the next slide. Then it's  the even the district heating sector is becoming  

much more accessible for the cooling players.  And the fantastic part of this heat pump is   as you also mentioned Kevin that with the  technology of the heat pump but also heat   recovery we can really significantly reduce the  environmental impact of our heating consumption.   So if we now have a look here at the at the  district heating. So basically district heating   is a flexible thermal infrastructure you could  say so where different kind of energy sources   can be plugged in or connected to the system  and then the energy in form of either hot or   cold water is then distributed into buildings  and can be either used immediately or stored in   tanks. So it can be stored for some hours or  days or it's even possible to store the heat  

for several months in some special very large  storage facilities or even in some large pits.   This way the district energy network can provide a  kind of two-fold flexibility to the energy systems   because it is providing both the storage and  it's enabling to switch between different energy   sources such as the last scale heat pumps or waste  heat solar thermal and so on. And by implementing   renewable energy sources and utilizing  the waste heat generated from the industry   the environmental gain from these district heating  plants become our district heating networks become   even more evident and i think it's actually  moving more and more in the direction   of the focus decreasing from building the  energy plants or the heating plants these very   large scale plants to actually much more being  about managing the the different energy sources   and also heating sources being connected into the  district heating. And here on the graph you can  

see an illustration of what has happened over  the years with the district heating networks   and we're now at the fourth generation of district  heating and this is where it becomes feasible to   implement more different energy sources because  the building heating demands are lowered   but also the ability to supply lower temperature  heating is now more feasible. So therefore   these networks as they develop they become  more and more useful for connecting different   energy sources and therefore also reducing the the  environmental impact. Because we can move to more   or less energy intensive systems. If we have a  look at one of these networks on the next slide so  

in Drammen in Norway here we have it. In Drammen  in Norway they had a district heating plant   and and they decided they needed to change it.  They wanted to go for a non-fossil fuel solution   it had to be with a natural refrigerant and  not impacting the global warming as well as   they wanted a max or a high energy efficiency.  So this led to them deploying this ammonia short   sourced heat pump and this heat pump is able  to heat the water up to 90 degrees which is   really quite high but for those kind of high  temperatures ammonia is really a fantastic   refrigerant for that. The heat plant is annually  providing 67 gigawatt hour of heating and it is  

right now at least it's covering more than 60  percent of the heating demand in Drammen. When   it was installed some years back it was actually  covering 85 percent of the heating demand.   So it's really a significant coverage of the  demand that they have for this heat pump. And  

they obtained a 2 million euro saving per year  making their payback much faster than what it   would have been with other solutions. Due to the  heat pump as Kevin also mentioned being much less   energy intensive that was of course part of the  reason for these two millions and as you explained   Kevin you have this input of one and an output of  free which is magical as you say. I don't know if   they're going to make a Norway's Got Talent for  technology soon because then i think this would   be a good winner candidate in this in such a TV  show. Anyway, if all nordic municipalities that  

have district heating plants close to the sea  they implemented this then we could actually   reduce the CO2 emissions by almost 1.5 megaton and  this is a a big number so just to bring it down to   earth and compare it to number of cars then it  would be the same as if we removed 300 000 cars   from the road for a year. So this is really very  significant for the for the environment impact.   If we have a look at the next slide here. Where  we look at a different kind of structure for   a heat pump so this is the distributed  heat recovery heat pump systems   which is smaller compared to the more centralized  ones. Examples of this can be for example in an   industrial manufacturing process it can be  in a supermarket or co-location data center   or maybe a refrigerated warehouse they would have  these kind of systems. So these applications they  

are typically providing both cooling and  heating and and therefore they have a dual   revenue stream you could say and and also  helping to shorten the payback period. And as   Kevin also mentioned then these kind of systems  are really breaking with this pattern of a mono   function design practice where in the past we were  really designing only for cooling refrigeration or   heating. So here it's combining the systems and  getting the best out of both. The size of these   kind of systems the distributed heat recovery  heat pumps are generally driven by the load   that is needed in the facility so this can for  example be the cooling load that is needing for a   data center or a supermarket and and typically it  will be the in the range of the 2 to 10 megawatt.   And then the heating if it is a cooling  application then the heating becomes the   the second output of this system. So what  happens is that when there is the infrastructure   of a centralized district heating system then such  systems that are actually built for a facility can   be connected and provide that additional input  into the heating system. So they can be an hour  

of course already being used by the district  heating utilities to replace more and more the   fossil fuel heating systems. And it's for these  kind of systems that the oil-free technology   we believe it becomes very interesting because  with the oil-free technology it is reducing the   complexity of the system as you don't need to have  oil separators or oil coolers and so on but also   for the maintenance part of it because as there  is no oil you no longer need to do oil checks   change the oil filters or even add additional oil  to the systems. And then on top the technology   offers a very quiet operation with a very high  efficiency and you also have still the choice of   selecting a low GWP refrigerant so improving even  more the environmental benefit for subsystems.   Then if we have a look at the next slide which  is heat recovery. So heat recovery is probably   already one of the most known opportunities to  improve the energy cost in a supermarket because   heat is basically a byproduct of the refrigeration  process so it's for free in in the system you   could say. And with the CO2 refrigeration systems  we're able to recover fairly high temperatures   of heat and combining that with an appropriately  dimensioned low temperature heat equipment then we   are actually able to recover or cover the need of  30 to 50 percent of the demand that that is needed   in the facility and that is without increasing  the discharge pressure because if we increase   the discharge pressure then there's actually even  more to gain on the heating side from the system   and in the areas where there is a district  heating system these heat recovery systems can   of course be connected to that but if they're in  conjunction with some kind of multi-use buildings   or apartments then or offices a shopping mall or  whatever they can be then this the supermarket can   actually become the heating center you could  say for this whole building. To add on top of  

that it also shows that supermarkets are often  not using the full compressor capacity for the   refrigeration need so if these compressors that  are idle are being exploited for a heat pump usage   then the heat pump output can of course be  even greater than what we see it today and the   supermarkets can really become a decentralized  heating supplier or if the district heating   infrastructure is there they can of course  provide this heat into the district heating.   If we look at the graph here on the on the right  side then you can see the savings in CO2 emissions   by implementing these different  technologies that we have been looking at   and also in combination either stand alone or  in combination with the district heating and   what we have added here also is together with the  scenario of using fossil fueled base electricity   or a more volatile electricity mix or energy mix  for the electricity so with the more volatile mix   which the district heating can manage then we  can get even more reduction in the CO2 emissions.   So i think the the technology shows that  there's clearly benefits not just for   reducing the operating cost but the but  in reducing the CO2 emissions this is   really the way to go to move away from the very  mono function design practice and look at the   full potential in fact of of these  systems. So with that being said  

i think i can conclude that from our side  heating is definitely the future of cooling   and over to you Jonas thank you very much Matilde  and thank you Kevin for two very interesting and   and good presentations Matilde from your  presentation i thought it was very interesting   and how you build upon what Kevin said  in terms of the district energy system   and how maybe the heating and the  cooling sector should start talking   more together as there lie an opportunity  for both parts in doing that and how these   low-temperature district energy systems  allows for new business opportunities   both for the supermarket owner as you mentioned  here at the end but also for a data center   or other buildings that the benefits from  both using the cooling and the heating side   and in some it can help decarbonize our buildings  and it can help decarbonize our societies and so   i think it's very interesting and. And just the  last point that also noticed was you know how   the heating and the cooling sector and heat  pumps more specifically can help balancing   the fluctuating renewables that comes in and again  as you showed on the graph we can actually use   that as a benefit for for decarbonization  so with that i want to to thank both you   Matilde and and Kevin for for the presentations  and i want to thank the listeners and and the   viewers for following this presentation  and and enjoy the rest of the conference.

2021-01-24 07:50

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